Devices for accelerating charged particles in a spiral path by a constant-frequency alternating electric field. This electric field is synchronized with the movement of the particles in a constant magnetic field.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.
The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.
A material used in the manufacture of azo dyes that is toxic to skin and carcinogenic in several species.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Agents capable of exerting a harmful effect on the body.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electronic devices that increase the magnitude of a signal's power level or current.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.

Complex hprt deletion events are recovered after exposure of human lymphoblastoid cells to high-LET carbon and neon ion beams. (1/157)

Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (hprt) mutations were induced in human TK-6 lymphoblastoid cells by irradiation at a linear energy transfer (LET) of 250 or 310 keV/micron for carbon and neon ions, respectively. At such a high level of LET, ions will lose most of their total energy and stop shortly after passing through the cell. The hprt mutations were analyzed by multiplex PCR, long-PCR and DNA sequencing of both genomic and cDNA. Over half of the C ion-induced hprt mutations (10 of 19) were point mutations, in contrast to 15% of the mutations induced by Ne ions (three of 20). The remaining 47 and 85% of the C and Ne ion-induced mutants, respectively, are deletion events. The latter events include three complex losses of multiple non-contiguous exon regions in both ion irradiation collections. We note that mutations involving the exon 6 region are frequent in the Ne ion collection: all three of the complex events retained the exon 6 region with flanking deletion of sequence and three other mutants involved deletion of this region. It may be concluded that these high-LET C and Ne ion irradiations produce different mutational spectra.  (+info)

Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric detection of small Ca(2+)-induced conformational changes in the regulatory domain of human cardiac troponin C. (2/157)

Troponin C (TnC), a calcium-binding protein of the thin filament of muscle, plays a regulatory role in skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. NMR reveals a small conformational change in the cardiac regulatory N-terminal domain of TnC (cNTnC) on binding of Ca2+ such that the total exposed hydrophobic surface area increases very slightly from 3090 +/- 86 A2 for apo-cNTnC to 3108 +/- 71 A2 for Ca(2+)-cNTnC. Here, we show that measurement of solvent accessibility for backbone amide protons by means of solution-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange followed by pepsin digestion, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electrospray ionization high-field (9.4 T) Fourier transform Ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is sufficiently sensitive to detect such small ligand binding-induced conformational changes of that protein. The extent of deuterium incorporation increases significantly on binding of Ca2+ for each of four proteolytic segments derived from pepsin digestion of the apo- and Ca(2+)-saturated forms of cNTnC. The present results demonstrate that H/D exchange monitored by mass spectrometry can be sufficiently sensitive to detect and identify even very small conformational changes in proteins, and should therefore be especially informative for proteins too large (or too insoluble or otherwise intractable) for NMR analysis.  (+info)

Formation and characterization of iron-oligonucleotide complexes with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. (3/157)

Iron-containing oligonucleotide negative ions can be generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization from a stainless steel target disk (by either defocusing the laser beam or by mixing iron salts such as FeCl3 with the matrix compound during the sample preparation). High resolution mass measurements reveal the presence of both Fe2+ (as M + Fe - 3H)- and Fe3+ (as M + Fe - 4H)- in the metal-oligonucleotide ions. The presence of Fe3+ is unexpected, and must involve replacement of protons from the nucleic bases or ribose groups as well as the phosphate groups of the oligonucleotides. Inspection of a range of small oligonucleotides and mononucleotides reveals that the presence of both Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the iron-biomolecule complexes is dependent on the number of acidic hydrogens that can be replaced in the oligonucleotide or nucleotide. Collisional dissociation of several metal-tetranucleotide ions revealed that the presence of the iron ion alters the fragmentation observed. The iron atom was observed to be present in all of the fragment ions, and, whenever possible, seemed to enhance the abundance of fragment ions containing both iron and a guanine nucleic base. These results suggest that iron may serve as a useful probe for characterizing phosphorylated biomolecules.  (+info)

Laser desorption in transmission geometry inside a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. (4/157)

We report here the first application of laser desorption (LD) in transmission geometry (backside irradiation of the sample through a transparent support) inside a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR). A probe-mounted fiber optic assembly was used to simplify the implementation of this LD technique. This setup requires little or no instrument modifications, has minimum maintenance requirements, and is relatively inexpensive to build. The performance of the probe was tested by determining the molecular weight of a commercial polystyrene standard from its matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectrum. The measured average molecular weight is comparable to that obtained for the same sample by MALDI in the conventional top-illumination arrangement (reflection geometry) and by the manufacturer of the sample by gel permeation chromatography. The average velocities measured for ions evaporated by transmission mode LD of several neat samples are about half the velocity of those obtained by using the reflection geometry. Therefore, transmission mode irradiation of the sample holds promise to desorb ions that are easier to trap in an ICR cell. An oscillating capillary nebulizer was adapted for the deposition of analytes to improve sampling reproducibility.  (+info)

Determination of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine and its degradation products in environmental samples with a small low-field Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. (5/157)

3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (DCB) and its degradation products, 3-chlorobenzidine (MCB) and benzidine, are of environmental concern because of their carcinogenic nature. The suitability of a small Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer for the analysis of these environmental contaminants in different types of matrices was explored. All the measurements were carried out by depositing the sample solution directly on a disk that was introduced into the mass spectrometer. This approach is very fast and simple because it requires no prior chromatographic separation or derivatization. Calibration curves determined by collecting 70-eV electron ionization mass spectra of neat samples yielded lower limits of detection of 29 and 17 pg (total amount on the solids probe) for DCB and benzidine, respectively (based on a signal to noise ratio of > or = 2:1), while chemical ionization with ammonia resulted in lower limits of detection of 21 pg for DCB and 9 pg for benzidine (total amount on the solids probe). FT-ICR analysis of sediments collected from Lake Macatawa (Holland, MI) verified the presence of DCB in this complex, environmentally significant sample matrix. Laboratory experiments designed to probe biodegradation and photodegradation pathways showed that DCB undergoes sequential dehalogenation to yield MCB and then benzidine under exposure to microorganisms and under simulated tropospheric solar radiation. The ability of the FT-ICR to determine elemental compositions of compounds introduced as described above was demonstrated for one of the degradation products.  (+info)

Initial implementation of an electrodynamic ion funnel with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. (6/157)

Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry has become a widely used method to study biopolymers. The method, in combination with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source has demonstrated the highest resolution and accuracy yet achieved for characterization of biomolecules and their noncovalent complexes. The most common design for the ESI interface includes a heated capillary inlet followed by a skimmer having a small orifice to limit gas conductance between a higher pressure (1 to 5 torr) source region and the lower pressure ion guide. The ion losses in the capillary-skimmer interface are large (estimated to be more than 90%) and thus reduce achievable sensitivity. In this work, we report on the initial implementation of a newly developed electrodynamic ion funnel in a 3.5 tesla ESI-FTICR mass spectrometer. The initial results show dramatically improved ion transmission as compared to the conventional capillary-skimmer arrangement. An estimated detection limit of 30 zeptomoles (approximately 18,000 molecules) has been achieved for the analysis of the proteins with molecular weights ranging from 8 to 20 kDa.  (+info)

Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric analysis of the recombinant human macrophage colony stimulating factor beta and derivatives. (7/157)

The potential of electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) to assist in the structural characterization of monomeric and dimeric derivatives of the macrophage colony stimulating factor beta (rhM-CSF beta) was assessed. Mass spectrometric analysis of the 49 kDa protein required the use of sustained off-resonance irradiation (SORI) in-trap cleanup to reduce adduction. High resolution mass spectra were acquired for a fully reduced and a fully S-cyanylated monomeric derivative (approximately 25 kDa). Mass accuracy for monomeric derivatives was better than 5 ppm, after applying a new calibration method (i.e., DeCAL) which eliminates space charge effects upon high accuracy mass measurements. This high mass accuracy allowed the direct determination of the exact number of incorporated cyanyl groups. Collisionally induced dissociation using SORI yielded b- and y-fragment ions within the N- and C-terminal regions for the monomeric derivatives, but obtaining information on other regions required proteolytic digestion, or potentially the use of alternative dissociation methods.  (+info)

Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance analysis of large polymerase chain reaction products. (8/157)

In previous work, we demonstrated the use of electrospray ionization to analyze small differences in size or sequence of relatively small polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of 114 base pairs or less. The sequence information required to answer a biological question may be only a single nucleotide substitution or deletion. In many cases, the regions where these sequence variations can occur are several hundred base pairs in length, and the analysis of large PCR products is therefore desirable. Therefore, we have attempted to expand the size range of PCR products that can be analyzed by electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry. Previous work has shown that the difficulties associated with PCR product analysis increase with product size. A revised cleanup scheme was employed to target the removal of detergents with ethanol wash or precipitation steps, followed by additional desalting. Additionally, an in-trap cleanup to collisionally induce dissociation of noncovalent salt adducts was employed. This approach was extended to a 223 base pair PCR product yielding mass measurement accuracy within 26 ppM. The mass measurement accuracy obtained illustrates that a single base substitution could be identified at this size of PCR product with a 7 tesla ESI-FTICR.  (+info)

A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator that uses a magnetic field and electric field to increase the velocity of charged particles (such as protons or ions) up to high speeds. This device forms a spiral path, with the particles traveling in a circular motion within two flat, semi-circular electrodes called "dees" while being accelerated by an alternating voltage. As the particles reach the outer edge of the dees, they are deflected by a magnetic field and travel through a spiral path, gaining energy with each rotation until they reach the desired energy level.

Cyclotrons are commonly used in nuclear medicine to produce radioisotopes for medical imaging and cancer treatment. They can also be used for research purposes, such as studying the properties of subatomic particles or creating new isotopes for various applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Fourier Analysis is not a medical term. It is a mathematical concept used in various scientific fields, including physics, engineering, and signal processing.

Fourier Analysis is a method to decompose functions into sinusoidal components (sines and cosines) of different frequencies. This allows for the representation of a function or a signal as a sum of these frequency components. It's particularly useful in analyzing periodic functions, understanding signals, and solving partial differential equations.

If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a type of infrared spectroscopy that uses the Fourier transform mathematical technique to convert the raw data obtained from an interferometer into a more interpretable spectrum. This technique allows for the simultaneous collection of a wide range of wavelengths, resulting in increased sensitivity and speed compared to traditional dispersive infrared spectroscopy.

FTIR spectroscopy measures the absorption or transmission of infrared radiation by a sample as a function of frequency, providing information about the vibrational modes of the molecules present in the sample. This can be used for identification and quantification of chemical compounds, analysis of molecular structure, and investigation of chemical interactions and reactions.

In summary, FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique that uses infrared radiation to study the vibrational properties of molecules, with increased sensitivity and speed due to the use of Fourier transform mathematical techniques and an interferometer.

Mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify chemical species in a sample based on the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles. In ESI-MS, analytes are ionized through the use of an electrospray, where a liquid sample is introduced through a metal capillary needle at high voltage, creating an aerosol of charged droplets. As the solvent evaporates, the analyte molecules become charged and can be directed into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

ESI-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of large biomolecules such as proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids, due to its ability to gently ionize these species without fragmentation. The technique provides information about the molecular weight and charge state of the analytes, which can be used to infer their identity and structure. Additionally, ESI-MS can be interfaced with separation techniques such as liquid chromatography (LC) for further purification and characterization of complex samples.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

Radioactivity is not typically considered within the realm of medical definitions, but since it does have medical applications and implications, here is a brief explanation:

Radioactivity is a natural property of certain elements (referred to as radioisotopes) that emit particles or electromagnetic waves due to changes in their atomic nuclei. This process can occur spontaneously without any external influence, leading to the emission of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or neutrons. These emissions can penetrate various materials and ionize atoms along their path, which can cause damage to living tissues.

In a medical context, radioactivity is used in both diagnostic and therapeutic settings:

1. Diagnostic applications include imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), where radioisotopes are introduced into the body to visualize organ function or detect diseases like cancer.
2. Therapeutic uses involve targeting radioisotopes directly at cancer cells, either through external beam radiation therapy or internal radiotherapy, such as brachytherapy, where a radioactive source is placed near or within the tumor.

While radioactivity has significant medical benefits, it also poses risks due to ionizing radiation exposure. Proper handling and safety measures are essential when working with radioactive materials to minimize potential harm.

An ion is an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons, resulting in a net electric charge. Cations are positively charged ions, which have lost electrons, while anions are negatively charged ions, which have gained electrons. Ions can play a significant role in various physiological processes within the human body, including enzyme function, nerve impulse transmission, and maintenance of acid-base balance. They also contribute to the formation of salts and buffer systems that help regulate fluid composition and pH levels in different bodily fluids.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Particle Accelerators" are not a medical term. Particle accelerators are large pieces of scientific equipment that use electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and contain them in well-defined beams. They are used for a variety of purposes, including research in particle physics, nuclear physics, and synchrotron light sources in a wide range of disciplines, such as condensed matter physics, chemistry, biology, and materials science. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Radiochemistry is not strictly a medical definition, but it is a term that is used in the field of nuclear medicine. Radiochemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the use of radioisotopes (radioactive isotopes) in chemical reactions. In nuclear medicine, radiochemists prepare and purify radioactive drugs (radiopharmaceuticals) for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. These radiopharmaceuticals are used in various medical imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), to diagnose and monitor diseases, or in targeted therapies to treat cancer. Radiochemistry requires a deep understanding of chemistry, radiochemistry, and radiation safety.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Melitten" does not appear to be a recognized medical term or condition. It is possible that there may be a spelling mistake or typo in the term you are looking for. Please double-check the spelling and try again, or provide more context so I can try to help you find the information you're looking for.

Boron is a chemical element with the symbol B and atomic number 5. It is a metalloid that is light-colored, hard, and highly resistant to corrosion. In its crystalline form, boron is nearly as hard as diamond.

In medicine, boron compounds have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, particularly in the treatment of cancer. For example, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a type of radiation therapy that involves the use of boron-containing compounds to selectively deliver radiation to cancer cells.

Boron is also an essential micronutrient for plants and some animals, including humans. However, excessive exposure to boron can be toxic to humans and other organisms. Therefore, it is important to maintain appropriate levels of boron in the body and environment.

3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine is a chemical compound with the formula C12H8Cl2N2. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and alcohol. It is used as an intermediate in the production of dyes and pigments.

In a medical context, 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine is not used directly as a drug or therapy. However, it is considered to be a human carcinogen and has been classified as such by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Exposure to this compound can occur through occupational settings, such as in the dye and pigment industry, or through environmental contamination. Long-term exposure to 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer and other types of cancer. Therefore, it is important to minimize exposure to this compound and follow appropriate safety guidelines when handling it.

Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a technique used to identify and quantify specific molecules, such as proteins or metabolites, within complex mixtures. This method uses two or more sequential mass analyzers to first separate ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio and then further fragment the selected ions into smaller pieces for additional analysis. The fragmentation patterns generated in MS/MS experiments can be used to determine the structure and identity of the original molecule, making it a powerful tool in various fields such as proteomics, metabolomics, and forensic science.

"Noxae" is a term derived from Latin, which means "causes of damage or injury." In medical contexts, it is used to refer to harmful agents or factors that can cause harm, damage, or disease in an organism or a biological system. These harmful agents can include physical, chemical, or biological factors such as radiation, toxins, infectious microorganisms, and mechanical injuries.

Radioisotopes, also known as radioactive isotopes or radionuclides, are variants of chemical elements that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or conversion electrons. These isotopes are formed when an element's nucleus undergoes natural or artificial radioactive decay.

Radioisotopes can be produced through various processes, including nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and particle bombardment in a cyclotron or other types of particle accelerators. They have a wide range of applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, research, and energy production. In the medical field, radioisotopes are used for diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, and in the labeling of molecules for research purposes.

It is important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires proper training, safety measures, and regulatory compliance due to their ionizing radiation properties, which can pose potential health risks if not handled correctly.

In medical terms, gases refer to the state of matter that has no fixed shape or volume and expands to fill any container it is placed in. Gases in the body can be normal, such as the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen that are present in the lungs and blood, or abnormal, such as gas that accumulates in the digestive tract due to conditions like bloating or swallowing air.

Gases can also be used medically for therapeutic purposes, such as in the administration of anesthesia or in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions with oxygen therapy. Additionally, measuring the amount of gas in the body, such as through imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, can help diagnose various medical conditions.

An electronic amplifier is a device that increases the power of an electrical signal. It does this by taking a small input signal and producing a larger output signal while maintaining the same or similar signal shape. Amplifiers are used in various applications, such as audio systems, radio communications, and medical equipment.

In medical terminology, electronic amplifiers can be found in different diagnostic and therapeutic devices. For example, they are used in electrocardiogram (ECG) machines to amplify the small electrical signals generated by the heart, making them strong enough to be recorded and analyzed. Similarly, in electromyography (EMG) tests, electronic amplifiers are used to amplify the weak electrical signals produced by muscles.

In addition, electronic amplifiers play a crucial role in neurostimulation devices such as cochlear implants, which require amplification of electrical signals to stimulate the auditory nerve and restore hearing in individuals with severe hearing loss. Overall, electronic amplifiers are essential components in many medical applications that involve the detection, measurement, or manipulation of weak electrical signals.

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that is used to analyze large biomolecules such as proteins and peptides. In this technique, the sample is mixed with a matrix compound, which absorbs laser energy and helps to vaporize and ionize the analyte molecules.

The matrix-analyte mixture is then placed on a target plate and hit with a laser beam, causing the matrix and analyte molecules to desorb from the plate and become ionized. The ions are then accelerated through an electric field and into a mass analyzer, which separates them based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

The separated ions are then detected and recorded as a mass spectrum, which can be used to identify and quantify the analyte molecules present in the sample. MALDI-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of complex biological samples, such as tissue extracts or biological fluids, because it allows for the detection and identification of individual components within those mixtures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but neutrons are not a medical term. They are a fundamental particle in physics and chemistry. Neutrons are neutral particles found in the nucleus of an atom, alongside protons. Together, they make up the atomic nucleus, while electrons orbit around it.

Neutrons are not typically discussed in the context of medical definitions unless it's in relation to nuclear medicine, radiation therapy or other specialized medical fields that involve ionizing radiation and nuclear reactions. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I would be happy to help!

In the context of medicine and medical devices, calibration refers to the process of checking, adjusting, or confirming the accuracy of a measurement instrument or system. This is typically done by comparing the measurements taken by the device being calibrated to those taken by a reference standard of known accuracy. The goal of calibration is to ensure that the medical device is providing accurate and reliable measurements, which is critical for making proper diagnoses and delivering effective treatment. Regular calibration is an important part of quality assurance and helps to maintain the overall performance and safety of medical devices.

Isotope labeling is a scientific technique used in the field of medicine, particularly in molecular biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. It involves replacing one or more atoms in a molecule with a radioactive or stable isotope of the same element. This modified molecule can then be traced and analyzed to study its structure, function, metabolism, or interaction with other molecules within biological systems.

Radioisotope labeling uses unstable radioactive isotopes that emit radiation, allowing for detection and quantification of the labeled molecule using various imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This approach is particularly useful in tracking the distribution and metabolism of drugs, hormones, or other biomolecules in living organisms.

Stable isotope labeling, on the other hand, employs non-radioactive isotopes that do not emit radiation. These isotopes have different atomic masses compared to their natural counterparts and can be detected using mass spectrometry. Stable isotope labeling is often used in metabolic studies, protein turnover analysis, or for identifying the origin of specific molecules within complex biological samples.

In summary, isotope labeling is a versatile tool in medical research that enables researchers to investigate various aspects of molecular behavior and interactions within biological systems.

Deuterium exchange measurement is a technique used in physical chemistry and biochemistry to study the structure, dynamics, and interactions of proteins, peptides, and other biological macromolecules. This method involves the exchange of deuterium (a heavy isotope of hydrogen) for hydrogen atoms in the molecule of interest.

The process typically begins with the preparation of a sample containing the macromolecule, which is then exposed to an environment with a high concentration of deuterated solvent, such as heavy water (D2O). Over time, some or all of the exchangeable hydrogen atoms in the molecule will be replaced by deuterium atoms through a series of chemical reactions.

The rate and extent of this deuterium exchange can provide valuable information about various aspects of the macromolecule's structure and behavior, including:

1. Solvent accessibility: Regions of the molecule that are exposed to solvent will typically undergo faster deuterium exchange than those that are buried within the protein's core or shielded by other structures. This allows researchers to identify which parts of the molecule are accessible to the solvent and infer information about its overall shape and conformation.
2. Dynamics: The rate of deuterium exchange can also be used to study the flexibility and dynamics of different regions of the macromolecule. Flexible or disordered regions will typically exhibit faster exchange rates than more rigid or structured ones, providing insights into the molecule's internal motions and conformational changes.
3. Interactions: Deuterium exchange measurements can also be used to study how the macromolecule interacts with other molecules, such as ligands, drugs, or other proteins. By comparing the deuterium exchange patterns in the presence and absence of these interaction partners, researchers can identify which regions of the molecule are involved in binding and learn more about the nature of these interactions.

There are several experimental methods for measuring deuterium exchange, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (MS), and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Each method has its advantages and limitations, but all provide valuable information that can help researchers better understand the structure, dynamics, and function of biological macromolecules.

Liquid chromatography (LC) is a type of chromatography technique used to separate, identify, and quantify the components in a mixture. In this method, the sample mixture is dissolved in a liquid solvent (the mobile phase) and then passed through a stationary phase, which can be a solid or a liquid that is held in place by a solid support.

The components of the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase and the mobile phase, causing them to separate as they move through the system. The separated components are then detected and measured using various detection techniques, such as ultraviolet (UV) absorbance or mass spectrometry.

Liquid chromatography is widely used in many areas of science and medicine, including drug development, environmental analysis, food safety testing, and clinical diagnostics. It can be used to separate and analyze a wide range of compounds, from small molecules like drugs and metabolites to large biomolecules like proteins and nucleic acids.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

An electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e-, with a negative electric charge. Electrons are fundamental components of atoms and are responsible for the chemical bonding between atoms to form molecules. They are located in an atom's electron cloud, which is the outermost region of an atom and contains negatively charged electrons that surround the positively charged nucleus.

Electrons have a mass that is much smaller than that of protons or neutrons, making them virtually weightless on the atomic scale. They are also known to exhibit both particle-like and wave-like properties, which is a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics. Electrons play a crucial role in various physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism, and chemical reactions.

Reverse-phase chromatography is a type of liquid chromatography that is commonly used in analytical chemistry and biochemistry to separate, identify, and purify complex mixtures of chemicals or biological molecules. In this technique, the stationary phase is a nonpolar solid, such as octadecyl silica (ODS) or C18, which is coated with a polar solvent, while the mobile phase is a nonpolar solvent, such as methanol or acetonitrile.

The term "reverse-phase" refers to the fact that the polarity of the stationary and mobile phases is reversed compared to normal-phase chromatography. In normal-phase chromatography, the stationary phase is polar and the mobile phase is nonpolar, which results in the separation of analytes based on their polarity. However, in reverse-phase chromatography, the stationary phase is nonpolar and the mobile phase is polar, which means that the separation of analytes is based on their hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity.

In reverse-phase chromatography, hydrophobic molecules elute more slowly than hydrophilic molecules because they have a stronger affinity for the nonpolar stationary phase. The retention time of an analyte can be adjusted by changing the composition of the mobile phase or the pH of the solution. This technique is widely used in the analysis of drugs, metabolites, peptides, proteins, and other biological molecules.

Deuterium is a stable and non-radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The atomic nucleus of deuterium, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, giving it an atomic weight of approximately 2.014 atomic mass units (amu). It is also known as heavy hydrogen or heavy water because its hydrogen atoms contain one neutron in addition to the usual one proton found in common hydrogen atoms.

Deuterium occurs naturally in trace amounts in water and other organic compounds, typically making up about 0.015% to 0.018% of all hydrogen atoms. It can be separated from regular hydrogen through various methods such as electrolysis or distillation, and it has many applications in scientific research, particularly in the fields of chemistry and physics.

In medical contexts, deuterium is sometimes used as a tracer to study metabolic processes in the body. By replacing hydrogen atoms in specific molecules with deuterium atoms, researchers can track the movement and transformation of those molecules within living organisms. This technique has been used to investigate various physiological processes, including drug metabolism, energy production, and lipid synthesis.

Nanotechnology is not a medical term per se, but it is a field of study with potential applications in medicine. According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative, nanotechnology is defined as "the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications."

In the context of medicine, nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases. Nanomedicine involves the use of nanoscale materials, devices, or systems for medical applications. These can include drug delivery systems that target specific cells or tissues, diagnostic tools that detect biomarkers at the molecular level, and tissue engineering strategies that promote regeneration and repair.

While nanotechnology holds great promise for medicine, it is still a relatively new field with many challenges to overcome, including issues related to safety, regulation, and scalability.

There are a number of basic types of cyclotron: Classical cyclotron The earliest and simplest cyclotron. Classical cyclotrons ... Look up cyclotron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cyclotrons. The 88-Inch Cyclotron ... TRIUMF - the largest single-magnet cyclotron in the world. Ernest Lawrence's Cyclotron A history of cyclotron development at ... Beams from cyclotrons can be used in particle therapy to treat cancer. Ion beams from cyclotrons can be used, as in proton ...
... is a fellowship program for technology innovators at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, or Berkeley Lab. ... Cyclotron Road supports entrepreneurial scientists as they advance their own technology projects that have the promise of ... "Cyclotron Road". Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Retrieved 8 March 2023. "Lab-Embedded Entrepreneurship Program". U.S. ... "Introducing Activate: Expanding Cyclotron Road's model". Activate.org. Retrieved 9 March 2016. "Mission". Activate.org. ...
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator. Cyclotron may also refer to: Cyclotron (album), a 1993 album by Blind Idiot God ... two DC Comics characters The Cyclotron, a 2016 Canadian film Cyclotron, an unused 1997 Gladiators UK event Cyclotron (genus) an ... Look up cyclotron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... page lists articles associated with the title Cyclotron. If an ...
Cyclotron is the third album by Blind Idiot God, released in 1992 through Avant Records. It became the band's final studio ... Cyclotron remains Blind Idiot God's last album recorded with the original line-up intact. Composer Bill Laswell, who had worked ... Cyclotron (booklet). Blind Idiot God. Tokyo, Japan: Avant. 1992.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media ( ... All music is composed by Andy Hawkins, except "Head On" co-written by Ted Epstein and Gabriel Katz Adapted from the Cyclotron ...
An interesting feature about the cyclotron turnover is that it allows emission at frequencies lower than the cyclotron ... then the spectrum would simply be that of a Doppler-shifted cyclotron radiation, and this behavior is called cyclotron turnover ... Cyclotron turnover is one of two phenomena due to which the power spectrum of synchrotron radiation decreases at very low ... While the synchrotron self-absorption is determined from detailed balance, cyclotron turnover occurs when the assumptions of ...
... is emitted by all charged particles travelling through magnetic fields, not just those in cyclotrons. ... and the work necessary to overcome it is the main energetic cost of accelerating a particle in a cyclotron. Cyclotrons are ... Cyclotron radiation has a spectrum with its main spike at the same fundamental frequency as the particle's orbit, and harmonics ... The cyclotron makes use of the circular orbits that charged particles exhibit in a uniform magnetic field. Furthermore, the ...
The second Cyclotron is capable of generating energies. A different Cyclotron was created exclusively for the line of Super ... Cyclotron died trying to be a hero by taking the Ultra-Humanite into the atmosphere and allowing himself to blow up. Inspired ... Cyclotron is the name of two different characters appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Though a minor ... The first Cyclotron has immense strength, the ability to fly, project blasts of atomic energy, and manipulate matter on a ...
... (French: Le Cyclotron) is a Canadian historical drama film, directed by Olivier Asselin and released in 2016. The ... "Cyclotron, Le - Film de Olivier Asselin". Films du Québec (in French). February 1, 2017. "Le cyclotron: un bel objet". La ... The Cyclotron at IMDb v t e (CS1 French-language sources (fr), Articles with short description, Short description is different ...
This is only true in the non-relativistic limit, and underpins the principle of operation of the cyclotron. The cyclotron ... Ion cyclotron resonance Electron cyclotron resonance Physics by M. Alonso & E. Finn, Addison Wesley 1996. Kittel, Charles. ... The cyclotron frequency or gyrofrequency is the frequency of a charged particle moving perpendicular to the direction of a ... In some cases, the cyclotron frequency is given in Gaussian units. In Gaussian units, the Lorentz force differs by a factor of ...
"Rise of the Cyclotron". BC Business. Retrieved 2012-08-13. Advanced Cyclotron Systems (All articles with unsourced statements, ... high current cyclotron used for PET and SPECT isotopes.[citation needed] TR-30 (15 MeV to 30 MeV) high current cyclotron used ... variable energy negative ion cyclotrons TR-24 (15 to 24 MeV) high current cyclotron used for the production of PET and SPECT ... Advanced Cyclotron Systems, Inc. (ACSI) is a company based in Richmond, British Columbia, Canada that supplies and services ...
Cyclotron resonance Cyclotron ARC-ECRIS Ion cyclotron resonance Synchrotron Gyrotron De Haas-van Alphen effect In SI units, the ... In addition to heating, electron cyclotron waves can be used to drive current. The inverse process of electron cyclotron ... The angular frequency (ω = 2πf ) of this cyclotron motion for a given magnetic field strength B is given (in SI units) by ω ce ... The ECR ion source makes use of the electron cyclotron resonance to ionize a plasma. Microwaves are injected into a volume at ...
The Synchro-Cyclotron, or Synchrocyclotron (SC), built in 1957, was CERN's first accelerator. It was 15.7 metres (52 ft) in ... After a month, in a report called Provisional Program of Synchro-Cyclotron Study Group, the group decided that they would need ... Synchro-Cyclotron Divisional Reports, CERN-ARCH-Series, CERN, 1952, retrieved 17 July 2019 Hermann, Armin; Krige, Gerhard John ... "Archives of Synchro-Cyclotron Division, SC". CERN Scientific Information Service. CERN. Retrieved 30 July 2019. "The ...
The Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory operated from 1949 to 2002. It was most notable for its contributions to the development of ... The Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory was built with office of Naval Research funds between 1946 and 1949 to replace an earlier, ... Newhauser, W. D.; J. Burns; A. R. Smith (September 2002). "Dosimetry for ocular proton beam therapy at the Harvard Cyclotron ... Scholia has a profile for Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory (Q5676356). 42°22′48″N 71°06′58″W / 42.380°N 71.116°W / 42.380; - ...
Cyclotron resonance Electron cyclotron resonance In SI units, the elementary charge e has the value 1.602×10−19 C, the mass of ... Ion cyclotron resonance is a phenomenon related to the movement of ions in a magnetic field. It is used for accelerating ions ... The angular frequency of this cyclotron motion for a given magnetic field strength B is given by ω = 2 π f = z e B m , {\ ... Ion cyclotron resonance heating (or ICRH) is a technique in which electromagnetic waves with frequencies corresponding to the ...
The K1200 cyclotron was the highest-energy continuous beam accelerator in the world (as compared to synchrotrons such as the ... The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), located on the campus of Michigan State University was a rare isotope ... Established in 1963, the cyclotron laboratory has been succeeded by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, a linear accelerator ... Funded primarily by the National Science Foundation and MSU, the NSCL operated two superconducting cyclotrons. The lab's ...
The Louvain Cyclotron can also refer to Belgium's first cyclotron built in Louvain (Leuven) in 1947, which was replaced by the ... "Coeur du premier cyclotron - Louvain-la-Neuve" [Heart of the first cyclotron - Louvain-la-Neuve]. BESTOR (in French). National ... As part of this move, the University of Louvain decided to build a new cyclotron, named CYCLONE (CYClotron de LOuvain-la-Neuve ... The ateliers (the Cyclotron's technical facilities). The accelerator tower. The Cyclotron's bunker with 3 meter thick walls. ...
The Centre consists of major facilities such as K130 Cyclotron, K500 Superconducting Cyclotron, Cyclone-30 Medical Cyclotron, ... The Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) is a research and development unit of the Department of Atomic Energy. The VECC is ... The Centre houses a 224 cm cyclotron-the first of its kind in India-which has been operational since 16 June 1977. It provides ... "Cyclotron facility becomes operational in Kolkata, to boost cancer diagnosis". The Indian Express September 20, 2018 03:59 IST ...
... (TASCC) was a Canadian particle accelerator facility constructed at Chalk River ...
In plasma physics, an electrostatic ion cyclotron wave is a longitudinal oscillation of the ions (and electrons) in a ... where Ωc is the ion cyclotron frequency and vs is the ion sound speed. This relation is the result of restoring forces due to ...
... at their resonant cyclotron frequencies) to a larger cyclotron radius by an oscillating electric field orthogonal to the ... The cyclotron motion is still the frequency being used, but the relationship above is not exact due to this phenomenon. The ... Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is a type of mass analyzer (or mass spectrometer) for determining ... Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry is a high-resolution technique that can be used to ...
"Recent activities of the cyclotron laboratory in Nice" (PDF). Cyclotrons 1992. Vancouver, BC, Canada: JACoW. pp. 248-251. ... Moving to France in 1986 he helped the cancer hospital Centre Antoine Lacassagne in Nice to install a 65 MeV cyclotron for ...
small cyclotrons. 44Sc complexates with DOTA, a well-established bifunctional chelators conjugated to peptides or other ... 60 years provides a cyclotron-independent source of 44Sc for several decades. 44Ti is obtained in the nuclear reaction 45Sc(p, ... 44Sc in small cyclotrons. This isotope is of potential interest for clinical PET imaging. 44Ti with its long half-life of ca. ...
"The First Cyclotrons". American Institute of Physics. Retrieved 18 December 2011. Leinhard, John. "Joseph and John LeConte". ... Lawrence, together with students M. S. Livingston and David Sloan built an 11-inch cyclotron and installed it in room 329 ... The device was the first successful, functional cyclotron and produced a current of 1.22 MeV protons. Lawrence set up the ...
For instance, the very first cyclotron, built in 1932, was capable of producing 4.8 MeV in a device that fit on a tabletop. The ... "The First Cyclotrons". American Institute of Physics. Oliphant, Harteck & Rutherford 1934. Tuck 1958. Ruggiero 1992, p. 1. ...
The cyclotron is used for the production of fluorine-18, and is used for research purposes, particularly the development of ... "Cyclotron". McMaster University. 2011. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2011. "Member Libraries ... The university provides a wide range of irradiation, laboratory, and holding facilities, which include a cyclotron, an ...
Cyclotron A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of ... A cyclotron accelerates charged particles outwards from the center along a spiral path. The particles are held to a spiral ... "Ernest Lawrence's Cyclotron". www2.lbl.gov. Retrieved 2018-04-06. "Ernest Lawrence - Biographical". nobelprize.org. Retrieved ... Nave, C. R. (2012). "Cyclotron". Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University. Retrieved October 26, 2014. Close, F ...
After Cyclotron was released, the members began pursuing their own separate musical endeavors. Andy Hawkins began a solo guitar ... They also announced plans to re-issue Cyclotron. Though at its core heavy metal, Blind Idiot God's music is informed by punk ... Released four years later, the band's 1992 album Cyclotron was seen by some as lackluster due to the reliance on ideas ... "Cyclotron". Allmusic. Retrieved September 22, 2014. Shrum (February 24, 2015). "Blind Idiot God's 'Before Ever After' Out Today ...
"Zirconium-89 (89Zr)". Cyclotron.nl. 93Zr is a radioisotope of zirconium with a half-life of 1.53 million years, decaying ...
Most installed proton therapy systems use isochronous cyclotrons. Cyclotrons are considered simple to operate, reliable and can ... One hindrance to universal use of the proton in cancer treatment is the size and cost of the cyclotron or synchrotron equipment ... The world's first hospital-based proton therapy center was a low energy cyclotron centre for eye tumors at Clatterbridge Centre ... "Cyclotron Services". crocker.udavis.edu. University of California, Davis, Crocker Nuclear Laboratory. Retrieved 2017-10-05. " ...
Lawrence's original cyclotron design did not work for particles near the speed of light, so a new approach was needed. Edwin ... Cyclotron Road fellows receive two years of stipend, $100,000 of research support, intensive mentorship and a startup ... Ernest Lawrence, who won the Nobel prize for inventing the cyclotron, founded the Lab and served as its Director until his ... Cyclotron Road is a fellowship program for technology innovators, supporting entrepreneurial scientists as they advance their ...
There are a number of basic types of cyclotron: Classical cyclotron The earliest and simplest cyclotron. Classical cyclotrons ... Look up cyclotron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cyclotrons. The 88-Inch Cyclotron ... TRIUMF - the largest single-magnet cyclotron in the world. Ernest Lawrences Cyclotron A history of cyclotron development at ... Beams from cyclotrons can be used in particle therapy to treat cancer. Ion beams from cyclotrons can be used, as in proton ...
The particle, started near the center of the cyclotron, accelerates when passing through the gap between the… ... This simulation illustrates the operation of a cyclotron, showing a charged particle moving through combined magnetic and ... Cyclotron in 3D Model Executable Jar. A ready-to-run Java executable jar file for the Cyclotron 3D model.. download 2747kb .jar ... Cyclotron in 3D Source Code. The source code zip archive contains an XML representation of the Cyclotron 3D model. Unzip this ...
The typical parameters of the cyclotron and of the beam are reported in Supplementary Table S1. The most relevant cyclotrons, ... Papash, A. I. & Alenitsky, Y. G. Commercial cyclotrons. Part I: Commercial cyclotrons in the energy range 10-30 MeV for isotope ... to the beam of the cyclotron. Where the PTS was installed directly to the cyclotron beam port, irradiating a 45.25 ± 5.27 mg 64 ... Malinconico, M. et al. 68Ga and 45Ti production on a GE PETtrace cyclotron using the ALCEO solid target. J. Nucl. Med. 59(1), ...
CERN Document Server - Experiments and Committees (SC, Synchro-cyclotron)
It considers the installation, operational and decommissioning requirements for medical cyclotrons. ... This report covers the physics of medical cyclotrons and radiopharmaceutical production. ... The topics presented should be of interest to both those who work with cyclotrons as well as those requiring a greater ... Report 105 Medical Cyclotrons (Including PET Radiopharmaceutical Production). Published Institute of Physics & Engineering In ...
Some cyclotrons are now used in particle therapy to treat cancer.. In 1931, he succeeded in getting a five-inch cyclotron to ... He called his cyclotron a "proton merry-go-round." The general principle was to whirl protons, the nuclei of hydrogen atoms, ... The cyclotron will be displayed in the lobby of Building 50, the Labs main administrative building, in a secure case alongside ... Lawrences 11-inch cyclotron was opened at Berkeley Lab on Feb. 15 by (from left) Physics Division Director Natalie Roe, ...
Key collaborations with radiochemists at UBC, TRIUMF and the BC Cancer Agency allow developing methods for cyclotron-produced ... Key collaborations with radiochemists at UBC, TRIUMF and the BC Cancer Agency allow developing methods for cyclotron-produced ...
The official unveiling of the Thunder Bay Cyclotron will happen today at 2:00PM EDT. Officials including Minister Greg Rickford ... THUNDER BAY - The official unveiling of the Thunder Bay Cyclotron will happen today at 2:00PM EDT. ... A historic day for Thunder Bay as the Cyclotron hosts its official unveiling. ...
Use the cyclotron frequency calculator to explore the world of the first particles accelerators. ... What is a cyclotron?. Cyclotrons were one of the first particle accelerators. The particles in a cyclotron are moving in ... Cyclotron velocity. In the advanced mode. of the cyclotron frequency calculator, you can compute the cyclotron velocity. It is ... Reading the text below, you will learn what a cyclotron is, how to compute cyclotron frequency and what cyclotron velocity is. ...
18 million over the next three years to build Calgarys first cyclotron and a new radiopharmaceutical facility. The funding is ... "A cyclotron in Calgary will improve access to a wide variety of diagnostic products as we will be able produce the ... This new cyclotron will help those diagnosed with cancer and other health conditions and will create new opportunities for ... Having a cyclotron right here in Calgary will support world class research, diagnostics and treatments. I speak from personal ...
What is a Cyclotron: Cyclotrons are particle accelerators that produce medical radioisotopes such as Technitium-99 or Flourine- ... The announcement of the cyclotron funding sets us apart. And, because there are so few cyclotrons in the world it positions us ... "This is a remarkable commitment, and one that reaffirms our membership with the National Cyclotron Network. Having a cyclotron ... "A Cyclotron based in Thunder Bay can, for the most part, alleviate the need for isotopes that are produced by nuclear reactors ...
The new cyclotron from Varian Medical Systems ACCEL group is a key component of the equipment and is expected to facilitate ... Varian/ACCELs superconducting cyclotron enables proton therapy to be delivered in the most accurate, effective and efficient ... Jermann said that the new cyclotron would allow the institutes proton therapy facility to operate all year rather than being ... The Varian/ACCEL superconducting cyclotron represents a dedicated proton source for the PSI equipment, with beam-lines to ...
cyclotron_1984(c1984Delay * 2); } else { // 2021. cyclotron_2021(c2021Delay * 10); } } } int cyclotron_2021(int cDelay) { if( ... Cyclotron lights ramp up and ramp down when powering up the pack or shutting it down.. -Can run the pack without the cyclotron ... CYCLOTRON LIGHT MOD **************. With this you have full control of the cyclotron LEDs. 1984 mode has just the single LED ... With the old RI wire removed from the cyclotron LED board. Run a new wire from the RI pin on the cyclotron LED board to a ...
In this study, we highlight an interesting case where the cyclotron frequency of ions is on par with the frequency of an RF ... We found that the combination of RF sheath rectification and cyclotron resonance generate trends of the RF sheath impedance ... Abstract: PP11.00083 : Behavior of RF sheath admittance across Ion Cyclotron Resonance analyzed with fluid theory and large- ...
The Jyväskylä Accelerator Laboratory has two cyclotrons, the K130 cyclotron which has been in use since 1992 and the MCC30/15 H ... An accelerator module based on a injector cyclotron and a Superconducting Ring Cyclotron (SRC) able to accelerate H2+ at energy ... IBA developed an evolution of its well-known Cyclone 30 cyclotron. The Cyclone 30XP is a multi-particle, multiport cyclotron ... The evaluation of space charge effects are challenging, for both the injector cyclotron (DIC) and the main ring cyclotron (DSRC ...
The Cyclotron Institutes annual report for 2021-2022, Progress in Research, is now available. ...
Electromagnetic electron whistler-cyclotron instability in bi-Kappa distributed plasmas A&A 554, A64 (2013). ... The electromagnetic ion-cyclotron instability in bi-Kappa distributed plasmas. M. Lazar ... ion-cyclotron (EMIC) waves generated either locally and self-consistently by the kinetic anisotropies of ions, or closer to the ...
... cyclotron used in the production of radioisotopes for medical drugs like radiopharmaceuticals, which diagnose and treat cancer. ... Increase cyclotron operational efficiency with single-beam mode. *Decrease total target load time and lower operational costs ... Maximize the potential and longevity of your Eclipse™ cyclotron by upgrading to Eclipse View. This upgrade offers improved ... Siemens Healthineers is a distributor of this targetry system for Siemens Eclipse cyclotron systems. ...
Transactions on Applied Superconductivity describes the use of Metrolabs FDI2056 and PT2026 to map a superconducting cyclotron ... A superconducting cyclotron named CYCIAE-230 is designed and under construction at the China Institute of Atomic Energy, ... M. Li et al., "Field Mapping System Design for the Superconducting Cyclotron CYCIAE-230," in IEEE Transactions on Applied ... China Institute of Atomic Energy publishes article on field mapper for superconducting cyclotron. 7月 11, 2018 , Integrators, ...
The development of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) spectroscopy is traced from its 1973 conception by ... The early development of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (PT-ICR) spectroscopy. ... The early development of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (PT-ICR) spectroscopy. ... The early development of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (PT-ICR) spectroscopy ...
A 1950 photograph of the cyclotron, an early particle accelerator invented by Ernest Lawrence, which was used to develop an ... A 1950 photograph of the cyclotron, an early particle accelerator invented by Ernest Lawrence, which was used to develop an ... A 1950 photograph of the cyclotron, an early particle accelerator invented by Ernest Lawrence, which was used to develop an ... "Cyclotron," Digital Public Library of America, https://dp.la/item/f4195e84dbc6066aaf378c71e179599b.. Note: These citations are ...
Author(s): Clark, D.J.; Gough, R.A.
Cyclotron - jQuery Plugin for Dragging 360° panoramas, jQuery plugins ... Cyclotron - jQuery Plugin for Dragging 360° panoramas. July 30, 2012 3012 Drag & Drop ... Cyclotron is a simple jQuery plugin for dragging 360° panoramas (cylindrical projection) and other seamlessly looping images ...
Enhanced focussing in cyclotrons by radial and azimuthal variation in magnetic field ...
Medium to large scale radioisotope production for targeted radiotherapy using a small PET cyclotron. In: Applied Radiation and ... Medium to large scale radioisotope production for targeted radiotherapy using a small PET cyclotron. / Thisgaard, Helge; Jensen ... Medium to large scale radioisotope production for targeted radiotherapy using a small PET cyclotron. Applied Radiation and ... title = "Medium to large scale radioisotope production for targeted radiotherapy using a small PET cyclotron", ...
Electron Cyclotron Masers: from plasma physics to NMR spectroscopy applications (41). Crystallography at SLS, SINQ and SNBL (40 ... Heating and current drive of fusion plasma by electron cyclotron wave: the technological challenges *. This article is only ... Heating and current drive of fusion plasma by electron cyclotron wave: the technological challenges. (47) ...
Optimization of ion cyclotron minority heating regime in tokamaks Cotsaftis, M.. Association Euratom-CEA, Centre dEtudes ...
As cyclotron resonance can only be measured with non zero free electron concentration, and because the 2p - shallow donor level ... As cyclotron resonance can only be measured with non zero free electron concentration, and because the 2p - shallow donor level ... Thus effective masses determined by standard cyclotron resonance methods at low magnetic fields may be incorrect by a few ... For magnetic field strengthsB,1 t="" a="" field="" dependent="" deviation="",E 2 +-E 1p - from the cyclotron resonance quantum ...
  • Seventy-five years after one of the world's first working cyclotrons was handed to the London Science Museum, it has returned to its birthplace in the Berkeley hills, where the man who invented it, Ernest O. Lawrence, helped launch the field of modern particle physics as well as the national laboratory that would bear his name, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (lbl.gov)
  • Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (lu.se)
  • A cyclotron accelerates charged particles outwards from the center of a flat cylindrical vacuum chamber along a spiral path. (wikipedia.org)
  • WORKING PROCESS : * A cyclotron accelerates charged particles with a high-frequency, alternating voltage (potential difference). (yourvdesk.com)
  • In these applications, Szilárd became the first person to discuss the resonance condition (what is now called the cyclotron frequency) for a circular accelerating apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that the combination of RF sheath rectification and cyclotron resonance generate trends of the RF sheath impedance analogous to the classical driven damped harmonic oscillator, where charge density damps ion admittance. (aps.org)
  • A search-coil sensor based mapping system was developed to satisfy the measurement accuracy requirements, including a nuclear magnetic resonance probe to precisely measure the field at the cyclotron center and a moving search coil to obtain the field differences. (metrolab.com)
  • The development of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) spectroscopy is traced from its 1973 conception by analogy to Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance (FT-NMR) spectroscopy and its 1974 experimental demonstration to its 1978 demonstration as the technique of choice for examining complex ion chemistry. (ubc.ca)
  • In summary our results show that photoconductivity and optical absorption under cyclotron resonance conditions in high purity n-GaAs are more complex than it has been assumed previously. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • As cyclotron resonance can only be measured with non zero free electron concentration, and because the 2p - shallow donor level remains below the N=0 Landau level for all magnetic field strengths, a certain population of 2p - states must be present and thus the interference between both absorption processes is unavoidable as long as 2p -rarr2p + electric dipole transitions are activated by ionized impuritics. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Even at lower intensities however when the dip in the photoconductivity line is not observable, all optical characteristics previously attributed to cyclotron resonance are affected by the shallow donor absorption. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • E 2 +-E 1p - from the cyclotron resonance quantum energy was observed [15] amounting up to 8 pc. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Thus effective masses determined by standard cyclotron resonance methods at low magnetic fields may be incorrect by a few percent. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Rhapso: Automatic Stitching of Mass Segments from Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectra. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) provides the resolution and mass accuracy needed to analyze complex mixtures such as crude oil . (bvsalud.org)
  • Wand sub menu allowing you to toggle various settings: 1984/1989/2021 mode, cyclotron rotation direction, vibration, smoke, crossing the streams / video game modes. (gbfans.com)
  • The Cyclotron Institute's annual report for 2021-2022, Progress in Research , is now available. (tamu.edu)
  • On Jan. 9, 1932 the brass cyclotron-which measures 26 inches from end to end and whose accelerating chamber measures just 11 inches in diameter-was successfully used to boost protons to energies of 1.22 million electron volts. (lbl.gov)
  • In 1931, he succeeded in getting a five-inch cyclotron to boost protons to 80,000 electron volts, but he knew he needed a machine to break the 1 million electron volt barrier. (lbl.gov)
  • Societé Suisse de Physique -Heating and current drive of fusion plasma by electron cyclotron wave: the technological challenges. (sps.ch)
  • In a cyclotron, by contrast, the particles encounter the accelerating region many times by following a spiral path, so the output energy can be many times the energy gained in a single accelerating step. (wikipedia.org)
  • The particles in a cyclotron are moving in semicircular paths. (omnicalculator.com)
  • Particles in a cyclotron move in spiraling trajectories . (omnicalculator.com)
  • The cyclotron boosts the energy of charged particles by using both electric and magnetic fields. (yourvdesk.com)
  • Suppose, Working principle of cyclotron A cyclotron is a particle accelerator, which accelerates a beam of charged particles at very high speed with the help of a high-frequency alternating voltage which is applied between the two D shaped hollow metal plate electrodes, called dees in a vacuum chamber. (wesstong.com)
  • Cyclotron is a device used to accelerate charged particles to high energies. (wesstong.com)
  • The candidate particles, ranging from protons to nuclei as massive as iron, generate "extensive air-showers" (EAS) in interactions with air nuclei when en- tering the Earth's atmosphere. (lu.se)
  • VILLIGEN, Switzerland, March 22 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Clinicians at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland have begun clinical treatments using the world's first commercial superconducting cyclotron for routine medical use, enabling high-precision proton therapy treatments for a range of cancer patients. (varian.com)
  • 4.2 K500 Cyclotron The K500 cyclotron was completed in 1982 as the world's first superconducting cyclotron, and as such was prototypical. (yourvdesk.com)
  • This report covers the physics of medical cyclotrons and radiopharmaceutical production. (ipem.ac.uk)
  • It is intended to be read by scientific and technical staff and aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the theory and methodology of cyclotrons and radiopharmaceutical production. (ipem.ac.uk)
  • Starting with a brief history and general introduction to cyclotrons, the report continues with substantial in-depth chapters on the physics of cyclotrons and radiopharmaceutical production. (ipem.ac.uk)
  • CALGARY - Alberta is committing more than $18 million over the next three years to build Calgary's first cyclotron and a new radiopharmaceutical facility. (canhealth.com)
  • While the exact location of the new cyclotron and radiopharmaceutical facility is still being finalized, initial planning steps have been completed. (canhealth.com)
  • A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was patented in 1932 and seven years later he would be awarded the Nobel Prize for physics for his cyclotron discoveries. (lbl.gov)
  • By the late 1930s it had become clear that there was a practical limit on the beam energy that could be achieved with the traditional cyclotron design, due to the effects of special relativity. (wikipedia.org)
  • To address this issue and reach higher beam energies using cyclotrons, two primary approaches were taken, synchrocyclotrons (which hold the magnetic field constant, but decrease the accelerating frequency) and isochronous cyclotrons (which hold the accelerating frequency constant, but alter the magnetic field). (wikipedia.org)
  • Looking at cyclotron solid targets, uncertainties of the particle beam, material composition and geometry play a crucial role in determining the results. (nature.com)
  • Two patients with chordomas - bone tumors in the spinal region - were the first to be treated using protons generated by the new 250 MeV cyclotron, which is designed for high efficiency, low energy consumption, high reliability and modern treatment features such as spot scanning, enabling highly effective proton dose distribution in three dimensions, and beam intensity modulation. (varian.com)
  • The Varian/ACCEL superconducting cyclotron represents a dedicated proton source for the PSI equipment, with beam-lines to supply up to 250 MeV protons to the spot-scanning gantry for deep-seated tumor treatments. (varian.com)
  • The Varian/ACCEL superconducting cyclotron, degrader, beam line and gantries will enable PSI to maintain and enhance its international reputation as a unique high-tech laboratory for advanced proton therapy as well as a leading clinical proton therapy research center. (varian.com)
  • A superconducting cyclotron named CYCIAE-230 is designed and under construction at the China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, China, to provide a 230-MeV proton beam for cancer therapy. (metrolab.com)
  • A charged particle beam is accelerated in a cyclotron by applying a high-frequency alternating voltage between two hollow "D"-shaped sheet metal electrodes inside a vacuum chamber called the "dees. (wesstong.com)
  • Dr. Jermann said that the new cyclotron would allow the institute's proton therapy facility to operate all year rather than being limited to just 6-8 months, as was the case with the department's previous equipment. (varian.com)
  • The cyclotron frequency calculator helps you calculate the frequency of circular motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field. (omnicalculator.com)
  • Reading the text below, you will learn what a cyclotron is, how to compute cyclotron frequency and what cyclotron velocity is. (omnicalculator.com)
  • This rate is the cyclotron frequency . (omnicalculator.com)
  • So how to compute cyclotron frequency? (omnicalculator.com)
  • The cyclotron frequency comes from balancing the Lorentz force and centrifugal force. (omnicalculator.com)
  • of the cyclotron frequency calculator, you can compute the cyclotron velocity . (omnicalculator.com)
  • It is a velocity of a particle moving in a circle with cyclotron frequency. (omnicalculator.com)
  • The equation for the cyclotron frequency does not take this effect into account, and that's why it might sometimes give wrong answers. (omnicalculator.com)
  • What is the cyclotron frequency? (omnicalculator.com)
  • The cyclotron frequency is the frequency at which a charged particle revolves in a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of the movement. (omnicalculator.com)
  • The cyclotron frequency is also the swapping frequency of the electric field in a cyclotron that allows the acceleration of the particle on a spiraling path. (omnicalculator.com)
  • How do I calculate the cyclotron frequency? (omnicalculator.com)
  • What is the cyclotron frequency for a proton moving in a 1 T field? (omnicalculator.com)
  • In this study, we highlight an interesting case where the cyclotron frequency of ions is on par with the frequency of an RF sheath in an oblique magnetic case. (aps.org)
  • Observations regularly show low-frequency fluctuations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), which are attributed to the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) waves generated either locally and self-consistently by the kinetic anisotropies of ions, or closer to the Sun (through a nonlinear cascade from long to short wavelengths), and transported by the super-Alfvénic solar wind. (aanda.org)
  • 5]. Since the construction of the fixed-frequency Ring Cyclotron (fRC) will be started in May 2005 in the E4 target room as shown Fig. Explain the construction and working of Cyclotron. (yourvdesk.com)
  • Thus, the above equation is known as the expression for cyclotron frequency. (wesstong.com)
  • Cyclotron uses the fact that the frequency of revolution of the charged particle in a magnetic field is independent of its energy. (wesstong.com)
  • Cyclotron maser instabilities are important in space, astrophysical, and laboratory plasmas. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • He called his cyclotron a "proton merry-go-round. (lbl.gov)
  • Varian/ACCEL's superconducting cyclotron enables proton therapy to be delivered in the most accurate, effective and efficient manner possible and we are delighted that treatments are underway at PSI. (varian.com)
  • Options are being explored to decide upon the exact location of where the cyclotron will be housed, including onsite at the TBRHSC campus or at the ICR Discoveries campus on Munro Street. (netnewsledger.com)
  • N-ammonia , the other US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved tracer, is available in unit dosing, but its short half-life means that centers need an onsite cyclotron, Salerno said. (medscape.com)
  • Lawrence received the 1939 Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first European cyclotron was constructed in the Soviet Union in the physics department of the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute in Leningrad, headed by Vitaly Khlopin [ru]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ernest O. Lawrence's 11-inch cyclotron has returned to Berkeley Lab after 75 years. (lbl.gov)
  • Lawrence's cyclotrons would become popularized as "atom smashers" and were the forerunners of the Large Hadron Collider-5.4 miles in diameter-and other modern-day accelerators. (lbl.gov)
  • EVOLUTION OF CYCLOTRON433 Fig. Birmingham - The Nuffield Cyclotron At Birmingham, Marcus Oliphant wanted to build a copy of Lawrence's 60' cyclotron. (yourvdesk.com)
  • Thisgaard, H , Jensen, M & Elema, DR 2011, ' Medium to large scale radioisotope production for targeted radiotherapy using a small PET cyclotron ', Applied Radiation and Isotopes , vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 1-7. (dtu.dk)
  • Learn cyclotron principle, uses & limitations at BYJU'S Cyclotron: Cyclotron is a device used to accelerate charged bodies to very high velocities (or high kinetic energies) using crossed (or mutually perpendicular) electric and magnetic fields. (yourvdesk.com)
  • Principle of a cyclotron: A charged particle can be accelerated to very high energies by passing it through a moderate electric field a number of times. (wesstong.com)
  • Principle of Cyclotrons. (wesstong.com)
  • Answer (1 of 3): The principle of cyclotron is cross magnetic and electric field which combinedly increases the velocity of a charge particle. (wesstong.com)
  • State the principle of working of a cyclotron. (wesstong.com)
  • Cyclotron Class 12, Definition, Working Principle, Uses, Advantages And Limitations - Laws Of Nature We have seen in previous articles that hows a charged particle moves in the combined effect of an electric and magnetic field. (wesstong.com)
  • This simulation illustrates the operation of a cyclotron, showing a charged particle moving through combined magnetic and electric fields. (compadre.org)
  • He was assisted by a graduate student, M. Stanley Livingston Their first working cyclotron became operational in January 1931. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several months later, in the early summer of 1929, Ernest Lawrence independently conceived the cyclotron concept after reading a paper by Rolf Widerøe describing a drift tube accelerator. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 1950 photograph of the cyclotron, an early particle accelerator invented by Ernest Lawrence, which was used to develop an atomic bomb. (dp.la)
  • It considers the installation, operational and decommissioning requirements for medical cyclotrons. (ipem.ac.uk)
  • THUNDER BAY - The official unveiling of the Thunder Bay Cyclotron will happen today at 2:00PM EDT. (netnewsledger.com)
  • Home NNL Headline News Cyclotron and radiopharmacy - Thunder Bay Bound! (netnewsledger.com)
  • Cyclotron and radiopharmacy - Thunder Bay Bound! (netnewsledger.com)
  • THUNDER BAY - "Today's Federal Budget includes a commitment to $4 million in funding to purchase a cyclotron and radiopharmacy, and to build the space to house the cyclotron in Thunder Bay. (netnewsledger.com)
  • This brings the total funding envelope to $9.4 million dollars for the cyclotron project that will be housed at the Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute (TBRRI) and Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre (TBRHSC). (netnewsledger.com)
  • Having a cyclotron in the Northwest will allow us to do our part in helping guard against medical isotope shortages in the future," says Keith Jobbitt, Chair of the Board, Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute. (netnewsledger.com)
  • A Cyclotron based in Thunder Bay can, for the most part, alleviate the need for isotopes that are produced by nuclear reactors. (netnewsledger.com)
  • As of 2020, close to 1,500 cyclotrons were in use worldwide for the production of radionuclides for nuclear medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Key collaborations with radiochemists at UBC, TRIUMF and the BC Cancer Agency allow developing methods for cyclotron-produced radioisotopes and purification as an attractive and practical substitution of reactors/generators, e.g 44 Sc, 86 Y and 61 Cu 68 Ga or 99m Tc (actually available for patient SPECT imaging). (bccrc.ca)
  • A cyclotron is a machine that produces radioisotopes (radioactive atoms). (canhealth.com)
  • What is a Cyclotron: Cyclotrons are particle accelerators that produce medical radioisotopes such as Technitium-99 or Flourine-18 used in different medical procedures to detect cancer, heart disease, or kidney malfunction, among others. (netnewsledger.com)
  • The primary accelerators before the development of the cyclotron were electrostatic accelerators, such as the Cockcroft-Walton generator and the Van de Graaff generator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclotrons were one of the first particle accelerators. (omnicalculator.com)
  • The course deals with different accelerators (cyclotrons, microtrons, linear accelerators and synchrotrons), and their function and structure. (lu.se)
  • The core of the cyclotron is the chamber: two metal canisters shaped like the letter 'D,' placed back to back to make a circle. (yourvdesk.com)
  • The first set of AVF pole tips measured were of the simplest design, and are shown installed with the cyclotron chamber removed in figure 4. (koethcyclotron.org)
  • design parameters of the updated cyclotron have been obtained: RESUME OF CYCLOTRON PROJECT by T. Moreno Abstract In preparation for the construction of a 600-Mev synchro-cyclo-tron at Brookhaven National Laboratory, preliminary design work on the r-f circuit was undertaken at the Research Laboratory of Electronics. (yourvdesk.com)
  • Ernest O. Lawrence (left), Harold Walke, and Paul Aebersold (with cyclotron-shaped cake), on Nov. 17, 1939 at a dinner at an Albany, CA restaurant in honor of Lawrence winning the Nobel Prize. (lbl.gov)
  • The Calgary cyclotron will also begin developing novel radiopharmaceuticals with very short half-lives of less than 20 minutes, since they can be used and studied immediately. (canhealth.com)
  • A cyclotron in Calgary will improve access to a wide variety of diagnostic products as we will be able produce the radiopharmaceuticals on site. (canhealth.com)
  • This cyclotron will produce a precious commodity of medical isotopes for medical imaging and medical research in our region. (netnewsledger.com)
  • The new cyclotron from Varian Medical Systems' ACCEL group is a key component of the equipment and is expected to facilitate more accurate treatments with fewer side effects. (varian.com)
  • In this study we have developed a high-current solid target system and demonstrated that by the use of a typical low-energy medical cyclotron, it is possible to produce tens of GBq's of many unconventional radionuclides relevant for cancer therapy such as 64Cu and 119Sb locally at the hospitals. (dtu.dk)
  • The application for consent for Design and construction approval for medical cyclotron facility is given in eLORA. (yourvdesk.com)
  • Having a cyclotron right here in Calgary will support world class research, diagnostics and treatments. (canhealth.com)
  • The particle, started near the center of the cyclotron, accelerates when passing through the gap between the electric electrodes and is turned by a perpendicular magnetic field. (compadre.org)
  • It was the first cyclotron with a Greinacher multiplier to increase the voltage to 2.8 MV and 3 mA current. (wikipedia.org)
  • Siikanen J, Tran T A, Olsson T G, Strand S-E, Sandell A. A solid target system with remote handling of irradiated targets for PET cyclotrons. (lu.se)
  • In addition, cyclotrons can be used for particle therapy, where particle beams are directly applied to patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cyclotrons are now used in particle therapy to treat cancer. (lbl.gov)
  • The primary and secondary radiations are stopped in the cyclotron structure and deposit their kinetic energy as heat. (yourvdesk.com)
  • Cyclotron Introduction A cyclotron is used for accelerating positive ions so that they acquire energy large enough to carry out nuclear reactions. (wesstong.com)
  • The detailed analysis of cyclotron resonances implies the presence of massless Kane electrons at a large energy scale, while the symmetry-protected 3D Dirac cones may appear at a small scale. (idsi.md)
  • This page includes links to information on the operation of cyclotrons. (compadre.org)
  • Maximize the potential and longevity of your Eclipse™ cyclotron by upgrading to Eclipse View. (siemens-healthineers.com)
  • The CC-18/9M cyclotron system has been designed, manufactured and delivered to JSC 'NIITFA', Moscow to be operated in a pilot PET center. (yourvdesk.com)
  • After 18 years Pamela Patterson finally receives shipment of the 11-inch cyclotron. (lbl.gov)
  • This upgrade refreshes your machine with a new modern control system to lay the foundation to extend the life of your Eclipse cyclotron for many years to come. (siemens-healthineers.com)
  • A cyclotron consists of a constant magnetic field and a variable rf-electric field . (omnicalculator.com)
  • Field Mapping System Design for the Superconducting Cyclotron CYCIAE-230," in IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity , vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 1-4, April 2018. (metrolab.com)
  • Siemens Healthineers is a distributor of this targetry system for Siemens Eclipse cyclotron systems. (siemens-healthineers.com)
  • He published a paper in Science in 1930 (the first published description of the cyclotron concept), after a student of his built a crude model in April of that year. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this project, a 100 MeV H- cyclotron, CYCIAE-100 is selected as the driving accelerator. (yourvdesk.com)
  • this is project file on the topic cyclotron. (wesstong.com)
  • The 2nd cyclotron harmonic peniotron oscillator with a magnetron type waveguide cavity has been studied experimentally. (elsevierpure.com)