A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales, characterized by thin trichomes, cylindrical akinetes, and terminal heterocysts.
A form-genus of planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales.
A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Uracil is a nitrogenous base, specifically a pyrimidine derivative, which constitutes one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA (ribonucleic acid), pairing with adenine via hydrogen bonds during base-pairing. (25 words)
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.

Genetic diversity of Cylindrospermopsis strains (cyanobacteria) isolated from four continents. (1/17)

The genetic diversity of Cylindrospermopsis strains (cyanobacteria) was examined using mainly the 16S-23S internally transcribed spacer (ITS1) sequences. Strains were grouped in three clusters: (i) America, (ii) Europe, and (iii) Africa and Australia. These results suggested a recent spread of Cylindrospermopsis across the American and European continents from restricted warm refuge areas instead of exchanges between continents. On the other hand, they also suggested a recent colonization of Australia by African strains.  (+info)

Primary irritant and delayed-contact hypersensitivity reactions to the freshwater cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and its associated toxin cylindrospermopsin. (2/17)

BACKGROUND: Freshwater cyanobacteria are common inhabitants of recreational waterbodies throughout the world; some cyanobacteria can dominate the phytoplankton and form blooms, many of which are toxic. Numerous reports in the literature describe pruritic skin rashes after recreational or occupational exposure to cyanobacteria, but there has been little research conducted on the cutaneous effects of cyanobacteria. Using the mouse ear swelling test (MEST), we sought to determine whether three toxin-producing cyanobacteria isolates and the purified cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin produced delayed-contact hypersensitivity reactions. METHODS: Between 8 and 10 female Balb/c mice in each experiment had test material applied to depilated abdominal skin during the induction phase and 10 or 11 control mice had vehicle only applied to abdominal skin. For challenge (day 10) and rechallenge (day 17), test material was applied to a randomly-allocated test ear; vehicle was applied to the other ear as a control. Ear thickness in anaesthetised mice was measured with a micrometer gauge at 24 and 48 hours after challenge and rechallenge. Ear swelling greater than 20% in one or more test mice is considered a positive response. Histopathology examination of ear tissues was conducted by independent examiners. RESULTS: Purified cylindrospermopsin (2 of 9 test mice vs. 0 of 5 control mice; p = 0.51) and the cylindrospermopsin-producing cyanobacterium C. raciborskii (8 of 10 test mice vs. 0 of 10 control mice; p = 0.001) were both shown to produce hypersensitivity reactions. Irritant reactions were seen on abdominal skin at induction. Two other toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena circinalis) did not generate any responses using this model. Histopathology examinations to determine positive and negative reactions in ear tissues showed excellent agreement beyond chance between both examiners (kappa = 0.83). CONCLUSION: The irritant properties and cutaneous sensitising potential of cylindrospermopsin indicate that these toxicological endpoints should be considered by public health advisors and reservoir managers when setting guidelines for recreational exposure to cyanobacteria.  (+info)

Occurrence of toxin-producing cyanobacteria blooms in a Brazilian semiarid reservoir. (3/17)

We report the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms and the presence of cyanotoxins in water samples from the Armando Ribeiro Goncalves reservoir (06 degrees 08 S and 37 degrees 07 W), located in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. The cyanobacterial species were identified and quantified during the rainy and dry seasons in the year 2000. Cyanotoxins such as microcystins, saxitoxins and cylindrospermopsins were analyzed and quantified using HPLC and ELISA methods. The mixed toxic blooms of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Microcystis spp (M. panniformis, M. protocystis, M. novacekii) and Aphanizomenon spp (Aphanizomenon gracile, A. cf. manguinii, A. cf. issastschenkoi) were persistent and represented 90-100% of the total phytoplankton species. Toxic cyanobacterial blooms from the Armando Ribeiro Goncalves reservoir were analyzed and found to have three phases in relation to the annual cycle. During the rainy season, an intense toxic bloom of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was recorded along with saxitoxins (3.14 microg.L(-1)). During the transition period, between the rainy and dry seasons, different species of Microscytis occurred and microcystin as high as 8.8 microg.L(-1) was recorded. In the dry season, co-dominance of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Microcystis spp and Aphanizomenon spp occurred and the concentrations of saxitoxin remained very low. Our results indicate the presence of microcystins (8.8 microg.L(-1)) and saxitoxins (3.14 microg.L(-1)) into the crude water, with increasing concentrations from the second fortnight of April to late May 2000. The occurrence of toxic blooms in this reservoir points to a permanent risk of cyanotoxins in supply waters, indicating the need for the implementation of bloom control measures to improve the water quality. Exposure of the local population to cyanotoxins through their potential accumulation in fish muscle must also be considered.  (+info)

Characterization of the gene cluster responsible for cylindrospermopsin biosynthesis. (4/17)

Toxic cyanobacterial blooms cause economic losses and pose significant public health threats on a global scale. Characterization of the gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (cyr) in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii AWT205 is described, and the complete biosynthetic pathway is proposed. The cyr gene cluster spans 43 kb and is comprised of 15 open reading frames containing genes required for the biosynthesis, regulation, and export of the toxin. Biosynthesis is initiated via an amidinotransfer onto glycine followed by five polyketide extensions and subsequent reductions, and rings are formed via Michael additions in a stepwise manner. The uracil ring is formed by a novel pyrimidine biosynthesis mechanism and tailoring reactions, including sulfation and hydroxylation that complete biosynthesis. These findings enable the design of toxic strain-specific probes and allow the future study of the regulation and biological role of cylindrospermopsin.  (+info)

Toxicity of cylindrospermopsin, and other apparent metabolites from Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum, to the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. (5/17)


The smallest known genomes of multicellular and toxic cyanobacteria: comparison, minimal gene sets for linked traits and the evolutionary implications. (6/17)


The cylindrospermopsin gene cluster of Aphanizomenon sp. strain 10E6: organization and recombination. (7/17)


Development of a hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension assay for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii subspecies in freshwater. (8/17)

A newly-developed molecular method, hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension (HOPE), was used to analyze various groups within the species Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. PCR-amplified internally transcribed spacer sequences of 16S-23S from C. raciborskii in reservoir samples of Taiwan and Kinmen were examined. One of eight sequevars in the clone libraries was closely related to strains obtained from the European continent, while the others, designated of Taiwan (TW) type, belonged to a novel group. Optimized HOPE analyses showed that C. raciborskii distributed in different reservoirs with a relative abundance of 0.5% to 76.4% in the cyanobacterial communities. They further detected the concurrence of three C. raciborskii subpopulations, in which European and TW groups were predominant. The TW sequevars accounted for greater than 87.5% of C. raciborskii in the reservoirs Taihu, Yangmin, Jinsha, and Mudan, while this decreased to 55.4-58.1%, accompanied by a proportional increase of the European group, in reservoirs Lantan and Renyi. These findings revealed the complex subspecies structure within C. raciborskii and the subspecies dynamics associated with geographic locations.  (+info)

Cylindrospermopsis is a genus of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can produce toxins harmful to humans and animals. The most well-known species in this genus is Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, which can produce the potent hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin. This toxin can cause liver damage and other health effects in both humans and animals that consume contaminated water or food.

Cylindrospermopsis species are commonly found in freshwater environments, such as lakes, rivers, and reservoirs. They can form blooms under certain conditions, such as high nutrient levels, warm temperatures, and still or slow-moving waters. These blooms can create a variety of health and environmental hazards, including the production of toxins that can harm wildlife, livestock, and people.

If you suspect that a body of water may be contaminated with Cylindrospermopsis or other harmful algal blooms (HABs), it is important to avoid contact with the water and to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of exposure, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or skin irritation. It is also important to report any suspected HABs to your local health department or environmental agency for further investigation and monitoring.

Aphanizomenon is a genus of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can be found in various bodies of water, including freshwater and brackish environments. The name Aphanizomenon comes from the Greek words "aphanes" meaning hidden and "zomen" meaning animal life, which refers to the fact that this organism can form dormant structures called akinetes that are difficult to see with the naked eye.

One species of Aphanizomenon, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, is known to produce a range of bioactive compounds, including proteins, polysaccharides, and pigments. This species has been studied for its potential health benefits, and some proponents claim that it can be used as a dietary supplement or nutritional supplement. However, it's important to note that the scientific evidence supporting these claims is limited, and more research is needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.

It's also worth noting that cyanobacteria like Aphanizomenon can produce harmful toxins known as cyanotoxins, which can pose a risk to human health if ingested or otherwise exposed to them. Therefore, it's important to exercise caution when consuming products derived from cyanobacteria and to consult with a healthcare professional before doing so.

Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the sodium channels in nerve cells, leading to paralysis and potentially death. It is produced by certain species of marine dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria, and can accumulate in shellfish that feed on these organisms. Saxitoxin poisoning, also known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), is a serious medical condition that can cause symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and paralysis of the mouth and extremities, as well as respiratory failure and death in severe cases. It is important to note that saxitoxin is not used as a therapeutic agent in medicine and is considered a harmful substance.

Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are a type of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, similar to plants. They can produce oxygen and contain chlorophyll a, which gives them a greenish color. Some species of cyanobacteria can produce toxins that can be harmful to humans and animals if ingested or inhaled. They are found in various aquatic environments such as freshwater lakes, ponds, and oceans, as well as in damp soil and on rocks. Cyanobacteria are important contributors to the Earth's oxygen-rich atmosphere and play a significant role in the global carbon cycle.

Uracil is not a medical term, but it is a biological molecule. Medically or biologically, uracil can be defined as one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that is linked to a ribose sugar by an N-glycosidic bond. It forms base pairs with adenine in double-stranded RNA and DNA. Uracil is a pyrimidine derivative, similar to thymine found in DNA, but it lacks the methyl group (-CH3) that thymine has at the 5 position of its ring.

Marine toxins are toxic compounds that are produced by certain marine organisms, including algae, bacteria, and various marine animals such as shellfish, jellyfish, and snails. These toxins can cause a range of illnesses and symptoms in humans who consume contaminated seafood or come into direct contact with the toxin-producing organisms. Some of the most well-known marine toxins include:

1. Saxitoxin: Produced by certain types of algae, saxitoxin can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of PSP include tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, followed by muscle weakness, paralysis, and in severe cases, respiratory failure.
2. Domoic acid: Produced by certain types of algae, domoic acid can cause amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of ASP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, and memory loss.
3. Okadaic acid: Produced by certain types of algae, okadaic acid can cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of DSP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.
4. Ciguatoxin: Produced by certain types of dinoflagellates, ciguatoxin can cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans who consume contaminated fish. Symptoms of CFP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and neurological symptoms such as tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, as well as reversal of hot and cold sensations.
5. Tetrodotoxin: Found in certain types of pufferfish, tetrodotoxin can cause a severe form of food poisoning known as pufferfish poisoning or fugu poisoning. Symptoms of tetrodotoxin poisoning include numbness of the lips and tongue, difficulty speaking, muscle weakness, paralysis, and respiratory failure.

Prevention measures for these types of seafood poisoning include avoiding consumption of fish and shellfish that are known to be associated with these toxins, as well as cooking and preparing seafood properly before eating it. Additionally, monitoring programs have been established in many countries to monitor the levels of these toxins in seafood and issue warnings when necessary.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

Phytoplankton are microscopic photosynthetic organisms that live in watery environments such as oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers. They are a diverse group of organisms, including bacteria, algae, and protozoa. Phytoplankton are a critical component of the marine food chain, serving as primary producers that convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and nutrients into organic matter through photosynthesis. This organic matter forms the base of the food chain and supports the growth and survival of many larger organisms, including zooplankton, fish, and other marine animals. Phytoplankton also play an important role in global carbon cycling and help to regulate Earth's climate by absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and releasing oxygen.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

  • The type species is the tropical Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenayya & Subbaraju. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cijanobakterija Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszińska) Seenaya et Subba Raju je tropska vrsta koja se brzo širi slatkovodnim vodama umjerenih područja. (unios.hr)
  • Cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszińska) Seenaya et Subba Raju is a tropical species that is rapidly expanding in freshwaters of temperate areas. (unios.hr)
  • Cylindrospermopsis (sill-in-dro-sperm-op-sis) raciborskii, a blue green alga (cyanobacterium) in which the terminal cells of the trichomes or filaments appear a bit like candle flames. (eol.org)
  • Cylindrospermopsis (sill-in-dro-sperm-op-sis) raciborskii, a blue green alga (cyanobacterium) in which the terminal cell of the trichome (filament) appears a bit like a candle flame. (eol.org)
  • 2014. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii dominates under very low and high nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratios. (wilsonlab.com)
  • In contrast to predictions based on ecological stoichiometry, the phytoplankton community in all N:P treatments increased in abundance and was almost entirely composed of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii , by the conclusion of the study. (wilsonlab.com)
  • Furthermore, the methanolic intracellular extract of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii CYP011K and Nostoc sp. (unesp.br)
  • G. B. McGregor, L. D. Fabbro, Dominance of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Nostocales, Cyanoprokaryota) in Queensland tropical and subtropical reservoirs: implications for monitoring and management. (iode.org)
  • This study examined toxin bioconcentration and bioaccumulation in the aquatic snail, Melanoides tuberculata, following exposure to freeze-thawed whole cell extracts and a live Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii culture containing CYN. (edu.au)
  • Those are Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii , Anabaena flos-aquae , A. planctonica , Anabaena sp. (faunajournal.com)
  • Glochidinium penardiforme and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were found in the species structure (blooms were not observed). (edu.pl)
  • Resumo Este estudo analisou a possível influência da temperatura e nutrientes (fósforo total ortofosfato, fósforo total dissolvido, nitrogênio total, nitrito e nitrato) na coocorrência de Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii e Microcystis panniformis no reservatório Mundaú, um ecossistema do semiárido do nordeste do Brasil. (scielo.org)
  • Abstract The influence of temperature and nutrients on the co-occurrence of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Microcystis panniformis in Mundaú reservoir was investigated. (scielo.org)
  • The HILIC-MS method was applied to the analysis of field and cultured samples of Anabaena circinalis and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. (canada.ca)
  • Effects of Daphnia exudates and sodium octyl sulphates on filament morphology and cell wall thickness of Aphanizomenon gracile (Nostocales), Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Nostocales) and Planktothrix agardhii (Oscillatoriales). (ehaeunescochair.org)
  • Cylindrospermopsis is a planktonic genus of filamentous cyanobacteria known for its blooms in eutrophic waters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Te, Comparison of Quantitative PCR and Droplet Digital PCR Multiplex Assays for Two Genera of Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis and Microcystis, Appl. (dntb.gov.ua)
  • Cytometry analysis showed high cyanobacterial abundance, while metagenomics identified an average of 10.6% of cyanobacterial sequences, and demonstrated the presence of Microcystis , Cylindrospermopsis , and toxin coding genes in all ponds. (redezebrafish.com.br)
  • The inorganic N to inorganic P ratio of 5.4 after the drought was indicative of N limitation, and the phytoplankton assemblage was dominated by nitrogen-fixing species, especially Cylindrospermopsis sp. (scielo.org.za)
  • This will involve a combination of multi-factorial lab experiments and field studies to identify climate change- related mechanisms that may increase the virulence and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio bacteria, V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus and bloom dynamics and toxin production of Microcyctin aeruginosa, Cylindrospermopsis raciborkskii and Anabaena flos-aquae. (nih.gov)

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