A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.
A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)
A benign neoplasm of the ovary.
A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.
A retention cyst of the salivary gland, lacrimal sac, paranasal sinuses, appendix, or gallbladder. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.
A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.
A sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor consists of LEYDIG CELLS; SERTOLI CELLS; and FIBROBLASTS in varying proportions and degree of differentiation. Most such tumors produce ANDROGENS in the Leydig cells, formerly known as androblastoma or arrhenoblastoma. Androblastomas occur in the TESTIS or the OVARY causing precocious masculinization in the males, and defeminization, or virilization (VIRILISM) in the females. In some cases, the Sertoli cells produce ESTROGENS.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A benign tumor characterized histologically by tall columnar epithelium within a lymphoid tissue stroma. It is usually found in the salivary glands, especially the parotid.
A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)
Pathological developments in the CECUM.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
A cystic dilation of the EPIDIDYMIS, usually in the head portion (caput epididymis). The cyst fluid contains dead SPERMATOZOA and can be easily differentiated from TESTICULAR HYDROCELE and other testicular lesions.
Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A condition characterized by the complete absence of SEMEN. This disorder should be differentiated from AZOOSPERMIA, absence of sperm in the semen.
A condition characterized by poorly-circumscribed gelatinous masses filled with malignant mucin-secreting cells. Forty-five percent of pseudomyxomas arise from the ovary, usually in a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (CYSTADENOCARCINOMA, MUCINOUS), which has prognostic significance. Pseudomyxoma peritonei must be differentiated from mucinous spillage into the peritoneum by a benign mucocele of the appendix. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
A true cyst of the PANCREAS, distinguished from the much more common PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYST by possessing a lining of mucous EPITHELIUM. Pancreatic cysts are categorized as congenital, retention, neoplastic, parasitic, enterogenous, or dermoid. Congenital cysts occur more frequently as solitary cysts but may be multiple. Retention cysts are gross enlargements of PANCREATIC DUCTS secondary to ductal obstruction. (From Bockus Gastroenterology, 4th ed, p4145)
Surgery performed on the male genitalia.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Retroperitoneal neoplasms are a diverse group of tumors that originate in the retroperitoneal space, which is the area behind the peritoneum and includes the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, and major blood vessels.
Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.
General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.
Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.
Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).
Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Third International Meeting on von Hippel-Lindau disease. (1/27)

Five years after the identification of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene, physicians, scientists and concerned VHL family members met to review the current state of knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment of VHL and to summarize the latest information on the biochemistry of the VHL protein (pVHL). The NIH and University of Pennsylvania groups reported the detection of germ-line mutations in 100% (93 of 93) of VHL families studied. Several studies determined the frequency of VHL germ-line mutations in individuals with a single manifestation of VHL without a family history of VHL. National groups to improve the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with VHL disease have been established in Great Britain, Denmark, France, Holland, Italy, Japan, Poland, and the United States. Evidence for the existence of genes that modify the expression of VHL was presented. The VHL protein appears to have several distinct functions: (a) down-regulation of hypoxia-inducible mRNAs; (b) proper assembly of the extracellular fibronectin matrix; (c) regulation of exit from the cell cycle; and (d) regulation of expression of carbonic anhydrases 9 and 12.  (+info)

CDKN2A gene inactivation in epithelial sporadic ovarian cancer. (2/27)

The tumour suppressor gene CDKN2A, located on chromosome 9p21, encodes the cell cycle regulatory protein p16. Inactivation of the CDKN2A gene could lead to uncontrolled cell growth. In order to determine the role of CDKN2A in the development of sporadic ovarian cancer, loss of heterozygosity at 9p21-22, homozygous deletion, mutation and methylation status of the CDKN2A gene as well as CDKN2A expression were examined in a panel of serous papillary ovarian cancer. The frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for one or more informative markers at 9p21-22 was 65% (15/23). The most common deleted region was located between interferon (IFN)-alpha and D9S171. Homozygous deletions and mutations of the CDKN2A gene were not found. There was no evidence of methylation in exon 1, but methylation in exon 2 of CDKN2A gene was found in 26% (6/23). Absence of CDKN2A gene expression was shown in 27% (6/22) at mRNA level and 21% (4/19) at protein level. These data suggest that the CDKN2A gene is involved in the tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, but the mechanisms of CDKN2A gene inactivation in serous papillary ovarian cancer remains unclear.  (+info)

Ovarian micropapillary serous borderline tumors. Clinicopathologic features and outcome of seven surgically staged patients. (3/27)

We report the clinicopathologic findings for 7 patients with completely staged ovarian micropapillary serous borderline tumors (MSBTs) to further clarify tumor behavior. None of the MSBTs had microinvasion in the ovarian neoplasm. The MSBT pattern constituted 25% to almost all of the neoplasm. Four were bilateral, and 6 involved the ovarian surface. Five patients had peritoneal implants; 2 were invasive, and 3 were noninvasive MSBTs. Distribution of stages among patients was as follows: IA, 1; IC, 1; IIC, 2; IIIB, 2; and IIIC, 1. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. Four patients were alive and well at the last follow-up visit, including 1 patient with stage IIIC (lymph node metastases) disease who had noninvasive implants (12 years after surgery). One patient who was free of disease died of complications of chemotherapy and abdominal surgery. Two patients died of intra-abdominal neoplastic growth (stages IIC and IIIB) 5 and 9 years after surgery, respectively; both had invasive implants. Without invasive peritoneal implants, MSBTs seem to behave as similar staged nonmicropapillary serous borderline tumors without invasive peritoneal implants. With invasive peritoneal implants, they seem to behave as low-grade carcinomas. Pathologists should recognize MSBT as a neoplasm that can have adverse prognostic features, including invasive peritoneal implants.  (+info)

Expression of laminin-5-gamma-2 chain in intraductal papillary-mucinous and invasive ductal tumors of the pancreas. (4/27)

The laminin-5-gamma-2 chain is expressed in various invasive carcinoma cells. To clarify the relationship between laminin-5 expression and the development of intraductal papillary-mucinous tumors (IPMTs), we performed an immunohistochemical study of 26 IPMTs and 30 invasive ductal adenocarcinomas. Cases were classified into five groups: intraductal papillary-mucinous adenoma (Group A; n = 8), adenocarcinoma without invasion (Group B; n = 3), adenocarcinoma with minimal invasion (Group C; n = 5), adenocarcinoma with macroscopically evident invasion (Group D; n = 10), and invasive ductal adenocarcinoma (conventional type; Group E; n = 30). In the invasive components of Groups D and E, laminin-5 was expressed in 80% and 100% of cases, respectively. In the intraductal components of IPMTs, expression of laminin-5 was not seen in Groups A and B, whereas they were seen in one case in Group C (20%) and in seven in Group D (70%). Most of the staining patterns of the intraductal components were focal and scattered. Laminin-5-gamma-2 expression in the intraductal components of IPMTs tends to increase as tumors develop and may be a indicator of the potential invasiveness of the tumor cells.  (+info)

Solid-pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas are genetically distinct from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and almost always harbor beta-catenin mutations. (5/27)

Solid-pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) are unusual pancreatic neoplasms of low malignant potential that most frequently affect young women. Genetic events contributing to the development of SPTs are unknown. Whereas the more common ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas essentially never harbor beta-catenin or APC gene mutations, we have recently identified alterations of the APC/beta-catenin pathway in other nonductal pancreatic neoplasms including pancreatoblastomas and acinar cell carcinomas. We analyzed a series of 20 SPTs for somatic alterations of the APC/beta-catenin pathway using immunohistochemistry for beta-catenin protein accumulation, direct DNA sequencing of beta-catenin exon 3, and direct DNA sequencing of the mutation cluster region in exon 15 of the APC gene in those SPTs that did not harbor beta-catenin mutations. Immunohistochemical labeling for cyclin D1 was performed to evaluate the overexpression of this cell-cycle protein as one of the putative downstream effectors of beta-catenin dysregulation. In addition, we analyzed the SPTs for genetic alterations commonly found in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, including mutations in the K-ras oncogene and p53 and DPC4 tumor suppressor genes, using direct DNA sequencing of K-ras and immunostaining for p53 and Dpc4. Almost all SPTs harbored alterations in the APC/beta-catenin pathway. Nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin protein was present in 95% (19 of 20), and activating beta-catenin oncogene mutations were identified in 90% (18 of 20) of the SPTs. Seventy-four percent (14 of 19) showed overexpression of cyclin D1, ranging from 10 to 70% of tumor nuclei. In contrast, no K-ras mutations were present in any of the 20 SPTs, and Dpc4 expression was intact in all 16 SPTs for which immunohistochemical labeling was successful. Overexpression of p53 was limited to only 3 of 19 (15.8%) SPTs. These results emphasize the two distinct, divergent genetic pathways of neoplastic progression in pancreatic ductal and nonductal neoplasms.  (+info)

Solid--cystic papillary tumor of pancreas. (6/27)

A case of Solid and Cystic Papillary Epithelial Tumor of Pancreas displaying low grade malignancy occurring in a 38 years old female is presented. It is a rare condition and could be diagnosed histopathologically after complete excision.  (+info)

Differential diagnosis of benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas: MR cholangiopancreatography and MR angiography. (7/27)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the usefulness of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and MR angiography (MRA) in differentiating malignant from benign intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas (IPMTs), and to determine the findings which suggest malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a 6-year period, 46 patients with IPMT underwent MRCP. Morphologically, tumor type was classified as main duct, branch duct, or combined. The diameter of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), the extent of the dilated MPD, and the location and size of the cystic lesion, septum, and communicating channel were assessed. For all types of IPMTs, enhanced mural nodules and portal vein narrowing were evaluated at MRA. RESULTS: Combined-type IPMTs were more frequently malignant (78%) than benign (42%) (p < 0.05). Compared with benign lesions, malignant lesions were larger, and the caliber of the communicating channel was also larger (p < 0.05). Their dilated MPD was more extensive and of greater diameter (p < 0.05), and the presence of mural nodules was more frequent (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Combined MRCP and MRA might be useful for the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign IPMTs of the pancreas.  (+info)

Papillary cystadenoma arising from the upper lip: a case report. (8/27)

We report a rare case of a papillary cystadenoma arising from the upper lip. This tumor was not distinctly encapsulated and had proliferated replacing the ductal epithelium. Mast cells were found not only in the stroma but also in the oncocytic epithelial layer. There was a strong immunoreaction with mitochondrial antibody in the epithelial layer. Only one case (0.9%) of papillary cystadenoma has occurred among the 110 benign intraoral salivary gland tumors seen in our hospital from 1966 through September 2003.  (+info)

Cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor (not cancerous), which arises from glandular epithelial cells and is covered by a thin layer of connective tissue. These tumors can develop in various locations within the body, including the ovaries, pancreas, and other organs that contain glands.

There are two main types of cystadenomas: serous and mucinous. Serous cystadenomas are filled with a clear or watery fluid, while mucinous cystadenomas contain a thick, gelatinous material. Although they are generally not harmful, these tumors can grow quite large and cause discomfort or other symptoms due to their size or location. In some cases, cystadenomas may undergo malignant transformation and develop into cancerous tumors, known as cystadenocarcinomas. Regular medical follow-up and monitoring are essential for individuals diagnosed with cystadenomas to ensure early detection and treatment of any potential complications.

Mucinous cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the mucous membranes of the body. It is most commonly found in the ovary, but can also occur in other locations such as the pancreas or appendix.

Mucinous cystadenomas are characterized by the production of large amounts of mucin, a slippery, gel-like substance that accumulates inside the tumor and causes it to grow into a cystic mass. These tumors can vary in size, ranging from a few centimeters to over 20 centimeters in diameter.

While mucinous cystadenomas are generally benign, they have the potential to become cancerous (mucinous cystadenocarcinoma) if left untreated. Symptoms of mucinous cystadenoma may include abdominal pain or swelling, bloating, and changes in bowel movements or urinary habits. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor.

A serous cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the serous glands, which are glands that produce a watery, lubricating fluid. This type of tumor typically develops in the ovary or the pancreas.

Serous cystadenomas of the ovary are usually filled with a clear, watery fluid and have multiple loculations (compartments). They can vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. Although these tumors are benign, they can cause symptoms if they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or if they rupture and release their contents into the abdominal cavity.

Serous cystadenomas of the pancreas are less common than ovarian serous cystadenomas. They typically occur in the tail of the pancreas and can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. These tumors are usually asymptomatic, but they can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort if they become large enough to press on surrounding organs.

It is important to note that while serous cystadenomas are generally benign, there is a small risk that they may undergo malignant transformation and develop into a type of cancer known as a serous cystadenocarcinoma. For this reason, it is important for patients with these tumors to be followed closely by a healthcare provider and to have regular imaging studies and/or surgical excision to monitor for any changes in the tumor.

Papillary cystadenoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that arises from the glandular cells in various organs. It is characterized by the growth of finger-like projections (papillae) inside the cysts. These tumors can occur in different parts of the body, including the ovaries, pancreas, and the lining of the abdominal cavity (peritoneum).

In general, papillary cystadenomas are slow-growing and do not typically spread to other organs. However, they can cause symptoms such as pain or discomfort if they become large enough to press on surrounding tissues. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor. It is important to note that while papillary cystadenomas are generally benign, there is a small risk that they may undergo malignant transformation and develop into cancerous tumors over time. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is recommended to monitor for any changes in the tumor or the development of new symptoms.

Cystadenocarcinoma is a type of tumor that arises from the epithelial lining of a cyst, and it has the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. It typically affects glandular organs such as the ovaries, pancreas, and salivary glands.

Cystadenocarcinomas can be classified into two types: serous and mucinous. Serous cystadenocarcinomas produce a watery fluid, while mucinous cystadenocarcinomas produce a thick, mucus-like fluid. Both types of tumors can be benign or malignant, but malignant cystadenocarcinomas are more aggressive and have a higher risk of metastasis.

Symptoms of cystadenocarcinoma depend on the location and size of the tumor. In some cases, there may be no symptoms until the tumor has grown large enough to cause pain or other problems. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with any affected surrounding tissue. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also be used in some cases to help prevent recurrence or spread of the cancer.

Appendiceal neoplasms refer to various types of tumors that can develop in the appendix, a small tube-like structure attached to the large intestine. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can include:

1. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms.
2. Carcinoids: These are neuroendocrine tumors that arise from the hormone-producing cells in the appendix. They are typically small and slow-growing, but some can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Mucinous neoplasms: These are tumors that produce mucin, a slippery substance that can cause the appendix to become distended and filled with mucus. They can be low-grade (less aggressive) or high-grade (more aggressive) and may spread to other parts of the abdomen.
4. Adenocarcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are relatively rare but can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
5. Pseudomyxoma peritonei: This is a condition in which mucin produced by an appendiceal neoplasm leaks into the abdominal cavity, causing a jelly-like accumulation of fluid and tissue. It can be caused by both benign and malignant tumors.

Treatment for appendiceal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

A mucocele is a mucus-containing cystic lesion that results from the accumulation of mucin within a damaged minor salivary gland duct or mucous gland. It is typically caused by trauma, injury, or blockage of the duct. Mucocele appears as a round, dome-shaped, fluid-filled swelling, which may be bluish or clear in color. They are most commonly found on the lower lip but can also occur on other areas of the oral cavity. Mucocele is generally painless unless it becomes secondarily infected; however, it can cause discomfort during speaking, chewing, or swallowing, and may affect aesthetics. Treatment usually involves surgical excision of the mucocele to prevent recurrence.

Biliary tract neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts inside and outside the liver, and the ducts that connect the liver to the small intestine. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant biliary tract neoplasms are often referred to as cholangiocarcinoma if they originate in the bile ducts, or gallbladder cancer if they arise in the gallbladder. These cancers are relatively rare but can be aggressive and difficult to treat. They can cause symptoms such as jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, weight loss, and dark urine.

Risk factors for biliary tract neoplasms include chronic inflammation of the biliary system, primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatitis B or C infection, parasitic infections, and certain genetic conditions. Early detection and treatment can improve outcomes for patients with these neoplasms.

Bile duct neoplasms, also known as cholangiocarcinomas, refer to a group of malignancies that arise from the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be further classified based on their location as intrahepatic (within the liver), perihilar (at the junction of the left and right hepatic ducts), or distal (in the common bile duct).

These tumors are relatively rare, but their incidence has been increasing in recent years. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. The diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, as well as blood tests to assess liver function. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for bile duct neoplasms depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage tumors, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, palliative treatments such as stenting or bypass procedures may be recommended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

The appendix is a small, tube-like structure that projects from the large intestine, located in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen. Its function in humans is not well understood and is often considered vestigial, meaning it no longer serves a necessary purpose. However, in some animals, the appendix plays a role in the immune system. Inflammation of the appendix, known as appendicitis, can cause severe abdominal pain and requires medical attention, often leading to surgical removal of the appendix (appendectomy).

Adenoma of the bile duct is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops in the bile ducts, which are tiny tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver.

Bile duct adenomas are rare and usually do not cause any symptoms. However, if they grow large enough, they may obstruct the flow of bile and cause jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), abdominal pain, or itching. In some cases, bile duct adenomas may become cancerous and develop into bile duct carcinomas.

The exact cause of bile duct adenomas is not known, but they are more common in people with certain genetic disorders, such as Gardner's syndrome and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Treatment for bile duct adenomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor.

A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division between the sac and its surrounding tissue, that contains fluid, air, or semisolid material. Cysts can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, internal organs, and bones. They can be caused by various factors, such as infection, genetic predisposition, or blockage of a duct or gland. Some cysts may cause symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, while others may not cause any symptoms at all. Treatment for cysts depends on the type and location of the cyst, as well as whether it is causing any problems. Some cysts may go away on their own, while others may need to be drained or removed through a surgical procedure.

A Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor is a rare type of sex cord-stromal tumor that develops in the ovaries. These tumors arise from the cells that produce hormones and help to form and maintain the ovarian tissue. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors can occur in people of any age but are most commonly found in women between the ages of 20 and 40.

These tumors can be functional, meaning they produce hormones, or nonfunctional. Functional Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors may cause symptoms related to the production of male hormones (androgens), such as excess facial hair, a deepened voice, and irregular menstrual periods. Nonfunctional tumors typically do not cause any specific symptoms and are often found during routine pelvic examinations or imaging studies performed for other reasons.

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are usually slow-growing and can vary in size. Most of these tumors are benign (not cancerous), but some can be malignant (cancerous) and may spread to other parts of the body. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, and additional therapies such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be recommended depending on the stage and grade of the tumor. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for any recurrence of the tumor.

Intrahepatic bile ducts are the small tubular structures inside the liver that collect bile from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food. The intrahepatic bile ducts merge to form larger ducts, which eventually exit the liver and join with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The common bile duct then empties into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where bile aids in digestion. Intrahepatic bile ducts can become obstructed or damaged due to various conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation, leading to complications like jaundice, liver damage, and infection.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Adenolymphoma is a rare, benign tumor that arises from the lymphoid tissue found in glandular structures, such as the salivary glands. It is also known as Warthin's tumor or cystic papillary adenolymphoma.

The tumor is composed of multiple cyst-like spaces lined by columnar epithelial cells and surrounded by lymphoid tissue, which may contain lymphocytes, plasma cells, and occasionally, germinal centers. The etiology of adenolymphoma is unclear, but it has been associated with smoking and genetic factors.

Adenolymphomas are typically slow-growing and painless, although they can cause discomfort or facial asymmetry if they become large enough. They are usually diagnosed through imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, followed by a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment of adenolymphoma typically involves surgical excision, which is usually curative. Recurrence after surgery is rare, but long-term follow-up is recommended due to the potential for malignant transformation into squamous cell carcinoma or other malignancies.

Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from the mucin-producing cells in the lining of a cyst. It is a subtype of cystadenocarcinoma, which is a malignant tumor that develops within a cyst. Mucinous cystadenocarcinomas are typically found in the ovary or pancreas but can also occur in other organs such as the appendix and the respiratory tract.

These tumors are characterized by the production of large amounts of mucin, a gel-like substance that can accumulate within the cyst and cause it to grow. Mucinous cystadenocarcinomas tend to grow slowly but can become quite large and may eventually spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body if left untreated.

Symptoms of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma depend on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, changes in bowel movements, or vaginal bleeding. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. The prognosis for mucinous cystadenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis and the patient's overall health.

Cecal diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the cecum, which is a pouch-like structure located at the junction of the small and large intestines. The cecum plays an important role in digestion, particularly in the fermentation of certain types of food.

There are several different types of cecal diseases, including:

1. Cecal volvulus: This is a rare condition in which the cecum twists on itself, cutting off blood flow and causing severe pain and other symptoms.
2. Diverticulitis: This occurs when small pouches called diverticula form in the wall of the cecum and become inflamed or infected.
3. Appendicitis: Although not strictly a cecal disease, the appendix is a small tube-like structure that branches off from the cecum. Inflammation of the appendix (appendicitis) can cause severe pain in the lower right abdomen and may require surgical removal of the appendix.
4. Crohn's disease: This is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that can affect any part of the digestive tract, including the cecum.
5. Tuberculosis: The cecum can also be affected by tuberculosis, which is a bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs but can spread to other parts of the body.
6. Cancer: Although rare, cancer can also affect the cecum, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.

Treatment for cecal diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include antibiotics, surgery, or other medical interventions. If you are experiencing symptoms that may be related to a cecal disease, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

The common hepatic duct is a medical term that refers to the duct in the liver responsible for carrying bile from the liver. More specifically, it is the duct that results from the convergence of the right and left hepatic ducts, which themselves carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively. The common hepatic duct then joins with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct, which ultimately drains into the duodenum, a part of the small intestine.

The primary function of the common hepatic duct is to transport bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, to the small intestine. Bile helps break down fats during the digestion process, making it possible for the body to absorb them properly. Any issues or abnormalities in the common hepatic duct can lead to problems with bile flow and potentially cause health complications such as jaundice, gallstones, or liver damage.

A spermatocele is a type of cyst that develops in the epididymis, which is a small, coiled tube located on the back surface of the testicle. This cyst typically contains sperm and fluid from the epididymis, and it is usually benign and harmless.

Spermatoceles are often asymptomatic and may be discovered during a routine physical examination or self-examination. In some cases, however, they may cause discomfort or pain, particularly if they become large enough to press on the testicle or surrounding structures.

While spermatoceles do not typically require treatment unless they are causing symptoms, it is important to have them evaluated by a healthcare provider to rule out other potential causes of any symptoms and to ensure that appropriate treatment is provided if necessary.

Endocrine gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) that develop in the endocrine glands. These glands are responsible for producing hormones, which are chemical messengers that regulate various functions and processes in the body. Neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms tend to grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to distant sites.

Endocrine gland neoplasms can occur in any of the endocrine glands, including:

1. Pituitary gland: located at the base of the brain, it produces several hormones that regulate growth and development, as well as other bodily functions.
2. Thyroid gland: located in the neck, it produces thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism and calcium balance.
3. Parathyroid glands: located near the thyroid gland, they produce parathyroid hormone that regulates calcium levels in the blood.
4. Adrenal glands: located on top of each kidney, they produce hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and aldosterone that regulate stress response, metabolism, and blood pressure.
5. Pancreas: located behind the stomach, it produces insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar levels, and digestive enzymes that help break down food.
6. Pineal gland: located in the brain, it produces melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles.
7. Gonads (ovaries and testicles): located in the pelvis (ovaries) and scrotum (testicles), they produce sex hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone that regulate reproductive function and secondary sexual characteristics.

Endocrine gland neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on the type and location of the tumor. For example, a pituitary gland neoplasm may cause headaches, vision problems, or hormonal imbalances, while an adrenal gland neoplasm may cause high blood pressure, weight gain, or mood changes.

Diagnosis of endocrine gland neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to measure hormone levels. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormonal therapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor.

Ovarian neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the ovary, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various cell types within the ovary, including epithelial cells, germ cells, and stromal cells. Ovarian neoplasms are often classified based on their cell type of origin, histological features, and potential for invasive or metastatic behavior.

Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are the most common type and can be further categorized into several subtypes, such as serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and Brenner tumors. Some of these epithelial tumors have a higher risk of becoming malignant and spreading to other parts of the body.

Germ cell ovarian neoplasms arise from the cells that give rise to eggs (oocytes) and can include teratomas, dysgerminomas, yolk sac tumors, and embryonal carcinomas. Stromal ovarian neoplasms develop from the connective tissue cells supporting the ovary and can include granulosa cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas.

It is essential to diagnose and treat ovarian neoplasms promptly, as some malignant forms can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening if not managed appropriately. Regular gynecological exams, imaging studies, and tumor marker tests are often used for early detection and monitoring of ovarian neoplasms. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, depending on the type, stage, and patient's overall health condition.

Aspermia is a medical term that refers to the absence of semen, which is typically released during ejaculation in males. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as obstruction in the reproductive tract, retrograde ejaculation (where semen flows backward into the bladder instead of out through the urethra), or a failure of the testicles to produce sperm. Aspermia is often associated with infertility and requires medical evaluation and treatment.

Pseudomyxoma Peritonei (PMP) is a rare, slow-growing, and invasive cancer that typically starts in the appendix as a low-grade mucinous neoplasm, although it can also arise from other organs of the abdominal cavity. The primary characteristic of PMP is the accumulation of copious amounts of gelatinous ascites (peritoneal fluid containing mucin) within the peritoneal cavity, causing progressive abdominal distension and discomfort.

The condition is classified into three main histological subtypes: disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis (DPAM), peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis (PMCA), and hybrid tumors. DPAM is the least aggressive form, while PMCA is more invasive and has a worse prognosis.

The primary treatment for Pseudomyxoma Peritonei involves cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). This approach aims to remove all visible tumors and destroy any remaining cancer cells within the abdominal cavity. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can significantly improve the prognosis for patients with PMP, although long-term survival rates remain variable due to the disease's rarity and heterogeneity.

Salivary gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the salivary glands. These glands are responsible for producing saliva, which helps in digestion, lubrication of food and maintaining oral health. Salivary gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as swelling, painless lumps, or difficulty swallowing if they grow large enough to put pressure on surrounding tissues.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and have the potential to invade nearby structures and metastasize (spread) to distant organs. Symptoms of malignant salivary gland neoplasms may include rapid growth, pain, numbness, or paralysis of facial nerves.

Salivary gland neoplasms can occur in any of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands) or in the minor salivary glands located throughout the mouth and throat. The exact cause of these neoplasms is not fully understood, but risk factors may include exposure to radiation, certain viral infections, and genetic predisposition.

A pancreatic cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the pancreas, a gland located behind the stomach that produces enzymes to help with digestion and hormones to regulate blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cysts can be classified into several types, including congenital (present at birth), retention (formed due to blockage of pancreatic ducts), and pseudocysts (formed as a result of injury or inflammation).

While some pancreatic cysts may not cause any symptoms, others can lead to abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, or jaundice. Some cysts may also have the potential to become cancerous over time. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and evaluate pancreatic cysts through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and in some cases, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may be necessary for further evaluation.

Treatment options for pancreatic cysts depend on the type, size, location, and symptoms of the cyst, as well as the patient's overall health condition. Some cysts may require surgical removal, while others can be managed with regular monitoring and follow-up care. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider for proper evaluation and management of pancreatic cysts.

Urologic surgical procedures in males refer to various surgical operations performed on the male urinary system and reproductive organs. These may include:

1. Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP): A procedure used to treat an enlarged prostate, where excess tissue is removed through the urethra using a specialized instrument.
2. Radical Prostatectomy: The surgical removal of the entire prostate gland and some surrounding tissues, usually performed as a treatment for prostate cancer.
3. Cystectomy: Surgical removal of the bladder, often due to bladder cancer. In males, this procedure may also involve removing the prostate and seminal vesicles.
4. Nephrectomy: The surgical removal of a kidney, usually performed due to kidney disease or cancer.
5. Pyeloplasty: A procedure to correct a blockage in the renal pelvis, the part of the kidney where urine collects before flowing into the ureter.
6. Ureterostomy: A surgical procedure that creates an opening from the ureter to the outside of the body, often performed when a portion of the urinary system needs to be bypassed or drained.
7. Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles, often performed as a treatment for testicular cancer.
8. Vasectomy: A minor surgical procedure for male sterilization, where the vas deferens are cut and sealed to prevent sperm from reaching the semen.
9. Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE): A surgical procedure used to extract sperm directly from the testicles, often performed as part of assisted reproductive techniques for infertile couples.

These procedures may be performed using open surgery, laparoscopy, or robotic-assisted surgery, depending on the specific circumstances and patient factors.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

Retroperitoneal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the retroperitoneal space. This is the area located behind the peritoneum, which is the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. The retroperitoneal space contains several vital structures such as the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, aorta, and lymphatic vessels.

Retroperitoneal neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Malignant retroperitoneal neoplasms are often aggressive and can invade surrounding tissues and organs, leading to various complications. Common types of retroperitoneal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and metastatic tumors from other primary sites. Symptoms may vary depending on the size and location of the tumor but can include abdominal or back pain, weight loss, and swelling in the legs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI, followed by a biopsy to determine the type and grade of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Minor salivary glands are numerous small exocrine glands that produce saliva and are distributed throughout the oral cavity, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, and paranasal sinuses. They are classified as "minor" due to their smaller size compared to the three pairs of major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual). The minor salivary glands are primarily mucous glands, although some contain serous cells. They are responsible for producing approximately 5-10% of the total saliva in the mouth. These glands help moisten the oral cavity, protect the mucosal lining, and facilitate speaking, chewing, and swallowing.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

A pancreatic pseudocyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the abdomen, usually as a result of pancreatitis or trauma to the pancreas. It is composed of cells and tissues from the pancreas, along with enzymes, debris, and fluids. Unlike true cysts, pseudocysts do not have an epithelial lining. They can vary in size and may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or fever. In some cases, they may resolve on their own, but larger or symptomatic pseudocysts may require medical intervention, such as drainage or surgery.

An ovarian cyst is a sac or pouch filled with fluid that forms on the ovary. Ovarian cysts are quite common in women during their childbearing years, and they often cause no symptoms. In most cases, ovarian cysts disappear without treatment over a few months. However, larger or persistent cysts may require medical intervention, including surgical removal.

There are various types of ovarian cysts, such as functional cysts (follicular and corpus luteum cysts), which develop during the menstrual cycle due to hormonal changes, and non-functional cysts (dermoid cysts, endometriomas, and cystadenomas), which can form due to different causes.

While many ovarian cysts are benign, some may have malignant potential or indicate an underlying medical condition like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Regular gynecological check-ups, including pelvic examinations and ultrasounds, can help detect and monitor ovarian cysts.

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the bile ducts and pancreatic duct. This diagnostic test does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scans or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

During an MRCP, the patient lies on a table that slides into the MRI machine. Contrast agents may be used to enhance the visibility of the ducts. The MRI machine uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the internal structures, allowing radiologists to assess any abnormalities or blockages in the bile and pancreatic ducts.

MRCP is often used to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, inflammation, or strictures in the bile or pancreatic ducts. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. However, it does not allow for therapeutic interventions like ERCP, which can remove stones or place stents.

Pancreatic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the structure and function of the pancreas, a vital organ located in the abdomen. The pancreas has two main functions: an exocrine function, which involves the production of digestive enzymes that help break down food in the small intestine, and an endocrine function, which involves the production of hormones such as insulin and glucagon that regulate blood sugar levels.

Pancreatic diseases can be broadly classified into two categories: inflammatory and non-inflammatory. Inflammatory pancreatic diseases include conditions such as acute pancreatitis, which is characterized by sudden inflammation of the pancreas, and chronic pancreatitis, which is a long-term inflammation that can lead to scarring and loss of function.

Non-inflammatory pancreatic diseases include conditions such as pancreatic cancer, which is a malignant tumor that can arise from the cells of the pancreas, and benign tumors such as cysts or adenomas. Other non-inflammatory conditions include pancreatic insufficiency, which can occur when the pancreas does not produce enough digestive enzymes, and diabetes mellitus, which can result from impaired insulin production or action.

Overall, pancreatic diseases can have serious consequences on a person's health and quality of life, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for optimal outcomes.

Extrahepatic bile ducts refer to the portion of the biliary system that lies outside the liver. The biliary system is responsible for producing, storing, and transporting bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver.

The extrahepatic bile ducts include:

1. The common hepatic duct: This duct is formed by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which drain bile from the corresponding lobes of the liver.
2. The cystic duct: This short duct connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, allowing bile to flow into the gallbladder for storage and concentration.
3. The common bile duct: This is the result of the fusion of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It transports bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where it aids in fat digestion.
4. The ampulla of Vater (or hepatopancreatic ampulla): This is a dilated area where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the major duodenal papilla.

Extrahepatic bile ducts can be affected by various conditions, such as gallstones, inflammation (cholangitis), strictures, or tumors, which may require medical or surgical intervention.

An appendectomy is a surgical procedure in which the vermiform appendix is removed. This procedure is performed when a patient has appendicitis, which is an inflammation of the appendix that can lead to serious complications such as peritonitis or sepsis if not treated promptly. The surgery can be done as an open procedure, in which a single incision is made in the lower right abdomen, or as a laparoscopic procedure, in which several small incisions are made and specialized instruments are used to remove the appendix. In some cases, if the appendix has burst, a more extensive surgery may be required to clean out the abdominal cavity.

A pancreatectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the pancreas is removed. There are several types of pancreatectomies, including:

* **Total pancreatectomy:** Removal of the entire pancreas, as well as the spleen and nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is usually done for patients with cancer that has spread throughout the pancreas or for those who have had multiple surgeries to remove pancreatic tumors.
* **Distal pancreatectomy:** Removal of the body and tail of the pancreas, as well as nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is often done for patients with tumors in the body or tail of the pancreas.
* **Partial (or segmental) pancreatectomy:** Removal of a portion of the head or body of the pancreas, as well as nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is often done for patients with tumors in the head or body of the pancreas that can be removed without removing the entire organ.
* **Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD):** A type of surgery used to treat tumors in the head of the pancreas, as well as other conditions such as chronic pancreatitis. In this procedure, the head of the pancreas, duodenum, gallbladder, and bile duct are removed, but the stomach and lower portion of the esophagus (pylorus) are left in place.

After a pancreatectomy, patients may experience problems with digestion and blood sugar regulation, as the pancreas plays an important role in these functions. Patients may need to take enzyme supplements to help with digestion and may require insulin therapy to manage their blood sugar levels.

Cystadenocarcinoma, serous is a type of cystic tumor that arises from the lining of the abdominal or pelvic cavity (the peritoneum). It is called "serous" because the tumor cells produce a thin, watery fluid similar to serum.

Cystadenocarcinoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor that can invade surrounding tissues and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. It typically affects women over the age of 50 and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel or bladder habits.

Serous cystadenocarcinoma is a subtype of ovarian cancer that arises from the surface of the ovary. It can also occur in other organs, including the fallopian tubes, peritoneum, and endometrium. This type of tumor tends to grow slowly but can spread widely throughout the abdominal cavity, making it difficult to treat.

Treatment for serous cystadenocarcinoma typically involves surgery to remove the tumor and any affected tissues, followed by chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. The prognosis for this type of cancer depends on several factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, and the response to treatment.

Adenocarcinoma, mucinous is a type of cancer that begins in the glandular cells that line certain organs and produce mucin, a substance that lubricates and protects tissues. This type of cancer is characterized by the presence of abundant pools of mucin within the tumor. It typically develops in organs such as the colon, rectum, lungs, pancreas, and ovaries.

Mucinous adenocarcinomas tend to have a distinct appearance under the microscope, with large pools of mucin pushing aside the cancer cells. They may also have a different clinical behavior compared to other types of adenocarcinomas, such as being more aggressive or having a worse prognosis in some cases.

It is important to note that while a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, mucinous can be serious, the prognosis and treatment options may vary depending on several factors, including the location of the cancer, the stage at which it was diagnosed, and the individual's overall health.

Warthin tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum or adenolymphoma). See the list below:. * Second most common benign parotid ...
Papillary serous cystadenocarcinomas may exhibit psammoma bodies upon histopathology. Papillary serous cystadenoma Kosary CL ( ... Papillary serous cystadenocarcinomas are the most common form of malignant ovarian cancer making up 26 percent of ovarian ... Ovarian papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma at WebPath, The Internet Pathology Laboratory for Medical Education at Mercer ...
Papillary Cystadenoma of Larynx: A Case Report (Articles) Tammam Abou Ali, Basel Al Sabah, Kavitha Gopalan, Kavitha Gopalan ...
Cystadenoma of the epididymis. - Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis. - Adenocarcinoma of the epididymis. - Squamous cell ... Serous cystadenoma. - Serous tumour of borderline malignancy. - Serous cystadenocarcinoma. - Mucinous cystadenoma. - Mucinous ... Well-differentiated papillary mesothelial tumour. - Mesothelioma. *Tumours of the epididymis. - ...
Cystadenoma Of Pancreas * Dermatofibrosarcoma Protruberans * Endovascular Papillary Angioendothelioma * Ewings Sarcoma * Family ...
PAPILLARY CYSTADENOMA OF LACRIMAL CARUNCLE (1 March, 1963) Free G. B. Forbes, R. A. D. Crawford ...
Papillary cystadenoma of epididymis: component of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.. Urology. 1980. 16. 305. 306. ...
Warthin tumor or papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum: Warthin tumors have a smooth capsule; when incised, multiple cystic ... However, tobacco smoking has been associated with the development of Warthin tumors (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum). ...
Keywords: Pancreatic cystic lesions; endoscopic ultrasound; EUS-FNA; pseudocyst; serous cystadenoma; intraductal papillary ...
Other benign tumors include papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum (also known as Warthin tumors), oncocytomas, and adenomas. ...
... who proposed the terms Müllerian mucinous or endocervical papillary cystadenoma of borderline malignancy. Several authors have ... N. Dutt and D. M. Berney, "Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mucinous cystadenoma," Journal of Clinical Pathology ... Microscopic findings for ovaries (a-d) and the sigmoid colon (e, f). (a, b) The papillary tumors of both ovaries were lined by ... Y. Wani and K. Notohara, "Ovarian clear cell carcinoma arising in a mucinous cystadenoma," International Journal of ...
Cystadenoma serosum) and papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma (Cystadenocarcinoma papillare serosum IIIC) were included in the ... The study included patients with ovarian serous cystadenoma (Cystadenoma serosum) and papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma ( ... Patients with ovarian serous cystadenoma (Cystadenoma serosum) and papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma (Cystadenocarcinoma ... In this group, 16 women were diagnosed with benign ovarian tumors, ovarian serous cystadenoma (Cystadenoma serosum), and 20 ...
Benign Lesions: Cyst, Adenoma and Sonographic Findings. Malignant Lesions: Papillary Carcinoma and Sonographic Findings, ... Papillary Carcinoma, PagetsDisease, Scirrhous Carcinoma, Medullary Carcinoma, Colloid Carcinoma,Tubular Carcinoma ...
... papillary cystadenoma, and Wilms tumors1, 3, 13, 15, 17. This case report was only associated with history of recurrent ...
... serous cystadenoma with control (A4), benign ovary tissue (B1), serous adenocarcinoma various tissue arrays (Cl), papillary ... Papillary Serous [006] Papillary serous carcinoma of the ovary is one of the most common and lethal malignant tumors (Tong G-X ... Because serous and papillary serous subtypes present no early specific symptoms, they are often detected at a later stage.. [ ... Papillary Serous, S = Serous, E = Endometrioid, M = Mucinous, C = Clear Cell, MC = Metastatic Carcinoma, B = Borderline and MT ...
Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis *Uropathology. Choriocarcinoma *Uropathology. Article Suggestions. * Facial Swelling in ...
Main-duct Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasia (IPMN) Pancreatic pseudocyst Mucinous cystadenoma Mucinous ... Tanaka M. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas as the main focus for early detection of pancreatic ... Machado N, al Qadhi H, al Wahibi K. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of pancreas. N Am J Med Sci 2015;7:160. ...
12.19 percent papillary cystadenoma,7.31 percent papilloma, 4.87 percent cystic fibroadenoma and 24.39 percent were ... 7.26 percent simple papillary adenocarcinomas, 4.28 percent complex papillary adenocarcinomas , 23.27 percent simple papillary ... cystadenocarcinomas ,8.37 percent complex papillary cystadenocarcinomas,16.38 percent simple solid adenocarcinomas ,6.70 ...
Cystadenoma, Cystadenocarcinoma, Islet cell tumors, Papillary cystic neoplasms, Lymphoma, Acinar cell tumors, Ampullary cancer ...
Papillary cystadenoma (morphologic abnormality). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Papillary cystadenoma (morphologic ...
A knowledge graph of biological entities such as genes, gene functions, diseases, phenotypes and chemicals. Embeddings are generated with Walking RDF and OWL method ...
Papillary bronchial cystadenoma:. *Mucinous bronchial cystadenoma:. Clinical. *Endobronchial Nodule/Mass (see Obstructive Lung ...
Papillary Cystadenofibroma of Fallopian Tube: Case Report with a Literature Review. Hodzic E, et al. Med Arch. 2020. PMID: ... Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with endometrioid carcinoma and mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary. Lopez JM, et al. Ann Diagn ... An unusual case of a borderline Brenner tumor associated with bilateral serous cystadenoma and endometrial carcinoma. Cruz- ...
O Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis,O Papillary renal cell carcinoma,O Papillary renal cell carcinoma type 1,O Papillary ... O Ovarian papillary adenocarcinoma,O Ovarian serous cystadenoma,O Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor,O Ovarian teratoma,O Ovarian ... O Thyroid papillary adenoma,O Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor defect,O Thyroiditis,O Thyrotoxicosis from ectopic thyroid ... O Generalized papillary lesions,O Generalized periodontitis,O Generalized reticulate brown pigmentation,O Generalized ...
2.5-cm cystic mass in the pancreatic head with associated pancreatic duct dilatation. c Serous cystadenoma. Simple 5-cm cyst in ... Most of these are benign or indolent and include serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic neoplasms, intraductal papillary mucinous ... 6.13a-f a,b Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. ~ ... the pancreatic tail. d Mucinous cystadenoma. Complex cyst in ...
papillary, bilayer cuboid (basal), columnar (apical) clearly seen eosinophilic, abundant unremarkable sebaceous lymphadenoma ... AKA papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum PCL. (WP/Nephron). Basal cell adenoma var., islands surrounded. by hyaline bands, ...
Papillary carcinoma Case 14. Apocrine carcinoma Case 13. Intraductal carcinoma Case 3. Medullary carcinoma Case 2. Mucinous ...
Papillary Cystadenoma of the Epididymis N.D. Kim , H.S. Lee Ewha Med J 1980;3(2):87-90.. https://doi.org/10.12771/emj.1980.3. ...
Warthin tumor or papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum *. Warthin tumors represent the second-most common benign salivary gland ...
  • Ovarian papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma at WebPath, The Internet Pathology Laboratory for Medical Education at Mercer University School of Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with ovarian serous cystadenoma ( Cystadenoma serosum ) and papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma ( Cystadenocarcinoma papillare serosum IIIC ) were included in the study, as well as healthy women who constituted the control group. (mdpi.com)
  • Clinical case description of a papillary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, extremely rare malignant tumor in the salivary gland and difficult to diagnose, in geriatric patient. (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite the favorable clinical features, after surgical removal, was diagnosed as papillary mucinous papillary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Papillary cystadenocarcinoma, in turn, comprises an extremely rare lesion, accounting for 0.5% of all epithelial lesions affecting the salivary glands 2 and according to the second largest survey on cystadenocarcinomas described in the literature, the highest prevalence is also observed in the major salivary glands 3 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Rupture of a mucinous cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma leading to the spread of tumor cells throughout the peritoneum . (amboss.com)
  • Cyst fluid can be sent for CA 19-9 testing at the time of surgery as a marker for cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Cystadenoma (see the image below) and cystadenocarcinoma usually appear multiloculated with internal septations, heterogeneous density, and irregularities in the cyst wall. (medscape.com)
  • Unlike many tumors, cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma are rarely associated with calcifications. (medscape.com)
  • Preneoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions include mucinous cystadenoma and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. (umn.edu)
  • Also called papillary cystic neoplasm, it appears infrequently but is usually cancerous. (fastlyheal.com)
  • Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm appears as a lump in the ventral pancreatic duct or some of its branches. (fastlyheal.com)
  • Cystadenoma is an uncommon, benign cystic epithelial neoplasm that frequently contains epithelium-lined papillary projections into the cystic spaces. (ecce216.com)
  • An unusual case of a borderline Brenner tumor associated with bilateral serous cystadenoma and endometrial carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with endometrioid carcinoma and mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary. (nih.gov)
  • Serous Cystadenoma of the pancreas: tumor growth rates and recommendations for treatment. (gicancerindia.com)
  • Macrocystic neoplasms of the pancreas: CT differentiation of serous oligocystic adenoma from mucinous cystadenoma and intraductal papillary mucinous tumor. (gicancerindia.com)
  • Papillary proliferations of transitional-cell type epithelium projecting into cystic lumens are typical of borderline Brenner tumor. (surgpath4u.com)
  • Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and mucinous cystadenomas are mucinous cystic neoplasms with a known malignant potential that have gained greater recognition in recent years. (elsevierpure.com)
  • This review contains a critical approach of the current recommendations and management strategies regarding intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and mucinous cystadenomas, as well as highlighting the limitations exposed in current guidelines. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Moris, M & Wallace, MB 2017, ' Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and mucinous cystadenomas: Current status and recommendations ', Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas , vol. 109, no. 5, pp. 358-366. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Thirteen individuals with FPC (6.1%) underwent surgical resection for a suspected PRL, but only four (1.9%) had high-risk lesions (ie, high-grade intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or grade 3 pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms). (medscape.com)
  • Many of the cysts and the low papillary growth lesions were lined by tall columnar mucinous or cuboidal ciliated serous cells (Figure 2(b) ). (hindawi.com)
  • Simple cysts tend to have homogenous low-density interiors, whereas neoplastic cysts usually have heterogeneous interiors with septa and papillary extrusions. (medscape.com)
  • Ovarian mucinous cysts in children and Key words: mucinous ovarian cysts, adolescents, children, cystadenoma. (transroute.ro)
  • Other benign tumors include papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum (also known as Warthin tumors), oncocytomas, and adenomas. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Concomitant salivary duct carcinoma of minor salivary gland and papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum of a cervical lymph node: Report of a case and review of the literature. (ijhns.com)
  • Serous oligocystic cystadenoma is a subgroup of pancreatic serous cystadenoma (SA) characterized by image findings described above. (gicancerindia.com)
  • Seromucinous borderline tumors (SMBTs) are characterized by papillary architecture reminiscent of serous tumors but composed of mucinous epithelium similar to that of the endocervix. (hindawi.com)
  • Giant ovarian mucinous cystadenoma with borderline areas - a case Operație cezariană de urgență într-un caz cancer pseudomyxoma peritoneal ruptură uterină pe uter. (transroute.ro)
  • Microscopically, multiple cystic lesions or exophytic growth with low papillary lesions was identified in the ovaries (Figure 2(a) ). (hindawi.com)
  • Some Brenner tumors may arise from the wall of a mucinous cystadenoma. (surgpath4u.com)
  • On histopathological examination, the cyst was confirmed as benign serous cystadenoma of the ovary. (medihelp.life)
  • The histopathology was suggestive of benign serous cystadenoma of the ovary. (medihelp.life)
  • Ovarian mucinous cystadenoma is a benign tumour that arises from the surface epithelium of the ovary. (ecce216.com)
  • Serous cystadenoma was the commonest benign tumour and serous papillary carcinoma was the commonest malignant ovarian tumour. (ijmedicine.com)
  • Pentru ruptura de cistadenom ovarian Cystadenoma este umplut cu mucus și crește până cancer pseudomyxoma peritoneal aproximativ 12 cm cancer pseudomyxoma peritoneal diametru. (transroute.ro)
  • Ovarian cystadenoma: tipuri, simptome, cauze de formare. (transroute.ro)
  • Gyant ovarian cystadenoma in elimină paraziții young patient - a laparoscopic Ruptura iatrogenă de trahee - factori de risc, conduită terapeutică M. (transroute.ro)
  • Ruptura chistadenomului duce la formarea de depozite mucinoase la nivelul peritoneului mucinous ovarian cystadenoma, emphasized by a case report. (transroute.ro)
  • Computed tomography (CT) appearance of biliary cystadenoma. (medscape.com)
  • Large mucinous biliary cystadenoma with "ovarian-like" stroma: A case report. (transroute.ro)
  • Conclusions: Cystadenomas grow on average 0.65 cm/year, which is similar in magnitude to the inherent error observed in measurement on ultrasound, suggesting that repeat ultrasound at intervals of longer than a year will often be needed to accurately assess growth if a cyst represents a benign cystadenoma. (ecce216.com)
  • Revista Romana de Anatomie Hiperplazia prostatică mixtă Cervical cystadenoma have frequently more than 2 cm and are smooth, well encapsulated complicaţie a fistulei splenice arteriovenoase FSAV este ruptura. (transroute.ro)
  • Papillary serous cystadenocarcinomas may exhibit psammoma bodies upon histopathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Papillary serous cystadenocarcinomas are the most common form of malignant ovarian cancer making up 26 percent of ovarian tumours in women aged over 20 in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this image, the projections are not especially papillary, but more broad and coarse. (surgpath4u.com)
  • Chistul ovarian este una dintre afecțiunile feminine comune, cancer pseudomyxoma peritoneal devine periculoasă în ovariene benigne, care se numesc chist sau în alt mod cystadenoma. (transroute.ro)
  • Mucinous cystadenoma with a septated cystic ovarian mass Radiouri, Medicină. (transroute.ro)
  • Microscopically, broad papillary proliferations protrude into cystic lumens. (surgpath4u.com)
  • Papillary Cystadenofibroma of Fallopian Tube: Case Report with a Literature Review. (nih.gov)