Cymarine: A cardiotonic cardiac glycoside found in STROPHANTHUS. The aglycone is STROPHANTHIN.Lubricants: Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.Lubrication: The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Cardenolides: C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Cardanolides: The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.Digitoxin: A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)Acetyldigoxins: Alpha- or beta-acetyl derivatives of DIGOXIN or lanatoside C from Digitalis lanata. They are better absorbed and longer acting than digoxin and are used in congestive heart failure.Acetyldigitoxins: Cardioactive derivatives of lanatoside A or of DIGITOXIN. They are used for fast digitalization in congestive heart failure.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Atrial Flutter: Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Apocynum: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. On rare occasions it is called Milkweed, but should not be confused with true Milkweed (ASCLEPIAS).Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)WyomingSulfolobales: An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
Increase in dissociation rate constants of cardiotonic steroid-brain (Na+ + K+)-ATPase complexes by reduction of the unsaturated lactone. (1/2)Several cardiotonic steroids have been modified by reduction of the unsaturated lactone and their interactions with the sodium- and potassium-activated ATPase ((Na+ + K+)-ATPase) have been investigated. Reduction of the unsaturated lactone results in a decrease in binding affinity due primarily to an increase in the dissociation rate constant concomitant with a decrease in the activation free energy of dissociation. This decrease in activation free energy is about 2 to 4 kcal, which is approximately equal to the energy of one hydrogen bond. It is suggested that the increase in dissociation rate due to reduction of the unsaturated lactone may make possible the use of these compounds as affinity ligands for purification of the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase or an ouabain-binding fragment. (+info)
Photoaffinity labeling of (Na+K+)-ATPase with [125I]iodoazidocymarin. (2/2)A radioiodinated, photoactive cardiac glycoside derivative, 4'-(3-iodo-4-azidobenzene sulfonyl)cymarin (IAC) was synthesized and used to label (Na+K+)-ATPase in crude membrane fractions. In the dark, IAC inhibited the activity of (Na+K+)-ATPase in electroplax microsomes from Electrophorus electricus with the same I50 as cymarin. [125I]IAC binding, in the presence of Mg2+ and Pi, was specific, of high affinity (KD = 0.4 microM), and reversible (k-1 = 0.11 min-1) at 30 degrees C. At 0 degree C, the complex was stable for at least 3 h, thus permitting washing before photolysis. Analysis of IAC photolabeled electroplax microsomes by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) (7-14%) showed that most of the incorporated radioactivity was associated with the alpha (Mr = 98,000) and beta (Mr = 44,000) subunits of the (Na+K+)-ATPase (ratio of alpha to beta labeling = 2.5). A higher molecular weight peptide (100,000), similar in molecular weight to the brain alpha(+) subunit, and two lower molecular weight peptides (12,000-15,000), which may be proteolipid, were also labeled. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing then SDS-PAGE, 10%) resolved the beta subunit into 12 labeled peptides ranging in pI from 4.3 to 5.5. When (Na+K+)-ATPase in synaptosomes from monkey brain cortex was photolabeled and analyzed by SDS-PAGE (7-14%), specific labeling of the alpha(+), alpha, and beta subunits could be detected (ratio of alpha(+) plus alpha to beta labeling = 35). The results show that [125I]IAC is a sensitive probe of the cardiac glycoside binding site of (Na+K+)-ATPase and can be used to detect the presence of the alpha(+) subunit in crude membrane fractions from various sources. (+info)
Repositorio da Producao Cientifica e Intelectual da Unicamp: Arylation Of β,γ-unsaturated Lactones By A Heck-matsuda Reaction:...
The palladium catalysed coupling of aryldiazonium salts with β-γ-unsaturated lactones under basic conditions has been investigated. Both (3H)-furanone and α-angelicalactone were evaluated as substrates in the Heck Matsuda reaction but both failed to afford the desired arylated butenolides. Under basic conditions, β-γ-unsaturated lactones generate highly nucleophilic enolates that preferentially undergo azo coupling reactions with arenediazonium salts to afford aryldiazene butenolides. The electronic and steric effect of the substituents on the aryldiazonium salt in the azo coupling reaction is described. Aryldiazene-lactone derivatives were obtained in good yields from a highly facile and straightforward procedure. An aminoisomaleimide was formed from (3H)-furanone and cyclised to the corresponding pyridazinones in modest yield ...
PROCESS FOR PREPARING UNSATURATED LACTONES - SYMRISE GMBH & CO KG
The invention relates to a process for preparing saturated or unsaturated lactones. This process involves reacting a bicyclic compound or a monocyclic compound with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a first acid having a pKa of 3 or less and a first organic solvent, thereby forming a hydroperoxide. The obtained mixture comprising the hydroperoxide is subsequently metered to a mixture of a second organic solvent and a dissociation-enhancing catalyst, optionally comprising a second organic acid. The invention also pertains to a process of preparing the hydroperoxide.
Synthesis of novel 6,7-dihydro-5h-oxepin-2-one derivatives
In last decades, biologically active natural compound (R)-goniothalamin and its derivatives received great attention from researchers. The reason for this interest is the wide range of biological properties of goniothalamin; including anti-microbial, antiprotozoan, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activities. The present study sets out the asymmetric large scale synthesis of Î±,Î²- unsaturated lactone derivative (R)-(+)-6-(2-Methylnaphthalen-1-yl)-5,6-dihydro-2Hpyran- 2-one. In recent studies, this linker modified analog of goniothalamin was shown to be cytotoxic against PC-3 (prostate cancer) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.13 Î¼M and 2.6 Î¼M, respectively. The preparation of the target compound consists of three steps. First, asymmetric synthesis of homoallylic alcohol using (R)-Tol-BINAP AgF catalyst complex was performed with allyltrimethoysilane. After that, treating the chiral homoallylic alcohol ...
Browsing Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas by Author "Karak, Milandip"
3,3-Dibromo-2-trifluoromethyl acrylic acid ethyl ester: a versatile platform for the stereoselective preparation of...
We herein describe a method for synthetic routes to multi-functionalized-α-trifluoromethyl α,β-unsaturated lactones and trifluoromethyl pyrazolinones. This involves a tandem stereoselective functionalization of 3,3-dibromo-2-trifluoromethyl acrylic acid ethyl ester and intramolecular cyclization reaction to
Isomerization of anacardic acid - University of St Andrews
Practical applications: Unsaturated lactones are structural elements often found in natural products, which have medicinal value. Benzolactones derived from anacardic acid reported in this work have some structural similarity with lactones such as massoia lactone having medicinal value. Therefore with this idea in mind, the unsaturated benzolactones reported in this work will be tested for their anti pathogenic activity. 3-Propylphenol is used in combination with racemic 1-octen-3-ol and p-cresol to prepare a kairomone for tsetse fly traps. Results from this work describe the suitability of anacardic acid for synthesizing 3-propylphenol. The fact that 3-propylphenol can be synthesized from anacardic acid, a component of cashew nut shell liquid is of particular interest since most of the areas affected with tsetse flies are suitable for growing cashew plants. This means the raw materials (CNSL) for synthesis of 3-propylphenol will be obtained from within the same region where the kairomone is to ...
Withaferin A - Wikipedia
Withaferin A is a steroidal lactone, derived from Acnistus arborescens, Withania somnifera (Indian Winter cherry or Ashwagandha in Sanskrit) and other members of Solanaceae family. It has been traditionally used in ayurvedic medicine. It is the first member of the withanolide class of ergostane type product to be discovered. This natural product has wide range of pharmacological activities including cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis and anti-carcinogenic properties. Withanolides are a group of naturally occurring C28- steroidal lactones. They contain four cycloalkane ring structures, three cyclohexane rings and one cyclopentane ring. Withaferin A is highly reactive because of the ketone-containing unsaturated A ring, the epoxide in the B ring, and the unsaturated lactone ring. The double bond in ring A and the epoxide ring are mainly responsible for the cytotoxicity. The 22nd and 26th carbons of the ergostane skeleton in withaferin A and ...
Cardenolide - Wikipedia
Cardenolide is a type of steroid. Many plants contain derivatives, collectively known as cardenolides, including many in the form of cardenolide glycosides (cardenolides that contain structural groups derived from sugars). Cardenolide glycosides are often toxic; specifically, they are heart-arresting. The term derives card- "heart" (from Greek καρδία kardiā) and the suffix -enolide, referring to the lactone ring at C17. It should not be confused with cardanolides. Cardanolides are a class of steroids (or aglycones if viewed as cardiac glycoside constituents), and cardenolides are a subtype of this class (see MeSH D codes list). Cardenolides are C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone (specifically a butenolide) at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of cardiac glycosides and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include: acetyldigitoxins acetyldigoxins cymarine digitoxin ...
List of MeSH codes (D09)
Cymarin - Wikipedia
Mobil Stern Tube Lubricant
Strophanthins - DrugBank
Cardenolide - Wikipedia
2016 ACC/AHA Clinical Performance and Quality Measures for Adults With Atrial Fibrillation or Atrial Flutter | JACC: Journal of...
The Culture of Chemistry: Sweet Hearts and Frogs
Flying and Aviation Magazine Aeronautics | Volume 1 - No. 6 - 1907 December
Additional pages Product Categories - Healthmatics | Page 302
most toxic plant poison - Everything2.com
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DeCS 2013 - December 17, 2013 version
DeCS 2013 - July 15, 2013 version
DeCS 2012 - February 22, 2012 version
DeCS 2010 - February 12, 2010 version
DeCS 2014 - October 20, 2014 version
DeCS 2011 - December 22, 2011 version
DeCS 2011 - January 06, 2011 version
strophanthus gratus chemical constituents
DeCS Ingl s+escopo
Cymarine .. Cymarin .. Strophantisel .. Tsimarin .. Zimarin .. h Strophanthin .. k Strophanthin alpha .. h-Strophanthin .. k- ... D09.408.180.810.250 Cymarine .. HP4 Materia Medica .. HP4.018 Homeopathic Remedy .. HP4.018.127 Homeopathic Remedy A .. HP4.018 ... D04.210.500.155.580.130.750.250 Cymarine .. D04.210.500.155.580.130.750.800 Strophanthidin .. D09 Carbohydrates .. D09.408 ...
- Members include: acetyldigitoxins acetyldigoxins cymarine digitoxin digitoxigenin digoxigenin digoxin medigoxin neoconvalloside ouabain strophanthins strophanthidin Bufadienolide and Marinobufagenin are similar in structure and function. (wikipedia.org)