Drug Therapy, Combination
Graft vs Host Disease
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
Rats, Inbred Lew
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Rats, Inbred WF
Area Under Curve
Kidney Function Tests
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Drug Administration Schedule
NFATC Transcription Factors
Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay
Vascular endothelial growth factor activates nuclear factor of activated T cells in human endothelial cells: a role for tissue factor gene expression. (1/4361)Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic inducer that stimulates the expression of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of blood coagulation. Here we show that signaling triggered by VEGF induced DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and AP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF also induced TF mRNA expression and gene promoter activation by a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive mechanism. As in lymphoid cells, NFAT was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus upon activation of HUVECs, and these processes were blocked by CsA. NFAT was involved in the VEGF-mediated TF promoter activation as evidenced by cotransfection experiments with a dominant negative version of NFAT and site-directed mutagenesis of a newly identified NFAT site within the TF promoter that overlaps with a previously identified kappaB-like site. Strikingly, this site bound exclusively NFAT not only from nuclear extracts of HUVECs activated by VEGF, a stimulus that failed to induce NF-kappaB-binding activity, but also from extracts of cells activated with phorbol esters and calcium ionophore, a combination of stimuli that triggered the simultaneous activation of NFAT and NF-kappaB. These results implicate NFAT in the regulation of endothelial genes by physiological means and shed light on the mechanisms that switch on the gene expression program induced by VEGF and those regulating TF gene expression. (+info)
The optically determined size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool correlates with the quantal content at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila larvae. (2/4361)According to the current theory of synaptic transmission, the amplitude of evoked synaptic potentials correlates with the number of synaptic vesicles released at the presynaptic terminals. Synaptic vesicles in presynaptic boutons constitute two distinct pools, namely, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools (). We defined the vesicles that were endocytosed and exocytosed during high K+ stimulation as the exo/endo cycling vesicle pool. To determine the role of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool in synaptic transmission, we estimated the quantal content electrophysiologically, whereas the pool size was determined optically using fluorescent dye FM1-43. We then manipulated the size of the pool with following treatments. First, to change the state of boutons of nerve terminals, motoneuronal axons were severed. With this treatment, the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool decreased together with the quantal content. Second, we promoted the FM1-43 uptake using cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin activities and enhances endocytosis. Cyclosporin A increased the total uptake of FM1-43, but neither the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool nor the quantal content changed. Third, we increased the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool by forskolin, which enhances synaptic transmission. The forskolin treatment increased both the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool and the quantal content. Thus, we found that the quantal content was closely correlated with the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool but not necessarily with the total uptake of FM1-43 fluorescence by boutons. The results suggest that vesicles in the exo/endo cycling pool primarily participate in evoked exocytosis of vesicles. (+info)
R73A and H144Q mutants of the yeast mitochondrial cyclophilin Cpr3 exhibit a low prolyl isomerase activity in both peptide and protein-folding assays. (3/4361)Previously we reported that the R73A and H144Q variants of the yeast cyclophilin Cpr3 were virtually inactive in a protease-coupled peptide assay, but retained activity as catalysts of a proline-limited protein folding reaction [Scholz, C. et al. (1997) FEBS Lett. 414, 69-73]. A reinvestigation revealed that in fact these two mutations strongly decrease the prolyl isomerase activity of Cpr3 in both the peptide and the protein-folding assay. The high folding activities found previously originated from a contamination of the recombinant Cpr3 proteins with the Escherichia coli protein SlyD, a prolyl isomerase that co-purifies with His-tagged proteins. SlyD is inactive in the peptide assay, but highly active in the protein-folding assay. (+info)
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants perturb the myo-inositol but not the betaine cotransporter in isotonic and hypertonic MDCK cells. (4/4361)BACKGROUND: The sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) and the betaine cotransporter (BGT1) are essential for the accumulation of myo-inositol and betaine, and hence cell survival in a hypertonic environment. The underlying molecular mechanism involves an increase in transcription of the SMIT and BGT1 genes through binding of a trans-acting factor to enhancer elements in the 5' flanking region of both genes, resulting in increased mRNA abundance and increased activity of the cotransporters. Current evidence regarding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation indicates that both cotransporters are regulated in parallel. METHODS: To investigate the signal transduction of hypertonic stress, we examined the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants on the hypertonicity-induced activity of the two cotransporters in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. RESULTS: None of the agents studied affected BGT1 activity in isotonic or hypertonic conditions. Treatment of MDCK cells with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased SMIT activity in hypertonic but not isotonic conditions. The stimulation of SMIT by genistein was accompanied by a parallel increase in mRNA abundance. In contrast, treating cells with tyrphostin A23, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant, inhibited SMIT activity in hypertonic cells. FK506, another immunosuppressant, increased SMIT activity, but only in isotonic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence of divergent regulatory pathways modulating SMIT and BGT activity. (+info)
Long-term effects of cyclosporine A in Alport's syndrome. (5/4361)BACKGROUND: In 1991, our initial results of cyclosporine A (CsA) administration in eight patients with Alport's syndrome were published. A significant decrease in or disappearance of proteinuria and apparently good tolerance to CsA were observed in all patients. METHODS: CsA administration has been maintained in these eight patients with the aim of obtaining further information about the clinical course of the disease. The ages of these eight patients currently range from 15 to 27 years, and the mean duration of treatment is from 7 to 10 years (x = 8.4 years). RESULTS: Renal function has remained stable, with no evaluable changes in serum creatinine levels compared with pre-CsA treatment values. Proteinuria in all patients has either remained negative or are values far lower than pretreatment levels. A second renal biopsy was performed in all patients after five years of CsA administration. No aggravation of the lesion present at the first biopsy or lesions typical of cyclosporine intoxication was observed. CONCLUSIONS: After a mean duration of 8.4 years and with no deterioration in renal function, we found possible beneficial effects of the continued treatment of CsA in patients with Alport's syndrome who present evidence of progression to renal insufficiency. (+info)
Flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility of the brachial artery in renal allograft recipients. (6/4361)BACKGROUND: Alterations of large artery function and structure are frequently observed in renal allograft recipients. However, endothelial function has not yet been assessed in this population. METHODS: Flow-mediated vasodilation is a useful index of endothelial function. We measured the diameter and distensibility of the brachial artery at rest using high-resolution ultrasound and Doppler frequency analysis of vessel wall movements in the M mode. Thereafter, changes in brachial artery diameter were measured during reactive hyperemia (after 4 min of forearm occlusion) in 16 cyclosporine-treated renal allograft recipients and 16 normal controls of similar age and sex ratio. Nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was measured to assess endothelium-independent vasodilation. Brachial artery blood pressure was measured using an automatic sphygmomanometer, and brachial artery flow was estimated using pulsed Doppler. RESULTS: Distensibility was reduced in renal allograft recipients (5.31 +/- 0. 74 vs. 9.10 +/- 0.94 x 10-3/kPa, P = 0.003, mean +/- sem), while the brachial artery diameter at rest was higher (4.13 +/- 0.14 vs. 3.25 +/- 0.14 mm, P < 0.001). Flow-mediated vasodilation was significantly reduced in renal allograft recipients (0.13 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.60 +/- 0.08 mm or 3 +/- 2 vs. 19 +/- 3%, both P < 0.001). However, nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was similar in renal allograft recipients and controls (0.76 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.09 mm, NS, or 19 +/- 3 vs. 22 +/- 2%, NS). There were no significant differences in brachial artery flow at rest and during reactive hyperemia between both groups. The impairments of flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility in renal allograft recipients remained significant after correction for serum cholesterol, creatinine, parathyroid hormone concentrations, end-diastolic diameter, as well as blood pressure levels, and were also present in eight renal allograft recipients not treated with cyclosporine. Flow-mediated vasodilation was not related to distensibility in either group. CONCLUSIONS: The results show impaired endothelial function and reduced brachial artery distensibility in renal allograft recipients. The impairments of flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility are not attributable to a diminished brachial artery vasodilator capacity, because endothelium-independent vasodilation was preserved in renal allograft recipients. (+info)
Nephrotic syndrome as a clinical manifestation of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a marrow transplant recipient after cyclosporine withdrawal. (7/4361)GVHD is one of the most frequent complications of BMT and recently nephrotic syndrome (NS) has been described as a manifestation of chronic GVHD. Here, we present an AA patient who developed NS 1 year after BMT when cyclosporine was stopped. Renal biopsy showed focal sclerosis associated with membranous deposits. He also had other clinical manifestations of chronic GVHD: sicca-like syndrome and colestasis. After 15 days of CsA therapy, he experienced a remarkable improvement in the NS and GVHD as a whole. We comment on immunological mechanisms that could be involved in the pathogenesis of this manifestation. (+info)
Performance and specificity of monoclonal immunoassays for cyclosporine monitoring: how specific is specific? (8/4361)BACKGROUND: Immunoassays designed for the selective measurement of cyclosporin A (CsA) inadvertently show cross-reactivity for CsA metabolites. The extent and clinical significance of the resulting overestimation is controversial. A comprehensive assessment of old and new methods in clinical specimens is needed. METHODS: In a comprehensive evaluation, CsA was analyzed in 145 samples with the new CEDIA assay and compared with the Emit assay with the old and new pretreatments, the TDx monoclonal and polyclonal assays, the AxSYM, and HPLC. All samples were from patients with liver and/or kidney transplants. RESULTS: The CEDIA offered the easiest handling, followed by the AxSYM, which showed the longest calibration stability. The TDx monoclonal assay provided the lowest detection limit and the lowest CVs. The mean differences compared with HPLC were as follows: Emit, 9-12%; CEDIA, 18%; AxSYM, 29%; and TDx monoclonal, 57%. The CycloTrac RIA paralleled the Emit results. In contrast to the mean differences, substantial (>200%) and variable overestimations of the CsA concentration were observed in individual patient samples. Metabolic ratios, estimates of the overall concentrations of several cross-reacting metabolites (nonspecific TDx polyclonal/specific reference method), correlated with the apparent biases of the various monoclonal assays. Metabolic ratios varied up to 10-fold, which translated into biases for individual samples between -7% and +174%. The higher the cross-reactivity of an assay was, the higher was the range of biases observed. The interindividual differences markedly exceeded other factors of influence (organ transplanted, hepatic function). CONCLUSION: Because assay bias cannot be predicted in individual samples, substantially erratic CsA dosing can result. The specificity of CsA assays for parent CsA remains a major concern. (+info)
Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, such as the heart, liver, or kidney. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to the transplanted organ, allowing it to integrate into the body without being attacked by the immune system. Cyclosporine is typically administered orally in the form of capsules or tablets. It is also available as an intravenous injection for patients who cannot take it by mouth. Cyclosporine can have side effects, including increased blood pressure, kidney damage, and an increased risk of infections. It is important for patients taking cyclosporine to be closely monitored by their healthcare provider to ensure that the benefits of the medication outweigh the risks.
Tacrolimus is a medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, such as the kidney, liver, or heart. It is also used to treat certain types of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Tacrolimus works by suppressing the immune system, which helps to prevent the body from attacking the transplanted organ or treating the autoimmune disease. It is usually given as a pill or as a cream or ointment applied to the skin. Side effects of tacrolimus can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and skin rash. It can also cause more serious side effects, such as high blood pressure, kidney problems, and an increased risk of infection. It is important to carefully follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking tacrolimus and to report any side effects that you experience.
Mycophenolic acid is an immunosuppressive drug that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, such as kidneys, liver, and heart. It works by inhibiting the production of immune cells that can attack the transplanted organ. Mycophenolic acid is often used in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs, such as corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, to increase the effectiveness of the treatment and reduce the risk of rejection. It is usually administered orally in the form of a tablet or capsule. Mycophenolic acid can also be used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, by suppressing the immune system and reducing inflammation.
Calcineurin is a protein phosphatase enzyme that plays a critical role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including immune responses, neuronal function, and muscle contraction. In the medical field, calcineurin inhibitors are commonly used as immunosuppressive drugs to prevent organ transplant rejection and to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. These drugs work by inhibiting the activity of calcineurin, which in turn prevents the activation of T cells, a type of immune cell that plays a key role in the immune response.
Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a protein that is found in many different types of cells in the human body. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins, which are named for their ability to bind to cyclosporine, a drug that is used to prevent organ rejection in transplant patients. CypA plays a number of important roles in the body. One of its main functions is to help regulate the immune system. It does this by interacting with other proteins and helping to control the activity of immune cells. CypA is also involved in the process of cell division and the formation of new blood vessels. In the medical field, CypA is of interest because of its potential role in a number of different diseases. For example, some studies have suggested that CypA may be involved in the development of certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. It has also been linked to the progression of HIV infection and the development of kidney disease. Overall, CypA is a complex and multifaceted protein that plays a number of important roles in the body. Further research is needed to fully understand its functions and potential therapeutic applications.
Azathioprine is a medication that is used to suppress the immune system. It is often prescribed to prevent the body from rejecting transplanted organs, such as a kidney or liver. Azathioprine is also used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. It works by inhibiting the production of white blood cells, which are responsible for attacking foreign substances in the body. Azathioprine is usually taken as a pill and is often used in combination with other medications to treat these conditions.
Sirolimus is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is primarily used to prevent organ rejection in people who have received a kidney, liver, or heart transplant. Sirolimus works by inhibiting the growth of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. By suppressing the immune system, sirolimus helps to prevent the body from attacking the transplanted organ as a foreign object. It is also used to treat certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma and renal cell carcinoma.
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a condition that can occur after a bone marrow or stem cell transplant. It happens when the transplanted cells (the graft) attack the recipient's (the host) tissues and organs. This can cause a range of symptoms, including skin rash, diarrhea, liver problems, and inflammation of the lungs, gut, and blood vessels. GVHD can be a serious and potentially life-threatening complication of transplantation, but it can also be treated with medications and other therapies.
Prednisone is a synthetic corticosteroid medication that is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases, and certain types of cancer. It works by reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system, which can help to reduce symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prednisone is available in both oral and injectable forms, and it is typically prescribed in doses that are gradually increased or decreased over time, depending on the patient's response to the medication and the specific condition being treated. While prednisone can be effective in treating a wide range of medical conditions, it can also have side effects, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased risk of infections. Therefore, it is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their response to the medication and adjust the dosage as needed.
Anemia, aplastic is a rare and serious medical condition characterized by a decrease in the number of red blood cells (RBCs) produced by the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. In aplastic anemia, the bone marrow fails to produce enough RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of oxygen-carrying red blood cells in the body. Aplastic anemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including exposure to certain chemicals or medications, radiation therapy, viral infections, autoimmune disorders, and genetic factors. Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and an increased risk of infections. Treatment for aplastic anemia typically involves medications to stimulate the production of blood cells in the bone marrow, such as immunosuppressive drugs or growth factors. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary to replace the damaged bone marrow with healthy bone marrow from a donor.
Antilymphocyte serum (ALS) is a type of serum that contains antibodies against lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune system. ALS is used in medical treatments to suppress the immune system, particularly in cases where the immune system is overactive or attacking healthy cells. ALS is typically used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. It is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, where the immune system is weakened and unable to fight off the cancer cells. ALS is prepared by injecting a small amount of lymphocytes into a horse, which then produces antibodies against the lymphocytes. These antibodies are then harvested from the horse's blood and purified to create ALS. The resulting serum contains high levels of antibodies that can bind to and neutralize lymphocytes, thereby suppressing the immune system.
Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent that is commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and psoriasis. It is also used to treat allergies, asthma, and other respiratory conditions, as well as to reduce swelling and inflammation in the body. In addition, prednisolone is used to treat certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma and leukemia, and to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. It is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and eye drops, and is typically prescribed by a doctor or other healthcare professional.
Nephrotic Syndrome is a group of symptoms that occur when the kidneys are not functioning properly. It is characterized by the presence of large amounts of protein in the urine, low levels of protein in the blood, and swelling in the legs, feet, and sometimes the face and abdomen. Other symptoms may include fatigue, loss of appetite, and nausea. Nephrotic Syndrome can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. It can also be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as kidney disease or cancer. The diagnosis of Nephrotic Syndrome typically involves a physical examination, blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications to reduce protein loss in the urine, manage symptoms, and prevent complications such as infections or blood clots. In some cases, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary.
Gingival overgrowth is a medical condition in which the gums (gingiva) grow abnormally and cover a larger area than normal. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including hormonal changes, certain medications, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes or liver disease. Gingival overgrowth can cause discomfort, bleeding, and difficulty brushing and flossing the teeth. Treatment options for gingival overgrowth may include scaling and root planing, medication changes, or surgery.
Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which healthy bone marrow is transplanted into a patient who has damaged or diseased bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside bones that produces blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two main types of bone marrow transplantation: autologous and allogeneic. Autologous BMT involves transplanting bone marrow from the patient's own body, usually after it has been harvested and stored before the patient undergoes high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their diseased bone marrow. Allogeneic BMT involves transplanting bone marrow from a donor who is a genetic match for the patient. BMT is used to treat a variety of conditions, including leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, sickle cell anemia, and some inherited blood disorders. The procedure can also be used to treat certain immune system disorders and some genetic diseases. The success of BMT depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the patient's disease, the patient's overall health, and the availability of a suitable donor. The procedure can be complex and may involve several stages, including preparatory treatment, the actual transplantation, and post-transplantation care.
Methylprednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent that is commonly used to reduce inflammation and swelling, as well as to suppress the immune system. Methylprednisolone is often prescribed to treat conditions such as asthma, allergies, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. It is also used to treat severe allergic reactions, as well as to reduce inflammation and swelling after surgery. Methylprednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and inhalers, and is typically administered orally or by injection.
Cyclophilins are a family of proteins that are found in a wide range of organisms, including humans. They are named for their ability to bind to and hydrolyze cyclosporine, a compound that is used as an immunosuppressive drug to prevent organ rejection in transplant patients. Cyclophilins are also involved in a number of other biological processes, including protein folding, enzyme activation, and regulation of the immune system. They have been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. In the medical field, cyclophilins are being studied as potential targets for the development of new drugs. For example, some researchers are exploring the use of cyclophilin inhibitors as treatments for cancer and other diseases.
Kidney diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the kidneys, which are two bean-shaped organs located in the back of the abdomen. The kidneys play a crucial role in filtering waste products from the blood and regulating the body's fluid balance, electrolyte levels, and blood pressure. Kidney diseases can be classified into two main categories: acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is a sudden and severe decline in kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, including dehydration, infection, injury, or certain medications. CKD, on the other hand, is a progressive and chronic condition that develops over time and is characterized by a gradual decline in kidney function. Some common types of kidney diseases include glomerulonephritis, which is an inflammation of the glomeruli (the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys), polycystic kidney disease, which is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys, and kidney stones, which are hard deposits that can form in the kidneys and cause pain and other symptoms. Treatment for kidney diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as diet modification and exercise may be sufficient to manage the condition. In more severe cases, medications, dialysis, or kidney transplantation may be necessary. Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
In the medical field, an emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, that are dispersed in the form of small droplets. These droplets are typically stabilized by an emulsifying agent, which prevents the two liquids from separating and allows them to remain in a stable mixture. Emulsions are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes, including drug delivery, imaging, and therapy. For example, oil-in-water emulsions are often used to deliver drugs or other therapeutic agents to specific areas of the body, such as the lungs or the eye. They can also be used in imaging studies to help visualize certain structures or tissues within the body. Emulsions can be prepared in a variety of ways, including mechanical agitation, high-pressure homogenization, and ultrasonication. The choice of preparation method depends on the specific properties of the emulsifying agent and the liquids being mixed, as well as the desired properties of the final emulsion.
Creatinine is a waste product that is produced by the muscles in the body as a result of normal metabolism. It is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. In the medical field, creatinine is often used as a marker of kidney function. A high level of creatinine in the blood can indicate that the kidneys are not functioning properly, while a low level can indicate that the kidneys are overworking. Creatinine levels can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for kidney disease.
Adrenal cortex hormones are a group of hormones produced by the adrenal gland's outer layer, the cortex. These hormones play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and the body's response to stress. The adrenal cortex hormones are divided into three main categories based on their chemical structure and function: 1. Glucocorticoids: These hormones, including cortisol, are responsible for regulating metabolism and the body's response to stress. They help the body break down stored carbohydrates and fats to provide energy, and they also suppress the immune system to reduce inflammation. 2. Mineralocorticoids: These hormones, including aldosterone, regulate the body's electrolyte balance and blood pressure. They help the kidneys retain sodium and excrete potassium, which helps maintain proper blood pressure. 3. Androgens: These hormones, including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), are responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and deepening of the voice. They also play a role in the body's response to stress. Adrenal cortex hormones are produced in response to signals from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and their levels can be affected by a variety of factors, including stress, illness, and medications. Imbalances in adrenal cortex hormone levels can lead to a range of health problems, including Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and adrenal insufficiency.
In the medical field, recurrence refers to the reappearance of a disease or condition after it has been treated or has gone into remission. Recurrence can occur in various medical conditions, including cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. For example, in cancer, recurrence means that the cancer has come back after it has been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments. Recurrence can occur months, years, or even decades after the initial treatment. In infections, recurrence means that the infection has returned after it has been treated with antibiotics or other medications. Recurrence can occur due to incomplete treatment, antibiotic resistance, or other factors. In autoimmune diseases, recurrence means that the symptoms of the disease return after they have been controlled with medication. Recurrence can occur due to changes in the immune system or other factors. Overall, recurrence is a significant concern for patients and healthcare providers, as it can require additional treatment and can impact the patient's quality of life.
P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane protein that is primarily found in the cells of the liver, kidneys, and intestines. It is also expressed in the blood-brain barrier and other tissues. P-gp is responsible for the transport of a wide range of molecules across cell membranes, including many drugs and toxins. One of the main functions of P-gp is to act as a barrier to protect cells from potentially harmful substances. It does this by actively pumping certain molecules out of cells, effectively removing them from the body. This can be beneficial in preventing the accumulation of toxins and drugs in the body, but it can also make it more difficult for certain drugs to enter cells and be effective. P-gp is also involved in the metabolism of certain drugs, which can affect their effectiveness and toxicity. For example, P-gp can pump certain drugs out of cells before they have a chance to be fully metabolized, which can reduce their effectiveness. On the other hand, P-gp can also pump out metabolites of certain drugs, which can increase their toxicity. In the medical field, P-gp is an important factor to consider when developing new drugs. Drugs that are substrates of P-gp may have reduced effectiveness or increased toxicity if they are administered to patients who are also taking other drugs that are substrates of P-gp. Therefore, it is important to understand how P-gp affects the metabolism and transport of drugs in order to optimize their use in patients.
Uveitis is an inflammation of the uvea, which is the middle layer of the eye that includes the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. It can affect one or both eyes and can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Symptoms of uveitis may include redness, pain, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and floaters. If left untreated, uveitis can lead to serious complications, such as glaucoma, cataracts, and vision loss. Treatment for uveitis typically involves the use of corticosteroids and other anti-inflammatory medications, as well as management of any underlying causes of the inflammation.
Methotrexate is a medication that is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and certain skin conditions. It is a chemotherapy drug that works by inhibiting the growth and division of cells, which can slow or stop the progression of cancer or other diseases. Methotrexate is usually given by injection or taken by mouth, and it can have a number of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and hair loss. It is important to carefully follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking methotrexate, as it can be a potent medication that requires careful monitoring.
In the medical field, the "Area Under Curve" (AUC) is a statistical concept used to evaluate the performance of diagnostic tests or biomarkers. It is a measure of the overall accuracy of a test, taking into account both the sensitivity (the ability of the test to correctly identify those with the disease) and the specificity (the ability of the test to correctly identify those without the disease). The AUC is calculated by plotting the sensitivity and 1-specificity of the test on a graph, with sensitivity on the y-axis and 1-specificity on the x-axis. The AUC is then calculated as the area under this curve, with a value of 1 indicating a perfect test and a value of 0.5 indicating a test that is no better than random guessing. The AUC is commonly used in medical research to compare the performance of different diagnostic tests or biomarkers, and is often reported in publications and presentations. It is also used in clinical practice to help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care.
Nephrosis, Lipoid is a rare type of kidney disease that occurs when there is damage to the kidneys due to the accumulation of fat (lipids) in the kidney tissue. This condition is also known as lipoid nephrosis or fatty nephrosis. The exact cause of lipoid nephrosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to the accumulation of lipids in the kidney tubules, which can lead to inflammation and damage to the kidney tissue. This can result in the formation of scar tissue, which can impair the kidney's ability to filter waste products from the blood. Symptoms of lipoid nephrosis may include blood in the urine, swelling in the legs and feet, high blood pressure, and decreased urine output. Treatment for lipoid nephrosis typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as stopping the use of certain medications or treating an underlying infection. In some cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary to help manage the symptoms of the condition.
In the medical field, steroids refer to a class of drugs that are derived from the natural hormone cortisol, which is produced by the adrenal gland. Steroids are used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, allergies, and certain types of cancer. There are two main types of steroids: corticosteroids and anabolic steroids. Corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, while anabolic steroids are used to build muscle mass and increase strength. Steroids can be administered in various forms, including oral tablets, injections, creams, and inhalers. They can have a range of side effects, including weight gain, mood changes, high blood pressure, and increased risk of infections. It is important to note that the use of steroids is closely monitored by healthcare professionals, and they are typically prescribed only for specific medical conditions and under the guidance of a doctor.。
High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a technique used in the medical field to separate and analyze complex mixtures of compounds. It involves the use of a liquid mobile phase that is forced through a column packed with a stationary phase under high pressure. The compounds in the mixture interact with the stationary phase to different extents, causing them to separate as they pass through the column. The separated compounds are then detected and quantified using a detector, such as a UV detector or a mass spectrometer. HPLC is commonly used in the analysis of drugs, biological samples, and other complex mixtures in the medical field.
Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a type of kidney disease that affects the glomeruli, which are tiny blood vessels in the kidneys responsible for filtering waste products from the blood. In MGN, the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), a thin layer of tissue that separates the glomerular capillaries from the Bowman's capsule, becomes thickened and abnormal. This thickening can lead to the formation of small pockets or blebs on the GBM, which can trap proteins and other substances in the urine, leading to proteinuria (excess protein in the urine). MGN can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. It is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies such as kidney biopsies. Treatment for MGN depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to reduce proteinuria, control blood pressure, and manage symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged kidney tissue.
Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune skin condition characterized by the rapid overproduction of skin cells, leading to the formation of thick, scaly patches on the skin. These patches can appear anywhere on the body, but are most commonly found on the elbows, knees, scalp, and lower back. Psoriasis is not contagious and does not cause serious health problems, but it can be uncomfortable and affect a person's quality of life. The exact cause of psoriasis is not known, but it is believed to be related to a malfunction in the immune system that causes the skin cells to grow too quickly. There are several types of psoriasis, including plaque psoriasis, guttate psoriasis, inverse psoriasis, pustular psoriasis, and erythrodermic psoriasis. Treatment options for psoriasis include topical creams, phototherapy, and systemic medications, depending on the severity and location of the psoriasis patches.
Biological availability refers to the proportion of a drug or other substance that is able to enter the bloodstream and become available for therapeutic action after it has been administered to a patient. It is a measure of how much of a drug is able to reach the target site in the body and exert its intended effect. There are several factors that can affect the biological availability of a drug, including the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, intramuscular), the formulation of the drug (e.g., tablet, capsule, liquid), the presence of food in the stomach, and the patient's individual characteristics (e.g., age, weight, liver function). In general, drugs that are administered orally have lower biological availability than those that are administered intravenously, because some of the drug is absorbed by the stomach and liver before it reaches the bloodstream. Formulations that are designed to enhance the absorption of a drug, such as those that use sustained-release technology, can also affect the biological availability of the drug. Understanding the biological availability of a drug is important for optimizing its therapeutic effect and minimizing potential side effects. It is also important for ensuring that drugs are dosed appropriately and that patients receive the correct amount of the drug to achieve the desired therapeutic effect.
Scleritis is a rare but serious inflammatory condition that affects the white part of the eye, known as the sclera. It can cause pain, redness, sensitivity to light, and vision loss if left untreated. Scleritis can be classified into two types: anterior scleritis, which affects the front part of the eye, and posterior scleritis, which affects the back part of the eye. The exact cause of scleritis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an autoimmune response in which the body's immune system attacks its own tissues. Treatment for scleritis typically involves the use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the eye. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair any damage to the eye.
NFATC transcription factors are a family of transcription factors that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression in various biological processes, including immune response, cell differentiation, and tissue development. These transcription factors are activated by calcium signaling and are involved in the regulation of genes that are involved in cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. In the medical field, NFATC transcription factors are of particular interest due to their role in the development and progression of various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Understanding the function and regulation of NFATC transcription factors may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.
Stuart W. Jamieson
Ann M. Hardy
Langerhans cell histiocytosis
Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system
Dry eye syndrome
Mucous membrane pemphigoid
Dogger Bank itch
Vitamin K reaction
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- Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is a calcineurin inhibitor, used as an immunosuppressant medication. (wikipedia.org)
- Although the incidence of drug-induced skeletal muscle toxicity is very low (0.1-0.2%) with monotherapy, it may increase following concomitant drug therapy with the immunosuppressant, cyclosporine A (CsA), and possibly with certain other hypolipidemic agents. (aspetjournals.org)
- Cyclosporine (Injection) is a immunosuppressant that is FDA approved for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in kidney, liver, and heart allogeneic transplants and for treatment of chronic rejection in patients previously treated with other immunosuppressive agents. (wikidoc.org)
- However, the risk of primary cancer clinically as an immunosuppressant maceutical drugs ciclosporin and in the transplant recipient increases to treat certain autoimmune diseas- azathioprine. (who.int)
Conclude that cyclosporine2
- We conclude that cyclosporine and methotrexate are comparable regarding the likelihood of acute/chronic GVHD, interstitial pneumonia, leukemic relapse, and long-term survival. (duke.edu)
- The authors conclude that cyclosporine is an effective alternative to prednisolone for cats with atopic dermatitis. (everycat.org)
- Ciclosporin is indicated to treat and prevent graft-versus-host disease in bone marrow transplantation and to prevent rejection of kidney, heart, and liver transplants. (wikipedia.org)
- Cyclosporine therapy was associated with a higher incidence of reported adverse effects. (bvsalud.org)
- In addition to these indications, ciclosporin is also used in severe atopic dermatitis, Kimura disease, pyoderma gangrenosum, chronic hives, acute systemic mastocytosis, and posterior or intermediate uveitis with noninfective cause. (wikipedia.org)
- Sirolimus was then replaced with cyclosporine and the dose of mycophenolate mofetil was unchanged. (medicaljournals.se)
- Further experience with a variety of high-risk patients have reinforced this early experience, showing few kidneys lost to rejection and low incidence of infectious complications using cyclosporin-A and low dose steroid combination. (pitt.edu)
- Your doctor will work out the correct dose of ciclosporin capsules for you depending on your body weight and your condition. (skh.com.sg)
- Cyclosporine injection is administered at 1/3 the oral dose. (wikidoc.org)
- The initial dose of cyclosporine injection should be given 4 to 12 hours prior to transplantation as a single IV dose of 5 to 6 mg/kg/day. (wikidoc.org)
- We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in which cyclosporine (4 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) or placebo was administered by continuous intravenous infusion to 20 patients with severe ulcerative colitis whose condition had not improved after at least 7 days of intravenous corticosteroid therapy. (nih.gov)
- Intravenous cyclosporine therapy is rapidly effective for patients with severe corticosteroid-resistant ulcerative colitis. (nih.gov)
- Immediately before use, the IV concentrate should be diluted 1 mL cyclosporine injection in 20 mL to 100 mL 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection and given in a slow intravenous infusion over approximately 2 to 6 hours. (wikidoc.org)
- This risk may be higher if you take cyclosporine or cyclosporine (modified) with other medications that decrease the functioning of the immune system such as azathioprine (Imuran), cancer chemotherapy, methotrexate (Rheumatrex), sirolimus (Rapamune), and tacrolimus (Prograf). (medlineplus.gov)
- Cyclosporine (modified) is also used alone or with methotrexate (Rheumatrex) to treat the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (arthritis caused by swelling of the lining of the joints) in patients whose symptoms were not relieved by methotrexate alone. (medlineplus.gov)
- Scholars@Duke publication: Cyclosporine v methotrexate for graft-v-host disease prevention in patients given marrow grafts for leukemia: long-term follow-up of three controlled trials. (duke.edu)
- One hundred seventy-nine patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia in first remission (n = 75), chronic myelocytic leukemia in chronic or accelerated phase (n = 48) or leukemia in advanced stage (n = 56) were given HLA-identical marrow grafts and randomized to receive methotrexate or cyclosporine for prevention of graft-v-host disease (GVHD). (duke.edu)
- Twenty-two percent of cyclosporine-treated patients and 30% of methotrexate-treated patients developed interstitial pneumonia of any etiology (P = .25), and the figures for cytomegalovirus pneumonia were 18% and 20%, respectively (P = .41). (duke.edu)
- The overall incidence of leukemic relapse was 31% in cyclosporine-treated patients and 36% in methotrexate-treated patients (P = .75). (duke.edu)
- The probabilities of survival for cyclosporine-v methotrexate-treated patients were comparable for all three study groups: 52% v 48% in patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (P = .42), 55% v 60% for those with chronic myelocytic leukemia (P = .61), 12% and 12% for those with advanced leukemia (P = .93), and 39% v 38% overall (P = .72). (duke.edu)
- Like cyclosporine, methotrexate suppresses the immune system to slow cell turnover. (medlineplus.gov)
- Because of the risk of anaphylaxis , cyclosporine injection should be reserved for patients who are unable to take the soft gelatin capsules or oral solution. (wikidoc.org)
- Patients unable to take cyclosporine soft gelatin capsules or oral solution pre- or postoperatively may be treated with the IV concentrate. (wikidoc.org)
- Patients should be switched to cyclosporine soft gelatin capsules or oral solution as soon as possible after surgery. (wikidoc.org)
- In an uncontrolled study, 80 percent of 32 patients with active ulcerative colitis refractory to corticosteroid therapy had a response to cyclosporine therapy. (nih.gov)
- cyclosporine , plasmapheresis or IV immune globulin, early corticosteroid therapy, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors have been used. (msdmanuals.com)
- This cyclosporin-cyclophilin complex inhibits calcineurin, which is normally responsible for activating the transcription of interleukin 2. (wikipedia.org)
- Recent in vitro laboratory research has shown that cyclosporine inhibits replication of human coronaviruses, including the coronavirus that is responsible for COVID-19. (bcm.edu)
- Clinical trial tests cyclosporine in COVID-19 patients. (bcm.edu)
- Baylor College of Medicine will launch a randomized clinical trial this week to determine whether the drug cyclosporine is effective in preventing disease progression in pre-ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patients. (bcm.edu)
- For about 40 years, cyclosporine has been used to prevent rejection of solid organ transplants and to treat patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. (bcm.edu)
- Patients enrolled in the trial will either receive cyclosporine along with the standard-of-care therapies for COVID-19, which can include remdesivir, steroids and convalescent plasma, or they will receive just the standard of care. (bcm.edu)
- Cyclosporin A and steroid was compared to Imuran and prednisone in a prospective, randomized study of patients undergoing primary cadaver renal transplantation. (pitt.edu)
- Failure to respond to therapy resulted in colectomy, but some patients in the placebo group who had no response and no urgent need for surgery were subsequently treated with cyclosporine. (nih.gov)
- All five patients in the placebo group who later received cyclosporine therapy had a response. (nih.gov)
- Only physicians experienced in immunosuppressive therapy and management of organ transplant patients should prescribe cyclosporine. (wikidoc.org)
- NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - In patients with dry eye disease (DED), a cyclosporine A cationic emulsion (CsA CE) is well tolerated and effective, a pooled analysis of two clinical trials suggests. (medscape.com)
- METHODS: Thirty-seven patients who required second-line immunosuppression for posterior segment intraocular inflammation were enrolled in this prospective randomized trial of tacrolimus vs cyclosporine therapy. (bvsalud.org)
- RESULTS: Thirteen patients (68%) taking tacrolimus and 12 patients (67%) taking cyclosporine responded to treatment. (bvsalud.org)
- HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor-induced myopathy in the rat: cyclosporine A interaction and mechanism studies. (aspetjournals.org)
- These characteristics were used to develop an assay for antiviral compound screening in 96-well format, which was used to identify cyclosporin A as an inhibitor of MERS-CoV replication in cell culture. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Cyclosporine is widely used in human and veterinary medicine to treat immunological diseases. (everycat.org)
- Taken orally, cyclosporine acts by suppressing the immune system to slow the rapid turnover of skin cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cyclosporine vs tacrolimus therapy for posterior and intermediate uveitis. (bvsalud.org)
- OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of tacrolimus and cyclosporine therapy for noninfectious posterior segment intraocular inflammation and to evaluate their effect on peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cell phenotype and activation status. (bvsalud.org)
- Mean arterial pressure and serum cholesterol level were significantly higher at 3 months in the cyclosporine group than the tacrolimus group. (bvsalud.org)
- CONCLUSIONS: Tacrolimus and cyclosporine were similar with regard to efficacy for posterior segment intraocular inflammation, but the results suggested a more favorable safety profile for tacrolimus therapy. (bvsalud.org)
- Immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil had been changed to sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil in July 2011, after the occurrence of in situ cervical carcinoma and in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. (medicaljournals.se)
- Mycophenolate Mofetil and Cyclosporine. (checkorphan.org)
- Anaphylactic reactions have occurred with cyclosporine injection. (wikidoc.org)
- The above concentrations are specific to the parent cyclosporine molecule and correlate directly to the new monoclonal specific radioimmunoassays (mRIA-sp). (wikidoc.org)
- Before taking Ciclosporin (Cyclosporine) , what precautions must I follow? (skh.com.sg)
- Cyclosporine and cyclosporine (modified) are used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system of the person who received the organ) in people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cyclosporine is indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in kidney, liver, and heart allogeneic transplants. (wikidoc.org)
- Cyclosporine is used to prevent organ rejection after a kidney, liver, or heart transplant. (inhalers-online.com)
- Prospective open pilot study on the use of ciclosporin for feline allergic skin disease. (everycat.org)
- You should not be treated with PUVA, UVB, or medications that suppress the immune system while you are taking cyclosporine (modified) to treat psoriasis. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you are being treated for psoriasis, you should not receive light therapy (PUVA or UVB) or radiation treatments while you are receiving cyclosporine. (canadianokpharmacy.com)
- Taking cyclosporine or cyclosporine (modified) may increase the risk that you will develop an infection or cancer, especially lymphoma (cancer of a part of the immune system) or skin cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
- How should I handle Ciclosporin (Cyclosporine) safely? (skh.com.sg)
- medical citation needed] Ciclosporin is listed as an IARC Group 1 carcinogen (i.e. there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans), specifically leading to squamous cell skin cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
- medical citation needed] Ciclosporin also binds to the cyclophilin D protein that constitutes part of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), thus preventing MPTP opening. (wikipedia.org)
- We report a new case of unilateral inflammatory lymphoedema of the breast which had appeared after beginning treatment with sirolimus (also called rapamycin), and which disappeared after switching from sirolimus to cyclosporine. (medicaljournals.se)
- Graft survival was superior in the cyclosporin-A-treated group, with 1-year kidney function of 92% and less infections. (pitt.edu)
- Cyclosporine A impairs bone repair in critical defects filled with different osteoconductive bone substitutes. (bvsalud.org)
- The use of cyclosporine impaired bone repair in CSD, and this effect can be partially explained by the suppression of BMP2 and osteocalcin expression. (bvsalud.org)
- Cyclosporine A and FK506 induce osteoclast apoptosis in mouse bone marrow cell cultures. (bvsalud.org)
- Experience with ciclosporin in pregnancy is limited. (skh.com.sg)
- The mean clinical-activity score fell from 13 to 6 in the cyclosporine group, as compared with a decrease from 14 to 13 in the placebo group. (nih.gov)
- When your doctor gives you a written prescription, check to be sure that he or she has specified the type of cyclosporine you should receive. (medlineplus.gov)
- Each time you have your prescription filled, look at the brand name printed on your prescription label to be sure that you have received the same type of cyclosporine. (medlineplus.gov)
- One group (11 cats) was treated with prednisolone (1 mg/kg daily) while the remaining cats were treated with cyclosporine (5 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. (everycat.org)
- Sixty animals were divided into two groups the control (CTR) group ( saline solution ) and the cyclosporine (CCP) group ( cyclosporine , 10 mg/kg/day). (bvsalud.org)
- Talk to your pharmacist if the brand name is unfamiliar or you are not sure you have received the right type of cyclosporine. (medlineplus.gov)
High blood pr1
- Cyclosporine and cyclosporine (modified) may cause high blood pressure and kidney damage. (medlineplus.gov)
- Original cyclosporine and cyclosporine (modified) are absorbed by the body in different amounts, so they cannot be substituted for one another. (medlineplus.gov)
- What side effects can Ciclosporin (Cyclosporine) cause? (skh.com.sg)
- Cyclosporine has been around for a long time. (optometrytimes.com)