An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.
An anti-androgen that, in the form of its acetate (CYPROTERONE ACETATE), also has progestational properties. It is used in the treatment of hypersexuality in males, as a palliative in prostatic carcinoma, and, in combination with estrogen, for the therapy of severe acne and hirsutism in females.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
Pregnane derivatives containing two double bonds anywhere within the ring structures.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
'Ocimum' is a genus of aromatic plants in the family Lamiaceae, which includes various species commonly known as basils, used for culinary, medicinal, and ornamental purposes, characterized by their opposite leaves and two-lipped flowers.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in the population. This early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in sexual precocity, elevated serum levels of GONADOTROPINS and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES such as ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE.
An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.
Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
A synthetic non-aromatizable androgen and anabolic steroid. It binds strongly to the androgen receptor and has therefore also been used as an affinity label for this receptor in the prostate and in prostatic tumors.
Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLINES which contain no double bonds in the ring.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
A synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. Goserelin is used in treatments of malignant NEOPLASMS of the prostate, uterine fibromas, and metastatic breast cancer.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.

The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (1/63)

We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent.  (+info)

Testosterone signaling through internalizable surface receptors in androgen receptor-free macrophages. (2/63)

Testosterone acts on cells through intracellular transcription-regulating androgen receptors (ARs). Here, we show that mouse IC-21 macrophages lack the classical AR yet exhibit specific nongenomic responses to testosterone. These manifest themselves as testosterone-induced rapid increase in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], which is due to release of Ca(2+) from intracellular Ca(2+) stores. This Ca(2+) mobilization is also inducible by plasma membrane-impermeable testosterone-BSA. It is not affected by the AR blockers cyproterone and flutamide, whereas it is completely inhibited by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 and pertussis toxin. Binding sites for testosterone are detectable on the surface of intact IC-21 cells, which become selectively internalized independent on caveolae and clathrin-coated vesicles upon agonist stimulation. Internalization is dependent on temperature, ATP, cytoskeletal elements, phospholipase C, and G-proteins. Collectively, our data provide evidence for the existence of G-protein-coupled, agonist-sequestrable receptors for testosterone in plasma membranes, which initiate a transcription-independent signaling pathway of testosterone.  (+info)

Prostate cancer treated by anti-androgens: is sexual function preserved? EORTC Genitourinary Group. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. (3/63)

This paper reports on results of the EORTC protocol 30892, an open, prospective, randomized study of 310 patients with previously untreated metastatic prostate cancer with favourable prognostic factors who were treated by either flutamide (FLU) or cyproterone acetate (CPA) monotherapy. The final analysis with regard to the main end points, time to progression and survival are still pending. Final results related to the evaluation of sexual functioning prior to and under treatment are reported here. Of 310 randomized patients 294 were eligible for evaluation within this side study. The median age was 71 years (range 48-85). Potential risk factors related to age, general health and prostate cancer were evaluated. For evaluation of sexual functions a five-item questionnaire was used which was administered by the investigator. The protocol allowed time dependent observations at 3-monthly follow-up visits. Sexual functioning was dependent on age but not on prostate cancer-related parameters. Sexual functions at entry were similar within the two treatment groups, spontaneous (nightly) erections and sexual activity were seen in 43-51% and 29-35% of cases. Under treatment, sexual functions under FLU and CPA declined slowly with median times of 12.9 and 5.8 months versus 13.7 and 8.9 months respectively for spontaneous erections and sexual activity. Eventually, with an average observation time in excess of 2 years, loss of spontaneous erections and of sexual activity occurred in 80% versus 92% and in 78% versus 88% of men under FLU versus CPA treatment respectively. None of these differences reached statistical significance. Maintenance of potency under treatment with FLU as reported in the literature is not confirmed in this study. However, loss of sexual functions under monotherapy with both antiandrogens is slow and 10-20% of men retain sexual activity after 2-6 years of treatment. This observation can be exploited in new treatment schemes and is likely to lead to improved quality of life. The advantage of FLU in time and total preservation of sexual functions is statistically not significant and must be balanced against the side effects of FLU and other pure antiandrogens, which may exceed those of CPA especially with respect to gynaecomastia. Hepatic toxicity may limit the long-term use of both drugs.  (+info)

Acute impairment of relaxation by low levels of testosterone in porcine coronary arteries. (4/63)

OBJECTIVES: While there are many suggested reasons for the marked gender bias in cardiovascular events, much of the available data indicate that circulating estrogens are cardioprotective. The possibility that endogenous androgens may be detrimental to the cardiovascular system has received relatively less attention. We investigated the short-term modulatory effects of various concentrations of testosterone on vascular function in isolated porcine coronary artery rings. RESULTS: The higher concentrations (> 1 microM) of testosterone relaxed U46619-contracted coronary artery rings in an endothelium-independent manner. This direct effect was insensitive to the testosterone receptor antagonists, flutamide and cyproterone acetate. Short-term exposure (20 min) to low levels of testosterone (1-100 nM), which were ineffective on their own on vascular function, significantly diminished relaxation to bradykinin and calcium ionophore A23187 but not those produced by levcromakalim and sodium nitroprusside. The inhibitory effect observed with 1 nM testosterone was only partially reversed by flutamide and cyproterone acetate and unaltered in the presence of actinomycin D and cycloheximide. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that acute treatment with testosterone, at concentrations that have no effect on their own, reduces vasorelaxation. Furthermore, they suggest that this modulatory action may be in part independent of the classical testosterone receptor since it was not completely sensitive to the anti-androgens and was not inhibited by the transcriptional and translational inhibitors. These findings support the postulation that testosterone may have unfavorable influences on vascular function.  (+info)

Differential effects of 17beta-estradiol and testosterone on the contractile responses of porcine coronary arteries. (5/63)

1. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to physiological levels of 17beta-estradiol and testosterone on vasocontractile responses in porcine coronary artery rings. 2. Concentration-response curves to endothelin-1, 5-hydroxytryptamine, the thromboxane analogue U46619 and KCl were constructed in endothelium-intact and endothelium-disrupted artery rings. 3. Thirty minutes exposure to 17beta-estradiol (1 and 30 nM) significantly attenuated vasoconstriction to endothelin-1, 5-hydroxytryptamine and U46619. Conversely, the same concentrations of testosterone significantly potentiated responses elicited by these contractile agents. These inhibitory effects of 17beta-estradiol and enhancing actions of testosterone on contractions were endothelium-independent. KCl-mediated contractions were unaffected by the presence of either sex hormones. 4. The oestrogen receptor antagonists, tamoxifen (10 microM) and ICI 182,780 (10 microM), were unable to reverse the inhibitory influence 1 nM 17beta-estradiol had on the agonist-mediated contractile responses. Similarly, the androgen receptor antagonists, flutamide (10 microM) and cyproterone acetate (10 microM), failed to affect the potentiating activities of 1 nM testosterone. The alteration in vasoconstrictive responses observed following acute exposure to either 1 nM 17beta-estradiol and 1 nM testosterone were apparent even in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (10 microM) and the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D (10 microM). 6. In conclusion, we report a unique type of sex hormone action on the coronary vasculature. These events occur at low nanomolar concentrations of 17beta-estradiol and testosterone, are insensitive to conventional sex hormone receptor antagonists, are not blocked by de novo protein synthesis inhibitors and have rapid time-courses that are uncharacteristic of classical genomic activities.  (+info)

Cyproterone acetate diminishes sexual activity in male rabbits. (6/63)

Cyproterone acetate (CA) was injected daily in eleven rabbits for 3 weeks at a dose of 20 mg/day, and for a further week at a dose of 40 mg/day. After 3 weeks of treatment, the ejaculation frequency was reduced but other measures of sexual behaviour were not significantly changed. There was no reduction in the fructose concentration of the semen, but the volume of the ejaculates decreased. The vesicular glands from the experimental animals showed histological changes typical of those occurring after castration. It was concluded that CA reduced the activity of at least one of the accessory sex glands as well as sexual behaviour. This lends support to the current hypothesis that the endocrine regulation of rabbit sexual behaviour differs from that of the rat.  (+info)

Effect of antihormones in amygdala-kindled seizures in rats. (7/63)

Tamoxifen (TXF; an antiestrogen), cyproterone acetate (CYP; an antiandrogen) and mifepristone (MIF; an antigestagen) did not affect kindling parameters (afterdischarge threshold, seizure severity, seizure duration and afterdischarge duration) in fully-kindled rats. TXF (50 mg/kg) and CYP (50 mg/kg), when combined with carbamazepine, or phenobarbital, both antiepileptics administered at their highest subprotective doses of 15 mg/kg, resulted in significant reduction of the seizure and afterdischarge durations, both in male and female rats. Additionally, the combination of carbamazepine and cyproterone markedly increased the afterdischarge threshold in fully-kindled rats of both genders. The interaction between antihormones and carbamazepine, or phenobarbital, was not reversed by the respective gonadal hormones (estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone), kainic acid, or strychnine. However, the TXF-, and CYP-induced effect on the action of carbamazepine was abolished by bicuculline, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and aminophylline. The effect of TXF on the protective activity of phenobarbital was reversed by bicuculline and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid. Finally, the CYP-mediated effect on phenobarbital action was abolished by bicuculline and aminophylline. Neither TXF nor CYP altered free plasma levels and brain levels of carbamazepine or phenobarbital, so a pharmacokinetic interaction between antihormones and antiepileptic drugs is not probable. In view of the present data, it may be suggested that the protective activity of the antiestrogen and antiandrogen are mostly associated with the enhancement of GABA-ergic and purinergic transmission in the central nervous system. Also the augmentation of glutamatergic transmission, realized through NMDA receptors, may be involved in the mechanism of antiseizure action of TXF and CYP.  (+info)

The androgenic regulation of the activities of enzymes engaged in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid in rat ventral prostate gland. (8/63)

The restoration of mitosis and growth of the prostate gland of castrated animals by androgens provides a favourable experimental system for studying the hormonal regulation of enzymes engaged in DNA replication. 2. Many DNA polymerase activities were identified in the prostate gland, but only a 9S form with a particular preference for denatured DNA as template was conspicuously enhanced by androgenic stimulation. 3. Thymidine kinase also provided a sensitive indicator of the hormonal regulation of DNA replication, and on electrophoretic criteria, one discrete form of the enzyme appeared precisely with the onset of mitoris. 4. Evidence is presented to support the view that DNA ligase activity is intimately associated in the process of DNA replication in the prostate gland. 5. A spectrum of deoxyribonuclease activities is present in the prostate gland, but only one form (pI7.0) can safely be said to be implicated in the process of DNA replication. 6. Androgenic stimulation of the prostate gland leads to the appearance of a component capable of denaturing or unwinding prostate DNA. This component is seemingly distinct from RNA or DNA polymerase activities on the basis of several distince physicochemical characteristics. 7. The conspicuous feature of all the changes in enzyme activities evoked by androgens in the prostate gland is their acute tissue- and steroid-specificity. Such changes could not be mimicked in liver or spleen and the regulatory role of androgens could not be simulated by other classes of steroid hormones. Particularly on the basis of studies with the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate, it is concluded that the changes are initially mediated by the androgen-receptor system and the high-affinity binding of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone in the prostate gland. 8. The results are discussed in the context of the mechanism of action of androgens.  (+info)

Cyproterone acetate is a synthetic steroid hormone with anti-androgen and progestogenic properties. It works by blocking the action of androgens (male sex hormones) in the body, which helps to reduce symptoms associated with excessive androgen production such as severe acne or hirsutism (excessive hair growth).

Cyproterone acetate is used in the treatment of conditions such as prostate cancer, where it can help to slow the growth of cancer cells by reducing the levels of androgens in the body. It is also used in the treatment of sexual deviations, such as pedophilia or exhibitionism, as it can reduce sexual desire.

In addition, cyproterone acetate is sometimes used in combination with estrogen in hormone replacement therapy for transgender women to suppress the production of testosterone and promote feminization.

It's important to note that cyproterone acetate can have significant side effects and its use should be under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Cyproterone is an anti-androgen medication that works by blocking the action of androgens (male hormones such as testosterone) in the body. It is used to treat conditions such as prostate cancer, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and severe acne that have not responded to other treatments. Cyproterone is also used in conjunction with estrogen therapy to help reduce sexual desire in individuals with paraphilic disorders or gender identity disorder.

The medication comes in the form of tablets and is usually taken once or twice a day, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of cyproterone include breast tenderness, decreased sex drive, and irregular menstrual periods. More serious side effects may include liver damage, blood clots, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.

It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking cyproterone, as the medication can interact with other medications and have potentially serious side effects. Regular monitoring by a healthcare provider is also necessary to ensure that the medication is working effectively and to monitor for any potential side effects.

Androgen antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of androgens, which are hormones that contribute to male sexual development and characteristics. They work by binding to androgen receptors in cells, preventing the natural androgens from attaching and exerting their effects. This can be useful in treating conditions that are caused or worsened by androgens, such as prostate cancer, hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women), and acne. Examples of androgen antagonists include flutamide, bicalutamide, and spironolactone.

Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic form of the hormone estrogen that is often used in various forms of hormonal contraception, such as birth control pills. It works by preventing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Ethinyl estradiol may also be used in combination with other hormones to treat menopausal symptoms or hormonal disorders.

It is important to note that while ethinyl estradiol can be an effective form of hormonal therapy, it can also carry risks and side effects, such as an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer. As with any medication, it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare provider.

Hirsutism is a medical condition characterized by excessive hair growth in women in areas where hair growth is typically androgen-dependent, such as the face, chest, lower abdomen, and inner thighs. This hair growth is often thick, dark, and coarse, resembling male-pattern hair growth. Hirsutism can be caused by various factors, including hormonal imbalances, certain medications, and genetic conditions. It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if you experience excessive or unwanted hair growth to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Estradiol congeners refer to chemical compounds that are structurally similar to estradiol, which is the most potent and prevalent form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol congeners can be naturally occurring or synthetic and may have similar or different biological activities compared to estradiol.

These compounds can be found in various sources, including plants, animals, and industrial products. Some estradiol congeners are used in pharmaceuticals as hormone replacement therapies, while others are considered environmental pollutants and may have endocrine-disrupting effects on wildlife and humans.

Examples of estradiol congeners include:

1. Estrone (E1): a weak estrogen that is produced in the body from estradiol and is also found in some plants.
2. Estriol (E3): a weaker estrogen that is produced in large quantities during pregnancy.
3. Diethylstilbestrol (DES): a synthetic estrogen that was prescribed to pregnant women from the 1940s to the 1970s to prevent miscarriage, but was later found to have serious health effects on their offspring.
4. Zeranol: a synthetic non-steroidal estrogen used as a growth promoter in livestock.
5. Bisphenol A (BPA): a chemical used in the production of plastics and epoxy resins, which has been shown to have weak estrogenic activity and may disrupt the endocrine system.

Pregnadienes are a class of steroid hormones that contain a unsaturated bond between the C4 and C5 positions in their steroid nucleus. They are important precursors in the biosynthesis of various sex steroids, such as progesterone and testosterone, in the human body. Pregnadienes are derived from pregnanes, which have a saturated bond at this position. The term "pregnadiene" refers to the chemical structure of these hormones, specifically their double bond at the C4-C5 position. They play a crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes related to reproduction and sexual development.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Chlormadinone Acetate is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of female sex hormone. It is used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and abnormal menstrual bleeding. It works by suppressing the natural progesterone produced by the ovaries, thereby preventing the buildup of the lining of the uterus (endometrium). This medication is available in the form of tablets for oral administration.

It's important to note that Chlormadinone Acetate can cause a range of side effects and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider. Additionally, it may interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your doctor about all the medications you are taking before starting this medication.

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a sex hormone and androgen that plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of male characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It is synthesized from testosterone through the action of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. DHT is essential for the normal development of the male genitalia during fetal development and for the maturation of the sexual organs at puberty.

In addition to its role in sexual development, DHT also contributes to the growth of hair follicles, the health of the prostate gland, and the maintenance of bone density. However, an excess of DHT has been linked to certain medical conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and androgenetic alopecia (male pattern baldness).

DHT exerts its effects by binding to androgen receptors in various tissues throughout the body. Once bound, DHT triggers a series of cellular responses that regulate gene expression and influence the growth and differentiation of cells. In some cases, these responses can lead to unwanted side effects, such as hair loss or prostate enlargement.

Medications that block the action of 5-alpha reductase, such as finasteride and dutasteride, are sometimes used to treat conditions associated with excess DHT production. These drugs work by reducing the amount of DHT available to bind to androgen receptors, thereby alleviating symptoms and slowing disease progression.

In summary, dihydrotestosterone is a potent sex hormone that plays a critical role in male sexual development and function. While it is essential for normal growth and development, an excess of DHT has been linked to certain medical conditions, such as BPH and androgenetic alopecia. Medications that block the action of 5-alpha reductase are sometimes used to treat these conditions by reducing the amount of DHT available to bind to androgen receptors.

Transsexualism is not considered a medical condition in itself, but rather a symptom or a part of a larger gender dysphoria diagnosis. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, gender dysphoria refers to the distress that may accompany the incongruence between one's experienced or expressed gender and one's assigned gender.

Transsexualism is an outdated term that was previously used to describe individuals who strongly identify with a gender different from the one they were assigned at birth and wish to permanently transition to their identified gender through medical and social means, including hormone therapy and gender confirmation surgery. The current preferred terminology is to use the term "transgender" as an umbrella term that includes all people whose gender identity differs from the sex they were assigned at birth.

It's important to note that being transgender is not a mental illness, but rather a part of human diversity. The distress that some transgender individuals experience is primarily due to societal stigma and discrimination, rather than their gender identity itself.

Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition characterized by the formation of various types of blemishes on the skin, such as blackheads, whiteheads, papules, pustules, and cysts or nodules. These lesions typically appear on areas of the body that have a high concentration of sebaceous glands, including the face, neck, chest, back, and shoulders.

Acne vulgaris occurs when hair follicles become clogged with dead skin cells and excess oil (sebum) produced by the sebaceous glands. This blockage provides an ideal environment for bacteria, particularly Propionibacterium acnes, to multiply, leading to inflammation and infection. The severity of acne vulgaris can range from mild with only a few scattered comedones (blackheads or whiteheads) to severe cystic acne, which can cause significant scarring and emotional distress.

The exact causes of acne vulgaris are not fully understood, but several factors contribute to its development, including:

1. Hormonal changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, or due to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
2. Genetic predisposition
3. Use of certain medications, such as corticosteroids and lithium
4. Excessive production of sebum due to overactive sebaceous glands
5. Accumulation of dead skin cells that clog pores
6. Bacterial infection (particularly Propionibacterium acnes)
7. Inflammation caused by the body's immune response to bacterial infection and clogged pores

Treatment for acne vulgaris depends on its severity and can include over-the-counter or prescription topical treatments, oral medications, chemical peels, light therapies, or even hormonal therapies in some cases. It is essential to seek professional medical advice from a dermatologist or healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for individual needs.

"Ocimum" is the scientific name for a genus of plants that includes sweet basil, holy basil, and other varieties of basil. These herbs are part of the mint family (Lamiaceae) and are native to tropical regions of Africa and Asia. They are widely used in cooking for their aromatic leaves, which have a strong, pungent flavor. Holy basil, also known as tulsi, is considered sacred in Hinduism and has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for its potential health benefits. However, it's important to note that while some herbs and plants can have medicinal properties, they should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment.

Androgens are a class of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. Testosterone is the most well-known androgen, but other androgens include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Androgens are produced primarily by the testes in men and the ovaries in women, although small amounts are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. They play a critical role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.

In addition to their role in sexual development and function, androgens also have important effects on bone density, mood, and cognitive function. Abnormal levels of androgens can contribute to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, erectile dysfunction, acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and prostate cancer.

Precocious puberty is a medical condition where the onset of sexual maturation occurs at an unusually early age, typically before the age of 8 in girls and before the age of 9 in boys. It is characterized by the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development or growth of facial hair, as well as the start of menstruation in girls. This condition can be caused by various factors including central nervous system abnormalities, genetic disorders, or exposure to certain hormones. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent potential negative effects on growth, bone health, and psychosocial development.

Flutamide is an anti-androgen medication, which is primarily used to treat prostate cancer. It works by blocking the action of androgens (male hormones), such as testosterone, on cancer cells. This helps to slow down or stop the growth of prostate cancer cells. Flutamide may be given in combination with other medications, such as a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist, to enhance its effectiveness. It is usually taken by mouth in the form of tablets.

Flutamide can have side effects, including breast tenderness and enlargement, hot flashes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of sexual desire. In rare cases, it may cause more serious side effects such as liver damage. It is important to be monitored by a healthcare professional while taking this medication to ensure that it is working properly and to manage any potential side effects.

Pregnanes are a class of steroid hormones and steroids that contain a pregnane nucleus, which is a steroid core with a carbon skeleton consisting of 21 carbons. This structure includes four fused rings, labeled A through D, and is derived from cholesterol.

Pregnanes are important precursors for the synthesis of various steroid hormones in the body, including progesterone, which plays a crucial role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle. Other examples of pregnanes include cortisol, a stress hormone produced by the adrenal gland, and aldosterone, a hormone that helps regulate electrolyte balance and blood pressure.

It's worth noting that pregnanes can also refer to synthetic compounds that contain this steroid nucleus and are used in various medical and research contexts.

Progesterone congeners refer to synthetic or naturally occurring compounds that are structurally similar to progesterone, a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. These compounds have similar chemical structures to progesterone and may exhibit similar physiological activities, although they can also have unique properties and uses. Examples of progesterone congeners include various synthetic progestins used in hormonal contraceptives and other medical treatments.

Castration is a surgical procedure to remove the testicles in males or ovaries in females. In males, it is also known as orchiectomy. This procedure results in the inability to produce sex hormones and gametes (sperm in men and eggs in women), and can be done for various reasons such as medical treatment for certain types of cancer, to reduce sexual urges in individuals with criminal tendencies, or as a form of birth control in animals.

The prostate is a small gland that is part of the male reproductive system. Its main function is to produce a fluid that, together with sperm cells from the testicles and fluids from other glands, makes up semen. This fluid nourishes and protects the sperm, helping it to survive and facilitating its movement.

The prostate is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It surrounds part of the urethra, the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. This means that prostate problems can affect urination and sexual function. The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut in adult men.

Prostate health is an important aspect of male health, particularly as men age. Common prostate issues include benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is an enlarged prostate not caused by cancer, and prostate cancer, which is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help to detect any potential problems early and improve outcomes.

The seminal vesicles are a pair of glands located in the male reproductive system, posterior to the urinary bladder and superior to the prostate gland. They are approximately 5 cm long and have a convoluted structure with many finger-like projections called infoldings. The primary function of seminal vesicles is to produce and secrete a significant portion of the seminal fluid, which makes up the bulk of semen along with spermatozoa from the testes and fluids from the prostate gland and bulbourethral glands.

The secretion of the seminal vesicles is rich in fructose, which serves as an energy source for sperm, as well as various proteins, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals that contribute to maintaining the optimal environment for sperm survival, nourishment, and transport. During sexual arousal and ejaculation, the smooth muscles in the walls of the seminal vesicles contract, forcing the stored secretion into the urethra, where it mixes with other fluids before being expelled from the body as semen.

Polycyctic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperandrogenism (excess male hormones), ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The Rotterdam criteria are commonly used for diagnosis, which require at least two of the following three features:

1. Oligo- or anovulation (irregular menstrual cycles)
2. Clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism (e.g., hirsutism, acne, or high levels of androgens in the blood)
3. Polycystic ovaries on ultrasound examination (presence of 12 or more follicles measuring 2-9 mm in diameter, or increased ovarian volume >10 mL)

The exact cause of PCOS remains unclear, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Insulin resistance and obesity are common findings in women with PCOS, which can contribute to the development of metabolic complications such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease.

Management of PCOS typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss), medications to regulate menstrual cycles and reduce hyperandrogenism (e.g., oral contraceptives, metformin, anti-androgens), and fertility treatments if desired. Regular monitoring of metabolic parameters and long-term follow-up are essential for optimal management and prevention of complications.

Androgen receptors (ARs) are a type of nuclear receptor protein that are expressed in various tissues throughout the body. They play a critical role in the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. ARs are activated by binding to androgens, which are steroid hormones such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Once activated, ARs function as transcription factors that regulate gene expression, ultimately leading to various cellular responses.

In the context of medical definitions, androgen receptors can be defined as follows:

Androgen receptors are a type of nuclear receptor protein that bind to androgens, such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, and mediate their effects on gene expression in various tissues. They play critical roles in the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function, and are involved in the pathogenesis of several medical conditions, including prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and androgen deficiency syndromes.

"Male genitalia" refers to the reproductive and sexual organs that are typically present in male individuals. These structures include:

1. Testes: A pair of oval-shaped glands located in the scrotum that produce sperm and testosterone.
2. Epididymis: A long, coiled tube that lies on the surface of each testicle where sperm matures and is stored.
3. Vas deferens: A pair of muscular tubes that transport sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
4. Seminal vesicles: Glands that produce a fluid that mixes with sperm to create semen.
5. Prostate gland: A small gland that surrounds the urethra and produces a fluid that also mixes with sperm to create semen.
6. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands): Two pea-sized glands that produce a lubricating fluid that is released into the urethra during sexual arousal.
7. Urethra: A tube that runs through the penis and carries urine from the bladder out of the body, as well as semen during ejaculation.
8. Penis: The external organ that serves as both a reproductive and excretory organ, expelling both semen and urine.

Metribolone is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) drug, which is not widely used in clinical medicine. Its chemical structure and pharmacological properties are similar to the natural male hormone testosterone. It has been used in research settings to study its effects on muscle growth, bone density, and sexual development. However, due to its potential for abuse and serious side effects, it is not approved for use in many countries.

It's important to note that the possession, distribution, and use of anabolic steroids without a valid prescription is illegal and can be dangerous to one's health. It can cause a range of adverse effects such as liver damage, cardiovascular disease, hormonal imbalances, and psychological issues among others.

Imidazolidines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a four-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms and two carbon atoms. The nitrogen atoms are adjacent to each other in the ring structure. These compounds have various applications, including as building blocks for pharmaceuticals and other organic materials. However, I couldn't find a specific medical definition related to disease or pathology for "imidazolidines." If you have any further questions or need information about a specific imidazolidine derivative with medicinal properties, please let me know!

Oral combined contraceptives, also known as "the pill," are a type of hormonal birth control that contain a combination of synthetic estrogen and progestin. These hormones work together to prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Combined oral contraceptives come in various brands and forms, such as monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic pills. Monophasic pills contain the same amount of hormones in each active pill, while biphasic and triphasic pills have varying amounts of hormones in different phases of the cycle.

It is important to note that oral combined contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should be used in conjunction with condoms for safer sex practices. Additionally, there are potential risks and side effects associated with oral combined contraceptives, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and heart attack, especially in women who smoke or have certain medical conditions. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to determine if it is safe and appropriate for individual use.

Buserelin is a synthetic analogue of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or LHRH), which is a hormonal drug used in the treatment of various conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and central precocious puberty.

By mimicking the action of natural GnRH, buserelin stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn regulates the production of sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.

However, prolonged use of buserelin leads to downregulation of GnRH receptors and a decrease in FSH and LH secretion, resulting in reduced levels of sex hormones. This property is exploited in the treatment of hormone-dependent cancers such as prostate cancer, where reducing testosterone levels can help slow tumor growth.

Buserelin is available in various forms, including nasal sprays, implants, and injectable solutions, and its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and the need for careful monitoring of hormone levels during treatment.

Goserelin is a synthetic hormone drug that is used to treat various types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and endometrial cancer. It is a long-acting form of a hormone called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist.

When Goserelin is administered, it initially stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn stimulate the production of sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone. However, after a few weeks of continuous administration, Goserelin suppresses the release of FSH and LH, leading to reduced levels of sex hormones.

In cancer treatment, this reduction in sex hormones can help slow down or stop the growth of certain types of cancer cells that are sensitive to these hormones. Goserelin is typically administered as an implant under the skin every 1-3 months, depending on the specific indication and dosage regimen.

It's important to note that Goserelin can have side effects, including hot flashes, mood changes, and reduced sexual desire, among others. It may also affect bone density and increase the risk of fractures in some people. Therefore, it should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid that is used in the medical termination of pregnancy (also known as medication abortion or RU-486). It works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Mifepristone is often used in combination with misoprostol to cause uterine contractions and expel the products of conception from the uterus.

It's also known as an antiprogestin or progesterone receptor modulator, which means it can bind to progesterone receptors in the body and block their activity. In addition to its use in pregnancy termination, mifepristone has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and hormone-dependent cancers.

It is important to note that Mifepristone should be administered under the supervision of a licensed healthcare professional and it is not available over the counter. Also, it has some contraindications and potential side effects, so it's essential to have a consultation with a doctor before taking this medication.

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