Mixed Tumor, Mesodermal
Biliary Tract Neoplasms
Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Borderline ovarian tumours in Vaud, Switzerland: incidence, survival and second neoplasms. (1/75)Between 1976 and 1996, 176 borderline ovarian tumours were registered in the Cancer Registry of the Swiss canton of Vaud, corresponding to an age-adjusted incidence (world standard) of 2.7 in 100,000. Incidence rose from 1.7 per 100,000 during 1976-81 to 2.7 per 100,000 during 1987-91, and then levelled off; 58% of cases were serous and 41% mucinous. Relative survival was 94% at 10 years; 18 second neoplasms were observed, compared with 10.3 expected, and there was a significant excess of invasive ovarian cancers (four observed, including three synchronous, compared with 0.4 expected). (+info)
Clinical and pathologic correlation of 84 mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas: can one reliably differentiate benign from malignant (or premalignant) neoplasms? (2/75)OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the long-term behavior of cystic mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas could be predicted using a novel, precisely defined classification of benign mucinous cystadenomas, noninvasive proliferative cystic mucinous neoplasms, and invasive mucinous cystadenocarcinomas. The primary interest was to obtain long-term follow-up after complete resection to determine the recurrence rates based on this objective classification. BACKGROUND: Current understanding is that all cystic mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas are potentially malignant and that mucinous cystadenomas, when completely removed, are biologically benign. Cystadenocarcinomas are thought to be less aggressively malignant than ordinary ductal adenocarcinoma, but reported recurrence rates vary widely and are unpredictable. METHODS: All patients who underwent "curative" resection for cystic mucinous neoplasms at Mayo Clinic Rochester from 1940 to 1997 were identified. All available pathology slides, gross specimens, and clinical records were reviewed, eliminating patients with inadequate documentation. Neoplasms were reclassified as mucinous cystadenomas, noninvasive proliferative mucinous cystic neoplasms, or invasive cystadenocarcinomas based on specific histologic criteria. RESULTS: Of 84 patients (70 women, 14 men) with cystic mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas, 54 were classified as cystadenomas, 23 as noninvasive proliferative cystic mucinous neoplasms, and only 7 as cystadenocarcinomas. Recurrent disease developed in none of the 77 patients without invasion, but 5 of the 6 patients surviving resection for cystadenocarcinomas died of recurrent cystadenocarcinoma within 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: When the neoplasm is completely resected and subjected to adequate histopathologic examination based on these objective criteria, absence of tissue invasion predicts a curative operation and detailed follow-up may be unnecessary. In contrast, a histologic diagnosis of invasive cystadenocarcinoma portends a dismal prognosis, similar to that of typical ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. (+info)
Allelotyping defines minimal imbalance at chromosomal region 17q25 in non-serous epithelial ovarian cancers. (3/75)Allelic deletions of multiple chromosome 17q loci in sporadic ovarian cancer of epithelial origin suggest that inactivation of tumor suppressor gene(s) in these regions may be important for ovarian tumorigenesis. To further define the pattern of allelic imbalance in epithelial ovarian tumors of different histologies, a PCR-based assay was used to assess loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of polymorphic markers representative of TP53, BRCA1, NME1 and GH1, and region 17q23-25. LOH was observed for at least one marker in 68% of malignant tumors (n=60) and in 18% tumors of borderline malignancy (n=11), but not in benign tumors (n=5). The highest frequency of LOH in malignant tumors (64%) was observed with D17S801 on 17q25. Ten of 39 malignant ovarian tumors displaying LOH of at least one 17q marker, displayed a LOH pattern enabling the determination of a minimal region of overlapping deletion defined by D17S795 and D17S801. One borderline tumor also displayed an interstitial LOH pattern that overlapped this 17q25 minimal region of deletion. The histologies of malignant tumors displaying a pattern indicative of interstitial 17q deletions were of the endometrioid, clear cell and mucinous epithelial types. As the minimal region of overlap defined by these tumors overlap regions deleted in malignant tumors of all histologic types, and in a tumor of borderline malignancy, the 17q25-tumor suppressor may be implicated in the development of all types of epithelial ovarian tumors. (+info)
Overexpression and localization of heat shock proteins mRNA in pancreatic carcinoma. (4/75)In the present study we examined the localization and overexpression of heat shock proteins (hsps), mainly hsp90, in pancreatic carcinoma tissue compared with control tissue (including chronic pancreatitis and normal pancreas tissue), with the aid of immunohistochemical staining, in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Hsp90 alpha mRNA was overexpressed more highly in pancreatic carcinoma than in the control tissue. The proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen labeling index was also high in pancreatic carcinoma tissue compared with the other tissue. These findings suggest that the overexpression of hsp90 alpha mRNA in carcinomas may be correlated with cell proliferation. However, hsp90 beta was constitutively overexpressed almost equally in all groups of pancreatic tissue including pancreatic carcinoma, chronic pancreatitis and normal pancreas tissue. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a differentiation in the expression of hsp90 between histological types of pancreatic carcinoma. These findings suggest that hsp90 alpha is involved in carcinogenesis and that hsp90 beta is correlated to structural conformation. Hsp90 alpha and hsp90 beta seem to perform different functions in tissue containing malignant cells. P53, MDM2 and WAF1, that were cell-cycle-related oncogene product were more strongly expressed in the nuclei of the cancer cells of the cancer tissue. Especially, MDM2 was more strongly expressed in mucinous carcinoma and the mucin secreting tissues surrounding pancreatic carcinoma tissue. The expression of MDM2 protein might also be correlated to secretion systems during structural conformation and be correlated to hsp90 beta. (+info)
P73 gene expression in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. (5/75)Thep73 gene, a homology of p53, is a new candidate of imprinting and tumor suppressor gene. To investigate the role of p73 in ovarian cancer, we studied the allelic expression in 56 cases of ovarian cancer using StyI polymorphism analysis. We also examined p73 expression by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as by Western blot analysis and DNA methylation study of the CpG island in exon 1 in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. Loss of heterozygosity was found in 8.3% (2 of 24) of the cases. Biallelic expression was demonstrated in 91.7% (22 of 24) of the tumor samples, in 70.8% (17 of 24) of the normal samples, and in 1 ovarian cancer cell line. Imbalanced expression and monoallelic expression were found in three and two pairs of matched samples, respectively. Overexpression of p73 was found in advanced ovarian cancer rather than in early-stage disease or in borderline ovarian tumor. No significant difference was found in the p53 expression. Three cell lines with absent p73 protein expression and one tumor sample with monoallelic expression were methylated in the CpG island. Demethylation in SKOV3 cell line using 5-azacytidine can reactivate the expression of this gene in both the mRNA and the protein level. Our results indicated that p73 was not imprinted in most of the ovarian cancer and normal tissues, but it could be involved in the advanced ovarian cancer through overexpression. DNA methylation may contribute to the lack of p73 expression. (+info)
The levels of trypsinogen isoenzymes in ovarian tumour cyst fluids are associated with promatrix metalloproteinase-9 but not promatrix metalloproteinase-2 activation. (6/75)Proteolysis mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteinases is associated with cancer invasion and metastasis. Activation of latent proMMPs, and especially the proforms of the type IV collagen degrading gelatinases A and B (proMMP-2 and proMMP-9), is thought to be a critical step in this process. We have recently found that human tumour-associated trypsin-2 is a potent activator of proMMP-9 and it also activates proMMP-2 in vitro. Trypsinogen, MMP-2, and MMP-9 are expressed in ovarian cancer. To elucidate the function of trypsin in vivo, we studied whether high concentrations of trypsinogen-1, trypsinogen-2, their alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor (API) complexes, and tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) are associated with proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activation in ovarian tumour cyst fluids. Zymography and immunofluorometric analysis of 61 cyst fluids showed a significant association between high trypsin concentrations and the activation of MMP-9 (P = 0.003-0.05). In contrast, the trypsin concentrations were inversely associated with the activation of MMP-2 (P = 0.01-0.02). Immunohistochemical analysis of ovarian tumour tissue demonstrated expression of trypsinogen-2 and TATI in the secretory epithelium. MMP-2 was detected both in stromal and epithelial cells whereas MMP-9 was detected in neutrophils and macrophage-like cells in stromal and epithelial areas. These results suggest that trypsin may play a role in the regulation of the MMP-dependent proteolysis associated with invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer. (+info)
Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in human ovarian tumors and tumor-associated macrophages. (7/75)This study investigates whether and to what extent cyclooxygenase type-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide-synthase (iNOS), both known to have an immunosuppressive effect, are expressed in human ovarian tumors. Because COX-2 and iNOS can be expressed by activated macrophages, the presence of tumor-associated macrophages and the expression of COX-2 and iNOS by these tumor-associated macrophages were determined. The results obtained may provide insight into the function of COX-2 and iNOS expression by tumors. The expression of COX-2 and iNOS in tumor cells and macrophages was assessed in 18 malignant, 15 borderline, and 14 benign human ovarian tumors by immunohistochemical staining of frozen tissue sections. The intra- and peritumoral macrophages were stained using an anti-CD68 monoclonal antibody. Most of the malignant tumors (15 of 18), 10 of 15 borderline, and 9 of 14 benign tumors showed COX-2 expression in the epithelial cells, a result which indicates that COX-2 expression is not exclusive to malignancy. In addition, COX-2 staining was more intense in the epithelial cells of benign and borderline tumors than in malignant tumors. Weak iNOS staining was observed in 5 of 18 malignant, 4 of 15 borderline, and 5 of 14 benign tumors. The number of tumor-associated macrophages varied widely between the different tumors. The highest number of tumor-associated macrophages (> or =20/0.125 mm(2)) was observed in malignant tumors, whereas low to moderate intra- and peritumoral macrophage infiltration (5-20/0.125 mm(2)) was observed in the borderline and benign tumors. COX-2-positive tumor-associated macrophages were found in 3 of 18 malignant tumors, 7 of 15 borderline tumors, and 1 of 14 benign tumors. The number of COX-2-positive tumor-associated macrophages ranged from 3 to 30% of the total macrophage population. Some malignant (4 of 18), borderline (5 of 15), and benign (2 of 14) tumors contained iNOS-positive macrophages. Notable was that COX-2- and iNOS-positive macrophages were predominantly located in the tumor stroma, the regions between tumor and stroma, and in the lumina of the tumor when located in the tumor tissue. These data indicate that not only malignant but also borderline and benign ovarian tumors can exhibit increased levels of COX-2 and iNOS expression. In addition, a small proportion of the tumor-associated macrophages found in malignant, borderline, and benign tumors seems to be in an activated state, judged by their iNOS and COX-2 expression. This subpopulation of tumor-associated macrophages was invariably located in the tumor stroma or in the lumina of the tumor, specifically suggesting that macrophages outside the tumor can be tumor cytotoxic. (+info)
Relationship between retention index in dual-phase (18)F-FDG PET, and hexokinase-II and glucose transporter-1 expression in pancreatic cancer. (8/75)Recently, some studies have shown that delayed scanning with (18)F-FDG PET may help to differentiate malignant from benign pancreatic lesions. However, no study has evaluated the relationship between temporal changes in (18)F-FDG uptake and expression of hexokinase or glucose transporter. METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients with pancreatic cancer were studied preoperatively by dual-phase (18)F-FDG PET, performed 1 and 2 h after injection of (18)F-FDG. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of the pancreatic cancer was determined, and the retention index (RI) (%) was calculated by subtracting the SUV at 1 h (SUV1) from the SUV at 2 h (SUV2) and dividing by SUV1. The percentages of cells strongly expressing hexokinase type-II (HK-II) and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) were scored on a 5-point scale (1 = 0%-20%, 2 = 20%-40%, 3 = 40%-60%, 4 = 60%-80%, 5 = 80%-100%) by visual analysis of immunohistochemical staining of paraffin sections from the tumor specimens using anti-HK-II and anti-GLUT-1 antibody (HK-index and G-index, respectively). RESULTS: SUV2 (mean +/- SD, 5.7 +/- 2.6) was higher than SUV1 (5.1 +/- 2.1), with an RI of 8.5 +/- 11.0. Four cases of cancer, in which SUV2 showed a decline from SUV1, showed a low HK-index (1.8 +/- 1.1), whereas 4 cases with an RI of > or =20 and 13 cases with an intermediate RI (0-20) showed significantly higher HK-indices (4.3 +/- 0.7 and 3.1 +/- 1.5, respectively; P < 0.05). RI showed a positive correlation with HK-index, with an R(2) of 0.27 (P < 0.05), but no significant correlation with the G-index. SUV1 showed no relationship with the HK-index but showed a weak positive correlation with the G-index, with an R(2) of 0.05 (P = 0.055). CONCLUSION: These preliminary findings suggest that the RI obtained from dual-phase (18)F-FDG PET can predict HK-II expression and that the SUV (at 1 h) has a positive correlation with GLUT-1 expression but not with HK-II expression. (+info)
Cystadenocarcinoma can occur in various parts of the body, but it is most common in the ovary and breast. In the ovary, it is the most common type of ovarian cancer and accounts for about 70% of all ovarian cancers. In the breast, it is a rare type of breast cancer, accounting for less than 5% of all breast cancers.
The symptoms of cystadenocarcinoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:
* Abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge
* Pelvic pain or discomfort
* Abdominal swelling or bloating
* Painful urination
* Weakness and fatigue
Cystadenocarcinoma is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer.
The prognosis for cystadenocarcinoma depends on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. In general, early detection and treatment improve the chances of a successful outcome. However, cystadenocarcinoma can be an aggressive cancer, and the 5-year survival rate is lower for advanced stages of the disease.
In summary, cystadenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular cells in various parts of the body, but most commonly in the ovary and breast. It can cause a range of symptoms and is diagnosed through imaging tests and biopsy. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy, and the prognosis depends on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis.
Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is a type of primary ovarian cancer, meaning it originates in the ovary rather than spreading from another part of the body. It accounts for only about 2% to 5% of all ovarian cancers and tends to affect women in their later reproductive years or postmenopausal age.
The exact cause of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is not known, but it may be related to genetic mutations or hormonal imbalances. Women with a family history of ovarian cancer or those with certain inherited genetic syndromes are at higher risk for developing this type of cancer.
The diagnosis of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is based on a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans, and tissue biopsy. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove the affected ovary and any other involved organs or tissues, followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence. Prognosis for this type of cancer is generally good if it is detected early and treated appropriately.
In summary, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is a rare type of ovarian cancer that develops in the mucin-secreting cells of the ovary. It tends to affect older women and may be related to genetic or hormonal factors. Diagnosis is based on imaging studies and tissue biopsy, and treatment typically involves surgery and chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Prognosis is generally good if caught early.
Note: The above definition is intended to provide a general understanding of the term 'Cystadenoma' and should not be considered as medical advice or diagnosis. If you have any concerns about your health, please consult a qualified medical professional for proper evaluation and care.
Also known as:
* Cystadenocarcinoma, papilliferum
* Papillary adenocarcinoma
* Glandular neoplasm, papillary
* Adenocarcinoma, papillary
* Carcinoma, papillary
* Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma
* Cystic papillary carcinoma
Epithelial tumors of the breast with a glandular or mixed (glandular and ductal) pattern account for approximately 15% of all breast cancers. The most common histologic type is papillary adenocarcinoma, which accounts for about 70% of all glandular tumors.
Papillary carcinoma (PC) was first described by Miles in 1932 as a distinct clinical and pathological entity. It typically affects women between the ages of 40 to 60 years, with rare cases occurring in men. The incidence is 1/1,800,000 for invasive PC and 1/3,500,000 for DCIS.
The majority of papillary carcinomas are confined to the breast and regional lymph nodes; however, there have been case reports of distant metastases.
PC is a slow-growing tumor with an average diameter of 15-20 mm, and most patients present with a palpable mass or nipple discharge. The microscopic features include a glandular or acinar pattern, with papillary structures lined by bland-appearing cells.
The malignant potential of PC is less than that of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The 5-year survival rate for PC is approximately 90%, and the risk of recurrence is low.
Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy. Surgical excision is the primary treatment, with a wide local excision being preferred over lumpectomy or simple mastectomy. Radiation therapy may be recommended for patients with positive axillary nodes or large tumors. Hormone therapy may be considered for postmenopausal women with ER-positive tumors.
Despite its relatively low malignant potential, PC should be treated aggressively to prevent local recurrence and possible distant metastases. The prognosis is generally excellent, but long-term follow-up is essential to monitor for any signs of recurrence or new primary cancers.
The term "serous" refers to the fact that the tumor produces a fluid-filled cyst, which typically contains a clear, serous (watery) liquid. The cancer cells are typically found in the outer layer of the ovary, near the surface of the organ.
Cystadenocarcinoma, serous is the most common type of ovarian cancer, accounting for about 50-60% of all cases. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, as it can be difficult to detect in its early stages. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel or bladder habits.
Treatment for cystadenocarcinoma, serous usually involves a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery may involve removing the uterus, ovaries, and other affected tissues, followed by chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, radiation therapy may also be used.
Prognosis for cystadenocarcinoma, serous varies depending on the stage of the cancer at diagnosis. Women with early-stage disease have a good prognosis, while those with advanced-stage disease have a poorer outlook. However, overall survival rates have improved in recent years due to advances in treatment and screening.
In summary, cystadenocarcinoma, serous is a type of ovarian cancer that originates in the lining of the ovary and grows slowly over time. It can be difficult to detect in its early stages, but treatment typically involves surgery and chemotherapy. Prognosis varies depending on the stage of the cancer at diagnosis.
* Mucinous cystadenomas are typically slow-growing and asymptomatic, but can occasionally cause pelvic pain or discomfort due to their size.
* They are usually unilateral (affecting one ovary), but can rarely occur bilaterally (affecting both ovaries).
* The tumor is composed of mucin-secreting epithelial cells that form glands or cysts within a fibrous stroma.
* Cystadenomas are typically encapsulated, but can rarely become invasive and infiltrate surrounding tissues.
* Mucinous cystadenomas are usually small (less than 5 cm in diameter), but can occasionally be larger.
* Imaging studies such as ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scans may be used to detect the presence of a cystic mass in the ovary, but a definitive diagnosis is usually made through surgical exploration and histopathologic examination of the tumor tissue.
* A preoperative diagnosis of mucinous cystadenoma can be challenging, as the imaging features are not specific and may resemble other ovarian tumors, such as serous cystadenomas or borderline tumors.
* Surgical excision is the primary treatment for mucinous cystadenoma, and the procedure is usually performed through a laparotomy or laparoscopy.
* The surgical approach depends on the size and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and fertility status.
* In some cases, the tumor may be removed through a staged approach, with initial cytoreduction followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the remaining tumor burden.
* Mucinous cystadenoma is generally considered a benign tumor, and the prognosis is excellent for most patients.
* The overall survival rate is high, and the majority of patients can expect to be cured with surgical excision alone.
* However, in rare cases, mucinous cystadenoma can recur or progress to more aggressive types of ovarian cancer, such as serous carcinoma.
* After surgical excision, patients with mucinous cystadenoma should be followed up with regular pelvic examinations, imaging studies, and serum CA 125 levels to monitor for any signs of recurrence or progression.
* The frequency of follow-up appointments may vary depending on the patient's age, tumor size, and other factors, but annual pelvic examinations and imaging studies are generally recommended for at least 5 years after surgery.
1. Kurman RJ, et al. The origin and pathology of ovarian borderline tumors. International Journal of Gynecological Pathology. 2014;33(2):197-211.
2. Di Cerbo A, et al. Mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary: a review of the literature. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. 2018;40(6):753-763.
3. Chung H, et al. The clinicopathological features and prognosis of mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gynecologic Oncology Reports. 2018;20:135-143.
Appendiceal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the appendix, a small tube-like structure attached to the large intestine. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant appendiceal neoplasms are rare, but they can spread quickly to other parts of the body if left untreated.
Types of Appendiceal Neoplasms:
There are several types of appendiceal neoplasms, including:
1. Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises from glandular cells in the appendix.
2. Carcinoma: A malignant tumor that arises from epithelial cells in the appendix.
3. Mucinous cystadenoma: A benign tumor that arises from glandular cells in the appendix and typically contains mucin, a type of protein.
4. Goblet cell carcinoid: A rare type of malignant tumor that arises from goblet cells, which are specialized cells that produce mucin in the appendix.
5. Signet ring cell carcinoma: A rare and aggressive type of malignant tumor that arises from glandular cells in the appendix.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
The symptoms of appendiceal neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor, but may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and loss of appetite. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI, and biopsy.
Treatment for appendiceal neoplasms usually involves surgical removal of the affected appendix, which may involve a laparoscopic or open procedure. In some cases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be recommended to destroy any remaining cancer cells. The prognosis for patients with appendiceal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor at the time of diagnosis.
The prognosis for patients with appendiceal neoplasms is generally good if the tumor is detected early and treated appropriately. However, if the tumor is not diagnosed until a later stage, the prognosis may be poorer. The 5-year survival rate for patients with appendiceal cancer is approximately 70-80%.
Appendiceal neoplasms are rare and aggressive tumors that can arise in the appendix. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical for improving outcomes. Imaging tests such as CT scans and MRI can help identify these tumors, and surgical removal of the affected appendix is usually the first line of treatment. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be recommended in some cases. The prognosis for patients with appendiceal neoplasms is generally good if the tumor is detected early, but can be poorer if not diagnosed until a later stage.
A mucocele is a type of benign growth that occurs on the mucous membranes, such as those found in the mouth, nose, or throat. It is a soft, painless tumor that is typically filled with mucus. Mucoceles are usually small and can be either pedunculated (attached to the surrounding tissue by a stalk) or exophytic (growing outward from the surface of the mucous membrane).
Synonyms: mucous cyst, mucinous cyst, mucous tumor, benign mucosal tumor.
Etymology: From Latin muco- (mucus) + cele (cyst, sac).
Examples of Mucocele in a sentence:
1. The patient presented with a painless mucocele on her lower lip that had been present for several months.
2. The otolaryngologist removed the mucocele from the patient's nasal cavity using a surgical shaver.
3. The pathology report confirmed that the growth was a benign mucocele and not a malignancy.
There are many different types of cysts that can occur in the body, including:
1. Sebaceous cysts: These are small, usually painless cysts that form in the skin, particularly on the face, neck, or torso. They are filled with a thick, cheesy material and can become inflamed or infected.
2. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries. They are common in women of childbearing age and can cause pelvic pain, bloating, and other symptoms.
3. Kidney cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form in the kidneys. They are usually benign but can cause problems if they become large or infected.
4. Dermoid cysts: These are small, usually painless cysts that form in the skin or organs. They are filled with skin cells, hair follicles, and other tissue and can become inflamed or infected.
5. Pilar cysts: These are small, usually painless cysts that form on the scalp. They are filled with a thick, cheesy material and can become inflamed or infected.
6. Epidermoid cysts: These are small, usually painless cysts that form just under the skin. They are filled with a thick, cheesy material and can become inflamed or infected.
7. Mucous cysts: These are small, usually painless cysts that form on the fingers or toes. They are filled with a clear, sticky fluid and can become inflamed or infected.
8. Baker's cyst: This is a fluid-filled cyst that forms behind the knee. It can cause swelling and pain in the knee and is more common in women than men.
9. Tarlov cysts: These are small, fluid-filled cysts that form in the spine. They can cause back pain and other symptoms, such as sciatica.
10. ganglion cysts: These are noncancerous lumps that form on the joints or tendons. They are filled with a thick, clear fluid and can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there may be other types of cysts that are not included here. If you suspect that you have a cyst, it's always best to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Pyonephrosis is a serious medical condition that requires prompt treatment to prevent long-term damage to the kidneys and potential complications such as sepsis or kidney failure. It is important for individuals with symptoms of pyonephrosis to seek medical attention as soon as possible, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
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Examples of mixed tumors include:
* Teratoma: a type of mixed tumor that contains immature tissue, such as hair follicles, sweat glands, and teeth.
* Malignant melanoma: a type of skin cancer that contains a mixture of melanocytes (pigment-producing cells) and other types of cells.
* Leiomyosarcoma: a type of uterine cancer that contains a mixture of smooth muscle cells and other types of cells.
Mixed tumors can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they are often composed of multiple types of cells that may have different growth rates and respond differently to treatment.
Benign ovarian neoplasms include:
1. Serous cystadenoma: A fluid-filled sac that develops on the surface of the ovary.
2. Mucinous cystadenoma: A tumor that is filled with mucin, a type of protein.
3. Endometrioid tumors: Tumors that are similar to endometrial tissue (the lining of the uterus).
4. Theca cell tumors: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary called theca cells.
Malignant ovarian neoplasms include:
1. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): The most common type of ovarian cancer, which arises from the surface epithelium of the ovary.
2. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that develop from germ cells, which are the cells that give rise to eggs.
3. Stromal sarcomas: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary.
Ovarian neoplasms can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, and abdominal swelling. They can also be detected through pelvic examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options for ovarian neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Biliary tract neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the biliary tract, which includes the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
There are several types of biliary tract neoplasms, including:
1. Cholangiocarcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the cells lining the bile ducts. It can occur in the liver or outside the liver.
2. Gallbladder cancer: This type of cancer occurs in the gallbladder and is relatively rare.
3. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer, which means it originates in the liver rather than spreading from another part of the body.
4. Bile duct cancer: This type of cancer occurs in the bile ducts that carry bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine.
Biliary tract neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), weight loss, fatigue, and itching. These symptoms can be non-specific and may resemble those of other conditions, making diagnosis challenging.
Diagnosis of biliary tract neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, MRI, and PET scans, as well as biopsies to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for biliary tract neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.
Example sentence: "After undergoing surgery to remove the papillary cystadenoma, the patient made a full recovery."
Benign parotid neoplasms include:
* Pleomorphic adenoma: This is the most common type of benign parotid tumor, accounting for about 70% of all benign parotid neoplasms. It is a slow-growing tumor that usually affects people between the ages of 20 and 50.
* Warthin's tumor: This is a rare type of benign parotid tumor that usually occurs in older adults. It is a slow-growing tumor that often causes few symptoms.
* Other benign tumors: These include papillary cystadenoma, oncocytoma, and adenomyoepithelioma.
Malignant parotid neoplasms include:
* Parotid duct carcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that arises in the main duct of the parotid gland. It usually affects older adults and can be aggressive, meaning it grows quickly and spreads to other parts of the body.
* Adenoid cystic carcinoma: This is a malignant tumor that typically affects the salivary glands, including the parotid gland. It is a slow-growing tumor that can infiltrate surrounding tissues and bone, making it difficult to treat.
* Other malignant tumors: These include acinic cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
The symptoms of parotid neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor. Common symptoms include:
* A lump or swelling in the neck or face
* Painless mass or lump in the affected gland
* Difficulty swallowing or eating
* Numbness or weakness in the face
* Pain in the ear, jaw, or neck
* Weight loss
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to see a doctor for proper evaluation and diagnosis. A doctor may perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or ultrasound to determine the presence of a parotid neoplasm.
Treatment options for parotid neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the tumor. Surgery is usually the first line of treatment, and may involve removing the affected gland or a portion of the gland. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used to treat more aggressive tumors or those that have spread to other parts of the body.
Overall, while parotid neoplasms can be serious and potentially life-threatening, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes and help preserve facial function and appearance. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms that may indicate a parotid neoplasm.
Pseudomyxoma peritonei can occur in anyone, but it is most common in women between the ages of 20 and 50. The exact cause of this condition is not known, but it may be linked to genetic changes or previous abdominal surgery.
Symptoms of pseudomyxoma peritonei can include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms are often persistent and can worsen over time. In some cases, the tumors can become large enough to compress nearby organs, leading to additional complications such as bowel obstruction or kidney damage.
If you suspect that you may have pseudomyxoma peritonei, your doctor will begin by performing a physical exam and taking a medical history. Imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans may also be ordered to help visualize the tumors and determine their extent. A diagnosis of pseudomyxoma peritonei is typically made based on the presence of mucin-secreting tumors on the peritoneum, along with other characteristic features such as the absence of a primary tumor site.
Treatment for pseudomyxoma peritonei usually involves surgery to remove as many of the tumors as possible. In some cases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be recommended to help shrink the tumors before surgery or to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery.
The prognosis for pseudomyxoma peritonei is generally good if the condition is detected and treated early. However, if the tumors are allowed to grow and spread, the outlook can be poorer. In rare cases, the tumors may recur even after successful treatment.
Bile duct neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Types of Bile Duct Neoplasms:
There are several types of bile duct neoplasms, including:
1. Bile duct adenoma: A benign tumor that grows in the bile ducts.
2. Bile duct carcinoma: A malignant tumor that grows in the bile ducts and can spread to other parts of the body.
3. Cholangiocarcinoma: A rare type of bile duct cancer that originates in the cells lining the bile ducts.
4. Gallbladder cancer: A type of cancer that occurs in the gallbladder, which is a small organ located under the liver that stores bile.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The exact cause of bile duct neoplasms is not known, but there are several risk factors that may increase the likelihood of developing these tumors, including:
1. Age: Bile duct neoplasms are more common in people over the age of 50.
2. Gender: Women are more likely to develop bile duct neoplasms than men.
3. Family history: People with a family history of bile duct cancer or other liver diseases may be at increased risk.
4. Previous exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals, such as thorium, has been linked to an increased risk of developing bile duct neoplasms.
The symptoms of bile duct neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. Some common symptoms include:
1. Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
3. Loss of appetite
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Abdominal pain or discomfort
6. Weight loss
7. Itching all over the body
8. Dark urine
9. Pale stools
Diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests and biopsy. The following tests may be used to diagnose bile duct neoplasms:
1. Ultrasound: This non-invasive test uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the liver and bile ducts.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: This imaging test uses X-rays and computer technology to create detailed images of the liver and bile ducts.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the liver and bile ducts.
4. Endoscopic ultrasound: This test involves inserting an endoscope (a thin, flexible tube with a small ultrasound probe) into the bile ducts through the mouth or stomach to obtain images and samples of the bile ducts.
5. Biopsy: A biopsy may be performed during an endoscopic ultrasound or during surgery to remove the tumor. The sample is then examined under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of bile duct neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and the patient's preferences. The following are some common treatment options for bile duct neoplasms:
1. Surgery: Surgery may be performed to remove the tumor or a portion of the bile duct. This may involve a Whipple procedure (a surgical procedure to remove the head of the pancreas, the gallbladder, and a portion of the bile duct), a bile duct resection, or a liver transplant.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used before or after surgery to shrink the tumor and kill any remaining cancer cells.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to destroy cancer cells that cannot be removed by surgery or to relieve symptoms such as pain or blockage of the bile duct.
4. Stent placement: A stent may be placed in the bile duct to help keep it open and improve blood flow to the liver.
5. Ablation therapy: Ablation therapy may be used to destroy cancer cells by freezing or heating them with a probe inserted through an endoscope.
6. Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy may be used to treat certain types of bile duct cancer, such as cholangiocarcinoma, by targeting specific molecules that promote the growth and spread of the cancer cells.
7. Clinical trials: Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate new treatments for bile duct neoplasms. These may be an option for patients who have not responded to other treatments or who have advanced cancer.
Retroperitoneal neoplasms can occur in various locations, including the kidney, adrenal gland, pancreas, liver, spleen, and small intestine. These tumors can cause a variety of symptoms, such as abdominal pain, weight loss, fever, and difficulty urinating or passing stool.
The diagnosis of retroperitoneal neoplasms is based on a combination of imaging studies, such as computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope.
Treatment options for retroperitoneal neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the first line of treatment, and may involve removing the tumor and any affected surrounding tissue or organs. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used to shrink the tumor before surgery or to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery.
Some common types of retroperitoneal neoplasms include:
1. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC): a type of kidney cancer that originates in the cells that line the renal tubules.
2. Adrenocortical carcinoma: a type of cancer that arises in the adrenal gland.
3. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: tumors that arise in the pancreas and produce excess hormones.
4. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): a type of cancer that originates in the liver cells.
5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): tumors that arise in the digestive system, usually in the stomach or small intestine.
6. Soft tissue sarcomas: tumors that arise in the soft tissues of the body, such as the muscles, fat, and connective tissue.
7. Retroperitoneal fibrosis: a condition where the tissue in the retroperitoneum becomes scarred and thickened.
8. Metastatic tumors: tumors that have spread to the retroperitoneum from another part of the body, such as the lung, breast, or colon.
It is important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there may be other types of retroperitoneal neoplasms not mentioned here. If you suspect you may have a retroperitoneal neoplasm, it is important to consult with a qualified medical professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most common type of malignant pancreatic neoplasm and accounts for approximately 85% of all pancreatic cancers. It originates in the glandular tissue of the pancreas and has a poor prognosis, with a five-year survival rate of less than 10%.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are less common but more treatable than pancreatic adenocarcinoma. These tumors originate in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas and can produce excess hormones that cause a variety of symptoms, such as diabetes or high blood sugar. PNETs are classified into two main types: functional and non-functional. Functional PNETs produce excess hormones and are more aggressive than non-functional tumors.
Other rare types of pancreatic neoplasms include acinar cell carcinoma, ampullary cancer, and oncocytic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors are less common than pancreatic adenocarcinoma and PNETs but can be equally aggressive and difficult to treat.
The symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, but they often include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, and fatigue. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, endoscopic ultrasound, and biopsy. Treatment options for pancreatic neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.
Prognosis for patients with pancreatic neoplasms is generally poor, especially for those with advanced stages of disease. However, early detection and treatment can improve survival rates. Research into the causes and mechanisms of pancreatic neoplasms is ongoing, with a focus on developing new and more effective treatments for these devastating diseases.
1. Parotid gland tumors: These are the most common type of salivary gland tumor and can be benign or malignant.
2. Submandibular gland tumors: These are less common than parotid gland tumors but can also be benign or malignant.
3. Sublingual gland tumors: These are rare and usually benign.
4. Warthin's tumor: This is a type of benign tumor that affects the parotid gland.
5. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma: This is a type of malignant tumor that can occur in any of the major salivary glands.
6. Acinic cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of malignant tumor that usually occurs in the parotid gland.
7. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: This is a slow-growing malignant tumor that can occur in any of the major salivary glands.
8. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that have spread to the salivary glands from another part of the body.
Salivary gland neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including painless lumps or swelling in the neck or face, difficulty swallowing, and numbness or weakness in the face. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy.
In conclusion, salivary gland neoplasms are a diverse group of cancers that affect the salivary glands, and it's important to be aware of the different types, symptoms, and treatment options in order to provide effective care for patients with these tumors.
Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the lung
Ductal carcinoma in situ
Cystic lesions of the pancreas
List of MeSH codes (C04)
Salivary gland tumour
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Pancreatic serous cystadenoma
International Classification of Diseases for Oncology
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- This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. (nih.gov)
- Serous cystadenoma (52.7%) was the commonest benign tumor followed by Mucinous Modi D, Rathod GB, Delwadia KN, Goswami HM. (who.int)
- Serous cystadenoma was the most common ovarian tumor overall as well as the most common benign tumor, whereas serous cystadenocarcinoma was the most common ovarian malignancy. (who.int)
- ABSTRACT Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) rarely ruptures because of their surrounding fibrotic capsules and has never been reported with detailed information regarding prerupture and postrupture states. (bvsalud.org)
- 6. Primary Retroperitoneal Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm: Authors' Experience and Review of the Literature. (nih.gov)
- Fibromixoma and low grade mucinous adenocarcinoma (pseudomixoma peritonei) of the appendix and ovary (closed to accrual 03/20/2018) 8. (uci.edu)
- This condition is now also referred to as adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma, or invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma 13. (uci.edu)
- Typical mucinous tumor with large cystic mass in the head (may be in the body or tail) and minimal solid component causing bile duct and pancreatic duct obstruction. (radiopaedia.org)
- Biliary mucinous cystic neoplasms (BMCNs) are uncommon neoplastic septated intrahepatic cysts which are often incorrectly diagnosed and have the potential for malignant transformation. (who.int)
- had frozen section performed on the cyst wall intraoperatively, all confirming mucinous neoplasms. (who.int)
- Clinical case description of a papillary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, extremely rare malignant tumor in the salivary gland and difficult to diagnose, in geriatric patient. (bvsalud.org)
- Despite the favorable clinical features, after surgical removal, was diagnosed as papillary mucinous papillary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. (bvsalud.org)
- Rare pancreatic tumors including acinar cell carcinoma, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma or serous cystadenocarcinoma. (uci.edu)
- A Ruptured Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma of the Pancreas Extensively Evaluated Before and After the Rupture: A Case Report. (bvsalud.org)
- 13. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas during pregnancy. (nih.gov)
- Topics included aging mouse lesions from various strains, as well as the following lesions from various rat strains: rete testis sperm granuloma/fibrosis, ovarian cystadenocarcinoma, retro-orbital schwannoma, periductal cholangiofibrosis of the liver and pancreas, pars distalis hypertrophy, chronic progressive nephropathy, and renal tubule regeneration. (nih.gov)
- To calculate the incidence of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of ovary in the institute and to analyze the preop, intraop and post op characteristics and analyzing the disease free survival disease free survival(dfs) and overall survival (OS )of the cases.It is a retrospective study done in the institute consisting of patients between 2009-2019. (icrrd.com)
- Eligibility criteria includes histopathologically and IHC diagnosed Primary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of ovary. (icrrd.com)
- Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is a type of Ovarian Epithelial tumour and only 5-10% are malignant. (ijmch.org)
- Tumor quístico o semisólido, maligno, que ocurre con mayor frecuencia en el ovario. (bvsalud.org)
- Consequently, TAG-72 was useful for the detection of ovarian carcinoma, especially for monitoring mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, and it is localized in the microvilli and apical cytoplasmic membrane of cystadenocarcinoma cells. (nih.gov)
- Women with serous cystadenocarcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and endometrioid cystadenocarcinoma had significantly higher PF RANTES levels than patients with undifferentiated carcinoma. (hilarispublisher.com)
- 1. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma during pregnancy. (nih.gov)
- 2. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma associated with pregnancy. (nih.gov)
- 3. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in pregnancy - case report. (nih.gov)
- 5. Management of a primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma: case report. (nih.gov)
- 7. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a male patient. (nih.gov)
- 14. [Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma]. (nih.gov)
- 15. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma with mural nodules: a case report and literature review. (nih.gov)
- 16. Primary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the retroperitoneum. (nih.gov)
- 18. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (PRMCa): a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
- These tumours are filled with mucinous material and if the tumour ruptures it can lead to Psuedomyxoma Peritonei. (ijmch.org)
- En 11 annees (1er janvier 1998-31 decembre 2008) 9946 patientes ont ete operes dans notre servie dont 29 pour le cancer de l'ovaire soit 0;29. (bvsalud.org)
- Also, histological localization of TAG-72 in the microvilli and apical cytoplasmic membrane was demonstrated by electron microscopy using MAb B72.3 and samples of seromucinous cystadenocarcinoma (mixed type). (nih.gov)
- 4. Retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a man: case report and review of the literature. (nih.gov)
- 8. [A case of retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma]. (nih.gov)
- 20. [A Case of Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma of the Retroperitoneum Supposed to Be Derived from Ectopic Ovarian Tissue]. (nih.gov)