Cyclotides: A continuous circle of peptide bonds, typically of 2-3 dozen AMINO ACIDS, so there is no free N- or C-terminus. They are further characterized by six conserved CYSTEINE residues that form CYSTINE KNOT MOTIFS.Viola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Oldenlandia: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Some species are used as an ingredient in Chinese and African traditional medicines. Members contain kalata B1, a macrocyclic peptide.Cystine Knot Motifs: Amino acid sequence in which two disulfide bonds (DISULFIDES) and their connecting backbone form a ring that is penetrated by a third disulfide bond. Members include CYCLOTIDES and agouti-related protein.Violaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Clitoria: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains ternatins (anthocyanins) and preternatins, antifungal proteins, stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione, and clitoriacetal (ROTENONE).Trichostrongylosis: Infestation with nematode worms of the genus TRICHOSTRONGYLUS. Man and animals become infected by swallowing larvae, usually with contaminated food or drink, although the larvae may penetrate human skin.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Trichostrongylus: A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the digestive tract of herbivorous animals. They cause incidental infections in humans from the following species: Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. orientalis, T. axei, and T. probolurus.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Ipecac: A syrup made from the dried rhizomes of two different species, CEPHAELIS ipecacuanha and C. acuminata. They contain EMETINE, cephaeline, psychotrine and other ISOQUINOLINES. Ipecac syrup is used widely as an emetic acting both locally on the gastric mucosa and centrally on the chemoreceptor trigger zone.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.AzerbaijanFourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Ancylostoma: A genus of nematode intestinal parasites that consists of several species. A. duodenale is the common hookworm in humans. A. braziliense, A. ceylonicum, and A. caninum occur primarily in cats and dogs, but all have been known to occur in humans.Ancylostomiasis: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Necator americanus: A common parasite of humans in the moist tropics and subtropics. These organisms attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood causing diarrhea, anorexia, and anemia.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Ancylostomatoidea: A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.Necatoriasis: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus NECATOR. The resulting anemia from this condition is less severe than that from ANCYLOSTOMIASIS.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Dipsacaceae: A plant family of the order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes called the teasel family.Mentha: Mentha is a genus of the mint family (LAMIACEAE). It is known for species having characteristic flavor and aroma.Anagallis: A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE that contains anagallosides, which are molluscacidal triterpenoid saponins.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Yucca: A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.Western Australia: A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Awards and PrizesSchools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

An unusual structural motif of antimicrobial peptides containing end-to-end macrocycle and cystine-knot disulfides. (1/74)

Four macrocyclic cystine-knot peptides of 29-31 residues, kalata, circulin A and B (CirA and CirB), and cyclopsychotride, have been isolated from coffee plants but have undetermined physiological functions. These macrocycles and 10 of their analogs prepared by chemical synthesis were tested against nine strains of microbes. Kalata and CirA were specific for the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibition concentration of approximately 0.2 microM. They were relatively ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, CirB and cyclopsychotride were active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In particular, CirB showed potent activity against E. coli with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.41 microM. All four cyclic peptides were moderately active against two strains of fungi, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis, but were inactive against Candida albicans. These macrocycles are cytotoxic and lysed human red blood cell with a lethal dose 50% of 400 microM. Modifying the Arg residue in kalata with a keto aldehyde significantly reduced its activity against S. aureus whereas blocking the arg in CirA produced no significant effect. The two-disulfide variants and their scrambled disulfide isomers exhibited antimicrobial profiles and potency similar to their native peptides. However, in high-salt assays (100 mM NaCl), few of these macrocyclic peptides, natives or analogs, retained antimicrobial activity. These results show that the macrocyclic peptides possess specific and potent antimicrobial activity that is salt-dependent and that their initial interactions with the microbial surfaces may be electrostatic, an effect commonly found in defensin antimicrobial peptides. Furthermore, their end-to-end cyclic structure with a cystine-knot motif represents a molecular structure of antimicrobials and may provide a useful template for the design of novel peptide antibiotics.  (+info)

Acyclic permutants of naturally occurring cyclic proteins. Characterization of cystine knot and beta-sheet formation in the macrocyclic polypeptide kalata B1. (2/74)

Kalata B1 is a prototypic member of the unique cyclotide family of macrocyclic polypeptides in which the major structural features are a circular peptide backbone, a triple-stranded beta-sheet, and a cystine knot arrangement of three disulfide bonds. The cyclotides are the only naturally occurring family of circular proteins and have prompted us to explore the concept of acyclic permutation, i.e. opening the backbone of a cross-linked circular protein in topologically permuted ways. We have synthesized the complete suite of acyclic permutants of kalata B1 and examined the effect of acyclic permutation on structure and activity. Only two of six topologically distinct backbone loops are critical for folding into the native conformation, and these involve disruption of the embedded ring in the cystine knot. Surprisingly, it is possible to disrupt regions of the beta-sheet and still allow folding into native-like structure, provided the cystine knot is intact. Kalata B1 has mild hemolytic activity, but despite the overall structure of the native peptide being retained in all but two cases, none of the acyclic permutants displayed hemolytic activity. This loss of activity is not localized to one particular region and suggests that cyclization is critical for hemolytic activity.  (+info)

Cyclotides: a novel type of cytotoxic agents. (3/74)

Cytotoxic activities of three naturally occurring macrocyclic peptides (cyclotides) isolated from the two violets, Viola arvensis Murr. and Viola odorata L., were investigated. A nonclonogenic fluorometric microculture assay was used to examine cytotoxicity in a panel of 10 human tumor cell lines representing defined types of cytotoxic drug resistance. Additionally, primary cultures of tumor cells from patients, and for comparison normal lymphocytes, were used to quantify cytotoxic activity. All three cyclotides, varv A, varv F, and cycloviolacin 02, exhibited strong cytotoxic activities, which varied in a dose-dependent manner. Cycloviolacin 02 was the most potent in all cell lines (IC50 0.1-0.3 microM), followed by varv A (IC50 2.7-6.35 microM) and varv F (IC50 2.6-7.4 microM), respectively. Activity profiles of the cyclotides differed significantly from those of antitumor drugs in clinical use, which may indicate a new mode of action. This, together with the exceptional chemical and biological stability of cyclotides, makes them interesting in particular for their potential as pharmacological tools and possibly as leads to antitumor agents.  (+info)

Disulfide folding pathways of cystine knot proteins. Tying the knot within the circular backbone of the cyclotides. (4/74)

The plant cyclotides are a fascinating family of circular proteins that contain a cyclic cystine knot motif. The knotted topology and cyclic nature of the cyclotides pose interesting questions about folding mechanisms and how the knotted arrangement of disulfide bonds is formed. In the current study we have examined the oxidative refolding and reductive unfolding of the prototypic cyclotide, kalata B1. A stable two-disulfide intermediate accumulated during oxidative refolding but not in reductive unfolding. Mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy were used to show that the intermediate contained a native-like structure with two native disulfide bonds topologically similar to the intermediate isolated for the related cystine knot protein EETI-II (Le-Nguyen, D., Heitz, A., Chiche, L., El Hajji, M., and Castro B. (1993) Protein Sci. 2, 165-174). However, the folding intermediate observed for kalata B1 is not the immediate precursor of the three-disulfide native peptide and does not accumulate in the reductive unfolding process, in contrast to the intermediate observed for EETI-II. These alternative pathways of linear and cyclic cystine knot proteins appear to be related to the constraints imposed by the cyclic backbone of kalata B1 and the different ring size of the cystine knot. The three-dimensional structure of a synthetic version of the two-disulfide intermediate of kalata B1 in which Ala residues replace the reduced Cys residues provides a structural insight into why the two-disulfide intermediate is a kinetic trap on the folding pathway.  (+info)

The CRIPTO/FRL-1/CRYPTIC (CFC) domain of human Cripto. Functional and structural insights through disulfide structure analysis. (5/74)

The disulfide structure of the CRIPTO/FRL-1/CRYPTIC (CFC) domain of human Cripto protein was determined by a combination of enzymatic and chemical fragmentation, followed by chromatographic separation of the fragments, and characterization by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. These studies showed that Cys115 forms a disulfide bond with Cys133, Cys128 with Cys149, and Cys131 with Cys140. Protein database searching and molecular modeling revealed that the pattern of disulfide linkages in the CFC domain of Cripto is the same as that in PARS intercerebralis major Peptide C (PMP-C), a serine protease inhibitor, and that the EGF-CFC domains of Cripto are predicted to be structurally homologous to the EGF-VWFC domains of the C-terminal extracellular portions of Jagged 1 and Jagged 2. Biochemical studies of the interactions of ALK4 with the CFC domain of Cripto by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis indicate that the CFC domain binds to ALK4 independent of the EGF domain. A molecular model of the CFC domain of Cripto was constructed based on the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of PMP-C. This model reveals a hydrophobic patch in the domain opposite to the presumed ALK4 binding site. This hydrophobic patch may be functionally important for the formation of intra or intermolecular complexes.  (+info)

Disulfide mapping of the cyclotide kalata B1. Chemical proof of the cystic cystine knot motif. (6/74)

The cyclotides are a recently discovered family of plant proteins that have the fascinating structural feature of a continuous cyclic backbone and, putatively, a knotted arrangement of their three conserved disulfide bonds. We here show definite chemical proof of the I-IV, II-V, III-VI knotted disulfide connectivity of the prototypic cyclotide kalata B1. This has been achieved by a new approach for disulfide analysis, involving partial reduction and stepwise alkylation including introduction of charges and enzymatic cleavage sites by aminoethylation of cysteines. The approach overcomes the intrinsic difficulties for disulfide mapping of cyclotides, i.e. the cyclic amide backbone, lack of cleavage sites between cysteines, and a low or clustered content of basic amino acids, and allowed a direct determination of the disulfide bonds in kalata B1 using analysis by mass spectrometry. The established disulfide connectivity is unequivocally shown to be cystine knotted by a topological analysis. This is the first direct chemical determination of disulfides in native cyclotides and unambiguously confirms the unique cyclic cystine knot motif.  (+info)

A comparison of the self-association behavior of the plant cyclotides kalata B1 and kalata B2 via analytical ultracentrifugation. (7/74)

The recently discovered cyclotides kalata B1 and kalata B2 are miniproteins containing a head-to-tail cyclized backbone and a cystine knot motif, in which disulfide bonds and the connecting backbone segments form a ring that is penetrated by the third disulfide bond. This arrangement renders the cyclotides extremely stable against thermal and enzymatic decay, making them a possible template onto which functionalities can be grafted. We have compared the hydrodynamic properties of two prototypic cyclotides, kalata B1 and kalata B2, using analytical ultracentrifugation techniques. Direct evidence for oligomerization of kalata B2 was shown by sedimentation velocity experiments in which a method for determining size distribution of polydisperse molecules in solution was employed. The shape of the oligomers appears to be spherical. Both sedimentation velocity and equilibrium experiments indicate that in phosphate buffer kalata B1 exists mainly as a monomer, even at millimolar concentrations. In contrast, at 1.6 mm, kalata B2 exists as an equilibrium mixture of monomer (30%), tetramer (42%), octamer (25%), and possibly a small proportion of higher oligomers. The results from the sedimentation equilibrium experiments show that this self-association is concentration dependent and reversible. We link our findings to the three-dimensional structures of both cyclotides, and propose two putative interaction interfaces on opposite sides of the kalata B2 molecule, one involving a hydrophobic interaction with the Phe6, and the second involving a charge-charge interaction with the Asp25 residue. An understanding of the factors affecting solution aggregation is of vital importance for future pharmaceutical application of these molecules.  (+info)

Solution structure of the cyclotide palicourein: implications for the development of a pharmaceutical framework. (8/74)

The cyclotides are a family of disulfide-rich proteins from plants. They have the characteristic structural features of a circular protein backbone and a knotted arrangement of disulfide bonds. Structural and biochemical studies of the cyclotides suggest that their unique physiological stability can be loaned to bioactive peptide fragments for pharmaceutical and agricultural development. In particular, the cyclotides incorporate a number of solvent-exposed loops that are potentially suitable for epitope grafting applications. Here, we determine the structure of the largest known cyclotide, palicourein, which has an atypical size and composition within one of the surface-exposed loops. The structural data show that an increase in size of a palicourein loop does not perturb the core fold, to which the thermodynamic and chemical stability has been attributed. The cyclotide core fold, thus, can in principle be used as a framework for the development of useful pharmaceutical and agricultural bioactivities.  (+info)

Cyclotides are considered promising scaffolds for drug development owing to their inherent host defence activities and highly stable structure, defined by the cyclic cystine knot. These proteins are expressed as complex mixtures in plants. Although several methods have been developed for their isolation and analysis, purification of cyclotides is still a lengthy process. Here, we describe the use of affinity chromatography for the purification of cyclotides using polyclonal IgG antibodies raised in rabbits against cycloviolacin O2 and immobilized on NHS-activated Sepharose columns. Cycloviolacin O2 was used as a model substance to evaluate the chromatographic principle, first as a pure compound and then in combination with other cyclotides, that is, bracelet cyclotide cycloviolacin O19 and Mobius cyclotide kalata B1, and in a plant extract. We demonstrate that single-step purification of cyclotides by affinity chromatography is possible but cross reactivity may occur between homologue cyclotides ...
The cyclotides are a family of naturally occurring peptides characterized by cyclic cystine knot (CCK) structural motif, which comprises a cyclic head-to-tail backbone featuring six conserved cysteine residues that form three disulfide bonds. This unique structural motif makes cyclotides exceptionally resistant to chemical, thermal and enzymatic degradation. They also exhibit a wide range of biological activities including insecticidal, cytotoxic, anti-HIV and antimicrobial effects.. The cyclotides found in plants exhibit considerable sequence and structural diversity, which can be linked to their evolutionary history and that of their host plants. To clarify the evolutionary link between sequence diversity and the distribution of individual cyclotides across the genus Viola, selected known cyclotides were classified using signature sequences within their precursor proteins. By mapping the classified sequences onto the phylogenetic system of Viola, we traced the flow of cyclotide genes over ...
Cyclotides are plant peptides comprising a circular backbone and three conserved disulfide bonds that confer them with exceptional stability. They were originally discovered in Oldenlandia affinis based on their use in traditional African medicine to accelerate labor. Recently, cyclotides have been identified in numerous plant species of the coffee, violet, cucurbit, pea, potato, and grass families. Their unique structural topology, high stability, and tolerance to sequence variation make them promising templates for the development of peptide-based pharmaceuticals. However, the mechanisms underlying their biological activities remain largely unknown; specifically, a receptor for a native cyclotide has not been reported hitherto. Using bioactivity-guided fractionation of an herbal peptide extract known to indigenous healers as "kalata-kalata," the cyclotide kalata B7 was found to induce strong contractility on human uterine smooth muscle cells. Radioligand displacement and second ...
Cyclotides are plant derived, cystine-knot stabilized peptides characterized by their natural abundance, sequence variability and structural plasticity. They are abundantly expressed in Rubiaceae, Psychotrieae in particular. Previously the cyclotide kalata B7 was identified to modulate the human oxytocin and vasopressin G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), providing molecular validation of the plants uterotonic properties and further establishing cyclotides as valuable sources for novel GPCR ligand design. In this study we screened a cyclotide extract derived from the root powder of the South American medicinal plant ipecac (Carapichea ipecacuanha) for its GPCR modulating activity of the corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1R). We identified and characterized seven novel cyclotides. One cyclotide, caripe 8, isolated from the most active fraction, was further analyzed and found to antagonize the CRF1R. A nanomolar concentration of this cyclotide (260 nM) reduced CRF potency by ~4.5-fold.
... is managed at the Institute of Molecular Bioscience IMB, Brisbane, Australia. The database and computational tools found on this website may be used for academic research only, provided that it is referred to CyBase, the database of cyclic proteins (http://www.cybase.org.au). For any other use please contact David Craik ([email protected]). ...
... is managed at the Institute of Molecular Bioscience IMB, Brisbane, Australia. The database and computational tools found on this website may be used for academic research only, provided that it is referred to CyBase, the database of cyclic proteins (http://www.cybase.org.au). For any other use please contact David Craik ([email protected]). ...
... is managed at the Institute of Molecular Bioscience IMB, Brisbane, Australia. The database and computational tools found on this website may be used for academic research only, provided that it is referred to CyBase, the database of cyclic proteins (http://www.cybase.org.au). For any other use please contact David Craik ([email protected]). ...
... is managed at the Institute of Molecular Bioscience IMB, Brisbane, Australia. The database and computational tools found on this website may be used for academic research only, provided that it is referred to CyBase, the database of cyclic proteins (http://www.cybase.org.au). For any other use please contact David Craik ([email protected]). ...
All published cyclotide solution structures exhibit a similar fold that forces the exposure of a hydrophobic patch to the surface. The homology model shown in Figure 5 suggests that, at least for Z. mays D, if a cystine knot is present then a hydrophobic surface will be exposed to the surface. It can be seen that the hydrophobic residues from loops 2 and 3 form a hydrophobic patch along one face of the molecule, with charged residues and additional hydrophobic residues arranged on the other face, as is the case in the bracelet cyclotides (Felizmenio-Quimio et al., 2001). It can be seen in Figure 6 that, at least for the sequences with typical loop 1 spacing, the conservation of hydrophobic residues suggests that a similar situation could occur for these proteins. The importance of the solvent-exposed hydrophobic patches for the natural function of the cyclotides is not known, but the high degree of sequence similarity between the Poaceae sequences and cyclotides may indicate that they are ...
The endo aryl-aryl and aryl-alkyl ether bonds exist in a number of biologically important macrocyclic natural products, such as vancomycin family glycopeptide antibiotics (1, 2, 3), antitumor series...
MPT Europe has developed stent crimping machines for all todays stent materials.We have solutions for both balloon expandable and self-expandable stent systems.. The stent crimping systems use the MPT designed zero-gap stent crimping head technology. The latest types of stent crimpers have very stiff crimping heads and show remarkable stability during the crimping. Automatic calibration and dynamic force / diameter compensation are available on the servo controlled models.. The heads always fully close and can be made with heated and / or cooled blades. Depending on the requirements the systems are manual, pneumatic or servo controlled (+/- 0.02 mm @ 100N radial) and can be made in lengths up to 300 mm length. The stent crimping heads have by design a very little relative motion to the product. That feature helps crimping stents without damaging the surfaces and has proven to be superior to other stent crimping machines.. The stent crimping heads are all coated with a very high wear - low ...
Cyclotides are macrocyclic knotted peptides originating from plants. They are extremely stable and have a range of bioactivities including anti-HIV and insecticidal activity. Given the stability of the cyclotide framework, there is interest in using these peptides as scaffolds in drug design. In the current study, we have shown that nano-LC Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is an effective method of analyzing cyclotides in plants. In addition, we have used this technique to find cyclotides in a novel species, Viola ignobilis (Violaceae plant family), which was collected from the West Azerbaijan province of Iran. Varv peptide A, cycloviolacin B2, and cycloviolacin O8 were found in this species. This study provides a novel method for directly analyzing cyclotide sequences without enzymatic digestion and further information regarding the distribution of cyclotides in plant species.. ...
Cyclotides are small disulfide-rich proteins that have the unusual feature of a cyclic backbone. Cyclotides have a range of interesting biological activities and are found in a variety of tropical plants from the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Fabaceae families. We have cloned and characterized cyclotides in Viola modesta, a Viola species native to western Asia, which was collected from the Kurdistan Province of Iran. Fifteen cyclotide sequences were obtained using homology based PCR strategy. Sequence analysis showed that 14 of them had continued open reading frames and showed high level of similarity to cyclotide genes from other species of the Violaceae. After analyzing the full endoplasmic reticulum signals of V. modesta cyclotides, two conserved sequences, AAFALPA and ATAFALP, were detected. Analysis of isolated cyclotide sequences showed that they all belonged to bracelet family and were separated into two subclasses. Phylogenetic analysis of cyclotide genes from V. modesta and other
Oldenlandia diffusa is traditionally prescribed in the treatment of a number of cancers and studies suggest that it exerts a cytotoxic action specific to cancer cells. To further investigate this suggested action, the effect(s) of Oldenlandia diffusa on leukaemic cells (HL60) and stimulated and unstimulated human blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was investigated. For the HL60s, cell growth, apoptotic induction, alterations in cell cycle characteristics and genotoxicity were investigated. For the PBLs, apoptotic induction and alterations in cell cycle characteristics were investigated. Preliminary chemical analysis to identify the cytotoxic constituents of Oldenlandia diffusa was also carried out. Results showed that Oldenlandia diffusa significantly inhibited the growth of the HL60s and induced apoptosis in a cell cycle-independent fashion, possibly through the induction of genotoxic damage. Oldenlandia diffusa did not induce apoptosis in the PBLs however progression through the cell cycle was not ...
Research progress of pharmacological function of Oldenlandia diffusa was reviewed through consulting to relative reports at home and abroad.Oldenlandia diffusa had pharmacological functions such as immunity,antitumor,antibacterial,anti-oxidant,chemical induction resistance,regulating central nervous system and so on.Therefore,Oldenlandia diffusa had prospect development future.
This invention relates to the crystal structure of a plant peptide deformylase polypeptide and methods of using the structure to design compounds that modulate the activity of the polypeptide.
With the advent of high throughput biomolecular engineering techniques, it has become possible to isolate short peptides that bind to a variety of targets ranging from inorganic materials to proteins. The application of peptides as therapeutics has been hampered by the inherent susceptibility of peptides to proteases present throughout the human body. One strategy to overcome this protease susceptibility is to fortify peptides via cyclization or other conformational constraints. Indeed, nature uses this strategy in several classes of peptides such as cyclotides and defensins which are stabilized by networks of disulfide bonds and in some cases head-to-tail cyclization. My group studies a class of peptides termed lasso peptides because of their unique slipknot-like structure. This highly entropically disfavored fold endows the peptides with tremendous stability; some lasso peptides can retain their structure and function even after boiling in 8 M urea. Lasso peptides are also resistant to ...
In molecular biology, the Fic/DOC protein family is a family of proteins which includes the Fic (filamentation induced by cAMP) protein and doc (death on curing) protein. The Fic protein is involved in cell division and is suggested to be involved in the synthesis of p-aminobenzoate or folate, indicating that the Fic protein and cAMP are involved in a regulatory mechanism of cell division via folate metabolism. This family contains a central conserved motif HPFXXGNG in most members. The exact molecular function of these proteins is uncertain. P1 lysogens of Escherichia coli carry the prophage as a stable low copy number plasmid. The frequency with which viable cells cured of prophage are produced is about 10(-5) per cell per generation. A significant part of this remarkable stability can be attributed to a plasmid-encoded mechanism that causes death of cells that have lost P1. In other words, the lysogenic cells appear to be addicted to the presence of the prophage. The plasmid withdrawal ...
Advancements in optical nanosensor development have enabled the design of sensors using synthetic molecular recognition elements through a recently developed method called Corona Phase Molecular Recognition (CoPhMoRe). The synthetic sensors resulting from these design principles are highly selective for specific analytes, and demonstrate remarkable stability for use under a variety of conditions. An essential element of nanosensor development hinges on the ability to understand the interface between nanoparticles and the associated corona phase surrounding the nanosensor, an environment outside of the range of traditional characterization tools, such as NMR. This review discusses the need for new strategies and instrumentation to study the nanoparticle corona, operating in both in vitro and in vivo environments. Approaches to instrumentation must have the capacity to concurrently monitor nanosensor operation and the molecular changes in the corona phase. A detailed overview of new tools for the
In several markets, firms compete not for consumer expenditure but instead for consumer attention. We model and characterize how households allocate their scarce attention in arguably the largest market for attention: the Internet. Our characterization of household attention allocation operates along three dimensions: how much attention is allocated, where that attention is allocated, and how that attention is allocated. Using click-stream data for thousands of U.S. households, we assess if and how attention allocation on each dimension changed between 2008 and 2013, a time of large increases in online offerings. We identify vast and expected changes in where households allocate their attention (away from chat and news towards video and social media), and yet we simultaneously identify remarkable stability in how much attention is allocated and how it is allocated. Specifically, we identify (i) persistence in the elasticity of attention according to income and (ii) complete stability in the ...
There are disclosed certain new compounds related to C-076 compounds which have been produced by a mutant of the culture that produced the original C-076 compounds and isolated from the fermentation broth thereof. The compounds retain the C-076 16-membered cyclic backbone, however, the groups attached thereto are considerably modified from the original C-076 compounds. The new compounds have been found to retain the biological activity of the parent C-076 compounds. The compounds are thus potent antiparasitic agents and compositions and methods for such uses are also disclosed.
G. Figure : Structure of Ursolic Acid and Oleanolat Acid. 5. Anticancer Mechanism Research. Oldenlandia is one of plant that has potency as anticancer. Oleanolat acid and ursolic acid, load of this plant could be expected to inhibit cancer.. Anan (2000) reported that hexane extract of oldenlandia have ED50 value amount 30μg/mL, whereas the ethyl acetate extract and methanol extract have ED50 value greater than 30μg/mL. According Sadasivan et al. (2006), work of these compound are blocking the growth of cell cycle in phase G1 that marked by the decrease of protein cyclin expression D1, D2, and E and their active partner like CDK2, 4, and 6 with inducting p21/WAF1.. Research that done by Asyhar (2009) using ethanolic extract of oldenlandia, showing the quantitative observation result using immunohistochemistry against protein expression N-ras known that compound in the ethanolic extract can increase spurring expression of N-ras cell normal so that has prospect as hepatoprotector.. Load of ...
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Mu Bie Zi is also known as Indian trumpet flower seed. The bitter, slightly sweet, warm and toxic herb has been used in TCM to treat bunacles, scofula, pain in rheumatism, spastic muscles, etc., as it enhances the functions of liver, spleen and stomach channels. Ingredients 1. Momordic acid 2. Gypsogenin 3. Oleanolic acid 4. …. ...
In this work the authors develop a mathematical model for the dynamics of a major helminth parasite of man, schistosomiasis. The model is a system of coupled non-linear equations. Numerical experimentations with the model reveal the remarkable stability of the dynamics of schistosomiasis. The steady state is invariably reached within 10-15 years of the start of the infection. A numerical solution of the model supports the often-stated and often-debated observation that "the usual shape of the curve of the intensity of infection by age is produced through variability of water-contact behaviour among age groups and a slowly-acquired immunity to re-infection." It also indicates that convexity of the age-intensity profile can be due to variability of water-contact activities among age groups alone. The model can be used to answer questions of the "what if variety about the dynamics of schistosomiasis especially as they relate ...
3,29-di-O-(p-methoxy)benzoylmultiflora-8-ene-329-diol-7-one: multiflorane triterpenoid ester from seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae); structure in first source
Homeopathic Viola Odorata indications, uses & symptoms from 12 materia medicas, linked and cross referenced. Available 2X-30X, 4C-30C, 200C, 1M-10M, Q
Several members of three plants families - the Rubiaceae, Violaceae and Cucurbitaceae- produce cyclotides, cyclic mini-peptides made up of 28-37 amino acids arranged in a circular configuration. These compounds are very stable and have attracted the attention of pharmaceutical companies. Because these peptides lack free amino and carboxyl ends, they cannot be broken down by…
COMU features optimal properties as a peptide coupling reagent. In addition to its high and fast coupling efficiency, it shows very low or non-existent tendencies for racemization. Epimerization during fragment coupling appears to be lessened with COMU than with HOBt or HATU. COMU is easily soluble with remarkable stability in most commonly employed peptide coupling solvents, such as DMF or NMP, which makes it ideally suited for solid phase peptide synthesis. It is equally attractive for solution phase synthesis since by-products formed by COMU are water-soluble and can be separated by simple extraction. A color change during the reaction allows visual or colorimetric reaction monitoring. DSC and ARC data indicate that COMU can be rated as non-explosive ...
A tandem-cartridge system was established for studying colloid formation and physical state distribution of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in water. The effectiveness of the method for measuring the trace PAH colloids was demonstrated. With aqueous samples prepared by adding the PAH solutes with a small amount of organic solvent carrier, the potential of colloid formation increased with the hydrophobicity and concentration of the solute, but the incipient concentration for the colloid formation may be far lower than the aqueous solubility of the solute. After formation in water, the colloids showed remarkable stability at room temperature, and the stability was greatly reduced by elevated temperature and the presence of a small amount of inorganic electrolytes. The possible mechanism of destabilization of the colloids was discussed, and the mechanism might be of utility in providing insights into the physical state distribution of the solutes in various water samples. However, ...
The transition to agro-pastoralism in central Europe has been framed within a dichotomy of "regional continuity" versus exogenous "demic diffusion". While substantial genetic support exists for a model of demographic diffusion from an ancestral source in the Near East, archaeological data furnish weak support for the "wave of advance" model. Nevertheless, archaeological evidence attests the widespread introduction of an exogenous "package" comprising ceramics, cereals, pulses and domesticated animals to central Europe at 5600calBCE. Body proportions are under strong climatic selection and evince remarkable stability within regional lineages. As such, they offer a viable and robust alternative to cranio-facial data in assessing hypothesised continuity and replacement with the transition to agro-pastoralism in central Europe. Humero-clavicular, brachial and crural indices in a large sample (n=75) of Linienbandkeramik (LBK), Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age specimens from the middle ...
Background MicroRNAs have been considered as a kind of potential novel biomarker for cancer detection due to their remarkable stability in the blood and the characteristics of their expression profile in many diseases. Methods We performed microarray-based serum miRNA profiling on the serum of twenty nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients at diagnosis along with 20 non-cancerous individuals as controls. This was followed by a real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) in a separate cohort of thirty patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and thirty age- matched non-cancerous volunteers. A model for diagnosis was established by a conversion of mathematical calculation formula which has been validated by analyzing 74 cases of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 57 cases of non-cancerous volunteers. Results The profiles showed that 39 and 17 miRNAs are exclusively expressed in the serum of non-cancerous volunteers and of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma respectively. 4 miRNAs
TY - JOUR. T1 - Triplet repeat DNA structures and human genetic disease. T2 - Dynamic mutations from dynamic DNA. AU - Sinden, Richard R.. AU - Potaman, Vladimir N.. AU - Oussatcheva, Elena A.. AU - Pearson, Christopher E.. AU - Lyubchenko, Yuri L.. AU - Shlyakhtenko, Luda S.. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Fourteen genetic neurodegenerative diseases and three fragile sites have been associated with the expansion of (CTG)n•(CAG)n•(CGG)n• (CCG)n, or (GAA)n·(TTC)n repeat tracts. Different models have been proposed for the expansion of triplet repeats, most of which presume the formation of alternative DNA structures in repeat tracts. One of the most likely structures, slipped strand DNA, may stably and reproducibly form within triplet repeat sequences. The propensity to form slipped strand DNA is proportional to the length and homogeneity of the repeat tract. The remarkable stability of slipped strand DNA may, in part, be due to loop-loop interactions facilitated by the sequence ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
He seems able to recognize but half an idea ; he puts it in proper place but cannot hold it ; he makes great effort to grasp the other half, but at same moment half of another incomplete idea presses upon him, and so on ; thoughts chase one another, but he always has but half a thought which he cannot hold to and cannot think out ; judgment remains, he recognizes morbid fancies, but cannot prevent them ; he looks like one meditating and despondent ...
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Nitya Venkataraman from the University of Central Florida has managed to reawaken a guardian gene that has been lying dormant in our genomes for 7 million years. These genes, known as retrocyclins, protect monkeys from HIV-like viruses. The hope is that by rousing them from their slumber, they could do the same for us. The technique is several safety tests and clinical trials away from actual use, but its promising nonetheless.. Retrocyclins are the only circular proteins in our bodies, and are formed from a ring of 18 amino acids. They belong to a group of proteins called defensinsthat, as their name suggests, defend the body against bacteria, viruses, fungi and other foreign invaders. There are three types: alpha-, beta- and theta-defensins. The last group is the one that retrocyclins belong to. They were the last to be discovered, and have only been found in the white blood cells of macaques, baboons and orang-utans.. In previous experiments, Venkataramans group, led by Alexander Cole, ...
Nitya Venkataraman from the University of Central Florida has managed to reawaken a guardian gene that has been lying dormant in our genomes for 7 million years. These genes, known as retrocyclins, protect monkeys from HIV-like viruses. The hope is that by rousing them from their slumber, they could do the same for us. The technique is several safety tests and clinical trials away from actual use, but its promising nonetheless.. Retrocyclins are the only circular proteins in our bodies, and are formed from a ring of 18 amino acids. They belong to a group of proteins called defensinsthat, as their name suggests, defend the body against bacteria, viruses, fungi and other foreign invaders. There are three types: alpha-, beta- and theta-defensins. The last group is the one that retrocyclins belong to. They were the last to be discovered, and have only been found in the white blood cells of macaques, baboons and orang-utans.. In previous experiments, Venkataramans group, led by Alexander Cole, ...
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Gimp is the art of weaving plastic strings to create friendship bracelets. The material used in the process also is called lanyard, Scoubidou, craftlace or boondoggle lacing. There are different ways you can finish off a bracelet in gimp. One, referred to as the American way, consists of looping in the string; another, called the European way, involves gluing the final stitch. Combining the two in some manner can create a secure finish.. ...
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Lokai is infused with elements sourced from the highest and lowest points on earth. A white bead, holding water from Mt. Everest, and a black bead, filled with mud from the Dead Sea, exist on opposite ends. A string of beads link the two, signifying that throughout lifes circular journey, your path is yours to walk and yours alone. Life is marked by highs and lows. Without one, we would not appreciate the other. The Lokai bracelet is a constant, wearable reminder to lead a balanced life, staying humble though the highs and hopeful through the lows. Lokai does not sell to distributors and therefore we (seller name: Lokai) are the only official Lokai retailer on Amazon (and online). All products are made, sold and fulfilled by Lokai, with a 100% authenticity guarantee, directly from us. ...
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In the care of Dr. Recht and great UMass nurses, my family and friends surrounded me that night. I made sure it was not a room full of sadness, fear, or worry (Although Im betting people were worried when they werent around me, they didnt show it in front of me). We joked, laughed, and I assured everyone that I was going to be okay. We all had a huge chuckle when I looked at the original hospital bracelet they gave me and saw my date of birth was in the early 1900s! They had mistakenly given me one with the info on my elderly hospital roommate…woops! Everyone stayed well past visiting hours until the nurses kindly asked everyone to leave. I may have had a brain tumor, but I also had a huge support system in place. ...
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Mathematically, knots are only truly defined in loops, as a knot in an open string can just be slid off the end. Knots are loosely categorized by the minimum number of times the loop crosses over itself in a diagram (see below). The simplest knot, the trefoil, when drawn must cross itself a minimum of three times. For a given crossing number, there can be multiple kinds of knots. The two simplest knots, with three and four crossings, only have one type, then there are two for five, three for six, seven for seven, then it starts to explode: 165 for ten crossings, 9988 for thirteen, and over a million for sixteen. Beyond this, it is unknown how many kinds of knots there are (although there are constraints). Each type of knot has certain parameters that are unique to the knot, called invariants, and calculating these invariants is how knots can be distinguished. When dealing with knots in real ropes and polymers and DNA, we have to remember that it doesnt count as a knot unless the ends are ...
and having just purchased a bracelet mandrel, i had to make something round... i wear a bracelet that i bought from barbara lewis that my mom has been eye-balling since i got it... so now she has one... have a feeling i will be playing with the mandrel for a while... see that gorgeous raku bead? that was made by mak of maku studio... ...
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Mathematically, knots are only truly defined in loops, as a knot in an open string can just be slid off the end. Knots are loosely categorized by the minimum number of times the loop crosses over itself in a diagram (see below). The simplest knot, the trefoil, when drawn must cross itself a minimum of three times. For a given crossing number, there can be multiple kinds of knots. The two simplest knots, with three and four crossings, only have one type, then there are two for five, three for six, seven for seven, then it starts to explode: 165 for ten crossings, 9988 for thirteen, and over a million for sixteen. Beyond this, it is unknown how many kinds of knots there are (although there are constraints). Each type of knot has certain parameters that are unique to the knot, called invariants, and calculating these invariants is how knots can be distinguished. When dealing with knots in real ropes and polymers and DNA, we have to remember that it doesnt count as a knot unless the ends are ...
GOT KNOTS? February 15, 2016 PROBLEM: Ive got knots/lumps in my muscles. WHAT KNOTS ARE NOT: At one time, it was thought that knots were from a
This is the Df used by Myster and Peifer (Genetics 166: 807-822, 2004); it is either Dorsetts Df(2R)Nipped-D263.3 or Df(2R)Nipped-D341.1, K.C ...
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Description: Our adjustable wood shamballa bracelets are handmade with strong satin cord and small wood beads. Theyre available in your choice of 3 different wood bead colors and 16 different satin cord colors. The soft cord wont cause itching and the pea-sized wood beads are varnished to make them water resistant. To adjust the size, slip the bracelet onto your wrist and pull the string ends until it fits snug. Be sure theres at least a fingers width of space between the bracelet and your wrist for proper circulation. Your bracelet will arrive in a satin gift bag with an estimated shipping time of 2 business days from the date you place your order. To clean, this bracelet can be soaked in warm water for 5 minutes, then left to air dry. This bracelet isnt recommended for children younger than 7-years-old ...
The inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) is an unusual three-disulfide architecture in which one of the disulfide bonds bisects a loop formed by the two other disulfide bridges and the intervening sections of the protein backbone. Peptides containing an ICK motif are frequently considered to have high levels of thermal, chemical and enzymatic stability due to cross-bracing provided by the disulfide bonds. Experimental studies supporting this contention are rare, in particular for spider-venom toxins, which represent the largest diversity of ICK peptides. We used ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a (Hv1a), an insecticidal toxin from the deadly Australian funnel-web spider, as a model system to examine the contribution of the cystine knot to the stability of ICK peptides. We show that Hv1a is highly stable when subjected to temperatures up to 75 °C, pH values as low as 1, and various organic solvents. Moreover, Hv1a was highly resistant to digestion by proteinase K and when incubated in insect hemolymph and human plasma. We
Enzymes are important step toward cheaper biofuels. Researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and world-leading gene-synthesis company DNA2.0 have taken an important step toward the development of a cost-efficient process to extract sugars from cellulose--the worlds most abundant organic material and cheapest form of solar-energy storage. Plant sugars are easily converted into a variety of renewable fuels such as ethanol or butanol.. In a paper published this week in the early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Frances H. Arnold, the Dick and Barbara Dickinson Professor of Chemical Engineering and Biochemistry at Caltech, and her colleagues report the construction of 15 new highly stable fungal enzyme catalysts that efficiently break down cellulose into sugars at high temperatures. Previously, fewer than 10 such fungal cellobiohydrolase II enzymes were known. In addition to their remarkable stabilities, Arnolds enzymes degrade cellulose over a ...
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Medical Alert Accessories3. Medical staff is trained to watch out for medical alert bracelets and other jewelry. It is among the initial things they do as they analyze an emergency situation. This makes wearing a diabetic bracelet much more convincing. Yet doing so, you are taking part in a well-thought out system created to help keep you safe. There isnt any doubt that diabetes bracelets have ended up saving lives. Should you look after someone with diabetes who is not able to always speak on their own, you should look at wearing a bracelet for him or her. Many retailers of medical alert jewelry can offer this unique type of bracelet ...
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The Handmade 12MM Tiger Eyes Pixiu Bracelet Chinese Feng shui Bracelet was handmade by the Tibetan Craftsmen from fine genuine Tiger eyes beads. Pixiu is mythical symbol in the Chinese Fengshui culture which can draw wealth from all direction. And The tiger eye stone is believed to offer courage, energy and luck.
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The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria.
O. diffusa is an herb found in East Asia and Southern China. It is used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of liver diseases, snake bites, and tumors. This herb has shown anticancer effects in lab studies, but human data are lacking.
If you do not have a bracelet mandrel, many common household items can be used in substitution. Pipes come in a variety of sizes and can be used to form curves needed to make a bracelet. Many large shampoo bottles are shaped like a bracelet mandrel. These bottles can be filled with sand, dirt or cement and used for shaping ...
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Many cyclotides, found in Viola tricolor are cytotoxic.[7] This feature means that it could be used to treat cancers.[8][7] ... V. tricolor is one of many viola plant species containing cyclotides. These small peptides have proven to be useful in drug ... "Cytotoxic Cyclotides from Viola tricolor" Journal of Natural Products 67 (2), 144-147 ... "Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor", Peptides 2010 31:8 (1434-1440) ...
"Cytotoxic Cyclotides from Viola tricolor" Journal of Natural Products 67 (2), 144-147 Tang J., Wang C.K., Pan X., Yan H., Zeng ... Many cyclotides, found in Viola tricolor are cytotoxic. This feature means that it could be used to treat cancers. Extracts ... The Taming of the Shrew (Act 1, Scene 1) V. tricolor is one of many viola plant species containing cyclotides. These small ... "Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor" Peptides 2010 31:8 (1434-1440) Erika Svangård, Ulf ...
2002). Cyclotides: A Novel Type of Cytotoxic Agents. Mol Cancer Ther 1: 365-369" (PDF). Retrieved May 20, 2012. Jepson Manual ... Viola arvensis was shown to contain cyclotides, a class of peptides found in plants. The peptide cycloviolacin O2 in particular ...
The motif is similar to the cyclic cystine knot or cyclotide, but lacks the cyclisation of the polypeptide backbone which is ... www.cyclotide.com/knots.html. Types include a) cyclic mobius, b) cyclic bracelet, c) acyclic inhibitor knottins. Along with the ...
For example, cyclotides from aerial organs possess tighter binding activity to insect-like membranes, whereas cyclotides from ... The isolated Cter M cyclotide that is highly expressed in aerial organs was shown to effectively slow the growth and kill moth ... Different cyclotides have protein sequences which engender different biophysical and functional properties, to be expressed in ... Cliotides belong to a larger classification of peptides, the cyclotides. Preliminary studies show that cliotides display a ...
... or cyclotide The growth factor cystine knot (GFCK) was first observed in the structure of Nerve Growth Factor, solved by X-ray ... http://www.cyclotide.com/knots.html Daly, N. L.; Craik, D. J. (2011). "Bioactive cystine knot proteins". Current Opinion in ...
Her work has also investigated the use of plant-derived cyclotides as well as modifications to the natural hormone oxytocin to ... "Oxytocic plant cyclotides as templates for peptide G protein-coupled receptor ligand design". Proceedings of the National ...
Several unique cyclotides have been isolated from this species, that have cytotoxic properties and may be of use in the ... Yeshak, M.Y.; Burman, R.; Asres, K.; Göransson, U. (2011). "Cyclotides from an extreme habitat: characterization of cyclic ...
Cyclotides display a wide range of pharmaceutically important bioactivities, but their natural function is in plant defense as ... On the structure of cyclotides kalata B1, all 23 non-cysteine residues were successively substituted with alanine. The data ... "Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the prototypic cyclotide reveals a cluster of residues essential for bioactivity". J. Biol. ... of alanine scanning is to determine the influence of individual residues on structure and activity in the prototypic cyclotide ...
Nguyen GK, Zhang S, Wang W, Wong CT, Nguyen NT, Tam JP: Discovery of a linear cyclotide from the bracelet subfamily and its ... Both hedyotide B1 and B2 belong to the cyclotide superfamily which was known to be an important part of plant innate defense. ... Hedyotide B1 and cyclotides are likely to exerted their antimicrobial actions by disrupting the bacteria membranes which ... Optimal Oxidative Folding of the Novel Antimicrobial Cyclotide from Hedyotis biflora Requires High Alcohol Concentrations. ...
Jul 2011). "Discovery and characterization of novel cyclotides originated from chimeric precursors consisting of albumin-1 ... chain a and cyclotide domains in the Fabaceae family". J Biol Chem. 286 (27): 24275-87. doi:10.1074/jbc.m111.229922. PMC ...
Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the ...
The cyclotide (cyclic protein) Kalata B1, active substance of the plant Oldenlandia affinis, contains Möbius topology for the ...
... cyclotides or lasso-peptides such as microcin J25 which are protein, and a variety of peptides. The introduction of a ...
"Cytotoxic Cyclotides from Viola tricolor" Journal of Natural Products 67 (2), 144-147 Tang J., Wang C.K., Pan X., Yan H., Zeng ... "Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor" Peptides 2010 31:8 (1434-1440) Erika Svangård, Ulf ... G., Xu W., He W., Daly N.L., Craik D.J., Tan N. ,"Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor", ...
... cyclotides MeSH D12.644.641.252 --- dactinomycin MeSH D12.644.641.270 --- daptomycin MeSH D12.644.641.297 --- depsipeptides ...
Möbius aromaticity Charged particles caught in the magnetic field of the earth that can move on a Möbius band The cyclotide ( ...
The cyclotide domain may contain either one cyclotide sequence, as in the case of Oak1, or multiple copies separated by ... The cyclotides fall into two main structural subfamilies. Moebius cyclotides, the less common of the two, contain a cis-proline ... Cyclotides have also been identified in agriculturally important families such as the Fabaceae and Poaceae. Cyclotides have a ... The potent insecticidal activity of cyclotides kalata B1 and kalata B2 has prompted the belief that cyclotides act as plant ...
The cyclotide domain may contain either one cyclotide sequence, as in the case of Oak1, or multiple copies separated by ... The cyclotides fall into two main structural subfamilies. Moebius cyclotides, the less common of the two, contain a cis-proline ... Cyclotides have also been identified in agriculturally important families such as the Fabaceae and Poaceae. Cyclotides have a ... The potent insecticidal activity of cyclotides kalata B1 and kalata B2 has prompted the belief that cyclotides act as plant ...
... bracelet cyclotide cycloviolacin O19 and Mobius cyclotide kalata B1, and in a plant extract. We demonstrate that single-step ... Cyclotides are considered promising scaffolds for drug development owing to their inherent host defence activities and highly ... affinity chromatography, cyclotides, cycloviolacin O2, immobilized IgG National Category Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ... Single-step purification of cyclotides using affinity chromatography. Uddin, Shaikh Jamal Uppsala University, Disciplinary ...
Cyclotides were found to be common in the plant family Violaceae; with eleven cyclotides isolated and sequenced from V. ... First cyclotide from Hybanthus (Violaceae). Broussalis, Adriana M. Göransson, Ulf Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of ... For six members of the genus Viola, cyclotide expression profiles were examined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC- ... Varv A, together with an increasing number of homologous peptides, form the currently known peptide family of cyclotides. Their ...
Given the diversity of cyclotides, our data point to other cyclotide-GPCR interactions as potentially important sources of drug ... Given the diversity of cyclotides, our data point to other cyclotide-GPCR interactions as potentially important sources of drug ... We identified and characterized seven novel cyclotides. One cyclotide, caripe 8, isolated from the most active fraction, was ... We identified and characterized seven novel cyclotides. One cyclotide, caripe 8, isolated from the most active fraction, was ...
This study provides a new method for quantifying the cyclotide kalata B1 in both plasma and brain homogenate. Cyclotides are ... Improved method for quantitative analysis of the cyclotide kalata B1 in plasma and brain homogenate. Melander, Erik Uppsala ... brain, cyclotides, kalata B1, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, pharmacokinetics National Category Medicinal Chemistry ...
Structural Modeling of Cyclotide-Like Peptides. A homology model of one of the putative cyclotide sequences was constructed to ... The presence of cyclotide-like sequences within these plants suggests that the cyclotides may be derived from an ancestral gene ... The cyclotides are derived from precursor proteins that contain one, two, or three mature cyclotide domains. The mechanism by ... Transcript levels of the identified barley cyclotide-like gene, referred to hereafter as Bcl1 (for Barley cyclotide-like1), and ...
Plant cyclotides disrupt epithelial cells in the midgut of lepidopteran larvae Journal name Proceedings of the National Acadamy ... Plant cyclotides disrupt epithelial cells in the midgut of lepidopteran larvae. Barbeta, Barbara L., Marshall, Alan T., Gillon ... Ingestion of the cyclotide kalata B1 severely retards the growth of larvae from the Lepidopteran species Helicoverpa armigera. ... Cyclotides display a diverse range of biological activities, such as uterotonic action, anti-HIV activity, and neurotensin ...
... Cyclotides (cyclo peptides) are plant peptides of ~30 amino acids with a head to-tail cyclic backbone and six ... The cyclotides are extremely resistant to proteolysis and are remarkably stable. Cyclotides display a diverse range of ... This range of biological activities makes cyclotides amenable to potential pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. ...
... suggesting that excision and cyclization of the cyclotide domain occurs in the vacuole where the cyclotides are then stored. ... Subcellular targeting and biosynthesis of cyclotides in plant cells Academic Article * View record in Web of Science ® ... PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The cyclotide kalata B1 is found in the leaves of Oldenlandia affinis and is a potent insecticidal and ... CONCLUSIONS: The vacuolar location of cyclotides supports our hypothesis that the vacuolar processing enzyme, asparaginyl ...
Synthesis of cyclotides. Cyclotides were assembled as linear precursors using FMOC chemistry, and cyclized using native ... Oral EAE Treatment Using the Cyclotide [T20K]kalata B1.. Because cyclotides are resistant against enzymatic and chemical ... Activity and Therapeutic Effects of Cyclotides to Treat EAE.. The cyclotide [T20K]kB1 exhibits concentration-dependent ... distinguish the cyclotide from other marketed drugs. Considering their stable structural topology and oral activity, cyclotides ...
Plant Cyclotides: Volume 76 David Craik 08 Dec 2015. Hardback. US$221.99 ...
... as molecular targets for this cyclotide. Furthermore, we show that cyclotides can serve as templates for the design of ... Oxytocic plant cyclotides as templates for peptide G protein-coupled receptor ligand design. ... Recently, cyclotides have been identified in numerous plant species of the coffee, violet, cucurbit, pea, potato, and grass ... Cyclotides are plant peptides comprising a circular backbone and three conserved disulfide bonds that confer them with ...
Plant Cyclotides Product Type: Book. Edition: 1. Volume: 76. First Published: 2015 ...
... is an effective method of analyzing cyclotides in plants. In addition, we have used this technique to find cyclotides in a ... Cyclotides are macrocyclic knotted peptides originating from plants. They are extremely stable and have a range of ... Analysis of cyclotides in Viola ignobilis by Nano liquid chromatography fourier transform mass spectrometry ... Given the stability of the cyclotide framework, there is interest in using these peptides as scaffolds in drug design. In the ...
Cyclotides have a range of interesting biological activities and are found in a variety of tropical plants from the Rubiaceae, ... Phylogenetic analysis of cyclotide genes from V. modesta and other Viola species revealed that most V. modesta genes showed ... Analysis of isolated cyclotide sequences showed that they all belonged to bracelet family and were separated into two ... Fifteen cyclotide sequences were obtained using homology based PCR strategy. Sequence analysis showed that 14 of them had ...
Cyclotides….. * anon. says: 14 November, 2017 at 11:38 am Antibodies have other immunological functions other than antigen ...
Many cyclotides, found in Viola tricolor are cytotoxic.[7] This feature means that it could be used to treat cancers.[8][7] ... V. tricolor is one of many viola plant species containing cyclotides. These small peptides have proven to be useful in drug ... "Cytotoxic Cyclotides from Viola tricolor" Journal of Natural Products 67 (2), 144-147 ... "Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor", Peptides 2010 31:8 (1434-1440) ...
Biosynthesis of the Cyclotide Kalata B1 using a Protein Splicing Unit Description: Cyclotides are a newly emerging family of ... In the present work, we describe the biosynthesis of the cyclotide Kalata B1 (KB1) in E. coli using an engineered intein. Our ... Access to biosynthetic cyclotides using recombinant DNA expression techniques offers the exciting possibility of producing ... In contrast to other cyclic polypeptides, cyclotides have a well-defined three-dimensional structure. Therefore, despite their ...
Host-Defense Activities of Cyclotides. Next Article in Special Issue. Animal Toxins Can Alter the Function of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 ...
Chemistry, Morphology, etc. For cyclotide proteins, found in Oldenlandia, Psychotria, and relatives in Rubioideae, see Gruber ... Cyclotide proteins +; foliage drying green, stipules connate, persistent/marcescent; pollen grains (pantoporate), (with pollen ...
Cyclotides were first discovered in the 1960s when Red Cross doctor Lorents Gran noticed that women in the Congo drank tea made ... Like other proteins, cyclotides comprise a string of amino acids, the bodys building blocks. Unlike most proteins, though, the ... Since then hundreds of cyclotides have been found in plants around the world, and Craik believes there may be as many as 50,000 ... Without the weak point of loose ends cyclotides can resist degradation by our digestive enzymes, allowing them to reach their ...
Anthelmintic activity of cyclotides: in vitro studies with canine and human hookworms. Acta Trop 109: 163-166.[Crossref] ...
"Cyclotides: a novel type of cytotoxic agents.". Lindholm P., Goransson U., Johansson S., Claeson P., Gullbo J., Larsson R., ... Belongs to the cyclotide family. Moebius subfamily.PROSITE-ProRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which has been ...
Plant cyclotides disrupt epithelial cells in the midgut of lepidopteran larvae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 1221-1225 ( ... Cyclotide peptides disrupt the microvilli and ultimately rupture cells of the midgut epithelium in insects, which likely result ...
Cyclotide Evolution: Insights from the Analyses of Their Precursor Sequences, Structures and Distribution in Violets (Viola) ... Discovery of Linear Cyclotides in Monocot PlantPanicum laxumof Poaceae Family Provides New Insights into Evolution and ... Cyclotide discovery in Gentianales revisited-identification and characterization of cyclic cystine-knot peptides and their ... Chemistry and Biology of Cyclotides: Circular Plant Peptides Outside the Box. Robert Burman, Sunithi Gunasekera, Adam A. ...
  • The potent insecticidal activity of cyclotides kalata B1 and kalata B2 has prompted the belief that cyclotides act as plant host-defence agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloviolacin O2 was used as a model substance to evaluate the chromatographic principle, first as a pure compound and then in combination with other cyclotides, that is, bracelet cyclotide cycloviolacin O19 and Mobius cyclotide kalata B1, and in a plant extract. (diva-portal.org)
  • Previously the cyclotide kalata B7 was identified to modulate the human oxytocin and vasopressin G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), providing molecular validation of the plants' uterotonic properties and further establishing cyclotides as valuable source for GPCR ligand design. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study provides a new method for quantifying the cyclotide kalata B1 in both plasma and brain homogenate. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ingestion of the cyclotide kalata B1 severely retards the growth of larvae from the Lepidopteran species Helicoverpa armigera. (edu.au)
  • PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The cyclotide kalata B1 is found in the leaves of Oldenlandia affinis and is a potent insecticidal and nematocidal molecule. (edu.au)
  • Using bioactivity-guided fractionation of an herbal peptide extract known to indigenous healers as 'kalata-kalata,' the cyclotide kalata B7 was found to induce strong contractility on human uterine smooth muscle cells. (nuigalway.ie)
  • Using the prototypic cyclotide kalata B1 (kB1) expressed from the Oak1 gene, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to examine the cyclization efficiency when mutants of the Oak1 gene were expressed in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana. (edu.au)
  • G6A and E7A mutants of kalata B1 were completely impervious to enzymatic digestion by the three endoproteinases trypsin, chymotrypsin, and proteinase K, as was the prototypic cyclotide kalata B1. (edu.au)
  • Cycloviolacins Y4 and Y5 are the most hemolytic of the new cyclotides, both being more potent than the prototypic cyclotide kalata B1. (edu.au)
  • Cyclotides have a well-defined three-dimensional structure as a result of their interlocking disulfide bonds and cyclic peptide backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • A third subfamily of cyclotides are trypsin inhibitors and are more homologous to a family of non-cyclic trypsin inhibitors from squash plants known as knottins or inhibitor cystine knots than they are to the other cyclotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclotides are considered promising scaffolds for drug development owing to their inherent host defence activities and highly stable structure, defined by the cyclic cystine knot. (diva-portal.org)
  • Three intramolecular disulfide bridges stabilize the cyclic peptide backbone of hypa A. Using these structural features to classify the peptide as a cyclotide, we extended the distribution of that substance class to a new genus, and now propose a uniform nomenclature for cyclotides. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cyclotides (cyclo peptides) are plant peptides of ~30 amino acids with a head to-tail cyclic backbone and six cysteine residues involved in three disulphide bonds. (bicnirrh.res.in)
  • Cyclotides are small disulfide-rich proteins that have the unusual feature of a cyclic backbone. (ac.ir)
  • Plant Cyclotides: A Unique Family of Cyclic and Knotted Proteins that Defines the Cyclic Cystine Knot Structural Motif. (ac.ir)
  • Petunia already produces cyclotides, and so if we put a foreign modified conotoxin gene into it, the petunia is fantastic at producing the cyclic version with almost no misprocessed linear version. (rsc.org)
  • Plant cyclotides are the largest family of gene-encoded cyclic proteins. (edu.au)
  • Varv A, together with an increasing number of homologous peptides, form the currently known peptide family of cyclotides. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cyclotides are considered a combinatorial peptide library and they can be anticipated to complement the existing collections of natural products that are used in drug discovery. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that cyclotides can serve as templates for the design of selective G protein-coupled receptor ligands by generating an oxytocin-like peptide with nanomolar affinity. (nuigalway.ie)
  • These observations provide a proof of concept for the development of cyclotide-based peptide ligands. (nuigalway.ie)
  • It is this structure that helps cyclotides combine the best features of small-molecule drugs like Paracetamol (acetaminophen) and larger peptide, or protein, drugs like insulin. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Jagadish K, Camarero JA (2010) Cyclotides, a promising molecular scaffold for peptide-based therapeutics. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, the cyclotides are gene-coded products generated via processing of a larger precursor protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine where in the plant cell Oak1 is processed, we prepared constructs encoding GFP (green fluorescent protein) linked to the cyclotide precursor Oak1. (edu.au)
  • KEY RESULTS: The full length Oak1 precursor directed GFP to the vacuole, suggesting that excision and cyclization of the cyclotide domain occurs in the vacuole where the cyclotides are then stored. (edu.au)
  • With recent screening programs suggesting that the number of cyclotide sequences may soon reach the thousands, a database, CyBase, has been developed that offers the opportunity for comparisons of sequences and activity data for cyclotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we use a combined bioinformatics and expression analysis approach to elucidate the evolution and distribution of the cyclotides in the plant kingdom and report the discovery of related sequences widespread in the Poaceae family, including crop plants such as rice ( Oryza sativa ), maize ( Zea mays ), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum ), which carry considerable economic and social importance. (plantcell.org)
  • The presence of cyclotide-like sequences within these plants suggests that the cyclotides may be derived from an ancestral gene of great antiquity. (plantcell.org)
  • This study provides a novel method for directly analyzing cyclotide sequences without enzymatic digestion and further information regarding the distribution of cyclotides in plant species. (edu.au)
  • Fifteen cyclotide sequences were obtained using homology based PCR strategy. (ac.ir)
  • After analyzing the full endoplasmic reticulum signals of V. modesta cyclotides, two conserved sequences, AAFALPA and ATAFALP, were detected. (ac.ir)
  • Analysis of isolated cyclotide sequences showed that they all belonged to bracelet family and were separated into two subclasses. (ac.ir)
  • Quantitative RT-PCR was used to show that two of the discovered cyclotide-like genes from rice and barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) have tissue-specific expression patterns. (plantcell.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The vacuolar location of cyclotides supports our hypothesis that the vacuolar processing enzyme, asparaginyl endoproteinase, has a pivotal role in excision and cyclization from cyclotide precursors. (edu.au)
  • African medicine-cyclotides as an aid during child birth Oldenlandia affinis was used by native women in the Zaire as an aid during childbirth. (theeurekamoments.com)
  • The cyclotides fall into two main structural subfamilies. (wikipedia.org)
  • To assess these mixtures, a rational strategy for MS based amino acid sequencing of cyclotides was developed, circumventing inherent structural problems, such as low content of positively charged amino acids and the macrocyclic structure. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cyclotides are plant derived, cystine-knot stabilized peptides characterized by their natural abundance, sequence variability and structural plasticity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we describe the use of affinity chromatography for the purification of cyclotides using polyclonal IgG antibodies raised in rabbits against cycloviolacin O2 and immobilized on NHS-activated Sepharose columns. (diva-portal.org)
  • All cyclotides tested from V. yedoensis demonstrated anti-HIV activity, with cycloviolacin Y5 being the most potent. (edu.au)
  • By contrast, cycloviolacin Y1 is substantially less active than all of the other cyclotides tested. (edu.au)
  • At a concentration of 25 ºM, a more than 6-fold difference exists between the most hemolyticcyclotide, cycloviolacin O24 (~75% hemolysis), and the least hemolytic cyclotide cycloviolacin O14 (~11% hemolysis). (edu.au)
  • The Bountiful Biological Activities of Cyclotides. (ac.ir)
  • a small number of cyclotides bind to the membrane surface and then insert first into the outer membrane leaflet followed by penetration through the membrane and pore formation. (cpu-bioinfor.org)
  • Moebius cyclotides, the less common of the two, contain a cis-proline in loop 5 that induces a local 180° backbone twist (hence likening it to a Möbius strip), whereas bracelet cyclotides do not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other conserved residues include a hydroxyl-containing residue in loop 3, a glycine residue in the final position of loop 3, a basic and a proline residue in the penultimate position in loop 5 of bracelet and Möbius cyclotides respectively, and an asparagine (or occasionally aspartic acid) residue at the putative cyclisation point in loop 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a part of this work, the cytotoxic effects of varv A and two other isolated cyclotides were evaluated in a human cell-line panel: all were active in the low µM range. (diva-portal.org)
  • Analysis of the suite of known cyclotides reveals many sequence similarities that are important for understanding their unique physico-chemical properties, bioactivities and homology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cleavage at the N terminus of the cyclotide domain occurs rapidly with no strict specificity requirements for amino acids at the cleavage site. (edu.au)
  • In contrast, the C-terminal region of the cyclotide domain in the P2, P1, P1', and P2' positions is highly conserved and only specific amino acids can occupy these positions. (edu.au)
  • Cyclotides are macrocyclic knotted peptides originating from plants. (edu.au)
  • In the current study, we have shown that nano-LC Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is an effective method of analyzing cyclotides in plants. (edu.au)
  • Cyclotides have also been identified in agriculturally important families such as the Fabaceae and Poaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, plant cyclotides effectively inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation. (drugdiscoverytoday.com)
  • The company's drug portfolio is based on two technological pillars in the form of oral molecules and cyclotide-based drugs that inhibit key processes in the body's cells that are typically associated with various immune-related disorders. (prnewswire.com)
  • At higher concentrations of cyclotides, destabilization of membranes occurs. (cpu-bioinfor.org)
  • Cyclotides are ultra-stable peptides with three disulfide bonds that are interesting from a drug development perspective as they can be used as scaffolds. (diva-portal.org)
  • The cyclotides are extremely resistant to proteolysis and are remarkably stable. (bicnirrh.res.in)
  • This proposal presents an innovative approach for screening and selecting a new class of highly stable protein capture reagents and developing a new versatile approach for ligand immobilization that together enable rapid production of cyclotide-based microarrays for proteomics research. (nih.gov)
  • The six cysteine residues are absolutely conserved throughout the cyclotide suite and presumably contribute to the preservation of the CCK motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclotides certainly are a unique course of ribosomally synthesized cysteine-rich miniproteins seen as a a head-to-tail cyclized backbone and 3 conserved disulfide-bonds within a knotted agreement. (researchtoactionforum.org)