A continuous circle of peptide bonds, typically of 2-3 dozen AMINO ACIDS, so there is no free N- or C-terminus. They are further characterized by six conserved CYSTEINE residues that form CYSTINE KNOT MOTIFS.
A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Some species are used as an ingredient in Chinese and African traditional medicines. Members contain kalata B1, a macrocyclic peptide.
Amino acid sequence in which two disulfide bonds (DISULFIDES) and their connecting backbone form a ring that is penetrated by a third disulfide bond. Members include CYCLOTIDES and agouti-related protein.
A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains ternatins (anthocyanins) and preternatins, antifungal proteins, stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione, and clitoriacetal (ROTENONE).
Infestation with nematode worms of the genus TRICHOSTRONGYLUS. Man and animals become infected by swallowing larvae, usually with contaminated food or drink, although the larvae may penetrate human skin.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the digestive tract of herbivorous animals. They cause incidental infections in humans from the following species: Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. orientalis, T. axei, and T. probolurus.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subclass of sodium channel blockers that are specific for ACID-SENSING SODIUM CHANNELS.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
A syrup made from the dried rhizomes of two different species, CEPHAELIS ipecacuanha and C. acuminata. They contain EMETINE, cephaeline, psychotrine and other ISOQUINOLINES. Ipecac syrup is used widely as an emetic acting both locally on the gastric mucosa and centrally on the chemoreceptor trigger zone.
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.
A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.
A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.
A composition in prose or verse presenting in dialogue or pantomime a story involving various characters, usually intended to be acted on a stage and to be regarded as a form of entertainment. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).

An unusual structural motif of antimicrobial peptides containing end-to-end macrocycle and cystine-knot disulfides. (1/74)

Four macrocyclic cystine-knot peptides of 29-31 residues, kalata, circulin A and B (CirA and CirB), and cyclopsychotride, have been isolated from coffee plants but have undetermined physiological functions. These macrocycles and 10 of their analogs prepared by chemical synthesis were tested against nine strains of microbes. Kalata and CirA were specific for the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibition concentration of approximately 0.2 microM. They were relatively ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, CirB and cyclopsychotride were active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In particular, CirB showed potent activity against E. coli with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.41 microM. All four cyclic peptides were moderately active against two strains of fungi, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis, but were inactive against Candida albicans. These macrocycles are cytotoxic and lysed human red blood cell with a lethal dose 50% of 400 microM. Modifying the Arg residue in kalata with a keto aldehyde significantly reduced its activity against S. aureus whereas blocking the arg in CirA produced no significant effect. The two-disulfide variants and their scrambled disulfide isomers exhibited antimicrobial profiles and potency similar to their native peptides. However, in high-salt assays (100 mM NaCl), few of these macrocyclic peptides, natives or analogs, retained antimicrobial activity. These results show that the macrocyclic peptides possess specific and potent antimicrobial activity that is salt-dependent and that their initial interactions with the microbial surfaces may be electrostatic, an effect commonly found in defensin antimicrobial peptides. Furthermore, their end-to-end cyclic structure with a cystine-knot motif represents a molecular structure of antimicrobials and may provide a useful template for the design of novel peptide antibiotics.  (+info)

Acyclic permutants of naturally occurring cyclic proteins. Characterization of cystine knot and beta-sheet formation in the macrocyclic polypeptide kalata B1. (2/74)

Kalata B1 is a prototypic member of the unique cyclotide family of macrocyclic polypeptides in which the major structural features are a circular peptide backbone, a triple-stranded beta-sheet, and a cystine knot arrangement of three disulfide bonds. The cyclotides are the only naturally occurring family of circular proteins and have prompted us to explore the concept of acyclic permutation, i.e. opening the backbone of a cross-linked circular protein in topologically permuted ways. We have synthesized the complete suite of acyclic permutants of kalata B1 and examined the effect of acyclic permutation on structure and activity. Only two of six topologically distinct backbone loops are critical for folding into the native conformation, and these involve disruption of the embedded ring in the cystine knot. Surprisingly, it is possible to disrupt regions of the beta-sheet and still allow folding into native-like structure, provided the cystine knot is intact. Kalata B1 has mild hemolytic activity, but despite the overall structure of the native peptide being retained in all but two cases, none of the acyclic permutants displayed hemolytic activity. This loss of activity is not localized to one particular region and suggests that cyclization is critical for hemolytic activity.  (+info)

Cyclotides: a novel type of cytotoxic agents. (3/74)

Cytotoxic activities of three naturally occurring macrocyclic peptides (cyclotides) isolated from the two violets, Viola arvensis Murr. and Viola odorata L., were investigated. A nonclonogenic fluorometric microculture assay was used to examine cytotoxicity in a panel of 10 human tumor cell lines representing defined types of cytotoxic drug resistance. Additionally, primary cultures of tumor cells from patients, and for comparison normal lymphocytes, were used to quantify cytotoxic activity. All three cyclotides, varv A, varv F, and cycloviolacin 02, exhibited strong cytotoxic activities, which varied in a dose-dependent manner. Cycloviolacin 02 was the most potent in all cell lines (IC50 0.1-0.3 microM), followed by varv A (IC50 2.7-6.35 microM) and varv F (IC50 2.6-7.4 microM), respectively. Activity profiles of the cyclotides differed significantly from those of antitumor drugs in clinical use, which may indicate a new mode of action. This, together with the exceptional chemical and biological stability of cyclotides, makes them interesting in particular for their potential as pharmacological tools and possibly as leads to antitumor agents.  (+info)

Disulfide folding pathways of cystine knot proteins. Tying the knot within the circular backbone of the cyclotides. (4/74)

The plant cyclotides are a fascinating family of circular proteins that contain a cyclic cystine knot motif. The knotted topology and cyclic nature of the cyclotides pose interesting questions about folding mechanisms and how the knotted arrangement of disulfide bonds is formed. In the current study we have examined the oxidative refolding and reductive unfolding of the prototypic cyclotide, kalata B1. A stable two-disulfide intermediate accumulated during oxidative refolding but not in reductive unfolding. Mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy were used to show that the intermediate contained a native-like structure with two native disulfide bonds topologically similar to the intermediate isolated for the related cystine knot protein EETI-II (Le-Nguyen, D., Heitz, A., Chiche, L., El Hajji, M., and Castro B. (1993) Protein Sci. 2, 165-174). However, the folding intermediate observed for kalata B1 is not the immediate precursor of the three-disulfide native peptide and does not accumulate in the reductive unfolding process, in contrast to the intermediate observed for EETI-II. These alternative pathways of linear and cyclic cystine knot proteins appear to be related to the constraints imposed by the cyclic backbone of kalata B1 and the different ring size of the cystine knot. The three-dimensional structure of a synthetic version of the two-disulfide intermediate of kalata B1 in which Ala residues replace the reduced Cys residues provides a structural insight into why the two-disulfide intermediate is a kinetic trap on the folding pathway.  (+info)

The CRIPTO/FRL-1/CRYPTIC (CFC) domain of human Cripto. Functional and structural insights through disulfide structure analysis. (5/74)

The disulfide structure of the CRIPTO/FRL-1/CRYPTIC (CFC) domain of human Cripto protein was determined by a combination of enzymatic and chemical fragmentation, followed by chromatographic separation of the fragments, and characterization by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. These studies showed that Cys115 forms a disulfide bond with Cys133, Cys128 with Cys149, and Cys131 with Cys140. Protein database searching and molecular modeling revealed that the pattern of disulfide linkages in the CFC domain of Cripto is the same as that in PARS intercerebralis major Peptide C (PMP-C), a serine protease inhibitor, and that the EGF-CFC domains of Cripto are predicted to be structurally homologous to the EGF-VWFC domains of the C-terminal extracellular portions of Jagged 1 and Jagged 2. Biochemical studies of the interactions of ALK4 with the CFC domain of Cripto by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis indicate that the CFC domain binds to ALK4 independent of the EGF domain. A molecular model of the CFC domain of Cripto was constructed based on the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of PMP-C. This model reveals a hydrophobic patch in the domain opposite to the presumed ALK4 binding site. This hydrophobic patch may be functionally important for the formation of intra or intermolecular complexes.  (+info)

Disulfide mapping of the cyclotide kalata B1. Chemical proof of the cystic cystine knot motif. (6/74)

The cyclotides are a recently discovered family of plant proteins that have the fascinating structural feature of a continuous cyclic backbone and, putatively, a knotted arrangement of their three conserved disulfide bonds. We here show definite chemical proof of the I-IV, II-V, III-VI knotted disulfide connectivity of the prototypic cyclotide kalata B1. This has been achieved by a new approach for disulfide analysis, involving partial reduction and stepwise alkylation including introduction of charges and enzymatic cleavage sites by aminoethylation of cysteines. The approach overcomes the intrinsic difficulties for disulfide mapping of cyclotides, i.e. the cyclic amide backbone, lack of cleavage sites between cysteines, and a low or clustered content of basic amino acids, and allowed a direct determination of the disulfide bonds in kalata B1 using analysis by mass spectrometry. The established disulfide connectivity is unequivocally shown to be cystine knotted by a topological analysis. This is the first direct chemical determination of disulfides in native cyclotides and unambiguously confirms the unique cyclic cystine knot motif.  (+info)

A comparison of the self-association behavior of the plant cyclotides kalata B1 and kalata B2 via analytical ultracentrifugation. (7/74)

The recently discovered cyclotides kalata B1 and kalata B2 are miniproteins containing a head-to-tail cyclized backbone and a cystine knot motif, in which disulfide bonds and the connecting backbone segments form a ring that is penetrated by the third disulfide bond. This arrangement renders the cyclotides extremely stable against thermal and enzymatic decay, making them a possible template onto which functionalities can be grafted. We have compared the hydrodynamic properties of two prototypic cyclotides, kalata B1 and kalata B2, using analytical ultracentrifugation techniques. Direct evidence for oligomerization of kalata B2 was shown by sedimentation velocity experiments in which a method for determining size distribution of polydisperse molecules in solution was employed. The shape of the oligomers appears to be spherical. Both sedimentation velocity and equilibrium experiments indicate that in phosphate buffer kalata B1 exists mainly as a monomer, even at millimolar concentrations. In contrast, at 1.6 mm, kalata B2 exists as an equilibrium mixture of monomer (30%), tetramer (42%), octamer (25%), and possibly a small proportion of higher oligomers. The results from the sedimentation equilibrium experiments show that this self-association is concentration dependent and reversible. We link our findings to the three-dimensional structures of both cyclotides, and propose two putative interaction interfaces on opposite sides of the kalata B2 molecule, one involving a hydrophobic interaction with the Phe6, and the second involving a charge-charge interaction with the Asp25 residue. An understanding of the factors affecting solution aggregation is of vital importance for future pharmaceutical application of these molecules.  (+info)

Solution structure of the cyclotide palicourein: implications for the development of a pharmaceutical framework. (8/74)

The cyclotides are a family of disulfide-rich proteins from plants. They have the characteristic structural features of a circular protein backbone and a knotted arrangement of disulfide bonds. Structural and biochemical studies of the cyclotides suggest that their unique physiological stability can be loaned to bioactive peptide fragments for pharmaceutical and agricultural development. In particular, the cyclotides incorporate a number of solvent-exposed loops that are potentially suitable for epitope grafting applications. Here, we determine the structure of the largest known cyclotide, palicourein, which has an atypical size and composition within one of the surface-exposed loops. The structural data show that an increase in size of a palicourein loop does not perturb the core fold, to which the thermodynamic and chemical stability has been attributed. The cyclotide core fold, thus, can in principle be used as a framework for the development of useful pharmaceutical and agricultural bioactivities.  (+info)

Cyclotides are considered promising scaffolds for drug development owing to their inherent host defence activities and highly stable structure, defined by the cyclic cystine knot. These proteins are expressed as complex mixtures in plants. Although several methods have been developed for their isolation and analysis, purification of cyclotides is still a lengthy process. Here, we describe the use of affinity chromatography for the purification of cyclotides using polyclonal IgG antibodies raised in rabbits against cycloviolacin O2 and immobilized on NHS-activated Sepharose columns. Cycloviolacin O2 was used as a model substance to evaluate the chromatographic principle, first as a pure compound and then in combination with other cyclotides, that is, bracelet cyclotide cycloviolacin O19 and Mobius cyclotide kalata B1, and in a plant extract. We demonstrate that single-step purification of cyclotides by affinity chromatography is possible but cross reactivity may occur between homologue cyclotides ...
The cyclotides are a family of naturally occurring peptides characterized by cyclic cystine knot (CCK) structural motif, which comprises a cyclic head-to-tail backbone featuring six conserved cysteine residues that form three disulfide bonds. This unique structural motif makes cyclotides exceptionally resistant to chemical, thermal and enzymatic degradation. They also exhibit a wide range of biological activities including insecticidal, cytotoxic, anti-HIV and antimicrobial effects.. The cyclotides found in plants exhibit considerable sequence and structural diversity, which can be linked to their evolutionary history and that of their host plants. To clarify the evolutionary link between sequence diversity and the distribution of individual cyclotides across the genus Viola, selected known cyclotides were classified using signature sequences within their precursor proteins. By mapping the classified sequences onto the phylogenetic system of Viola, we traced the flow of cyclotide genes over ...
Cyclotides are plant peptides comprising a circular backbone and three conserved disulfide bonds that confer them with exceptional stability. They were originally discovered in Oldenlandia affinis based on their use in traditional African medicine to accelerate labor. Recently, cyclotides have been identified in numerous plant species of the coffee, violet, cucurbit, pea, potato, and grass families. Their unique structural topology, high stability, and tolerance to sequence variation make them promising templates for the development of peptide-based pharmaceuticals. However, the mechanisms underlying their biological activities remain largely unknown; specifically, a receptor for a native cyclotide has not been reported hitherto. Using bioactivity-guided fractionation of an herbal peptide extract known to indigenous healers as "kalata-kalata," the cyclotide kalata B7 was found to induce strong contractility on human uterine smooth muscle cells. Radioligand displacement and second ...
Cyclotides are plant derived, cystine-knot stabilized peptides characterized by their natural abundance, sequence variability and structural plasticity. They are abundantly expressed in Rubiaceae, Psychotrieae in particular. Previously the cyclotide kalata B7 was identified to modulate the human oxytocin and vasopressin G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), providing molecular validation of the plants uterotonic properties and further establishing cyclotides as valuable sources for novel GPCR ligand design. In this study we screened a cyclotide extract derived from the root powder of the South American medicinal plant ipecac (Carapichea ipecacuanha) for its GPCR modulating activity of the corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1R). We identified and characterized seven novel cyclotides. One cyclotide, caripe 8, isolated from the most active fraction, was further analyzed and found to antagonize the CRF1R. A nanomolar concentration of this cyclotide (260 nM) reduced CRF potency by ~4.5-fold.
CyBase is managed at the Institute of Molecular Bioscience IMB, Brisbane, Australia. The database and computational tools found on this website may be used for academic research only, provided that it is referred to CyBase, the database of cyclic proteins (http://www.cybase.org.au). For any other use please contact David Craik ([email protected]). ...
CyBase is managed at the Institute of Molecular Bioscience IMB, Brisbane, Australia. The database and computational tools found on this website may be used for academic research only, provided that it is referred to CyBase, the database of cyclic proteins (http://www.cybase.org.au). For any other use please contact David Craik ([email protected]). ...
CyBase is managed at the Institute of Molecular Bioscience IMB, Brisbane, Australia. The database and computational tools found on this website may be used for academic research only, provided that it is referred to CyBase, the database of cyclic proteins (http://www.cybase.org.au). For any other use please contact David Craik ([email protected]). ...
CyBase is managed at the Institute of Molecular Bioscience IMB, Brisbane, Australia. The database and computational tools found on this website may be used for academic research only, provided that it is referred to CyBase, the database of cyclic proteins (http://www.cybase.org.au). For any other use please contact David Craik ([email protected]). ...
All published cyclotide solution structures exhibit a similar fold that forces the exposure of a hydrophobic patch to the surface. The homology model shown in Figure 5 suggests that, at least for Z. mays D, if a cystine knot is present then a hydrophobic surface will be exposed to the surface. It can be seen that the hydrophobic residues from loops 2 and 3 form a hydrophobic patch along one face of the molecule, with charged residues and additional hydrophobic residues arranged on the other face, as is the case in the bracelet cyclotides (Felizmenio-Quimio et al., 2001). It can be seen in Figure 6 that, at least for the sequences with typical loop 1 spacing, the conservation of hydrophobic residues suggests that a similar situation could occur for these proteins. The importance of the solvent-exposed hydrophobic patches for the natural function of the cyclotides is not known, but the high degree of sequence similarity between the Poaceae sequences and cyclotides may indicate that they are ...
Cumulatively, CIPPS researchers have published over 1800 publications, books and book chapters in the past 10 years.. 310,000 Citations. CIPPS researchers have been cited over 310,000 times.. ...
The endo aryl-aryl and aryl-alkyl ether bonds exist in a number of biologically important macrocyclic natural products, such as vancomycin family glycopeptide antibiotics (1, 2, 3), antitumor series...
MPT Europe has developed stent crimping machines for all todays stent materials.We have solutions for both balloon expandable and self-expandable stent systems.. The stent crimping systems use the MPT designed zero-gap stent crimping head technology. The latest types of stent crimpers have very stiff crimping heads and show remarkable stability during the crimping. Automatic calibration and dynamic force / diameter compensation are available on the servo controlled models.. The heads always fully close and can be made with heated and / or cooled blades. Depending on the requirements the systems are manual, pneumatic or servo controlled (+/- 0.02 mm @ 100N radial) and can be made in lengths up to 300 mm length. The stent crimping heads have by design a very little relative motion to the product. That feature helps crimping stents without damaging the surfaces and has proven to be superior to other stent crimping machines.. The stent crimping heads are all coated with a very high wear - low ...
We describe the 9-year trajectories of fasting glycemia, HbA1c, and insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity indexes before and 3 and 6 years after diabetes was screened in a large middle-aged population without T2D at baseline. For individuals who remained nondiabetic throughout the follow-up, metabolic trajectories showed a remarkable stability with little progressive increase in glycemia or HbA1c-there was an increase only in BMI over time (not shown). Our findings are in agreement with the study by Tabák et al. (9), who described a linear increase in glycemia followed by a steep increase starting 3 years before diabetes diagnosis in parallel to a fall in insulin secretion starting 4-5 years before diabetes diagnosis. Other studies report a steep increase in fasting glycemia 1 to 3 years before diabetes diagnosis (4,18,19). We expand these findings by showing a similar pattern for HbA1c with a steeper increase 3 years before T2D was screened. In contrast, HbA1c values remained very stable ...
IMPROVES THE FUNCTIONAL CONDITION OF THE BRONCH-PULMONARY SYSTEM Currently, diseases of the bronchopulmonary system are becoming more common. Acute
IMPROVES THE FUNCTIONAL CONDITION OF THE BRONCH-PULMONARY SYSTEM Green Visa Nefronorm is a good prevention of kidney problems. It will help support
Cyclotides are macrocyclic knotted peptides originating from plants. They are extremely stable and have a range of bioactivities including anti-HIV and insecticidal activity. Given the stability of the cyclotide framework, there is interest in using these peptides as scaffolds in drug design. In the current study, we have shown that nano-LC Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is an effective method of analyzing cyclotides in plants. In addition, we have used this technique to find cyclotides in a novel species, Viola ignobilis (Violaceae plant family), which was collected from the West Azerbaijan province of Iran. Varv peptide A, cycloviolacin B2, and cycloviolacin O8 were found in this species. This study provides a novel method for directly analyzing cyclotide sequences without enzymatic digestion and further information regarding the distribution of cyclotides in plant species.. ...
Cyclotides are small disulfide-rich proteins that have the unusual feature of a cyclic backbone. Cyclotides have a range of interesting biological activities and are found in a variety of tropical plants from the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Fabaceae families. We have cloned and characterized cyclotides in Viola modesta, a Viola species native to western Asia, which was collected from the Kurdistan Province of Iran. Fifteen cyclotide sequences were obtained using homology based PCR strategy. Sequence analysis showed that 14 of them had continued open reading frames and showed high level of similarity to cyclotide genes from other species of the Violaceae. After analyzing the full endoplasmic reticulum signals of V. modesta cyclotides, two conserved sequences, AAFALPA and ATAFALP, were detected. Analysis of isolated cyclotide sequences showed that they all belonged to bracelet family and were separated into two subclasses. Phylogenetic analysis of cyclotide genes from V. modesta and other
Oldenlandia diffusa is traditionally prescribed in the treatment of a number of cancers and studies suggest that it exerts a cytotoxic action specific to cancer cells. To further investigate this suggested action, the effect(s) of Oldenlandia diffusa on leukaemic cells (HL60) and stimulated and unstimulated human blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was investigated. For the HL60s, cell growth, apoptotic induction, alterations in cell cycle characteristics and genotoxicity were investigated. For the PBLs, apoptotic induction and alterations in cell cycle characteristics were investigated. Preliminary chemical analysis to identify the cytotoxic constituents of Oldenlandia diffusa was also carried out. Results showed that Oldenlandia diffusa significantly inhibited the growth of the HL60s and induced apoptosis in a cell cycle-independent fashion, possibly through the induction of genotoxic damage. Oldenlandia diffusa did not induce apoptosis in the PBLs however progression through the cell cycle was not ...
The EST library generated in this study provides a valuable resource for the study of the cyclisation of plant peptides. Further analysis of the candidates for cyclotide processing discovered in this work will increase our understanding and aid in reconstructing cyclotide production using transgenic …
Research progress of pharmacological function of Oldenlandia diffusa was reviewed through consulting to relative reports at home and abroad.Oldenlandia diffusa had pharmacological functions such as immunity,antitumor,antibacterial,anti-oxidant,chemical induction resistance,regulating central nervous system and so on.Therefore,Oldenlandia diffusa had prospect development future.
This invention relates to the crystal structure of a plant peptide deformylase polypeptide and methods of using the structure to design compounds that modulate the activity of the polypeptide.
With the advent of high throughput biomolecular engineering techniques, it has become possible to isolate short peptides that bind to a variety of targets ranging from inorganic materials to proteins. The application of peptides as therapeutics has been hampered by the inherent susceptibility of peptides to proteases present throughout the human body. One strategy to overcome this protease susceptibility is to fortify peptides via cyclization or other conformational constraints. Indeed, nature uses this strategy in several classes of peptides such as cyclotides and defensins which are stabilized by networks of disulfide bonds and in some cases head-to-tail cyclization. My group studies a class of peptides termed lasso peptides because of their unique slipknot-like structure. This highly entropically disfavored fold endows the peptides with tremendous stability; some lasso peptides can retain their structure and function even after boiling in 8 M urea. Lasso peptides are also resistant to ...
In molecular biology, the Fic/DOC protein family is a family of proteins which includes the Fic (filamentation induced by cAMP) protein and doc (death on curing) protein. The Fic protein is involved in cell division and is suggested to be involved in the synthesis of p-aminobenzoate or folate, indicating that the Fic protein and cAMP are involved in a regulatory mechanism of cell division via folate metabolism. This family contains a central conserved motif HPFXXGNG in most members. The exact molecular function of these proteins is uncertain. P1 lysogens of Escherichia coli carry the prophage as a stable low copy number plasmid. The frequency with which viable cells cured of prophage are produced is about 10(-5) per cell per generation. A significant part of this remarkable stability can be attributed to a plasmid-encoded mechanism that causes death of cells that have lost P1. In other words, the lysogenic cells appear to be addicted to the presence of the prophage. The plasmid withdrawal ...
Advancements in optical nanosensor development have enabled the design of sensors using synthetic molecular recognition elements through a recently developed method called Corona Phase Molecular Recognition (CoPhMoRe). The synthetic sensors resulting from these design principles are highly selective for specific analytes, and demonstrate remarkable stability for use under a variety of conditions. An essential element of nanosensor development hinges on the ability to understand the interface between nanoparticles and the associated corona phase surrounding the nanosensor, an environment outside of the range of traditional characterization tools, such as NMR. This review discusses the need for new strategies and instrumentation to study the nanoparticle corona, operating in both in vitro and in vivo environments. Approaches to instrumentation must have the capacity to concurrently monitor nanosensor operation and the molecular changes in the corona phase. A detailed overview of new tools for the
In several markets, firms compete not for consumer expenditure but instead for consumer attention. We model and characterize how households allocate their scarce attention in arguably the largest market for attention: the Internet. Our characterization of household attention allocation operates along three dimensions: how much attention is allocated, where that attention is allocated, and how that attention is allocated. Using click-stream data for thousands of U.S. households, we assess if and how attention allocation on each dimension changed between 2008 and 2013, a time of large increases in online offerings. We identify vast and expected changes in where households allocate their attention (away from chat and news towards video and social media), and yet we simultaneously identify remarkable stability in how much attention is allocated and how it is allocated. Specifically, we identify (i) persistence in the elasticity of attention according to income and (ii) complete stability in the ...
There are disclosed certain new compounds related to C-076 compounds which have been produced by a mutant of the culture that produced the original C-076 compounds and isolated from the fermentation broth thereof. The compounds retain the C-076 16-membered cyclic backbone, however, the groups attached thereto are considerably modified from the original C-076 compounds. The new compounds have been found to retain the biological activity of the parent C-076 compounds. The compounds are thus potent antiparasitic agents and compositions and methods for such uses are also disclosed.
G. Figure : Structure of Ursolic Acid and Oleanolat Acid. 5. Anticancer Mechanism Research. Oldenlandia is one of plant that has potency as anticancer. Oleanolat acid and ursolic acid, load of this plant could be expected to inhibit cancer.. Anan (2000) reported that hexane extract of oldenlandia have ED50 value amount 30μg/mL, whereas the ethyl acetate extract and methanol extract have ED50 value greater than 30μg/mL. According Sadasivan et al. (2006), work of these compound are blocking the growth of cell cycle in phase G1 that marked by the decrease of protein cyclin expression D1, D2, and E and their active partner like CDK2, 4, and 6 with inducting p21/WAF1.. Research that done by Asyhar (2009) using ethanolic extract of oldenlandia, showing the quantitative observation result using immunohistochemistry against protein expression N-ras known that compound in the ethanolic extract can increase spurring expression of N-ras cell normal so that has prospect as hepatoprotector.. Load of ...
VIOLA ODORATA 6DH GT. homeopathic drops for sale in our online pharmacy. Council Boiron homeopathic pharmacists. Secure ordering / shipping 48h.
Mu Bie Zi is also known as Indian trumpet flower seed. The bitter, slightly sweet, warm and toxic herb has been used in TCM to treat bunacles, scofula, pain in rheumatism, spastic muscles, etc., as it enhances the functions of liver, spleen and stomach channels. Ingredients 1. Momordic acid 2. Gypsogenin 3. Oleanolic acid 4. …. ...
In this work the authors develop a mathematical model for the dynamics of a major helminth parasite of man, schistosomiasis. The model is a system of coupled non-linear equations. Numerical experimentations with the model reveal the remarkable stability of the dynamics of schistosomiasis. The steady state is invariably reached within 10-15 years of the start of the infection. A numerical solution of the model supports the often-stated and often-debated observation that the usual shape of the curve of the intensity of infection by age is produced through variability of water-contact behaviour among age groups and a slowly-acquired immunity to re-infection. It also indicates that convexity of the age-intensity profile can be due to variability of water-contact activities among age groups alone. The model can be used to answer questions of the what if variety about the dynamics of schistosomiasis especially as they relate ...
3,29-di-O-(p-methoxy)benzoylmultiflora-8-ene-329-diol-7-one: multiflorane triterpenoid ester from seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae); structure in first source
Violet (Viola odorata), also known as sweet violet or garden violet, is an aromatic, evergreen perennial native to the woodlands ...
This easily absorbed, potent gel serum delivers concentrated plant peptides and botanicals to diminish the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles for visibly smoother, plumper and more youthful-looking skin. Ideal for all skin types, especially aging skin, the Smart Collagen+ Complex rejuvenates the look of the complexi
This page contains nutritional indicators, appearance indicators and physical indicators for soybean plant peptides. If you have more details, you can contact us.
Homeopathic Viola Odorata indications, uses & symptoms from 12 materia medicas, linked and cross referenced. Available 2X-30X, 4C-30C, 200C, 1M-10M, Q
Several members of three plants families - the Rubiaceae, Violaceae and Cucurbitaceae- produce cyclotides, cyclic mini-peptides made up of 28-37 amino acids arranged in a circular configuration. These compounds are very stable and have attracted the attention of pharmaceutical companies. Because these peptides lack free amino and carboxyl ends, they cannot be broken down by…
COMU features optimal properties as a peptide coupling reagent. In addition to its high and fast coupling efficiency, it shows very low or non-existent tendencies for racemization. Epimerization during fragment coupling appears to be lessened with COMU than with HOBt or HATU. COMU is easily soluble with remarkable stability in most commonly employed peptide coupling solvents, such as DMF or NMP, which makes it ideally suited for solid phase peptide synthesis. It is equally attractive for solution phase synthesis since by-products formed by COMU are water-soluble and can be separated by simple extraction. A color change during the reaction allows visual or colorimetric reaction monitoring. DSC and ARC data indicate that COMU can be rated as non-explosive ...
A tandem-cartridge system was established for studying colloid formation and physical state distribution of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in water. The effectiveness of the method for measuring the trace PAH colloids was demonstrated. With aqueous samples prepared by adding the PAH solutes with a small amount of organic solvent carrier, the potential of colloid formation increased with the hydrophobicity and concentration of the solute, but the incipient concentration for the colloid formation may be far lower than the aqueous solubility of the solute. After formation in water, the colloids showed remarkable stability at room temperature, and the stability was greatly reduced by elevated temperature and the presence of a small amount of inorganic electrolytes. The possible mechanism of destabilization of the colloids was discussed, and the mechanism might be of utility in providing insights into the physical state distribution of the solutes in various water samples. However, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Triplet repeat DNA structures and human genetic disease. T2 - Dynamic mutations from dynamic DNA. AU - Sinden, Richard R.. AU - Potaman, Vladimir N.. AU - Oussatcheva, Elena A.. AU - Pearson, Christopher E.. AU - Lyubchenko, Yuri L.. AU - Shlyakhtenko, Luda S.. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Fourteen genetic neurodegenerative diseases and three fragile sites have been associated with the expansion of (CTG)n•(CAG)n•(CGG)n• (CCG)n, or (GAA)n·(TTC)n repeat tracts. Different models have been proposed for the expansion of triplet repeats, most of which presume the formation of alternative DNA structures in repeat tracts. One of the most likely structures, slipped strand DNA, may stably and reproducibly form within triplet repeat sequences. The propensity to form slipped strand DNA is proportional to the length and homogeneity of the repeat tract. The remarkable stability of slipped strand DNA may, in part, be due to loop-loop interactions facilitated by the sequence ...
The transition to agro-pastoralism in central Europe has been framed within a dichotomy of regional continuity versus exogenous demic diffusion. While substantial genetic support exists for a model of demographic diffusion from an ancestral source in the Near East, archaeological data furnish weak support for the wave of advance model. Nevertheless, archaeological evidence attests the widespread introduction of an exogenous package comprising ceramics, cereals, pulses and domesticated animals to central Europe at 5600calBCE. Body proportions are under strong climatic selection and evince remarkable stability within regional lineages. As such, they offer a viable and robust alternative to cranio-facial data in assessing hypothesised continuity and replacement with the transition to agro-pastoralism in central Europe. Humero-clavicular, brachial and crural indices in a large sample (n=75) of Linienbandkeramik (LBK), Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age specimens from the middle ...
Background MicroRNAs have been considered as a kind of potential novel biomarker for cancer detection due to their remarkable stability in the blood and the characteristics of their expression profile in many diseases. Methods We performed microarray-based serum miRNA profiling on the serum of twenty nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients at diagnosis along with 20 non-cancerous individuals as controls. This was followed by a real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) in a separate cohort of thirty patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and thirty age- matched non-cancerous volunteers. A model for diagnosis was established by a conversion of mathematical calculation formula which has been validated by analyzing 74 cases of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 57 cases of non-cancerous volunteers. Results The profiles showed that 39 and 17 miRNAs are exclusively expressed in the serum of non-cancerous volunteers and of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma respectively. 4 miRNAs
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Nitya Venkataraman from the University of Central Florida has managed to reawaken a guardian gene that has been lying dormant in our genomes for 7 million years. These genes, known as retrocyclins, protect monkeys from HIV-like viruses. The hope is that by rousing them from their slumber, they could do the same for us. The technique is several safety tests and clinical trials away from actual use, but its promising nonetheless.. Retrocyclins are the only circular proteins in our bodies, and are formed from a ring of 18 amino acids. They belong to a group of proteins called defensinsthat, as their name suggests, defend the body against bacteria, viruses, fungi and other foreign invaders. There are three types: alpha-, beta- and theta-defensins. The last group is the one that retrocyclins belong to. They were the last to be discovered, and have only been found in the white blood cells of macaques, baboons and orang-utans.. In previous experiments, Venkataramans group, led by Alexander Cole, ...
Nitya Venkataraman from the University of Central Florida has managed to reawaken a guardian gene that has been lying dormant in our genomes for 7 million years. These genes, known as retrocyclins, protect monkeys from HIV-like viruses. The hope is that by rousing them from their slumber, they could do the same for us. The technique is several safety tests and clinical trials away from actual use, but its promising nonetheless.. Retrocyclins are the only circular proteins in our bodies, and are formed from a ring of 18 amino acids. They belong to a group of proteins called defensinsthat, as their name suggests, defend the body against bacteria, viruses, fungi and other foreign invaders. There are three types: alpha-, beta- and theta-defensins. The last group is the one that retrocyclins belong to. They were the last to be discovered, and have only been found in the white blood cells of macaques, baboons and orang-utans.. In previous experiments, Venkataramans group, led by Alexander Cole, ...
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Lokai is infused with elements sourced from the highest and lowest points on earth. A white bead, holding water from Mt. Everest, and a black bead, filled with mud from the Dead Sea, exist on opposite ends. A string of beads link the two, signifying that throughout lifes circular journey, your path is yours to walk and yours alone. Life is marked by highs and lows. Without one, we would not appreciate the other. The Lokai bracelet is a constant, wearable reminder to lead a balanced life, staying humble though the highs and hopeful through the lows. Lokai does not sell to distributors and therefore we (seller name: Lokai) are the only official Lokai retailer on Amazon (and online). All products are made, sold and fulfilled by Lokai, with a 100% authenticity guarantee, directly from us. ...
In the care of Dr. Recht and great UMass nurses, my family and friends surrounded me that night. I made sure it was not a room full of sadness, fear, or worry (Although Im betting people were worried when they werent around me, they didnt show it in front of me). We joked, laughed, and I assured everyone that I was going to be okay. We all had a huge chuckle when I looked at the original hospital bracelet they gave me and saw my date of birth was in the early 1900s! They had mistakenly given me one with the info on my elderly hospital roommate…woops! Everyone stayed well past visiting hours until the nurses kindly asked everyone to leave. I may have had a brain tumor, but I also had a huge support system in place. ...
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The motif is similar to the cyclic cystine knot or cyclotide, but lacks the cyclisation of the polypeptide backbone which is ... "Knots". Cyclotide.com. Archived from the original on 2015-02-05. Retrieved 2018-03-13. Reinwarth, Molecules 17:12533 2012 http ... cyclotide). Types include a) cyclic mobius, b) cyclic bracelet, c) acyclic inhibitor knottins. Cystine knot motifs are found ...
Craik DJ (February 2012). "Host-defense activities of cyclotides". Toxins. 4 (2): 139-56. doi:10.3390/toxins4020139. PMC ...
Svangård E, Göransson U, Hocaoglu Z, Gullbo J, Larsson R, Claeson P, Bohlin L (February 2004). "Cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola ... August 2010). "Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor". Peptides. 31 (8): 1434-40. doi: ...
"Cystine Knots". The Cyclotide Webpage. Sherbet, G.V. (2011), "Growth Factor Families", Growth Factors and Their Receptors in ... Craik DJ, Daly NL, Bond T, Waine C (December 1999). "Plant cyclotides: A unique family of cyclic and knotted proteins that ... The presence of the cyclic cystine knot (CCK) motif was discovered when cyclotides were isolated from various plant families. ... or cyclotide The growth factor cystine knot was first observed in the structure of nerve growth factor (NGF), solved by X-ray ...
Many cyclotides, found in Viola tricolor are cytotoxic. This feature means it could be used to treat cancers. Extracts from the ... "Cytotoxic Cyclotides from Viola tricolor" Journal of Natural Products 67 (2), 144-147 Witkowska-Banaszczak E, Bylka W, ... tricolor is one of many viola plant species containing cyclotides. These small peptides have proven to be useful in drug ... "Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor", Peptides 2010 31:8 (1434-1440) Erika Svangård, Ulf ...
2002). "Cyclotides: A Novel Type of Cytotoxic Agents" (PDF). Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. American Association for Cancer ... Viola arvensis was shown to contain cyclotides, a class of peptides found in plants. The peptide cycloviolacin O2 in particular ...
For example, cyclotides from aerial organs possess tighter binding activity to insect-like membranes, whereas cyclotides from ... The isolated Cter M cyclotide that is highly expressed in aerial organs was shown to effectively slow the growth and kill moth ... Different cyclotides have protein sequences which engender different biophysical and functional properties, to be expressed in ... Cliotides belong to a larger classification of peptides, the cyclotides. Preliminary studies show that cliotides display a ...
"Application of a TLC chemical method to detection of cyclotides in plants". Science Bulletin. 53 (11): 1671-1674. doi:10.1007/ ...
Her work has also investigated the use of plant-derived cyclotides as well as modifications to the natural hormone oxytocin to ... "Oxytocic plant cyclotides as templates for peptide G protein-coupled receptor ligand design". Proceedings of the National ...
Several unique cyclotides have been isolated from this species, that have cytotoxic properties and may be of use in the ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Yeshak, M.Y.; Burman, R.; Asres, K.; Göransson, U. (2011). "Cyclotides from an extreme ...
Researchers found that the plant contained novel cyclotides, but further research is needed on the efficacy of these extracts. ... used in South-Western Nigerian ethnomedicine and detection of cyclotides". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 179: 183-191. doi: ...
Cyclotides display a wide range of pharmaceutically important bioactivities, but their natural function is in plant defense as ... On the structure of cyclotides kalata B1, all 23 non-cysteine residues were successively substituted with alanine. The data ... "Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the prototypic cyclotide reveals a cluster of residues essential for bioactivity". J. Biol. ... of alanine scanning is to determine the influence of individual residues on structure and activity in the prototypic cyclotide ...
Jul 2011). "Discovery and characterization of novel cyclotides originated from chimeric precursors consisting of albumin-1 ... a Cyclotide-Bearing Plant with Applications in Agriculture and Medicine". Frontiers in Plant Science. 10: 645. doi:10.3389/fpls ... chain a and cyclotide domains in the Fabaceae family" (PDF). J Biol Chem. 286 (27): 24275-87. doi:10.1074/jbc.m111.229922. PMC ...
... for endangered species conservation and for somaclonal variation-enhanced cyclotide biosynthesis. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult ...
Nguyen GK, Zhang S, Wang W, Wong CT, Nguyen NT, Tam JP: Discovery of a linear cyclotide from the bracelet subfamily and its ... Both hedyotide B1 and B2 belong to the cyclotide superfamily which was known to be an important part of plant innate defense. ... Hedyotide B1 and cyclotides are likely to exerted their antimicrobial actions by disrupting the bacteria membranes which ... Optimal Oxidative Folding of the Novel Antimicrobial Cyclotide from Hedyotis biflora Requires High Alcohol Concentrations. ...
Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the ...
... cyclotides or lasso-peptides such as microcin J25. The earliest reported synthesis of a rotaxane in 1967 relied on the ...
... cyclotides or lasso-peptides such as microcin J25 which are protein, and a variety of peptides. Experimentally the first ...
... cyclotides MeSH D12.644.641.252 - dactinomycin MeSH D12.644.641.270 - daptomycin MeSH D12.644.641.297 - depsipeptides MeSH ...
Möbius aromaticity Charged particles caught in the magnetic field of the Earth that can move on a Möbius band The cyclotide ( ...
The cyclotide domain may contain either one cyclotide sequence, as in the case of Oak1, or multiple copies separated by ... The cyclotides fall into two main structural subfamilies. Moebius cyclotides, the less common of the two, contain a cis-proline ... Cyclotides have also been identified in agriculturally important families such as the Fabaceae and Poaceae. Cyclotides have a ... The potent insecticidal activity of cyclotides kalata B1 and kalata B2 has prompted the belief that cyclotides act as plant ...
Many cyclotides, found in Viola tricolor are cytotoxic.[7] This feature means that it could be used to treat cancers.[8][7] ... V. tricolor is one of many viola plant species containing cyclotides. These small peptides have proven to be useful in drug ... "Cytotoxic Cyclotides from Viola tricolor" Journal of Natural Products 67 (2), 144-147 ... "Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor", Peptides 2010 31:8 (1434-1440) ...
The cyclotide (cyclic protein) Kalata B1, active substance of the plant Oldenlandia affinis, contains Möbius topology for the ...
The cyclotide domain may contain either one cyclotide sequence, as in the case of Oak1, or multiple copies separated by ... The cyclotides fall into two main structural subfamilies. Moebius cyclotides, the less common of the two, contain a cis-proline ... Cyclotides have also been identified in agriculturally important families such as the Fabaceae and Poaceae. Cyclotides have a ... The potent insecticidal activity of cyclotides kalata B1 and kalata B2 has prompted the belief that cyclotides act as plant ...
This article provides an overview of the reported pesticidal or toxic activities of cyclotides, discusses a possible common ... and describes methods that can be used to produce cyclotides for potential applications as novel pesticidal agents. ... Cyclotides are plant mini-proteins whose natural function is thought to be to protect plants from pest or pathogens, ... Host-Defense Activities of Cyclotides. Toxins. 2012; 4(2):139-156. Chicago/Turabian Style. Craik, David J. 2012. "Host-Defense ...
For synthetic versions of cyclotides to enter human clinical trials further studies to examine their biopharmaceutical ... The ultra-stable cyclotides are promising templates for drug development applications and are currently being assessed for the ... It includes applications of cyclotides and cyclotide-like molecules as peptide-based drug leads and diagnostic agents. ... Cyclotides as a basis for drug design Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2012 Mar;7(3):179-94. doi: 10.1517/17460441.2012.661554. Epub ...
... bracelet cyclotide cycloviolacin O19 and Mobius cyclotide kalata B1, and in a plant extract. We demonstrate that single-step ... Cyclotides are considered promising scaffolds for drug development owing to their inherent host defence activities and highly ... affinity chromatography, cyclotides, cycloviolacin O2, immobilized IgG National Category Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ... Single-step purification of cyclotides using affinity chromatography. Uddin, Shaikh Jamal Uppsala University, Disciplinary ...
Cyclotides were found to be common in the plant family Violaceae; with eleven cyclotides isolated and sequenced from V. ... First cyclotide from Hybanthus (Violaceae). Broussalis, Adriana M. Göransson, Ulf Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of ... For six members of the genus Viola, cyclotide expression profiles were examined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC- ... Varv A, together with an increasing number of homologous peptides, form the currently known peptide family of cyclotides. Their ...
Further analysis of the candidates for cyclotide processing discovered in this work will increase our understanding and aid in ... A new cyclotide precursor named Oak5 was isolated and represents the first cDNA for the bracelet class of cyclotides in O. ... affinis transcriptome to cyclotide biosynthesis. The high expression levels of cyclotide precursor transcripts are consistent ... ESTs encoding the cyclotide precursors for kalata B1 (Oak1) and kalata B2 (Oak4) were among the 20 most abundant ESTs. In total ...
Given the diversity of cyclotides, our data point to other cyclotide-GPCR interactions as potentially important sources of drug ... Given the diversity of cyclotides, our data point to other cyclotide-GPCR interactions as potentially important sources of drug ... We identified and characterized seven novel cyclotides. One cyclotide, caripe 8, isolated from the most active fraction, was ... We identified and characterized seven novel cyclotides. One cyclotide, caripe 8, isolated from the most active fraction, was ...
This study provides a new method for quantifying the cyclotide kalata B1 in both plasma and brain homogenate. Cyclotides are ... Improved method for quantitative analysis of the cyclotide kalata B1 in plasma and brain homogenate. Melander, Erik Uppsala ... brain, cyclotides, kalata B1, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, pharmacokinetics National Category Medicinal Chemistry ...
... and cyclotides, ultra-stable macrocyclic peptides that are present in all tissues of this plant. The latter are potent ... which interestingly involve the co-option of an ancestral albumin gene to produce the cyclotide precursor protein. The ... which interestingly involve the co-option of an ancestral albumin gene to produce the cyclotide precursor protein. The ... and cyclotides, ultra-stable macrocyclic peptides that are present in all tissues of this plant. The latter are potent ...
Structural Modeling of Cyclotide-Like Peptides. A homology model of one of the putative cyclotide sequences was constructed to ... The presence of cyclotide-like sequences within these plants suggests that the cyclotides may be derived from an ancestral gene ... The cyclotides are derived from precursor proteins that contain one, two, or three mature cyclotide domains. The mechanism by ... Transcript levels of the identified barley cyclotide-like gene, referred to hereafter as Bcl1 (for Barley cyclotide-like1), and ...
The motif is similar to the cyclic cystine knot or cyclotide, but lacks the cyclisation of the polypeptide backbone which is ... "Knots". Cyclotide.com. Archived from the original on 2015-02-05. Retrieved 2018-03-13. Reinwarth, Molecules 17:12533 2012 http ... cyclotide). Types include a) cyclic mobius, b) cyclic bracelet, c) acyclic inhibitor knottins. Cystine knot motifs are found ...
Plant cyclotides disrupt epithelial cells in the midgut of lepidopteran larvae Journal name Proceedings of the National Acadamy ... Plant cyclotides disrupt epithelial cells in the midgut of lepidopteran larvae. Barbeta, Barbara L., Marshall, Alan T., Gillon ... Ingestion of the cyclotide kalata B1 severely retards the growth of larvae from the Lepidopteran species Helicoverpa armigera. ... Cyclotides display a diverse range of biological activities, such as uterotonic action, anti-HIV activity, and neurotensin ...
... Cyclotides (cyclo peptides) are plant peptides of ~30 amino acids with a head to-tail cyclic backbone and six ... The cyclotides are extremely resistant to proteolysis and are remarkably stable. Cyclotides display a diverse range of ... This range of biological activities makes cyclotides amenable to potential pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. ...
Natural cyclotides target cell membranes, so understanding cyclotide-membrane interactions is useful in applying cyclotides in ... including cyclotides and conotoxins. Cyclotides are head-to-tail cyclized proteins from plants that are exceptionally stable ... cyclic peptide cyclotide, conotoxin, Kalata B1, structure-activity relationships. Funders:. Australian Research Council (ARC), ... NMR and protein structure in drug design: application to cyclotides and conotoxins ...
... suggesting that excision and cyclization of the cyclotide domain occurs in the vacuole where the cyclotides are then stored. ... Subcellular targeting and biosynthesis of cyclotides in plant cells Academic Article * View record in Web of Science ® ... PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The cyclotide kalata B1 is found in the leaves of Oldenlandia affinis and is a potent insecticidal and ... CONCLUSIONS: The vacuolar location of cyclotides supports our hypothesis that the vacuolar processing enzyme, asparaginyl ...
Synthesis of cyclotides. Cyclotides were assembled as linear precursors using FMOC chemistry, and cyclized using native ... Oral EAE Treatment Using the Cyclotide [T20K]kalata B1.. Because cyclotides are resistant against enzymatic and chemical ... Activity and Therapeutic Effects of Cyclotides to Treat EAE.. The cyclotide [T20K]kB1 exhibits concentration-dependent ... distinguish the cyclotide from other marketed drugs. Considering their stable structural topology and oral activity, cyclotides ...
Plant Cyclotides: Volume 76 David Craik 08 Dec 2015. Hardback. US$221.99 ...
... as molecular targets for this cyclotide. Furthermore, we show that cyclotides can serve as templates for the design of ... Oxytocic plant cyclotides as templates for peptide G protein-coupled receptor ligand design. ... Recently, cyclotides have been identified in numerous plant species of the coffee, violet, cucurbit, pea, potato, and grass ... Cyclotides are plant peptides comprising a circular backbone and three conserved disulfide bonds that confer them with ...
STRUCTURAL DEFINITION OF THE CYCLOTIDE FRAMEWORK.. Rosengren, K.J., Daly, N.L., Plan, M.R., Waine, C., Craik, D.J.. (2003) J ... The cyclotide family is the largest group of such proteins and is characterized by a circular protein backbone and six ... The cyclotide family is the largest group of such proteins and is characterized by a circular protein backbone and six ... In the current study we have undertaken high resolution structural analysis of two prototypic cyclotides, kalata B1 and ...
Cumulatively, CIPPS researchers have published over 1800 publications, books and book chapters in the past 10 years. 310,000 Citations. CIPPS researchers have been cited over 310,000 times. ...
In this study, a diverse set of cyclotides from the two major subfamilies, Möbius and bracelet, and an all-D mirror image form ... Cyclotides are bioactive cyclic peptides isolated from plants that are characterized by a topologically complex structure and ... The finding that a broad range of cyclotides target a specific lipid suggests their categorization as a new lipid-binding ... Knowledge of their membrane specificity has the potential to assist in the design of novel drugs based on the cyclotide ...
... simulation to investigate the interactions between a representative cyclotide (kalata B1) and bilayers comprising 1-palmitoyl-2 ... Cyclotides are cyclic antimicrobial peptides (APs) that offer promising features for the development of efficient ... Do Cyclotides bind Lipid Bilayers: Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Kalata B1 and POPC/POPE membranes. ... Cyclotides are cyclic antimicrobial peptides (APs) that offer promising features for the development of efficient ...
Cyclotides have a range of interesting biological activities and are found in a variety of tropical plants from the Rubiaceae, ... Phylogenetic analysis of cyclotide genes from V. modesta and other Viola species revealed that most V. modesta genes showed ... Analysis of isolated cyclotide sequences showed that they all belonged to bracelet family and were separated into two ... Fifteen cyclotide sequences were obtained using homology based PCR strategy. Sequence analysis showed that 14 of them had ...
Cyclotides….. * anon. says: 14 November, 2017 at 11:38 am Antibodies have other immunological functions other than antigen ...
Many cyclotides, found in Viola tricolor are cytotoxic.[7] This feature means that it could be used to treat cancers.[8][7] ... V. tricolor is one of many viola plant species containing cyclotides. These small peptides have proven to be useful in drug ... "Cytotoxic Cyclotides from Viola tricolor" Journal of Natural Products 67 (2), 144-147 ... "Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor", Peptides 2010 31:8 (1434-1440) ...
Biosynthesis of the Cyclotide Kalata B1 using a Protein Splicing Unit Description: Cyclotides are a newly emerging family of ... In the present work, we describe the biosynthesis of the cyclotide Kalata B1 (KB1) in E. coli using an engineered intein. Our ... Access to biosynthetic cyclotides using recombinant DNA expression techniques offers the exciting possibility of producing ... In contrast to other cyclic polypeptides, cyclotides have a well-defined three-dimensional structure. Therefore, despite their ...
Host-Defense Activities of Cyclotides. Next Article in Special Issue. Animal Toxins Can Alter the Function of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 ...
Chemistry, Morphology, etc. For cyclotide proteins, found in Oldenlandia, Psychotria, and relatives in Rubioideae, see Gruber ... Cyclotide proteins +; foliage drying green, stipules connate, persistent/marcescent; pollen grains (pantoporate), (with pollen ...
Cyclotides were first discovered in the 1960s when Red Cross doctor Lorents Gran noticed that women in the Congo drank tea made ... Like other proteins, cyclotides comprise a string of amino acids, the bodys building blocks. Unlike most proteins, though, the ... Since then hundreds of cyclotides have been found in plants around the world, and Craik believes there may be as many as 50,000 ... Without the weak point of loose ends cyclotides can resist degradation by our digestive enzymes, allowing them to reach their ...
  • Cyclotides are small disulfide rich peptides isolated from plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Varv A, together with an increasing number of homologous peptides, form the currently known peptide family of cyclotides. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cyclotides are a family of circular peptides that exhibit a range of biological activities, including anti-bacterial, cytotoxic, anti-HIV activities, and are proposed to function in plant defence. (nih.gov)
  • The high expression levels of cyclotide precursor transcripts are consistent with the abundance of mature cyclic peptides in O. affinis. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclotides are plant derived, cystine-knot stabilized peptides characterized by their natural abundance, sequence variability and structural plasticity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cyclotides are disulfide-rich peptides (∼30 amino acids) that contain a head-to-tail cyclized backbone and six conserved cysteine residues forming three knotted disulfide bonds. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cyclotides are ultra-stable peptides with three disulfide bonds that are interesting from a drug development perspective as they can be used as scaffolds. (diva-portal.org)
  • Notable amongst its repertoire of chemical components are anthocyanins which give C. ternatea flowers their characteristic blue color, and cyclotides, ultra-stable macrocyclic peptides that are present in all tissues of this plant. (frontiersin.org)
  • We include a description of the genetic origin of these peptides, which interestingly involve the co-option of an ancestral albumin gene to produce the cyclotide precursor protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cyclotides are peptides from plants of the Rubiaceae and Violaceae families that have the unusual characteristic of a macrocylic backbone. (plantcell.org)
  • Several members of the Rubiaceae and Violaceae plant families produce a series of cyclotides or macrocyclic peptides of 28-37 aa with an embedded cystine knot. (edu.au)
  • Cyclotides (cyclo peptides) are plant peptides of ~30 amino acids with a head to-tail cyclic backbone and six cysteine residues involved in three disulphide bonds. (bicnirrh.res.in)
  • This article gives a brief overview of the role of NMR in drug design and illustrates this role with examples studied in our laboratory in recent years on disulfide-rich peptides, including cyclotides and conotoxins. (edu.au)
  • Cyclotides are plant peptides comprising a circular backbone and three conserved disulfide bonds that confer them with exceptional stability. (nuigalway.ie)
  • Cyclotides are bioactive cyclic peptides isolated from plants that are characterized by a topologically complex structure and exceptional resistance to enzymatic or thermal degradation. (edu.au)
  • Cyclotides are cyclic antimicrobial peptides (APs) that offer promising features for the development of efficient pharmaceutical therapies. (scienceopen.com)
  • Today, we know that Viola tricolor contains a special type of molecule known as cyclotides, or circular peptides. (avogel.co.uk)
  • These properties are cyclotides do not have the proteolytic degradation of peptides for adults under the discretion of a treating physician. (psjailbreak.com)
  • Professor David Craik (apparently commonly mistaken for James Bond actor Daniel Craig) gave a fascinating presentation on cyclotides - cyclic peptides produced by a variety of plants. (mondaq.com)
  • The research showed the highly efficient synthesis of a wide range of peptides including cyclotides, N-methyl peptides, and glucagon-like peptides. (cem.com)
  • The core interest remains drug discovery via the purification and isolation of novel cysteine rich peptides such as cyclotides, characterise their uterotonic properties and document their traditional uses based on scientific evidence. (oead.at)
  • To increase the speed at which genes involved in cyclotide biosynthesis and processing are being discovered, an expressed sequence tag (EST) project was initiated to survey the transcript profile of O. affinis and to propose some future directions of research on in vivo protein cyclisation. (nih.gov)
  • In total, 31 ESTs encoded cyclotide precursors, representing a distinct commitment of 2.8% of the O. affinis transcriptome to cyclotide biosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Chemical synthesis and biosynthesis of the cyclotide family of circular proteins. (scienceopen.com)
  • Transcriptomic profiling of the medicinal plant Clitoria ternatea: identification of potential genes in cyclotide biosynthesis. (ncbs.res.in)
  • Biochemists David Craik at The University of Queensland and Marilyn Anderson at La Trobe University have received Australia's Ramaciotti Biomedical Research Award worth some $700,000 to develop the technology to turn plants into cheap biofactories for drugs made of mini proteins called cyclotides. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Since then hundreds of cyclotides have been found in plants around the world, and Craik believes there may be as many as 50,000. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Craik DJ, Cemazar M, Daly NL (2007) The chemistry and biology of cyclotides. (springer.com)
  • Craik DJ, Swedberg JE, Mylne JS, Cemazar M (2012) Cyclotides as a basis for drug design. (springer.com)
  • Mylne JS, Wang CK, van der Weerden NL, Craik DJ (2010) Cyclotides are a component of the innate defense of Oldenlandia affinis. (cybase.org.au)
  • Cyclotides are plant-made defence proteins with a head-to-tail cyclic backbone combined with a conserved, six cystine knot. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclotides are considered promising scaffolds for drug development owing to their inherent host defence activities and highly stable structure, defined by the cyclic cystine knot. (diva-portal.org)
  • The motif is similar to the cyclic cystine knot or cyclotide, but lacks the cyclisation of the polypeptide backbone which is present in the latter family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant Cyclotides: A Unique Family of Cyclic and Knotted Proteins that Defines the Cyclic Cystine Knot Structural Motif. (ac.ir)
  • To date, over 100 cyclotides have been isolated and characterized from species of the families Rubiaceae, Violaceae, and Cucurbitaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyclotides have been found in every Violaceae species screened to date but are apparently present in only a few Rubiaceae species. (plantcell.org)
  • Cyclotides have a range of interesting biological activities and are found in a variety of tropical plants from the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Fabaceae families. (ac.ir)
  • Sequence analysis showed that 14 of them had continued open reading frames and showed high level of similarity to cyclotide gene s from other species of the Violaceae . (ac.ir)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of cyclotide genes from V. modesta and other Viola species revealed that most V. modesta genes showed close relationship with their homologs from the Violaceae , while the V. modesta genes formed two separate clades. (ac.ir)
  • Cyclotide Proteins and Precursors from the Genus Gloeospermum: Filling a Blank Spot in the Cyclotide Map of Violaceae. (ac.ir)
  • Cyclotides are small disulfide-rich proteins that have the unusual feature of a cyclic backbone. (ac.ir)
  • It includes applications of cyclotides and cyclotide-like molecules as peptide-based drug leads and diagnostic agents. (nih.gov)
  • ESTs encoding the cyclotide precursors for kalata B1 (Oak1) and kalata B2 (Oak4) were among the 20 most abundant ESTs. (nih.gov)
  • Discovery of Cyclotide-Like Protein Sequences in Graminaceous Crop Plants: Ancestral Precursors of Circular Proteins? (plantcell.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The vacuolar location of cyclotides supports our hypothesis that the vacuolar processing enzyme, asparaginyl endoproteinase, has a pivotal role in excision and cyclization from cyclotide precursors. (edu.au)
  • A third subfamily of cyclotides are trypsin inhibitors and are more homologous to a family of non-cyclic trypsin inhibitors from squash plants known as knottins or inhibitor cystine knots than they are to the other cyclotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate that single-step purification of cyclotides by affinity chromatography is possible but cross reactivity may occur between homologue cyclotides of the bracelet subfamily. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cyclotides bracelet subfamily signature. (expasy.org)
  • Analysis of the suite of known cyclotides reveals many sequence similarities that are important for understanding their unique physico-chemical properties, bioactivities and homology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the current study we have undertaken high resolution structural analysis of two prototypic cyclotides, kalata B1 and cycloviolacin O1, to define the role of the conserved residues in the sequence. (rcsb.org)
  • With their sequence diversity, ultra-stable core structural motif, and range of bioactivities, cyclotides are regarded as a combinatorial peptide template with potential applications in drug design. (edu.au)
  • So I took the amino acid sequence of a recently discovered monkey cyclotide, rhesus theta defensin 1 (RTD1) sequence and BLASTed it (TBLASTN: protein vs. nucleotide) against the human genome. (bytesizebio.net)
  • Quantitative RT-PCR was used to show that two of the discovered cyclotide-like genes from rice and barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) have tissue-specific expression patterns. (plantcell.org)
  • The potent insecticidal activity of cyclotides kalata B1 and kalata B2 has prompted the belief that cyclotides act as plant host-defence agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthelmintic activity of cyclotides: In vitro studies with canine and human hookworms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Bountiful Biological Activities of Cyclotides. (ac.ir)
  • Cyclotides display a diverse range of biological activities, such as uterotonic action, anti-HIV activity, and neurotensin antagonism. (edu.au)
  • Cyclotides display a diverse range of biological activities, including uterotonic activity, inhibition of neurotensin binding, hemolytic, anti-HIV and anti-microbial activity. (bicnirrh.res.in)
  • This range of biological activities makes cyclotides amenable to potential pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. (bicnirrh.res.in)
  • With recent screening programs suggesting that the number of cyclotide sequences may soon reach the thousands, a database, CyBase, has been developed that offers the opportunity for comparisons of sequences and activity data for cyclotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, several promising proof-of-concept studies have established that pharmaceutically relevant bioactive peptide sequences can be grafted into cyclotide frameworks and thereby stabilised, while maintaining biological activity. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we use a combined bioinformatics and expression analysis approach to elucidate the evolution and distribution of the cyclotides in the plant kingdom and report the discovery of related sequences widespread in the Poaceae family, including crop plants such as rice ( Oryza sativa ), maize ( Zea mays ), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum ), which carry considerable economic and social importance. (plantcell.org)
  • The presence of cyclotide-like sequences within these plants suggests that the cyclotides may be derived from an ancestral gene of great antiquity. (plantcell.org)
  • Fifteen cyclotide sequences were obtained using homology based PCR strategy. (ac.ir)
  • After analyzing the full endoplasmic reticulum signals of V. modesta cyclotides, two conserved sequences, AAFALPA and ATAFALP, were detected. (ac.ir)
  • Analysis of isolated cyclotide sequences showed that they all belonged to bracelet family and were separated into two subclasses. (ac.ir)
  • Natural cyclotides target cell membranes, so understanding cyclotide-membrane interactions is useful in applying cyclotides in drug design applications. (edu.au)
  • For six members of the genus Viola , cyclotide expression profiles were examined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS): all expressed notably complex mixtures, with single species containing more than 50 cyclotides. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ingestion of the cyclotide kalata B1 severely retards the growth of larvae from the Lepidopteran species Helicoverpa armigera. (edu.au)
  • A systematic approach to document cyclotide distribution in plant species from genomic, transcriptomic, and peptidomic analysis. (scienceopen.com)
  • We have cloned and characterized cyclotides in Viola modesta , a Viola species native to western Asia, which was collected from the Kurdistan Province of Iran. (ac.ir)
  • V. tricolor is one of many viola plant species containing cyclotides . (wikipedia.org)
  • Among these, the cyclotides are gene-coded products generated via processing of a larger precursor protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oldenlandia affinis is a member of the Rubiaceae (coffee) family from which 18 cyclotides have been sequenced to date, but the details of their processing from precursor proteins have only begun to be elucidated. (nih.gov)
  • A new cyclotide precursor named Oak5 was isolated and represents the first cDNA for the bracelet class of cyclotides in O. affinis. (nih.gov)
  • To determine where in the plant cell Oak1 is processed, we prepared constructs encoding GFP (green fluorescent protein) linked to the cyclotide precursor Oak1. (edu.au)
  • KEY RESULTS: The full length Oak1 precursor directed GFP to the vacuole, suggesting that excision and cyclization of the cyclotide domain occurs in the vacuole where the cyclotides are then stored. (edu.au)
  • The ultra-stable cyclotides are promising templates for drug development applications and are currently being assessed for the potential breadth of their applications. (nih.gov)
  • Previously the cyclotide kalata B7 was identified to modulate the human oxytocin and vasopressin G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), providing molecular validation of the plants' uterotonic properties and further establishing cyclotides as valuable source for GPCR ligand design. (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Cyclotide Gene Family in Viola modesta Fenzl', Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology , 17(6), pp. 1637-1649. (ac.ir)
  • Given the diversity of cyclotides, our data point to other cyclotide-GPCR interactions as potentially important sources of drug-like molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • The company's drug portfolio is based on two technological pillars in the form of oral molecules and cyclotide-based drugs that inhibit key processes in the body's cells that are typically associated with various immune-related disorders. (prnewswire.com)
  • Moebius cyclotides, the less common of the two, contain a cis-proline in loop 5 that induces a local 180° backbone twist (hence likening it to a Möbius strip), whereas bracelet cyclotides do not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloviolacin O2 was used as a model substance to evaluate the chromatographic principle, first as a pure compound and then in combination with other cyclotides, that is, bracelet cyclotide cycloviolacin O19 and Mobius cyclotide kalata B1, and in a plant extract. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study provides a new method for quantifying the cyclotide kalata B1 in both plasma and brain homogenate. (diva-portal.org)
  • PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The cyclotide kalata B1 is found in the leaves of Oldenlandia affinis and is a potent insecticidal and nematocidal molecule. (edu.au)
  • We have used unconstrained an all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to investigate the interactions between a representative cyclotide (kalata B1) and bilayers comprising 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG), and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) lipids. (scienceopen.com)
  • Anthelminthic activity of the cyclotides (kalata B1 and B2) against schistosome parasites. (scienceopen.com)
  • The authors (a team from Queensland) are looking at a particular cyclotide protein, kalata B1. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cyclotides are considered a combinatorial peptide library and they can be anticipated to complement the existing collections of natural products that are used in drug discovery. (pnas.org)
  • We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the topological features in this unique family of proteins, namely rings (a circular backbone), twists (a cis-peptide bond in the Möbius cyclotides) and knots (a knotted arrangement of the disulfide bonds). (rcsb.org)
  • The cyclotides fall into two main structural subfamilies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three intramolecular disulfide bridges stabilize the cyclic peptide backbone of hypa A. Using these structural features to classify the peptide as a cyclotide, we extended the distribution of that substance class to a new genus, and now propose a uniform nomenclature for cyclotides. (diva-portal.org)
  • To assess these mixtures, a rational strategy for MS based amino acid sequencing of cyclotides was developed, circumventing inherent structural problems, such as low content of positively charged amino acids and the macrocyclic structure. (diva-portal.org)
  • Although they had different membrane-binding affinities, all of the tested cyclotides targeted membranes through binding to phospholipids containing phosphatidylethanolamine headgroups. (edu.au)
  • Furthermore, the biological potency of the tested cyclotides broadly correlated with their ability to target and disrupt cell membranes. (edu.au)
  • Although the cysteines appear essential to maintaining the overall fold, several other residues highly conserved in cyclotides are thought to provide additional stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclotides have a well-defined three-dimensional structure due to their interlocking disulfide bonds and cyclic peptide backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemically re-engineering conotoxins to give them a cyclic backbone has been used to engender them with improved biopharmaceutical properties, such as are observed in cyclotides. (edu.au)
  • Cyclotides are plant mini-proteins whose natural function is thought to be to protect plants from pest or pathogens, particularly insect pests. (mdpi.com)
  • Solid phase peptide synthesis has been the preferred approach for making pharmaceutically modified cyclotides so far, but promising progress is being made in biological approaches to cyclotide production. (nih.gov)
  • The mode of action of cyclotides remains elusive, but all reported biological activities are consistent with a mechanism involving membrane interactions. (edu.au)
  • Here, we describe the use of affinity chromatography for the purification of cyclotides using polyclonal IgG antibodies raised in rabbits against cycloviolacin O2 and immobilized on NHS-activated Sepharose columns. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cyclotides are head-to-tail cyclized proteins from plants that are exceptionally stable and hence make useful templates for the stabilization of bioactive peptide epitopes as well as potential leads for anti-HIV drugs. (edu.au)
  • The six cysteine residues are absolutely conserved throughout the cyclotide suite and presumably contribute to preserving the CCK motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a part of this work, the cytotoxic effects of varv A and two other isolated cyclotides were evaluated in a human cell-line panel: all were active in the low µM range. (diva-portal.org)
  • Many cyclotides, found in Viola tricolor are cytotoxic . (wikipedia.org)
  • Jagadish K, Camarero JA (2010) Cyclotides, a promising molecular scaffold for peptide-based therapeutics. (springer.com)
  • Other conserved residues include a hydroxyl-containing residue in loop 3, a glycine residue in the final position of loop 3, a basic and a proline residue in the penultimate position in loop 5 of bracelet and Möbius cyclotides respectively, and an asparagine (or occasionally aspartic acid) residue at the putative cyclisation point in loop 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, cyclotides have been shown to be antibiotic, antiviral and insecticidal. (bytesizebio.net)
  • Further analysis of the candidates for cyclotide processing discovered in this work will increase our understanding and aid in reconstructing cyclotide production using transgenic systems and will benefit their development in pharmaceutical applications and insect-resistant crop plants. (nih.gov)
  • Like other proteins, cyclotides comprise a string of amino acids, the body's building blocks. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Petunia already produces cyclotides, and so if we put a foreign modified conotoxin gene into it, the petunia is fantastic at producing the cyclic version with almost no misprocessed linear version. (rsc.org)
  • Head-to-Tail Cyclization after Interaction with Trypsin: A Scorpion Venom Peptide that Resembles Plant Cyclotides Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 63, 9500-9511. (unam.mx)
  • Cyclotides have also been identified in agriculturally important families such as the Fabaceae and Poaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The finding that a broad range of cyclotides target a specific lipid suggests their categorization as a new lipid-binding protein family. (edu.au)
  • But the second part of the binding process, the insertion of the hydrophobic part of the cyclotide into the lipid bilayer, that one prefers the natural chirality. (sciencemag.org)