Cymarine: A cardiotonic cardiac glycoside found in STROPHANTHUS. The aglycone is STROPHANTHIN.Cardenolides: C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Cardanolides: The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.Digitoxin: A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)Acetyldigoxins: Alpha- or beta-acetyl derivatives of DIGOXIN or lanatoside C from Digitalis lanata. They are better absorbed and longer acting than digoxin and are used in congestive heart failure.Acetyldigitoxins: Cardioactive derivatives of lanatoside A or of DIGITOXIN. They are used for fast digitalization in congestive heart failure.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Atrial Flutter: Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.

Increase in dissociation rate constants of cardiotonic steroid-brain (Na+ + K+)-ATPase complexes by reduction of the unsaturated lactone. (1/2)

Several cardiotonic steroids have been modified by reduction of the unsaturated lactone and their interactions with the sodium- and potassium-activated ATPase ((Na+ + K+)-ATPase) have been investigated. Reduction of the unsaturated lactone results in a decrease in binding affinity due primarily to an increase in the dissociation rate constant concomitant with a decrease in the activation free energy of dissociation. This decrease in activation free energy is about 2 to 4 kcal, which is approximately equal to the energy of one hydrogen bond. It is suggested that the increase in dissociation rate due to reduction of the unsaturated lactone may make possible the use of these compounds as affinity ligands for purification of the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase or an ouabain-binding fragment.  (+info)

Photoaffinity labeling of (Na+K+)-ATPase with [125I]iodoazidocymarin. (2/2)

A radioiodinated, photoactive cardiac glycoside derivative, 4'-(3-iodo-4-azidobenzene sulfonyl)cymarin (IAC) was synthesized and used to label (Na+K+)-ATPase in crude membrane fractions. In the dark, IAC inhibited the activity of (Na+K+)-ATPase in electroplax microsomes from Electrophorus electricus with the same I50 as cymarin. [125I]IAC binding, in the presence of Mg2+ and Pi, was specific, of high affinity (KD = 0.4 microM), and reversible (k-1 = 0.11 min-1) at 30 degrees C. At 0 degree C, the complex was stable for at least 3 h, thus permitting washing before photolysis. Analysis of [125]IAC photolabeled electroplax microsomes by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) (7-14%) showed that most of the incorporated radioactivity was associated with the alpha (Mr = 98,000) and beta (Mr = 44,000) subunits of the (Na+K+)-ATPase (ratio of alpha to beta labeling = 2.5). A higher molecular weight peptide (100,000), similar in molecular weight to the brain alpha(+) subunit, and two lower molecular weight peptides (12,000-15,000), which may be proteolipid, were also labeled. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing then SDS-PAGE, 10%) resolved the beta subunit into 12 labeled peptides ranging in pI from 4.3 to 5.5. When (Na+K+)-ATPase in synaptosomes from monkey brain cortex was photolabeled and analyzed by SDS-PAGE (7-14%), specific labeling of the alpha(+), alpha, and beta subunits could be detected (ratio of alpha(+) plus alpha to beta labeling = 35). The results show that [125I]IAC is a sensitive probe of the cardiac glycoside binding site of (Na+K+)-ATPase and can be used to detect the presence of the alpha(+) subunit in crude membrane fractions from various sources.  (+info)

The palladium catalysed coupling of aryldiazonium salts with β-γ-unsaturated lactones under basic conditions has been investigated. Both (3H)-furanone and α-angelicalactone were evaluated as substrates in the Heck Matsuda reaction but both failed to afford the desired arylated butenolides. Under basic conditions, β-γ-unsaturated lactones generate highly nucleophilic enolates that preferentially undergo azo coupling reactions with arenediazonium salts to afford aryldiazene butenolides. The electronic and steric effect of the substituents on the aryldiazonium salt in the azo coupling reaction is described. Aryldiazene-lactone derivatives were obtained in good yields from a highly facile and straightforward procedure. An aminoisomaleimide was formed from (3H)-furanone and cyclised to the corresponding pyridazinones in modest yield ...
We herein describe a method for synthetic routes to multi-functionalized-α-trifluoromethyl α,β-unsaturated lactones and trifluoromethyl pyrazolinones. This involves a tandem stereoselective functionalization of 3,3-dibromo-2-trifluoromethyl acrylic acid ethyl ester and intramolecular cyclization reaction to
Practical applications: Unsaturated lactones are structural elements often found in natural products, which have medicinal value. Benzolactones derived from anacardic acid reported in this work have some structural similarity with lactones such as massoia lactone having medicinal value. Therefore with this idea in mind, the unsaturated benzolactones reported in this work will be tested for their anti pathogenic activity. 3-Propylphenol is used in combination with racemic 1-octen-3-ol and p-cresol to prepare a kairomone for tsetse fly traps. Results from this work describe the suitability of anacardic acid for synthesizing 3-propylphenol. The fact that 3-propylphenol can be synthesized from anacardic acid, a component of cashew nut shell liquid is of particular interest since most of the areas affected with tsetse flies are suitable for growing cashew plants. This means the raw materials (CNSL) for synthesis of 3-propylphenol will be obtained from within the same region where the kairomone is to ...
Withaferin A is a steroidal lactone, derived from Acnistus arborescens, Withania somnifera (Indian Winter cherry or Ashwagandha in Sanskrit) and other members of Solanaceae family. It has been traditionally used in ayurvedic medicine. It is the first member of the withanolide class of ergostane type product to be discovered. This natural product has wide range of pharmacological activities including cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis and anti-carcinogenic properties. Withanolides are a group of naturally occurring C28- steroidal lactones. They contain four cycloalkane ring structures, three cyclohexane rings and one cyclopentane ring. Withaferin A is highly reactive because of the ketone-containing unsaturated A ring, the epoxide in the B ring, and the unsaturated lactone ring. The double bond in ring A and the epoxide ring are mainly responsible for the cytotoxicity. The 22nd and 26th carbons of the ergostane skeleton in withaferin A and ...
Cardenolide is a type of steroid. Many plants contain derivatives, collectively known as cardenolides, including many in the form of cardenolide glycosides (cardenolides that contain structural groups derived from sugars). Cardenolide glycosides are often toxic; specifically, they are heart-arresting. The term derives card- "heart" (from Greek καρδία kardiā) and the suffix -enolide, referring to the lactone ring at C17. It should not be confused with cardanolides. Cardanolides are a class of steroids (or aglycones if viewed as cardiac glycoside constituents), and cardenolides are a subtype of this class (see MeSH D codes list). Cardenolides are C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone (specifically a butenolide) at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of cardiac glycosides and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include: acetyldigitoxins acetyldigoxins cymarine digitoxin ...
... (or cymarine) is a cardiac glycoside. Apocynum cannabinum used as a source of fiber by Native Americans and Apocynum ...
Members include: acetyldigitoxins acetyldigoxins cymarine digitoxin digitoxigenin digoxigenin digoxin medigoxin neoconvalloside ...
... cymarine MeSH D09.408.180.810.600 --- ouabain MeSH D09.408.210.209 --- chromomycin a3 MeSH D09.408.320.500 --- ...
National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Cymarine Edible and Medicinal plants of the ...
... cymarine MeSH D04.808.155.580.810.600 --- ouabain MeSH D04.808.221.263 --- cholenes MeSH D04.808.221.430 --- cholic acids MeSH ... cymarine MeSH D04.808.155.160.861.600 --- ouabain MeSH D04.808.155.160.861.700 --- strophanthidin MeSH D04.808.155.580 --- ...
Members include: acetyldigitoxins acetyldigoxins cymarine digitoxin digitoxigenin digoxigenin digoxin medigoxin neoconvalloside ...
Cymarin (or cymarine) is a cardiac glycoside. Apocynum cannabinum used as a source of fiber by Native Americans and Apocynum ...
Jurgens CY, Marine JE, McManus DD, McNamara RL. 2016 ACC/AHA clinical performance and quality measures for adults with atrial ...
1 will use the motor made by the Aero cY. Marine Motor Co.. right here in Boston. Mr. Washburn has convinced me that it is the ...
OUABAIN is from S. gratus and CYMARINE from S. kombe. They are used like the digitalis glycosides.. MSH ...
Cymarine a compound of the digitalis glycoside type, found in the Strophantus variety of a tropical creeping shrub. LD50 (rat) ...
Cymarine D4.808.155.580.130.750.250 D4.210.500.155.580.130.750.250 Cynanchum B1.650.940.800.575.100.81.325 B1.650.940.800. ...
Cymarine D4.808.155.160.861.250 Cynanchum B1.650.940.800.575.100.99.110 B1.650.940.800.575.100.81.325 Cystine Knot Motifs ...
Zimarin use Cymarine Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Rhodesia use Zimbabwe Zimeldine Zimeldine Hydrochloride use Zimeldine ...
COVID-19 (Coronavirus) Update. DDM Is fully operational and shipping all orders ...

No FAQ available that match "cymarine"