Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis
Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous
Hard fallow deer antler: a living bone till antler casting? (1/131)Deer antlers are the only mammalian bone structures which regenerate completely every year. Once developed, antlers are cleaned of the velvet-like skin. Presently it is believed that due to velvet shedding the blood supply is interrupted in the solidifying antler bone. Histological examinations were made on different parts of fallow deer antlers investigated from the time of velvet shedding till the antler casting. The present study on hard (polished) antlers revealed living bone with regions presenting living osteocytes, active osteoblasts, osteoid seams and even early stages of trabecular microcallus formation, thus indicating to a continuous bone remodeling. A well developed vascular system was found despite the presence of hard antler bone. The pedicle bone exhibits a rich supply of capillaries and vessels connected to the spongy core of the main branch and the compact bone as well. There is evidence that hard fallow deer antlers possess a functioning vascular system that "keeps the antler moist" resulting in a high impact resistance when fights are most frequent. As late as 3 weeks prior to antler casting a large number of living cells were discovered within the antler core. As we have no doubt that parts of the polished fallow deer antler represent a living bone, we have concluded that a sufficient blood supply of the antler core is maintained almost till the time of antler casting by vessels passing through the antler base. (+info)
Androgen regulation of glycosidase secretion in epithelial cell cultures from human epididymis. (2/131)The human epididymis and its secretions actively promote sperm fertilizing capacity and provide protection for spermatozoa against harmful influences. Among epididymal secretions, glycosidases have been recently studied and associated with molecular changes on the sperm surface. In the present work, we studied the influence of different concentrations of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and cyproterone acetate on the secretion of alpha-glucosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, beta-glucuronidase and alpha-mannosidase by isolated and cultured epithelial cells from human caput, corpus and cauda epididymides. Cell cultures were obtained from aggregates of isolated tubule fragments plated on extracellular matrix-covered multi-well plates. Activities of the glycosidases were measured in conditioned culture media and were higher in the distal regions of the epididymis. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone significantly increase the enzyme secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. This increase was higher in corpus and/or cauda than in caput epididymis. Cyproterone acetate caused a dose-dependent decrease in glycosidase secretion in cultures from all epididymal regions. It is concluded that the secretion of epididymal glycosidases is regulated by androgen, being stimulated by dihydrotestosterone and testosterone and inhibited by the androgen antagonist cyproterone acetate. (+info)
Chemoprevention of rat prostate carcinogenesis by early and delayed administration of dehydroepiandrosterone. (3/131)Two in vivo bioassays were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) as an inhibitor of prostate carcinogenesis in rats. Prostate adenocarcinomas were induced in male Wistar-Unilever rats by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate and testosterone propionate, followed by a single i.v. injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and chronic androgen stimulation. In the first experiment, DHEA (1000 or 2000 mg/kg diet) was administered continuously to rats beginning 1 week before MNU exposure. In the second experiment, continuous administration of DHEA (2000 mg/kg diet) was begun either 1 week before, 20 weeks after, or 40 weeks after MNU exposure. Controls received basal diet without added DHEA. Studies were terminated at 13 months after MNU administration, and prostate cancer incidence was determined by histopathological evaluation of step sections of accessory sex glands. In the first study, continuous dietary administration of DHEA beginning 1 week before MNU resulted in a dose-related inhibition of prostate cancer induction. In the second experiment, comparable reductions in prostate cancer incidence were observed in groups exposed to DHEA beginning 1 week before, 20 weeks after, and 40 weeks after carcinogen exposure. These data demonstrate that nontoxic doses of DHEA confer significant protection against prostate carcinogenesis in rats. The efficacy of delayed administration of DHEA suggests that the compound confers protection against later stages of prostate cancer induction and can suppress the progression of existing preneoplastic lesions to invasive disease. (+info)
Characterization of the progestin receptors in the human TE85 and murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell lines. (4/131)Progestins are believed to exert positive effects on bone density through receptors located in osteoblasts. In the present studies, the binding characteristics and regulation of the progestin receptors in two osteoblast-like cell lines were compared with those in human breast lines. Human TE85 and murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells contain a single, high-affinity progestin binding site whose affinity and concentration are lower than in human breast cells. The osteoblastic progestin binding sites showed the expected steroid specificity and associated with the cell nuclei when occupied by ligand. The progestin receptors in osteoblastic cells also had sedimentation coefficients similar to those receptors in breast cells. The regulation of the progestin receptor in the osteoblast-like cells was explored by treating them with estradiol. In contrast to the large, rapid change seen in the breast cells, the progestin receptor levels in the MC3T3-E1 cells showed only a small, delayed up-regulation with estradiol treatment. The progestin receptor number in the TE85 cells was unaffected by estradiol. Down-regulation of the progestin receptors was explored by treating the cells with the progestin, norethindrone (NET). NET administration produced a rapid drop in progestin binding sites in the breast cells and a smaller, more gradual decline in MC3T3-E1 progestin binding. While the maximal decrease in receptor number occurred within 24 h in the breast cells, the receptor number was still continuing to fall after 72 h in the MC3T3-E1 cells. The data presented here demonstrate that both human and murine osteoblast-like cells contain a functional progestin receptor whose binding characteristics and regulation are similar, but not identical, to those receptors in other progestin target tissues such as the breast. (+info)
Sex-specific induction of apoptosis by cyproterone acetate in primary rat hepatocytes. (5/131)The synthetic steroid cyproterone acetate (CPA) has been reported to be hepatogenotoxic in female rats depending on sex-specific expression of a hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (HST) which is involved in the bioactivation of CPA to reactive metabolites. In the present study the ability of CPA to initiate apoptosis in rat hepatocytes in vitro was investigated with respect to sex-specific effects and dependency on HST activity. Incubation of primary hepatocytes of female rats with CPA (0.1-30 microM) caused a strong increase in percent of cells undergoing apoptosis. The lowest concentration leading to apoptosis was 0.3 microM. In contrast, hepatocytes isolated from male rats showed a very weak response at high exposure to CPA (30 microM) only. Treatment with transforming growth factor-beta1 induced high levels of apoptotis in hepatocytes of both genders. Megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate, two structural analogues of CPA with a much lower genotoxic potency, did not induce apoptosis. Pre-addition of 10 or 50 microM dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a known inhibitor of hepatic HST, almost completely inhibited CPA-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes of female rats. Using similar test concentrations, DHEA also reduced CPA-induced DNA excision repair as measured in the unscheduled DNA synthesis test. The results suggest that apoptosis induction is directly related to DNA damage induced by HST-dependent CPA metabolites. (+info)
Initiated rat hepatocytes in primary culture: a novel tool to study alterations in growth control during the first stage of carcinogenesis. (6/131)To study growth regulation in the beginning of carcinogenesis, we established a novel ex vivo model for co-cultivation of normal and putatively initiated hepatocytes. Rats received the genotoxic hepatocarcinogen N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM). This led to the appearance of hepatocytes expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (G(+) cells). These cells exhibited elevated rates of cell replication and apoptosis, as known from further advanced preneoplasia; G(+) cells were considered initiated. At days 20-22 post-NNM treatment their frequency was maximal (1-2%); approximately 40% were still single and 60% were arranged in mini foci. At this time-point liver cells were isolated by collagenase perfusion and cultivated. G(+) cells, identified by immunostaining of the culture-plates, were present at the same percentage as in vivo, excluding selective loss, enrichment or spontaneous expression of the G(+) phenotype. In untreated cultures G(+) hepatocytes showed significantly higher rates of replicative DNA synthesis than normal G(-) cells. Application of the hepatomitogen cyproterone acetate (CPA) elevated DNA replication preferentially in G(+) cells. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) suppressed replicative DNA synthesis which was more pronounced in G(+) than in G(-) hepatocytes. Combined treatment with CPA and TGF-beta1 had no effect on G- cells, but considerably inhibited DNA replication in G(+) cells. This suggests that the effects of TGF-beta1 predominated in G(+) hepatocytes. We conclude that putatively initiated G(+) hepatocytes, both in vivo and in culture, exhibit higher basal rates of DNA replication than normal G(-) hepatocytes and an over-response to mitogens and growth inhibitors. Therefore, G(+) cells show (i) nearly identical behaviour in intact liver and in primary culture and (ii) inherent defects in growth control that are principally similar although somewhat less pronounced than in later stages of carcinogenesis. The present ex vivo system thus provides a novel and useful tool to elucidate biological and molecular changes during initiation of carcinogenesis. (+info)
Cyproterone acetate reduced antler growth in surgically castrated fallow deer. (7/131)We studied the role of androgens in antler growth. In particular, we investigated whether the onset of antler regrowth is triggered by a short-term pulse of testosterone and if low levels of androgens are required for antler growth. The study was conducted on 12 surgically castrated fallow deer bucks (Dama dama) aged approximately 27 months. Six animals (CA group) were given the antiandrogen, cyproterone acetate (CA, 1000 mg/treatment); the others were given vehicle solution only (control). Before each CA treatment, blood was sampled and analysed for testosterone, androstenedione, IGF-1, cortisol, FSH, and LH. CA treatment and blood sampling were performed 2 days before castration, on the day of castration and afterwards at 2-day intervals until day 22. Subsequently, CA treatment and blood sampling continued at weekly intervals until day 270. All animals cast their antlers, followed by antler regrowth in all control bucks, but in only four of the six CA-treated castrates. Plasma testosterone concentrations were low in all animals (between 0.01 and 0.20 ng/ml), but were significantly (P<0001) greater in the controls. In both groups, a temporary increase in testosterone values was recorded around the time of antler regrowth, the peak being significantly (P<0.01) higher in the controls. Androstenedione showed a similar pattern as testosterone. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations increased sharply during the antler growth spurt and did not differ significantly between the two groups throughout the study period. Cortisol concentrations were greater in controls than in the CA group. However, no link with the antler cycle was apparent. FSH and LH concentrations were higher in the controls for most of the study. Antlers produced by the control bucks were significantly larger than those in the CA group (P<0.03). For antler length, testosterone, androstenedione and IGF-1, areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated over the period of antler growth. For the pooled deer (n=12) significant correlations existed between AUCs of antler length and testosterone, but not for antler length and IGF-1. Also, a trend for a positive correlation between AUCs of antler length and androstenedione was noted. It is concluded that a plasma androgen concentration at least above a minimal threshold level is a necessary prerequisite for normal antler regrowth in fallow deer, and that this androgen effect is not mediated via circulating IGF-1. The biological role of low levels of androgens may be to sensitize antler cells to the stimulating effect of IGF. (+info)
Specific recognition of androgens by their nuclear receptor. A structure-function study. (8/131)Androgens, like progestins, are 3-ketosteroids with structural differences restricted to the 17beta substituent in the steroid D-ring. To better understand the specific recognition of ligands by the human androgen receptor (hAR), a homology model of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) was constructed based on the progesterone receptor LBD crystal structure. Several mutants of residues potentially involved in the specific recognition of ligands in the hAR were constructed and tested for their ability to bind agonists. Their transactivation capacity in response to agonist (R1881) and antagonists (cyproterone acetate, hydroxyflutamide, and ICI 176344) was also measured. Substitution of His(874) by alanine, only marginally impairs the ligand-binding and transactivation capacity of the hAR receptor. In contrast, mutations of Thr(877) and, to a greater extent, Asn(705) perturb ligand recognition, alter transactivation efficiency, and broaden receptor specificity. Interestingly, the N705A mutant acquires progesterone receptor (PR) properties for agonist ligands but, unlike wild type AR and PR, loses the capacity to repress transactivation with nonsteroidal antagonists. Models of the hAR.LBD complexes with several ligands are presented, which suggests new directions for drug design. (+info)
Cyproterone acetate is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in combination with an estrogen in hormonal contraceptives to prevent pregnancy. It is also used to treat acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and endometriosis (a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus). In addition, it may be used to treat prostate cancer in men and to treat symptoms of menopause in women. Cyproterone acetate works by blocking the production of testosterone, which can help to reduce symptoms of hirsutism and acne, and by decreasing the thickness of the uterine lining, which can help to prevent pregnancy. It is usually taken by mouth in the form of tablets.
Cyproterone is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in combination with an androgen receptor blocker, such as ethinylestradiol, to treat acne vulgaris in women. It is also used to treat hirsutism (excessive hair growth) in women and to treat advanced prostate cancer in men. Cyproterone works by blocking the production of testosterone and other androgens in the body, which can help to reduce the symptoms of these conditions. It is typically taken orally in the form of tablets.
Androgen antagonists are a class of drugs that block the effects of androgens, which are male sex hormones such as testosterone. These drugs are often used to treat conditions such as prostate cancer, acne, and hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women) by reducing the levels of androgens in the body. They work by binding to androgen receptors, preventing androgens from binding to these receptors and exerting their effects. Examples of androgen antagonists include flutamide, bicalutamide, and spironolactone.
Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic estrogen hormone that is used in combination with progestin in birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings. It is also used in hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms and in the treatment of endometriosis and uterine fibroids. Ethinyl estradiol works by preventing ovulation and thickening the cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg. It can also cause changes in the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
Hirsutism is a medical condition characterized by excessive hair growth in women, typically on the face, chest, back, and abdomen. It is caused by an imbalance of hormones, particularly androgens, which are male sex hormones that are also present in women in small amounts. Hirsutism can be a symptom of a variety of underlying medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, and Cushing's syndrome, or it can be caused by certain medications or hormonal treatments. Treatment options for hirsutism may include medications to regulate hormone levels, laser hair removal, and electrolysis.
Estradiol congeners are a group of hormones that are structurally similar to estradiol, a naturally occurring estrogen hormone in the human body. Estradiol congeners are synthetic versions of estradiol that have been modified to have different properties, such as increased potency, longer duration of action, or reduced side effects. Estradiol congeners are used in various medical treatments, including hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms, breast cancer treatment, and the prevention of osteoporosis. They are also used in research to study the effects of estrogen on the body and to develop new treatments for estrogen-related conditions. Some examples of estradiol congeners include estradiol valerate, estradiol cypionate, and estradiol benzoate. These hormones are typically administered through injection or transdermal patches, and their use is closely monitored by healthcare providers to ensure safe and effective treatment.
Chlormadinone acetate is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in various medical fields. It is a derivative of progesterone and is used in the treatment of various conditions such as: 1. Menstrual disorders: Chlormadinone acetate is used to regulate menstrual cycles and treat conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) and dysfunctional uterine bleeding. 2. Endometriosis: It is used to reduce the symptoms of endometriosis, such as pelvic pain and heavy bleeding. 3. Precancerous cervical conditions: Chlormadinone acetate is used in the treatment of precancerous cervical conditions, such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). 4. Hormone replacement therapy: It is used in hormone replacement therapy to replace the natural hormones that are lost during menopause. 5. Gestational trophoblastic disease: Chlormadinone acetate is used to treat gestational trophoblastic disease, a rare type of cancer that affects the placenta. Chlormadinone acetate is usually administered orally in the form of tablets or injections. It is important to note that the use of this medication may have side effects, and it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Testosterone is a hormone that is primarily produced in the testicles in males and in smaller amounts in the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. It is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and muscle mass. Testosterone also plays a role in bone density, red blood cell production, and the regulation of the body's metabolism. In the medical field, testosterone is often used to treat conditions related to low testosterone levels, such as hypogonadism (a condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone), delayed puberty, and certain types of breast cancer in men. It can also be used to treat conditions related to low estrogen levels in women, such as osteoporosis and menopause symptoms. Testosterone therapy can be administered in various forms, including injections, gels, patches, and pellets. However, it is important to note that testosterone therapy can have side effects, such as acne, hair loss, and an increased risk of blood clots, and should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional.
Transsexualism, also known as gender dysphoria, is a medical condition in which a person experiences a strong and persistent discomfort or distress with their assigned gender at birth. This discomfort is often accompanied by a desire to live and be recognized as a member of the opposite sex. In the medical field, transsexualism is typically diagnosed through a combination of clinical interviews, psychological evaluations, and medical assessments. The diagnosis requires that the individual's gender identity is not a result of cultural, social, or psychological factors, but rather a deeply felt sense of being a member of the opposite sex. Treatment for transsexualism typically involves hormone therapy and gender-affirming surgeries, such as breast augmentation or genital reconstruction. Psychological counseling and support groups may also be recommended to help individuals cope with the challenges of transitioning and to address any mental health concerns that may arise.
Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition that affects most teenagers and young adults, but can also occur in adults and children. It is characterized by the development of pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads on the face, neck, chest, back, and shoulders. These pimples are caused by the clogging of hair follicles with oil and dead skin cells, which can lead to the formation of bacteria and inflammation. Acne vulgaris can range from mild to severe and can have a significant impact on a person's self-esteem and quality of life. Treatment options for acne vulgaris include topical creams, oral medications, and in severe cases, isotretinoin.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a hormone that is produced in the body from testosterone, a male sex hormone. DHT is a potent androgen, meaning that it has a strong effect on the development and maintenance of male characteristics. It is involved in the development of male reproductive organs, such as the prostate gland and testicles, and plays a role in the growth and maintenance of body hair, muscle mass, and bone density. In addition, DHT is thought to play a role in the development of prostate cancer. DHT is also found in women, but in lower levels than in men.
Androgens are a group of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male characteristics. They are produced by the testes in males and by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. Other androgens include dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androstenedione. In addition to their role in sexual development, androgens also play a role in other bodily functions such as bone density, red blood cell production, and metabolism. They are also involved in the regulation of mood and behavior. Abnormal levels of androgens can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including androgen insensitivity syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and testicular feminization syndrome. Androgens are also used in medical treatment for conditions such as hypogonadism, breast cancer, and prostate cancer.
In the medical field, acetates refer to compounds that contain the acetate ion (CH3COO-). Acetates are commonly used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including: 1. Hyperkalemia: Acetate is used to treat high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) in the blood. It works by binding to potassium ions and preventing them from entering cells, which helps to lower potassium levels in the blood. 2. Acidosis: Acetate is used to treat acidosis, a condition in which the blood becomes too acidic. It works by increasing the production of bicarbonate ions, which helps to neutralize excess acid in the blood. 3. Respiratory failure: Acetate is used to treat respiratory failure, a condition in which the lungs are unable to provide enough oxygen to the body. It works by providing an alternative source of energy for the body's cells, which helps to support the respiratory system. 4. Metabolic acidosis: Acetate is used to treat metabolic acidosis, a condition in which the body produces too much acid. It works by increasing the production of bicarbonate ions, which helps to neutralize excess acid in the body. 5. Hyperammonemia: Acetate is used to treat hyperammonemia, a condition in which the blood contains too much ammonia. It works by providing an alternative source of energy for the body's cells, which helps to reduce the production of ammonia. Overall, acetates are a useful tool in the treatment of various medical conditions, and their use is closely monitored by healthcare professionals to ensure their safe and effective use.
Puberty, precocious refers to the early onset of puberty, which is defined as the onset of puberty before the age of 8 for girls and before the age of 9 for boys. Precocious puberty is a medical condition that can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic predisposition, exposure to certain hormones or environmental factors, and certain medical conditions such as tumors or hormonal imbalances. The symptoms of precocious puberty may include the development of breast tissue in girls, the growth of pubic hair and underarm hair, and the onset of menstruation. In boys, precocious puberty may be indicated by the growth of pubic hair, the development of testicles, and an increase in muscle mass and height. Treatment for precocious puberty may involve the use of medications to suppress or delay puberty, as well as monitoring and management of any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to the early onset of puberty. It is important to note that precocious puberty can have significant psychological and social impacts on affected individuals, and appropriate support and counseling may be necessary.
Pregnanes are a group of natural steroids that are found in plants, animals, and humans. They are named after the plant genus "Pregnantia," which was first identified as a source of these compounds. In the medical field, pregnanes are known for their various biological activities, including their ability to bind to and activate specific receptors in the body. Some of the most well-known pregnanes include progesterone, which is a hormone that plays a key role in pregnancy and the menstrual cycle, and corticosteroids, which are anti-inflammatory drugs that are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including allergies, asthma, and autoimmune diseases. Pregnanes are also used in research as tools to study the function of specific receptors and to develop new drugs for the treatment of various diseases. For example, researchers have used pregnanes to develop drugs that target the glucocorticoid receptor, which is involved in the regulation of the immune system and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids.
Progesterone congeners are synthetic derivatives of the hormone progesterone that are used in various medical applications. These compounds are similar in structure to progesterone and have similar biological effects, but they may have different pharmacological properties and side effects. Progesterone congeners are used in a variety of medical settings, including: 1. Hormonal contraception: Some progesterone congeners are used in combination with estrogen to prevent pregnancy. These contraceptives are taken orally, as a patch, or as an injection. 2. Menopause treatment: Progesterone congeners are sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. 3. Endometriosis treatment: Progesterone congeners may be used to treat endometriosis, a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus. 4. Infertility treatment: Some progesterone congeners are used to support pregnancy in women who are having difficulty conceiving. 5. Gynecological disorders: Progesterone congeners may be used to treat gynecological disorders such as uterine fibroids and abnormal uterine bleeding. It is important to note that the use of progesterone congeners may have side effects, and they may not be suitable for everyone. It is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of these medications with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.
Flutamide is a medication that is used to treat prostate cancer in men. It is a type of drug called an androgen receptor antagonist, which means that it blocks the effects of male hormones (androgens) on the prostate gland. Flutamide is usually used in combination with other medications or surgery to treat prostate cancer. It can help to slow the growth of cancer cells and reduce the risk of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body. Flutamide is usually taken by mouth as tablets, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual patient's condition and response to the medication. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare professional when taking flutamide, as it can cause side effects such as breast tenderness, breast enlargement, and hot flashes.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder that affects women of reproductive age. It is characterized by the presence of multiple small cysts on the ovaries, hormonal imbalances, and irregular menstrual cycles. PCOS can cause a range of symptoms, including acne, excessive hair growth, weight gain, infertility, and an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The exact cause of PCOS is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic and environmental factors. Diagnosis of PCOS typically involves a physical examination, blood tests to measure hormone levels, and imaging studies such as ultrasound. Treatment for PCOS may include lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary modifications, as well as medications to regulate menstrual cycles, reduce androgen levels, and improve insulin sensitivity. In some cases, fertility treatments may be necessary to help women with PCOS conceive.
Castration is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the testicles in males or the ovaries in females. In males, castration is often performed to treat conditions such as prostate cancer, testicular cancer, or advanced prostate enlargement. In females, castration is typically performed to treat conditions such as ovarian cancer or endometriosis. There are two main types of castration: surgical castration and chemical castration. Surgical castration involves the removal of the testicles or ovaries through surgery. Chemical castration involves the administration of drugs that suppress the production of hormones by the testicles or ovaries. Castration can have a number of effects on the body, including changes in hormone levels, sexual function, and mood. In males, castration can lead to a decrease in testosterone levels, which can cause changes in sexual desire, energy levels, and muscle mass. In females, castration can lead to a decrease in estrogen levels, which can cause changes in sexual desire, bone density, and mood.
Metribolone, also known as mestanolone, is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) that was developed in the 1950s. It is a derivative of testosterone and has a similar chemical structure to other AAS such as nandrolone and methyltestosterone. Metribolone is primarily used in veterinary medicine to promote growth and muscle development in livestock, particularly cattle and sheep. It is also used in some countries as a performance-enhancing drug in sports, although its use is illegal in many countries and sports organizations. In humans, metribolone has been used for the treatment of certain medical conditions such as osteoporosis and muscle wasting diseases. However, its use in humans is limited due to its potential side effects, including masculinization, liver toxicity, and cardiovascular problems. Overall, metribolone is a potent AAS with significant anabolic effects, but its use in humans is generally discouraged due to the potential risks and side effects.
Receptors, Androgen are proteins found on the surface of cells that bind to and respond to androgens, a group of hormones that play a role in the development and maintenance of male characteristics. These receptors are primarily found in the prostate gland, testes, and reproductive organs, but they are also present in other parts of the body, such as the brain, bone, and muscle. Activation of androgen receptors by androgens can lead to a variety of effects, including the growth and development of male reproductive tissues, the maintenance of bone density, and the regulation of metabolism.
Imidazolidines are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms. They are commonly used in the medical field as antimicrobial agents, particularly against bacteria and fungi. Imidazolidines are also used as antiviral agents, antifungal agents, and as inhibitors of various enzymes, including proteases and kinases. Some examples of imidazolidines that have been used in medicine include linezolid, an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections, and posaconazole, an antifungal agent used to treat invasive fungal infections.
Buserelin is a synthetic hormone that is used in the medical field as a medication. It is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, which means that it mimics the action of a naturally occurring hormone called GnRH in the body. GnRH is produced by the hypothalamus, a part of the brain, and it stimulates the pituitary gland to release hormones that regulate the function of the ovaries and testes. Buserelin is used to treat a variety of conditions, including prostate cancer, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, and breast cancer. It is typically administered as an injection or nasal spray, and it works by reducing the production of estrogen and testosterone, which can help to shrink tumors and alleviate symptoms. In addition to its use as a medication, buserelin is also used in research to study the effects of GnRH on the body and to develop new treatments for various medical conditions.
Goserelin is a synthetic hormone used in the medical field to treat various conditions related to the endocrine system. It is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, which means it mimics the action of GnRH, a hormone produced by the hypothalamus that regulates the production of sex hormones by the pituitary gland. Goserelin is commonly used to treat prostate cancer by reducing the production of testosterone, which can slow the growth of cancer cells. It is also used to treat uterine fibroids, endometriosis, and breast cancer in women. In addition, goserelin is used to treat precocious puberty in children. Goserelin is usually administered as an injection, either subcutaneously (under the skin) or intramuscularly (into a muscle). The frequency and duration of treatment depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's response to the medication.
Pregnadienes are a group of steroid hormones that are derived from cholesterol. They are synthesized in the adrenal glands and ovaries and are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the development of sexual characteristics, and the maintenance of pregnancy. The most important pregnadiene is progesterone, which is produced in the ovaries and is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. Other pregnadienes include 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and 11-deoxycortisol. Pregnadienes are also important in the regulation of the immune system and have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. They are also involved in the regulation of blood pressure and electrolyte balance. In the medical field, pregnadienes are used to treat a variety of conditions, including menstrual disorders, infertility, and pregnancy-related complications. They are also used to treat conditions such as allergies, asthma, and autoimmune diseases.
Tosyl compounds are a class of organic compounds that contain a tosyl group (-SO2CH3), which is derived from toluene. These compounds are commonly used in the medical field as intermediates in the synthesis of various drugs and pharmaceuticals. One example of a tosyl compound used in medicine is tosyl chloride, which is used as a reagent in the synthesis of a variety of drugs, including antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, and anticancer drugs. Another example is tosylate esters, which are used as intermediates in the synthesis of certain antibiotics and other drugs. Tosyl compounds can also be used as protecting groups in organic synthesis, where they are used to protect certain functional groups in a molecule during the synthesis process. This allows chemists to selectively modify other parts of the molecule without affecting the protected functional group. Once the desired modifications have been made, the protecting group can be removed to restore the original functional group.
Drug eruptions refer to adverse reactions that occur on the skin or mucous membranes as a result of taking medication. These eruptions can range from mild rashes to severe, life-threatening reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. Drug eruptions can be caused by a variety of medications, including antibiotics, anticonvulsants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and many others. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential for drug eruptions when prescribing medications and to monitor patients for any signs of an adverse reaction. If a drug eruption occurs, the medication should be discontinued and appropriate treatment should be provided to manage the symptoms and prevent complications.
Pseudolymphoma is a term used to describe a benign (non-cancerous) condition that resembles lymphoma, a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system. Pseudolymphoma is also known as benign lymphoproliferative disorder or benign lymphoid hyperplasia. Pseudolymphoma typically presents as a swelling or mass in the skin, which can be firm, rubbery, or nodular. It is often mistaken for a lymphoma because of its similar appearance and symptoms, such as fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Pseudolymphoma can occur in any part of the body, but it is most commonly found on the skin, particularly on the head and neck. It can also occur in the mouth, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. The exact cause of pseudolymphoma is not known, but it is thought to be related to an overactive immune system. Treatment for pseudolymphoma typically involves removing the affected tissue through surgery or radiation therapy. In some cases, medications may also be used to treat the condition.
Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare and severe form of skin reaction that is characterized by the sudden appearance of numerous small, pus-filled bumps or pustules all over the body. It is a type of pustular dermatosis, which is a group of skin conditions that involve the formation of pus-filled bumps or blisters on the skin. AGEP is typically triggered by the use of certain medications, such as antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The condition can also be caused by infections, such as viral or bacterial infections, or by certain medical conditions, such as cancer or autoimmune disorders. Symptoms of AGEP may include fever, malaise, and flu-like symptoms, as well as the appearance of small, pus-filled bumps or pustules on the skin. These bumps may be red or purple in color and may be accompanied by itching or burning sensations. In severe cases, AGEP can lead to systemic complications, such as respiratory distress, kidney failure, and sepsis. Diagnosis of AGEP typically involves a physical examination of the skin and a review of the patient's medical history and medications. Blood tests and skin biopsies may also be performed to help confirm the diagnosis and rule out other possible causes of the skin reaction. Treatment of AGEP typically involves discontinuing the use of any medications that may have triggered the reaction and providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, hospitalization and intensive treatment may be necessary.
Exanthema is a medical term that refers to a rash or macular eruption on the skin that is caused by a variety of factors, including infections, allergies, medications, and other medical conditions. Exanthema can be characterized by a variety of different features, including redness, swelling, itching, and sometimes blistering or pus-filled bumps. The appearance of the rash can vary depending on the underlying cause, and it may be localized to a specific area of the body or widespread. In some cases, exanthema may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as a viral or bacterial infection, an autoimmune disorder, or a reaction to a medication. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if you develop a rash or other skin symptoms, especially if they are accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, fatigue, or difficulty breathing.
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination is a medication that contains two antibiotics: trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. It is commonly used to treat bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and skin infections. The combination of these two antibiotics provides a broad spectrum of coverage against a variety of bacteria. Trimethoprim inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, while sulfamethoxazole inhibits bacterial dihydropteroate synthase, both of which are essential for bacterial growth and replication. The medication is usually taken orally in tablet form and is generally well-tolerated, although it may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions.
Skin diseases, vesiculobullous, refer to a group of medical conditions characterized by the formation of blisters or bullae on the skin. These blisters are filled with fluid and can be painful, itchy, or both. Vesiculobullous skin diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, infections, autoimmune disorders, and exposure to certain medications or chemicals. Some common examples of vesiculobullous skin diseases include pemphigus, pemphigoid, bullous pemphigoid, and epidermolysis bullosa. These conditions can affect different areas of the body and can range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Treatment for vesiculobullous skin diseases typically involves a combination of medications, such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and antibiotics, as well as wound care and other supportive measures.
Skin diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the skin, hair, and nails. These conditions can range from minor irritations and infections to more serious and chronic conditions that can significantly impact a person's quality of life. Skin diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental factors, infections, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. Some common examples of skin diseases include acne, eczema, psoriasis, rosacea, dermatitis, hives, warts, and skin cancer. Treatment for skin diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may involve the use of topical creams, ointments, or medications, as well as lifestyle changes, such as avoiding triggers or making dietary modifications. In some cases, more aggressive treatments, such as surgery or light therapy, may be necessary. Overall, skin diseases are a common and diverse group of medical conditions that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. Early detection and proper treatment are essential for managing these conditions and preventing complications.
Pharmacology of cyproterone acetate
Side effects of cyproterone acetate
Pharmacodynamics of progesterone
Medical uses of bicalutamide
List of EORTC trials
Management of hair loss
Effects of hormones on sexual motivation
Side effects of bicalutamide
Comparison of bicalutamide with other antiandrogens
Drugs in pregnancy
Discovery and development of antiandrogens
Pharmacology of bicalutamide
Pharmacodynamics of estradiol
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- This medication contains a combination of two ingredients: cyproterone and ethinyl estradiol. (medbroadcast.com)
- Each beige, round, biconvex, sugar-coated tablet contains 2 mg of cyproterone acetate and 0.035 mg of ethinyl estradiol. (medbroadcast.com)
- Also of interest, the addition of the native estrogen, 17beta-estradiol, or the antiandrogens, cyproterone acetate (1-1000 nM) or hydroxyflutamide (1-1000 nM), had no effect on basal or hCG-stimulated T following exposure for 24 h, suggesting that the actions of HPTE are not due to its estrogenic or antiandrogenic properties. (cdc.gov)
- Studies comparing pills containing cyproterone acetate with pills containing drospirenone, naltrexone blocks opioid receptors in the brain and decreases the desire to take opiates or alcohol. (ripyard.com)
- Cyproterone belongs to a group of medications known as antiandrogens . (medbroadcast.com)
- Cyproterone acetate is a synthetic progestogen with a potent antiandrogen action. (bmj.com)
- Cyproterone acetate (CPA) is a progestin , which is a synthetic version of a female reproductive hormone called progesterone . (acne.org)
- The aim of this work was to assess whether cyproterone acetate, a synthetic progestogen, can prevent this flare-up effect. (frontiersin.org)
- An increase in the blood testosterone concentration was observed in respectively 9/9 and 7/9 dogs of the control and cyproterone groups ( p = 0.47). (frontiersin.org)
- Our study suggests that cyproterone acetate is effective and safe to supress the deslorelin induced behavioral flare-up effect, but not the rise in testosterone. (frontiersin.org)
- Cyproterone acetate can be taken alone, but when used for acne it is almost always prescribed in the form of a birth control pill (combined oral contraceptive - COC) that contains both CPA and an estrogen . (acne.org)
- Objective To assess the risk of meningioma associated with use of high dose cyproterone acetate, a progestogen indicated for clinical hyperandrogenism. (bmj.com)
- Participants had at least one reimbursement for high dose cyproterone acetate and no history of meningioma or benign brain tumour, or long term disease status. (bmj.com)
- The adjusted hazard ratio for a cumulative dose of cyproterone acetate of more than 60 g was 21.7 (10.8 to 43.5). (bmj.com)
- In a complementary analysis, 463 women with meningioma were observed among 123 997 already using cyproterone acetate in 2006 (risk of 383 per 100 000 person years in the group with the highest exposure in terms of cumulative dose). (bmj.com)
- Conclusions A strong dose-effect relation was observed between use of cyproterone acetate and risk of intracranial meningiomas. (bmj.com)
- Cyproterone acetate (CPA) is an anti-androgen medication, which means it suppresses the production of androgens (male hormones that are found in both males and females) in the body. (acne.org)
- Cyproterone acetate can cause side effects, such as menstrual irregularities, which are minor. (acne.org)
- Therefore, we aimed to investigate the early effects of ADT on calcium/phosphate homeostasis and bone turnover.Design: Prospective cohort study.Methods: Eugonadal adult male sex offenders, who were referred for ADT to the endocrine outpatient clinic, received cyproterone acetate. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
- After discontinuation of cyproterone acetate for one year, the risk of meningioma in the exposed group was 1.8-fold higher (1.0 to 3.2) than in the control group. (bmj.com)
- Participants 253 777 girls and women aged 7-70 years living in France who started cyproterone acetate between 2007 and 2014. (bmj.com)
- Q. What are ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate capsules? (kaps3.in)
- A. Ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate capsules are a combination medication used as a hormonal treatment for situations inclusive of acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and androgen-dependent situations in women. (kaps3.in)
- Q. How do ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate tablets work? (kaps3.in)
- A. Ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate work together to lessen the outcomes of androgens (male hormones) inside the body. (kaps3.in)
- Ethinylestradiol helps to lower the manufacturing of androgens, at the same time as cyproterone acetate blocks the effects of androgens by using binding to androgen receptors. (kaps3.in)
- Q. Who can benefit from the use of ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate drugs? (kaps3.in)
- Q. How are ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate tablets taken? (kaps3.in)
- OCP was administered in cycles of 28 days (21 pills containing 35 μg of ethinylestradiol plus 2 mg of cyproterone acetate followed by 7 placebo pills) for six cycles and metformin 500 mg was administered twice daily for 6 months. (infertilityschool.ru)
- It is also more potent than Cyproterone Ethinyl estradiol, the one most used for women. (nipponcha.jp)
- Cyproterone acetate is a synthetic progestogen and potent anti-androgen that has been used in the treatment of hirsutism , alopecia, early puberty, amenorrhea , acne , and prostate cancer , and has also been combined with an estrogen in hormone replacement therapy . (medscape.com)
- Cyproterone acetate (Androcur) is another type of antiandrogen medication. (goebbertspumpkinpatch.com)
- In light of this report, the European Medicines Agency recommended in February 2020 that drugs containing 10 mg or more of cyproterone acetate should only be used for hirsutism, androgenic alopecia, and acne and seborrhea once other treatment options have failed, including treatment with lower doses. (medscape.com)
- FSRH CEU Statement : New advice from the MHRA regarding cyproterone acetate: how does this affect prescribing of Co-cyprindiol/Dianette® for acne/hirsutism? (fsrh.org)
- Hirsutism is another condition where cyproterone acetate can prove beneficial. (drugrevenue.su)
- Cyproterone acetate is used to treat hirsutism (excessive hair growth), acne, and seborrhea (oily skin). (goebbertspumpkinpatch.com)
- New details confirm an increased risk of developing intracranial meningiomas after prolonged use of the hormonal product cyproterone acetate. (medscape.com)
- The primary analysis showed that among women using cyproterone acetate, the rate of meningiomas was 23.8 per 100,000 person years vs 4.5 per 100,000 in the control group. (medscape.com)
- Before diving into the effects of cyproterone acetate on skin health, it's vital to understand what this compound is. (drugrevenue.su)
Excessive hair growth1
- Since cyproterone acetate inhibits these hormones, it can effectively reduce the excessive hair growth associated with this condition. (drugrevenue.su)
- All participants had received at least one prescription for high dose cyproterone acetate and did not have a history of meningioma, benign brain tumors, or long-term disease. (medscape.com)
- The European Medicines Agency recommended in February 2020 that drugs containing 10 mg or more of cyproterone acetate should only be used for. (mdedge.com)
- 3. Rat prostatic weight regression in reaction to ketoconazole, cyproterone acetate, and RU 23908 as adjuncts to a depot formulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue. (nih.gov)