Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Mycophenolic Acid: An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)Calcineurin: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.Cyclophilin A: A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Azathioprine: An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Gingival Overgrowth: Excessive growth of the gingiva either by an increase in the size of the constituent cells (GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY) or by an increase in their number (GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA). (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p574)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Cyclophilins: A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.CreatinineAdrenal Cortex HormonesRecurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Rats, Inbred LewTissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Transplantation Immunology: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Transplantation: Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Rats, Inbred WFArea Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Nephrosis, Lipoid: A kidney disease with no or minimal histological glomerular changes on light microscopy and with no immune deposits. It is characterized by lipid accumulation in the epithelial cells of KIDNEY TUBULES and in the URINE. Patients usually show NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA with accompanying EDEMA.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Glomerulonephritis, Membranous: A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits (COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Drug Substitution: The practice of replacing one prescribed drug with another that is expected to have the same clinical or psychological effect.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Scleritis: Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.

Vascular endothelial growth factor activates nuclear factor of activated T cells in human endothelial cells: a role for tissue factor gene expression. (1/4361)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic inducer that stimulates the expression of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of blood coagulation. Here we show that signaling triggered by VEGF induced DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and AP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF also induced TF mRNA expression and gene promoter activation by a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive mechanism. As in lymphoid cells, NFAT was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus upon activation of HUVECs, and these processes were blocked by CsA. NFAT was involved in the VEGF-mediated TF promoter activation as evidenced by cotransfection experiments with a dominant negative version of NFAT and site-directed mutagenesis of a newly identified NFAT site within the TF promoter that overlaps with a previously identified kappaB-like site. Strikingly, this site bound exclusively NFAT not only from nuclear extracts of HUVECs activated by VEGF, a stimulus that failed to induce NF-kappaB-binding activity, but also from extracts of cells activated with phorbol esters and calcium ionophore, a combination of stimuli that triggered the simultaneous activation of NFAT and NF-kappaB. These results implicate NFAT in the regulation of endothelial genes by physiological means and shed light on the mechanisms that switch on the gene expression program induced by VEGF and those regulating TF gene expression.  (+info)

The optically determined size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool correlates with the quantal content at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila larvae. (2/4361)

According to the current theory of synaptic transmission, the amplitude of evoked synaptic potentials correlates with the number of synaptic vesicles released at the presynaptic terminals. Synaptic vesicles in presynaptic boutons constitute two distinct pools, namely, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools (). We defined the vesicles that were endocytosed and exocytosed during high K+ stimulation as the exo/endo cycling vesicle pool. To determine the role of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool in synaptic transmission, we estimated the quantal content electrophysiologically, whereas the pool size was determined optically using fluorescent dye FM1-43. We then manipulated the size of the pool with following treatments. First, to change the state of boutons of nerve terminals, motoneuronal axons were severed. With this treatment, the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool decreased together with the quantal content. Second, we promoted the FM1-43 uptake using cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin activities and enhances endocytosis. Cyclosporin A increased the total uptake of FM1-43, but neither the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool nor the quantal content changed. Third, we increased the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool by forskolin, which enhances synaptic transmission. The forskolin treatment increased both the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool and the quantal content. Thus, we found that the quantal content was closely correlated with the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool but not necessarily with the total uptake of FM1-43 fluorescence by boutons. The results suggest that vesicles in the exo/endo cycling pool primarily participate in evoked exocytosis of vesicles.  (+info)

R73A and H144Q mutants of the yeast mitochondrial cyclophilin Cpr3 exhibit a low prolyl isomerase activity in both peptide and protein-folding assays. (3/4361)

Previously we reported that the R73A and H144Q variants of the yeast cyclophilin Cpr3 were virtually inactive in a protease-coupled peptide assay, but retained activity as catalysts of a proline-limited protein folding reaction [Scholz, C. et al. (1997) FEBS Lett. 414, 69-73]. A reinvestigation revealed that in fact these two mutations strongly decrease the prolyl isomerase activity of Cpr3 in both the peptide and the protein-folding assay. The high folding activities found previously originated from a contamination of the recombinant Cpr3 proteins with the Escherichia coli protein SlyD, a prolyl isomerase that co-purifies with His-tagged proteins. SlyD is inactive in the peptide assay, but highly active in the protein-folding assay.  (+info)

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants perturb the myo-inositol but not the betaine cotransporter in isotonic and hypertonic MDCK cells. (4/4361)

BACKGROUND: The sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) and the betaine cotransporter (BGT1) are essential for the accumulation of myo-inositol and betaine, and hence cell survival in a hypertonic environment. The underlying molecular mechanism involves an increase in transcription of the SMIT and BGT1 genes through binding of a trans-acting factor to enhancer elements in the 5' flanking region of both genes, resulting in increased mRNA abundance and increased activity of the cotransporters. Current evidence regarding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation indicates that both cotransporters are regulated in parallel. METHODS: To investigate the signal transduction of hypertonic stress, we examined the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants on the hypertonicity-induced activity of the two cotransporters in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. RESULTS: None of the agents studied affected BGT1 activity in isotonic or hypertonic conditions. Treatment of MDCK cells with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased SMIT activity in hypertonic but not isotonic conditions. The stimulation of SMIT by genistein was accompanied by a parallel increase in mRNA abundance. In contrast, treating cells with tyrphostin A23, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant, inhibited SMIT activity in hypertonic cells. FK506, another immunosuppressant, increased SMIT activity, but only in isotonic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence of divergent regulatory pathways modulating SMIT and BGT activity.  (+info)

Long-term effects of cyclosporine A in Alport's syndrome. (5/4361)

BACKGROUND: In 1991, our initial results of cyclosporine A (CsA) administration in eight patients with Alport's syndrome were published. A significant decrease in or disappearance of proteinuria and apparently good tolerance to CsA were observed in all patients. METHODS: CsA administration has been maintained in these eight patients with the aim of obtaining further information about the clinical course of the disease. The ages of these eight patients currently range from 15 to 27 years, and the mean duration of treatment is from 7 to 10 years (x = 8.4 years). RESULTS: Renal function has remained stable, with no evaluable changes in serum creatinine levels compared with pre-CsA treatment values. Proteinuria in all patients has either remained negative or are values far lower than pretreatment levels. A second renal biopsy was performed in all patients after five years of CsA administration. No aggravation of the lesion present at the first biopsy or lesions typical of cyclosporine intoxication was observed. CONCLUSIONS: After a mean duration of 8.4 years and with no deterioration in renal function, we found possible beneficial effects of the continued treatment of CsA in patients with Alport's syndrome who present evidence of progression to renal insufficiency.  (+info)

Flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility of the brachial artery in renal allograft recipients. (6/4361)

BACKGROUND: Alterations of large artery function and structure are frequently observed in renal allograft recipients. However, endothelial function has not yet been assessed in this population. METHODS: Flow-mediated vasodilation is a useful index of endothelial function. We measured the diameter and distensibility of the brachial artery at rest using high-resolution ultrasound and Doppler frequency analysis of vessel wall movements in the M mode. Thereafter, changes in brachial artery diameter were measured during reactive hyperemia (after 4 min of forearm occlusion) in 16 cyclosporine-treated renal allograft recipients and 16 normal controls of similar age and sex ratio. Nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was measured to assess endothelium-independent vasodilation. Brachial artery blood pressure was measured using an automatic sphygmomanometer, and brachial artery flow was estimated using pulsed Doppler. RESULTS: Distensibility was reduced in renal allograft recipients (5.31 +/- 0. 74 vs. 9.10 +/- 0.94 x 10-3/kPa, P = 0.003, mean +/- sem), while the brachial artery diameter at rest was higher (4.13 +/- 0.14 vs. 3.25 +/- 0.14 mm, P < 0.001). Flow-mediated vasodilation was significantly reduced in renal allograft recipients (0.13 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.60 +/- 0.08 mm or 3 +/- 2 vs. 19 +/- 3%, both P < 0.001). However, nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was similar in renal allograft recipients and controls (0.76 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.09 mm, NS, or 19 +/- 3 vs. 22 +/- 2%, NS). There were no significant differences in brachial artery flow at rest and during reactive hyperemia between both groups. The impairments of flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility in renal allograft recipients remained significant after correction for serum cholesterol, creatinine, parathyroid hormone concentrations, end-diastolic diameter, as well as blood pressure levels, and were also present in eight renal allograft recipients not treated with cyclosporine. Flow-mediated vasodilation was not related to distensibility in either group. CONCLUSIONS: The results show impaired endothelial function and reduced brachial artery distensibility in renal allograft recipients. The impairments of flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility are not attributable to a diminished brachial artery vasodilator capacity, because endothelium-independent vasodilation was preserved in renal allograft recipients.  (+info)

Nephrotic syndrome as a clinical manifestation of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a marrow transplant recipient after cyclosporine withdrawal. (7/4361)

GVHD is one of the most frequent complications of BMT and recently nephrotic syndrome (NS) has been described as a manifestation of chronic GVHD. Here, we present an AA patient who developed NS 1 year after BMT when cyclosporine was stopped. Renal biopsy showed focal sclerosis associated with membranous deposits. He also had other clinical manifestations of chronic GVHD: sicca-like syndrome and colestasis. After 15 days of CsA therapy, he experienced a remarkable improvement in the NS and GVHD as a whole. We comment on immunological mechanisms that could be involved in the pathogenesis of this manifestation.  (+info)

Performance and specificity of monoclonal immunoassays for cyclosporine monitoring: how specific is specific? (8/4361)

BACKGROUND: Immunoassays designed for the selective measurement of cyclosporin A (CsA) inadvertently show cross-reactivity for CsA metabolites. The extent and clinical significance of the resulting overestimation is controversial. A comprehensive assessment of old and new methods in clinical specimens is needed. METHODS: In a comprehensive evaluation, CsA was analyzed in 145 samples with the new CEDIA assay and compared with the Emit assay with the old and new pretreatments, the TDx monoclonal and polyclonal assays, the AxSYM, and HPLC. All samples were from patients with liver and/or kidney transplants. RESULTS: The CEDIA offered the easiest handling, followed by the AxSYM, which showed the longest calibration stability. The TDx monoclonal assay provided the lowest detection limit and the lowest CVs. The mean differences compared with HPLC were as follows: Emit, 9-12%; CEDIA, 18%; AxSYM, 29%; and TDx monoclonal, 57%. The CycloTrac RIA paralleled the Emit results. In contrast to the mean differences, substantial (>200%) and variable overestimations of the CsA concentration were observed in individual patient samples. Metabolic ratios, estimates of the overall concentrations of several cross-reacting metabolites (nonspecific TDx polyclonal/specific reference method), correlated with the apparent biases of the various monoclonal assays. Metabolic ratios varied up to 10-fold, which translated into biases for individual samples between -7% and +174%. The higher the cross-reactivity of an assay was, the higher was the range of biases observed. The interindividual differences markedly exceeded other factors of influence (organ transplanted, hepatic function). CONCLUSION: Because assay bias cannot be predicted in individual samples, substantially erratic CsA dosing can result. The specificity of CsA assays for parent CsA remains a major concern.  (+info)

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The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of CsA treatment on HepG2 cells as a means to better understand the events underlying CsA-induced hepatotoxicity. We found that CsA treatment diminished the levels of reduced GSH and α2β1 integrin expression while increasing hepatic injury markers (ALT and AST).. The effect of CsA treatment on cell viability was determined and similar to the findings of Aker et al. on MDCK cells; we found that treatment with 10µg/ml of CsA induced 35% cell damage suggesting CsA specific toxicity to HepG2 cells with this dose.. In the present study, CsA treatment produced a significant elevation in intracellular generation of ROS and changes in glutathione homeostasis suggesting a role for oxidative stress and ROS production in CsA cytotoxicity. It should be mentioned that the reduction in ROS production observed in treatment with 10µg/ml CsA is attributed to the high level of cell death occurring at this concentration (35%). Indeed some authors have ...
Existing pharmacokinetic monitoring tools for cyclosporine fail to correlate with clinical response. In dogs, pharmacodynamic monitoring of nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) regulated cytokines is thought to provide a better overall evaluation of the immune response to cyclosporine than blood levels; however, such monitoring tools are not available in cats. In this study, we designed and optimized a protocol for maximal T lymphocyte stimulation in cats. This is the first step in the development of a pharmacodynamic monitoring tool for cyclosporine in cats based on expression of NFAT-regulated cytokines. We also confirmed that cyclosporine has anti-lymphocytic properties in cats, and we were the first to document induction of apoptosis by cyclosporine in cats. Differences in individual patient response to cyclosporine may be influenced by apoptotic response of lymphocytes to cyclosporine. Additional studies are required to optimize and validate polymerase chain reaction monitoring of ...
Endoplasmic reticulum stress with low-dose cyclosporine in frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome.: An unfolded protein response due to ER stress induced by Cs
In a prospective study of renal dysfunction in 60 consecutive allograft recipients treated with cyclosporin and prednisolone routine renal biopsies at one week and one month after transplantation, as well as for all episodes of renal dysfunction, were performed. The one year graft survival of this group was 88%. In a retrospective clinical analysis of these patients 35 episodes of dysfunction due to rejection, defined by a response to antirejection treatment alone, and 30 episodes due to cyclosporin nephrotoxicity, defined by a response to reduction in cyclosporin dose alone, were identified. The morphological findings from these biopsies were compared with 20 samples from routine biopsies taken from patients with stable renal function. All patients diagnosed as having rejection had a diffuse, interstitial mononuclear cell infiltrate (32 of 35) or arteritis (19 of 35), or both. In contrast, focal mononuclear cell infiltrates were common in both patients with nephrotoxicity and those with stable ...
Cellular proliferation and macrophage influx precede interstitial fibrosis in cyclosporine nephrotoxicity is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at eagle-i Network Shared Resource Repository.
Elens, Laure. A new CYP3A4 polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of renal toxicity in cyclosporin-treated kidney transplant recipients.12th International Congress of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring & Clinical Toxicology (IATDMCT) (Stuttgart, Germany, du 16/10/2011 au 19/10/2011 ...
The immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) causes systemic and renal vascular remodeling, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension and this is associated with decreased anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells (Tregs). Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous population of immature granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, play a central regulatory role in immune responses by inhibiting various pro-inflammatory innate and adaptive immune cells as well as stimulating Treg expansion. We hypothesized that CsA causes vascular remodeling, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension in part by decreasing MDSCs and that augmentation of MDSCs in vivo with IL-33 treatment can prevent these effects. Daily treatment of male C57BL6/J mice for 1 week with CsA (50 mg/kg/day, ip) and IL-33 (0.5 ug/day, ip) prevented the CsA-induced decrease in splenic MDSC levels (Day 7 % of lymphocytes: Con=3.7±0.9, CsA=2.1±0.5*, CsA+IL-33=3.2±0.3; *p,0.05 vs. Con), increase in SBP (Day 7 SBP in ...
What happens if I miss giving a dose: Give the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the dose you missed and give the next regularly scheduled dose. Do not give a double dose unless otherwise directed by your veterinarian.. What happens if I overdose the pet: Seek emergency veterinary medical treatment.. What should I avoid while giving Cyclosporine (Modified): The safe use in breeding, pregnant or lactating dogs has not been determined. Do not use cyclosporine modified in dogs with known allergy to the medication. The drug should not be used in dogs with kidney disease, stomach ulcers, and certain blood disorders. Prolonged use of cyclosporine modified can result in bacterial or fungal infection related to a decreased effect of the immune system.. Possible side effects of Cyclosporine (Modified): If any of the following serious side effects occur, stop giving cyclosporine modified and seek emergency veterinary medical attention; an allergic reaction ...
Cyclosporine A (CsA) is the immunosuppressant of first choice in allotransplantation. Its use is associated with side effects of nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity, which are among the most prominent. This study was undertaken to explore whether expression and activity of heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is altered in a rat model of CsA-induced injury. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups and treated for 21 days. Group I (control) was injected with olive oil (vehicle), group II with CsA (15 mg/kg/day), group III with CsA and the HO inhibitor stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP) (30 micromol/kg/day) and group IV with one dose of the HO inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) 5 mg/100 or heme (10 mg/kg body weight), three days after onset of CsA treatment. Renal tissue was processed for light microscopy, and for HO-1 enzyme activity, assay and for Western blot analysis. In CsA-treated rats there was histological evidence of tubulointerstitial scarring. HO-1 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclosporine elimination in the presence of TOR inhibitors. T2 - Effects on renal function, acute rejection, and safety. AU - Velosa, Jorge A.. AU - Larson, Timothy S.. AU - Gloor, James M.. AU - Stegall, Mark D. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Sirolimus in combination with cyclosporine reduces the incidence of acute rejection in renal transplant recipients when administered in double- or triple-therapy immunosuppressive regimens. Sirolimus administered as primary therapy has a beneficial effect on renal function, and the frequency of rejection episodes is similar to that of primary immunosuppression with cyclosporine. A strategy that may result in a more benign immunologic course with a substantially beneficial effect on renal function is to administer sirolimus and a calcineurin inhibitor early after transplantation, thereby promoting immunologic adaptation, and then to withdraw the calcineurin inhibitor at some point after transplantation to prevent nephrotoxicity. This article ...
Cyclosporine encapsulated in Lym-X-Sorb® was compared to the current delivery formulations of cyclosporine and administered orally to dogs. The area under the curve showed a 4-5 fold increased absorption of cyclosporine in Lym-X-Sorb® formulation when compared to the commercial formulation. The delayed appearance of drug in plasma for Lym-X-Sorb® formulation indicates that cyclosporine partitions with the chylomicrons into the lymphatic system. Exclusion Chromatography and Oral Bioavailability of Cyclosporin Graph ...
OBJECTIVE: To compare the acute hypotensive effects of three different methods of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system in a primate model of cyclosporin-induced hypertension. DESIGN: The effects of maximally effective doses of an angiotensin I con
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methotrexate and Cyclosporine Compared with Cyclosporine Alone for Prophylaxis of Acute Graft versus Host Disease after Marrow Transplantation for Leukemia. AU - Storb, Rainer. AU - Deeg, H. Joachim. AU - Whitehead, John. AU - Appelbaum, Frederick. AU - Beatty, Patrick. AU - Bensinger, William. AU - Buckner, C. Dean. AU - Clift, Reginald. AU - Doney, Kristine. AU - Farewell, Vernon. AU - Hansen, John. AU - Hill, Roger. AU - Lum, Lawrence. AU - Martin, Paul. AU - Mcguffin, Robert. AU - Sanders, Jean. AU - Stewart, Patricia. AU - Sullivan, Keith. AU - Witherspoon, Robert. AU - Yee, Gary. AU - Thomas, E. Donnall. PY - 1986/3/20. Y1 - 1986/3/20. N2 - We treated 93 patients who had acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia in the first remission or chronic myelocytic leukemia in the chronic phase (median age, 30 years) with high-dose cyclophosphamide and fractionated total-body irradiation, followed by infusion of marrow from an HLA-identical sibling. To evaluate post-grafting prophylaxis for ...
This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between blood concentration of cyclosporine A (CsA), administered intravenously by a 24-h continuous infusion, and drug-induced nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity. It was investigated retrospectively in 8 patients who had received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT). The correlation between daily doses and blood concentration of CsA was not significant. Then, the data of blood concentration of CsA and renal or liver function test result were divided into 5-d periods from the date of transplantation, and the mean value for each period was calculated. The maximum values of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) were consistently observed only after the period when the 5-d mean CsA concentration reached the peak level: the maximum BUN and SCr values were witnessed at Periods 2 to 10 and at Periods 1 to 9, respectively. On the other hand, no consistent correlation was found between the 5-d mean CsA concentrations and liver ...
Cyclosporine: Cyclosporine and tacrolimus bind to different molecular targets, but both drugs inhibit calcineurin and, as a result, the function of T cells. Cyclosporine is used in patients who are undergoing kidney, liver, heart and other organ transplantation, and it is used for the treatment of…
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Laser Raman spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the effects of cyclosporine-A on the order and dynamics of DPPC (Dipalmytoyl Phosphatidyl Choline) midel membrane system. It is shown that the addition of small amount of cyclosporine-A to a DPPC dispersion disturb the system and changes the order/disorder parameter of the model membrane.
The most commonly used anti-rejection medication is Tacrolimus, although Cyclosporine is also used. The latter drug has been shown to have anti-viral activity against HIV, herpes simplex and vaccinia virus, leading researchers to speculate it might also inhibit hepatitis C virus. To examine this hypothesis, they analyzed the impact of the drug in a liver transplant population. They also studied its effect on hepatitis C in vitro ...
The area under the curve for creatine kinase was 138,053 arbitrary units for cyclosporine versus 247,930 for control (p = 0.04), and the area under the curve for troponin I was 112,312 versus 129,320 (p = 0.15), respectively. The absolute mass of infarcted tissue (i.e., the area of hyperenhancement by magnetic resonance imaging on day 5) was 37 g versus 46 g (p = 0.04), respectively ...
If you are taking cyclosporine and experience unusual bleeding or problems breathing, seek medical care. This eMedTV resource describes the side effects that occurred during clinical trials on cyclosporine, including common and serious problems.
Another name for cyclosporine would be its active metabolite, cyclic undecapeptide. To study it chemically, it is made up of 11 amino acids, 10 that were known, and one of which was unknown. These amino acids are hydrophobic, neutral, and able to be dissolved in nearly every organic material except water and hexane.. The benefits of cyclosporine is that it doesnt effect the bone marrow like other previous immunosuppressant drugs do. One of the first drugs used in organ transplantation would be Azathioprine combined with corticosteroids. Azathioprine stops cell growth in all cells, which is bad because it then inhibits bone marrow. Besides effecting the bone marrow, there are other side effects as well. Some of these would include increased vulnerability to infections, hepatotoxicity (chemically caused liver damage), nausea, and vomiting. The corticosteroids inhibit lymphocytes and act as an anti-inflammatory. The side effects of this drug are diabetes and avascular necrosis in the bone (where ...
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SANDIMMUNE INJECTION (Cyclosporine) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
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This multicenter trial randomized de novo heart transplant recipients to everolimus 1.5 mg or 3.0 mg with reduced-dose cyclosporine, or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 3 g/day with standard-dose cyclosporine (plus corticosteroids ± induction). Primary efficacy endpoint was the 12-month composite incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection, acute rejection associated with hemodynamic compromise, graft loss/retransplant, death or loss […]. ...
Sandoz Cyclosporine: Cyclosporine belongs to the groups of medications known as immunosuppressant agents. It is used to prevent the rejection of organ transplants and bone marrow transplants by suppressing the bodys natural defence, the immune system. It is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, which is thought to be caused by the bodys own immune system attacking the joints of the body.
Learn more about Cyclosporine at Portsmouth Regional Hospital Trade Names : Neoral Sandimmune Grapefruit Juice - Possible Harmful Interaction ...
Cyclosporine lowers your bodys immune system. The immune system helps your body fight infections. The immune system can also fight or reject a transplanted organ such as a liver or kidney. This is because the immune system treats the new organ as an invader. Cyclosporine is used to prevent organ rejection after a...
Generic Neoral is used for preventing the rejection of organ transplants (kidney, liver, and heart). This medicine is also used to treat psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis in certain patients.. Generic Neoral (Cyclosporine 25/50/100 Mg) # EXTRA LOW Prices @ Help Point Hub. Help Point Hub
Cyclosporine A (CsA) use is associated with hypertension and reduced baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), but the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. In this study, we investigated whether CsA attenuation of BRS is 1) dependent on treatment regimen, and 2) causative of the pressor response. Furthermore, we investigated whether a reduction in plasma testosterone contributes to BRS attenuation caused by short-term CsA administration. The effects of the clinically used CsA formulation (15 mg/kg/day i.v. for 5 days) on mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, BRS, and body weight were investigated in conscious rats. CsA caused reproducible pressor responses (15.1 ± 3.0 mm Hg) starting after the first dose and continuing through the 5 days of the study. BRS and baseline MAP were inversely related in the CsA group because of a progressive reduction in BRS, which started on day 2 and reached ∼50% of baseline on day 5 and a cumulative elevation in MAP. The inverse BRS and MAP responses required ...
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Because IgE levels in BALF are dependent upon IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and may be considered an additional index of Th2 cytokine secretion, we measured IgE in BALF from mice in all groups. We found that IgE levels in BALF from OVA-induced murine model of asthma were significantly increased compared with normal groups. RAE and CsA treatments of these mice significantly inhibited the production of IgE. These results support the conclusion that RAE and CsA suppressed the generation of a Th2-type immune response and activity of mast cells in this animal model of asthma. To investigate the effect of RAE on mRNA expression in lung tissue, total cellular RNA was extracted from lung cells treated with or without RAE in the presence or absence of OVA sensitization and inhalation. As shown in Table 3, the mRNA for eotaxin2, CCR3, IL-13, IL-10, TARC, and TNF-α was detectable in the lung cells treated with PBS only (NM), OVA (CT), CsA (10 mg/kg), and RAE (450, 45 mg/kg), respectively (Table 3). C57BL/6 mice were ...
Take this medicine by mouth with a full glass of water. Do not take with grapefruit juice. Swallow the capsules whole. Do not chew or break the capsule. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Take the capsules at the same time each day and at the same time in relation to meals. Do not take your medicine more often than directed. Do not stop taking except on your doctors advice ...
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But of course, gaining weight and hairiness are DEFINITELY worth it when it means I get to be healthy and resume my normal life again. So as much as it sucks, you eventually learn to laugh at it. And it really is kind of funny, lets be honest. At least this time I knew it was coming. I didnt get much of a warning the first time. I just woke up one morning, and SURPRISE! Youre as hairy as a gorilla! And so chubby it looks like someone inflated you like a balloon! Good times. :) But like last time, its only temporary. Ive finished tapering off the steroids, which means I no longer have the appetite of a line backer and my platelets are on their way up, which means I will be able to shave again (hopefully) soon. Thank goodness for small blessings. And family and friends who love me in spite of unattractive side effects ...
As anyone who has been forced to suffer through ESRD can. Cyclosporine and tacrolimus have side effects that include increased hair growth and gum
Cyclosporine is an oral medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis and prevent organ rejection after transplants. Learn who its for and more.
Brynskov J, Feagan BG, Jewell DP, McDonald J, Stange EF. Cyclosporine for maintenance of remission in Crohns disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD000302. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000302. ...
UPDATED // Hopeful that cyclosporine could limit myocardial reperfusion injury, as shown in small studies and animal models, CIRCUS investigators failed to show an improvement in hard clinical outcomes following PCI for STEMI.
Answers to frequently asked questions about cyclosporine, including dosage, side effects and reasons this drug should not be used.
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Hey Judy . . . no at all familiar with the cyclosporine, but you should call your prescribing doc and tell him about the burning tummy . . . lots of times they can rx a med that will protect your stomach and you really dont want the meds causing damage in there. I hope this works for you ...
Pronunciation guide (phonetic spelling and recorded audio) of cyclosporine (ophthalmic), also known as Restasis, which is a Top 250 Drug in the drug class of Anti-inflammatory immunomodulator.
59865-13-3 - PMATZTZNYRCHOR-CGLBZJNRSA-N - Cyclosporine [USAN:USP] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Take Neoral exactly as prescribed by your doctor. For solid organ transplants, the recommended dose is 10 mg to 15 mg per kilogram of body weight daily (in 2 divided doses) starting at least 12 hours before surgery. For bone marrow transplants, the medication is usually given at a daily dose of about 12.5 mg per kilogram of body weight in 2 divided doses. For treatment of psoriasis, the recommended starting dose is 2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day in 2 divided doses. For treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, the recommended dose is 2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day in 2 divided doses for the first 6 weeks of treatment. For nephrotic syndrome, the recommended starting dose is 3.5 mg per kilogram of body weight per day for adults and 4.2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day for children. People with reduced kidney function should not receive more than 2.5 mg per kg body weight per day. You may take this medication with or without food. Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit ...
Ciclosporin is useful in treating autoimmune disorder such as rheumatoid arthritis. Ciclosporin is also useful in preventing rejection of tissue transplant and organ transplant as well as prevention of the graft versus host disease.
Ciclosporin can be classified chemically as a macrolide. cyclosporin Ciclosporin can be classified chemically as a macrolide Indication: Ciclosporin (cyclospor
In 1975, as part of a program at Ayerst Research Laboratories in Montreal to screen for non-polyene antifungal antibiotics, Dr Sehgals group (Sehgal 1975) discovered that a fermentation product of...
cyclosporin definition: Alternative spelling of cyclosporine.; a chemical substance generated by some earth fungi, which suppresses the cellular protected reaction by suppressing T cellular activation,…
Austin Radiological Association Patient History/Contrast Form HAVE YOU HAD ANY PREVIOUS IMAGING STUDIES OF THE BODY PART BEING EXAMINED TODAY? HAVE YOU EVER HAD? Previous imaging that required an injection of contrast media/dye? If yes, did you have a reaction or experience any difficulties due to any imaging contrast/dye injection? Surgery to the part of your body being exami ...
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hi guys, my mom is about 310 days post transplant and we have already started to taper the cyclosporine. She is on 25mg once a day, and hoping to end it next month.....
After initial treatment of 6 weeks with Neoral 5 mg/kg for all patients, there is a randomization in two groups. One group is treated with Neoral 3 mg/kg and the other group with Myfortic 1440 mg ...
Purpose: : To assess the efficacy of topical cyclosporine .05% (Restasis®) versus vehicle (Endura®) for the improvement of dry eye signs and change in daily activity impact of dry eye. Methods: : Prospective clinical evaluation of 56 patients with dry eye syndrome. Schirmer testing with anesthesia, noninvasive fluorescein break up time, and ocular surface vital dye staining were performed and the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) administered. Patients were randomized to either cyclosporine 0.05% twice a day or vehicle twice a day for 3 months. Study visits were at baseline and months 1, 2, and 3. Results: : Cyclosporine improved OSDI scores significantly more than vehicle (mean reduction of 11.4 points with cyclosporine, compared with a mean increase of 0.8 point with tears, P,.001). Dry eye ocular surface parameters also improved significantly with cyclosporine treatment compared with vehicle. Cyclosporine provided statistically significantly greater improvements in Schirmers scores (mean ...
randomized trial. Cyclosporine or cyclosporine plus methylprednisolone for prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease: a prospectives profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Background. Peritubular capillary injury induces chronic hypoxia in the renal tubulointerstitium, and renal peritubular capillary dysfunction is an early event that contributes to tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a potent immunosuppressant and improves survival of renal allografts. However, the limitation of CsA use is chronic nephrotoxicity. A soluble, stable and potent angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) variant, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)-Ang1 has been developed. We investigated whether COMP-Ang1 ameliorates CsA-induced renal injury.. Methods. CsA-treated mice were injected with recombinant adenovirus expressing either COMP-Ang1 or LacZ. Histology, inflammatory, haemodynamic and fibrotic parameters, and signalling pathway were evaluated.. Results. Histologic examination showed that COMP-Ang1 significantly decreased CsA-induced tubular damage and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. CsA-induced increases in macrophage infiltration and expression of MCP-1 and ICAM-1 after CsA ...
Cyclosporin can suppress immune system activity to prevent inflammation in the kidneys. It can relieve urinary protein effectively. However, it can also decrease the function of the normal immune system. Taking cyclosporine may increase the risk of developing cancer or infection, especially lymphoma and skin cancer. This risk may be greater if you drink cyclosporine with other drugs that decrease immune function. To the enormous adverse effects of cyclosporine, patients with nephrotic syndrome are eager to find an alternative treatment. Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy is an effective treatment for nephrotic syndrome ...
Low-dose cyclosporine did not improve symptoms in Crohn disease. Cyclosporine, which selectively blocks the activation of T-helper and cytotoxic lymphocytes, has revolutionized organ transplantation and is used to treat several autoimmune disorders. This drug is now being explored as therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. Two well-designed and well-executed double-blind, controlled trials are reported here. An editorial in the same journal is recommended to readers (1). The study by Lichtiger and colleagues is a continuation of their previously published work suggesting an important role for cyclosporine in the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis refractory to steroid therapy. In this study, the response to intravenous infusion of cyclosporine, 4 mg/kg per day, was rapid and impressive. The response was assessed using a clinical activity score. Patients in the placebo group who were switched to cyclosporine also had important improvement in symptoms. Although not documented in this study, ...
Background: Cyclosporine, which is one of the effective systemic treatments for psoriasis, has a rapid therapeutic effect. However, despite the efficacy of cyclosporine, the recurrence of psoriasis may still occur if treatment with this drug is discontinued. Several studies on the efficacy and safety of cyclosporine for psoriasis have already been conducted. However, studies on the factors causing psoriasis recurrence after cyclosporine treatment are rare. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the factors that cause recurrence of psoriasis in patients treated with cyclosporine. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of the medical records obtained between January 2007 and March 2014 of 174 patients diagnosed with psoriasis and followed up for at least 6 months after treatment. We analyzed the differences in the demographic characteristics, body surface area, psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score, psoriasis type, accompanying psoriatic nail, involvement of exposed areas, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Severe neurologic toxicity induced by cyclosporine A in three renal transplant patients. AU - Palmer, B. F.. AU - Toto, R. D.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Cyclosporine A (CyA) is a potent immunosuppressive agent that is used in organ transplantation and in a variety of immunological diseases. It has a variety of adverse side effects, some of which can be serious and even life-threatening. CyA-associated neurotoxicity is generally mild, consisting of fine tremor. However, more complex neurologic abnormalities, including motor spinal cord and cerebellar syndromes, have rarely been described in bone marrow and liver transplant patients. Renal transplant patients have been spared from such CyA-induced toxicity. In this report, three renal transplant patients are described who developed complex and severe neurologic toxicity in the setting of therapeutic blood levels of CyA, which was completely reversible on discontinuation of the drug. No patient had a prior history of neurological ...
The most successful treatment for aplastic anemia is bone marrow transplantation. However, few patients are eligible for this procedure. For others, treatment usually consists of immunosuppressive agents, such as antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine. Unfortunately, even with immunosuppressive therapy, relapse is common. New combinations of medications may offer alternative and more effective treatment options. Sirolimus and cyclosporine are two drugs routinely used to suppress the immune system and prevent rejection in patients who have received organ transplants. While cyclosporine has been proven effective for treating aplastic anemia, sirolimus has not been tested for this disease. This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of sirolimus in combination with cyclosporine for treating individuals with aplastic anemia that has not responded to other treatments.. This study will last at least 6 months. Participants will first be screened to verify diagnosis of aplastic anemia. The ...
The challenge when choosing an immunosuppressive regimen for a child is to balance the need to prevent rejection against the infectious complications of these therapeutic agents.. Cyclosporine, a calcineurin inhibitor introduced in the mid-1980s, is a potent lymphocyte-specific immunosuppressive. Neoral, a new oral formulation, has better intestinal absorption than the previous compounds even in the setting of poor bile flow. Monitoring of cyclosporine levels helps to avoid toxicity and ensures a therapeutic range. Most agree that a cyclosporine whole blood trough level of 200 to 300 ng/mL measured by high-performance liquid chromatography or its equivalent represents the therapeutic range. Monitoring peak cyclosporine levels at 2 hours after the dose (C2 levels) may be a more effective way to ensure adequate immunosuppression and limit toxicity. Acute nephrotoxicity correlates with high cyclosporine levels, especially in the early posttransplantation period. Gingival hyperplasia and hirsutism ...
Objective: A mechanism of mitochondrial injury during ischemia/reperfusion is Ca2+-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). We examined whether cyclosporine A (CsA), an mPTP inhibitor, could benefit resuscitation in a rat model of cardiac arrest. We also assessed whether CsA prevents Ca2+ mediated mPTP opening in isolated mitochondria using a swelling assay.. Methods: VF was induced and left untreated for 10 mins. Resuscitation was attempted by 8 mins of chest compression and defibrillation, observing the rats for 360 mins post-resuscitation (PR). Rats were randomized to receive 10 mg/kg CsA (n=6) or vehicle (n=3) before inducing VF or 10 mg/kg CsA (n=6) or vehicle (n=3) before starting chest compression. CsA treated and vehicle treated subgroups were pooled for the analysis. Four rats not subjected to cardiac arrest served as sham. Mitochondrial NAD+ levels in hearts harvested after the PR interval served as indirect marker of mPTP opening. Mitochondria isolated ...
Background: Cyclosporine is the main drug used for immunosupression among cardiac transplant patients and its blood levels can be measured at 0 and 2 hours after oral intake (C0 and C2 levels). Among kidney and liver transplants there are some data suggesting that C2 measurment is the most effective way of monitoring cyclosporine levels. However data about C2 monitorization and cardiac transplantation is limited.. Methods: During the period between May 1998 and May 2002, 18 patients underwent orthotophic heart transplantation and all patients recieved triple immunosupressive regiment (cyclosporine,azathiprine and corticosteroid) postoperatively. Cyclosorine levels were monitored with C0 measurements for the first 9 patients (Group I). C0 and C2 measurements were used for the last 9 patients (Group II). C0 and C2 drug levels were kept within 250-300 ng/ml and 1100-1300 ng/ml respectfully for the first 3 month then target levels were gradually reduced.. Results: Grade 1A to 3A acute rejection ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To define the safety and tolerability of cyclosporine A in combination with dasatinib in adults with Bcr-Abl+ chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase, or when used in specified patients with accelerated phase CML.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To assess pharmacokinetic parameters of dasatinib when combined with cyclosporine.. II. To assess whether the combination of dasatinib and cyclosporine alters T cell number and function.. III. To assess the feasibility of determining phosphorylation of Src in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by flow cytometry as a surrogate measure of dasatinib activity.. OUTLINE:. Patients receive dasatinib orally (PO) once daily (QD) on days 1-28 and cyclosporine PO twice daily (BID) on days 8-28. Treatment repeats every 28 days for 4 months in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.. Patients undergo peripheral blood sample collection at baseline and periodically during treatment for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic ...
Health claims database study of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion treatment patterns in dry eye patients Karl G Stonecipher,1 Jenny Chia,2 Ahunna Onyenwenyi,2 Linda Villanueva,2 David A Hollander2 1TLC Laser Eye Centers, Greensboro, NC, 2Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA Background: Dry eye is a multifactorial, symptomatic disease associated with ocular surface inflammation and tear film hyperosmolarity. This study was designed to assess patterns of topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis®) use in dry eye patients and determine if there were any differences in use based on whether dry eye is physician-coded as a primary or nonprimary diagnosis. Methods: Records for adult patients with a diagnosis of dry eye at an outpatient visit from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009 were selected from Truven Health MarketScan® Research Databases. The primary endpoint was percentage of patients with at least one primary versus no primary dry eye diagnosis who filled a topical cyclosporine
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclosporine induces cancer progression by a cell-autonomous mechanism. AU - Hojo, Minoru. AU - Morimoto, Takashi. AU - Maluccio, Mary. AU - Asano, Tomohiko. AU - Morimoto, Kengo. AU - Lagman, Milagros. AU - Shimbo, Toshikazu. AU - Suthanthiran, Manikkam. PY - 1999/2/11. Y1 - 1999/2/11. N2 - Malignancy is a common and dreaded complication following organ transplantation. The high incidence of neoplasm and its aggressive progression, which are associated with immunosuppressive therapy, are thought to be due to the resulting impairment of the organ recipients immune- surveillance system. Here we report a mechanism for the heightened malignancy that is independent of host immunity. We show that cyclosporine (cyclosporin A), an immunosuppressant that has had a major impact on improving patient outcome following organ transplantation, induces phenotypic changes, including invasiveness of non-transformed cells, by a cell-autonomous mechanism. Our studies show that cyclosporine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combined cyclosporine-A and methylprednisolone treatment exerts partial and transient neuroprotection against ischemic stroke. AU - Yu, Guolong. AU - Hess, David C.. AU - Borlongan, Cesario V.. PY - 2004/8/20. Y1 - 2004/8/20. N2 - We investigated the neuroprotective effects of immunosuppressant cyclosporine-A (CsA) and the anti-inflammatory methylprednisolone (MP) in a stroke model. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion then were randomly treated with either: low dose CsA, MP, low dose CsA plus MP, high dose CsA, or vehicle. Ischemic animals that received low dose CsA, MP or vehicle displayed profound motor and neurological impairments at days 1-3 after stroke. In contrast, ischemic animals that received high dose CsA exhibited near normal motor and neurological functions throughout the test period. Of note, ischemic animals that received low dose CsA plus MP showed significantly less motor and neurological deficits at day 1, but thereafter ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute cyclosporine renal dysfunction reversed by dopamine infusion in healthy subjects. AU - Conte, G.. AU - Dal Canton, A.. AU - Sabbatini, M.. AU - Napodano, P.. AU - De Nicola, L.. AU - Gigliotti, G.. AU - Fuiano, G.. AU - Testa, A.. AU - Esposito, C.. AU - Russo, D.. AU - Andreucci, V. E.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Up to now, no studies have been performed in normal humans to investigate the role of renal hemodynamic abnormalities in relation to acute-cyclosporin A (CsA) renal dysfunction and to verify whether the specific renal vasodilator, dopamine, can counteract these abnormalities. Eight normal subjects were examined both (A) after oral CsA (12 mg/kg body wt) and (B) after oral CsA + dopamine infusion (2 mg/kg body wt/min), under water diuresis. Both in protocols A and in B, four basal renal clearances were performed before CsA and every twenty minutes for four hours after CsA administration. In protocol A, after CsA, insulin (GFR) and PAH clearance (RPF) fell by up to ...
Belatacept (Nulojix) appears to have better outcomes as compared to cyclosporine in preventing graft rejection in kidney transplant patients.
CsA-treated animals showed a significant reduction in hepatic tissue abundance of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase. This enzyme is the rate-limiting step in cholesterol conversion to bile acid, which is the principal pathway of cholesterol catabolism. Therefore, its down-regulation by CsA therapy can potentially contribute to elevation of cholesterol level. In an earlier study, Princen et al. (1991)demonstrated that CsA blocks bile acid synthesis by cultured hepatocytes in vitro. Down-regulation of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase shown in the CsA-treated animals here provides the molecular basis of the in vitro studies by Princen et al. (1991). Intracellular concentration of free cholesterol exerts a direct regulatory role on hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase expression in the liver (Russell and Setchell, 1992). Down-regulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase found in our CsA-treated animals may be due to depressed intracellular free cholesterol concentration noted in these animals.. In contrast ...
Background Renal transplantation is associated with an increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the data in the placebo arm of Assessment of Lescol in Renal Transplantation (ALERT) to improve our understanding of the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in this unique population. Methods: We performed Cox survival analysis for myocardial infarction, cardiac death, and noncardiac death in 1,052 patients recruited to the placebo arm of ALERT. These subjects were aged 30 to 75 years, had stable graft function at least 6 months after transplantation, had a serum total cholesterol level between 155 and 348 mg/dL (4 and 9 mmol/L), and were receiving cyclosporine-based immunosuppression. Results: The results confirm previous studies. In multivarlate analysis, preexisting coronary heart disease (hazard ratio [HR], 3.69, P < 0.001), total cholesterol level (HR, 1.55 per 50 mg/dL, P = 0.0045), and prior acute rejection (HR, 2.36, P = 0.0023) were ...
Tumor angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer, and plays a critical role in tumor growth, expansion, and metastasis. Both physiological and pathological angiogenesis is assumed to be regulated by the balance between pro and anti-angiogenic factors. One of the best characterized and most potent pro-angiogenic regulators is vascular endothelial growth factor, or VEGF. Calcineurin signaling is an important mediator of VEGF signaling in endothelial cells. Negative regulation of calcineurin by increased expression of its endogenous inhibitor, Down Syndrome Candidate Region-1 (DSCR1), suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis. However, a potent pharmacological calcineurin inhibitor, the commonly used immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA), significantly increases the incidence of cancer in organ transplant recipients. The mechanism by which CsA promotes cancer in this patient population is not well understood and despite the significance of calcineurin signaling in endothelial cells, the consequences of CsA on
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Unknown dose regimes are typically assessed on animals prior to clinical trials. Recent advances in the evaluation of new leads efficacy have been achieved by pharmacokinetic modeling. Further improvements, including determination of the drugs mechanism of action and organism biodistribution, require an effective methodology for solving parameter estimation challenges. This article solves the problem of rigorously estimating unknown biochemical reaction and transport parameters from in vivo datasets and identifying whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models.A rat blood circulation model was combined with biotransport, biochemical reactions and metabolism of the immunosuppressant Cyclosporin. We demonstrate the proposed methodology on a case study in Sprague-Dawley rats by bolus iv injections of 1.2, 6 and 30. mg/kg. Key pharmacokinetic parameters were determined, including renal and hepatic clearances, elimination half-life, and mass transfer coefficients, to establish drug ...
Cyclosporine has been used in more serious immune-mediated diseases (see below) but the most recent application of cyclosporine involves the treatment of atopic dermatitis (itchy skin due to airborne allergens).
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treatment in April, 2014 and stayed on a full dose of cyclosporine for 7 months, at which point he started to taper off this drug. This process took 6 months, so his cyclosporine treatment lasted 13 months. Within a few months, the .... Patient Chronicle last updated 12/15/2016 - 11:21am.. ...
In this study, we have examined the behavior of neural stem and progenitor cells in response to cyclosporin A using both in vitro and in vivo models. Using pure populations of NPCs we established that cyclosporin A has direct effects on NPCs; specifically enhancing cell survival and decreasing cell-cell adhesion. Moreover, the direct effects of cyclosporin A on NPC survival are independent of the interleukin-2 pathway. The enhanced cell survival was not selective for a particular lineage as the differentiation profiles of the cells were similar in the presence or absence of cyclosporin A. Interestingly, we found that cyclosporin A administration to uninjured animals could increase the numbers of neural stem cells and their progeny, which suggests that intracellular targets of cyclosporin A may provide novel therapeutic targets for acting on endogenous progenitor cells in the development of regenerative strategies.. There are multiple intracellular pathways that cyclosporin A can play a role in ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors on hyperglycemia and blood cyclosporine levels in renal transplant patients with diabetes. T2 - A pilot study. AU - Bae, Jaehyun. AU - Lee, Min Jung. AU - Choe, Eun Yeong. AU - Jung, Chang Hee. AU - Wang, Hye Jin. AU - Kim, Myoung Soo. AU - Kim, Yu Seun. AU - Park, Joong Yeol. AU - Kang, Eun Seok. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - Background: The use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors is increasing among renal transplant patients with diabetes. However, the glucose-lowering efficacies of various DPP-4 inhibitors and their effects on blood cyclosporine levels have not been fully investigated. We compared the glucose-lowering efficacies of DPP 4 inhibitors and evaluate their effects on the blood levels of cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients with diabetes. Methods: Sixty-five renal allograft recipients who received treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors (vildagliptin, sitagliptin, or linagliptin) following kidney transplant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term treatment of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children with cyclosporine given as a single daily dose. AU - Chishti, Aftab S.. AU - Sorof, Jonathan M.. AU - Brewer, Eileen D.. AU - Kale, Arundhati S. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Cyclosporine (CsA) has been successfully used for treatment of children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and nephrotic syndrome (NS) for the last decade. Response rates of 50% to 100% have been reported using twice-daily dosing of 5 to 32 mg/kg/d, achieving trough blood levels of 70 to 500 ng/mL. Treatment has been associated with a high incidence of side effects, including nephrotoxicity, hypertension, gingival hyperplasia, and hirsutism. To determine whether once-daily low-dose CsA could minimize side effects and still induce remission, 21 children with biopsy-proven FSGS and NS, each treated with CsA, 4.6±0.8 mg/kg/d, with no predetermined target trough blood levels, were studied. Eleven of 21 children (52%) attained ...
OBJECTIVE: The immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CsA) has contributed to the success of organ and bone marrow transplantation. CsA-related neurotoxicity is a well-known occurrence. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) due to initiation of CsA treatment is an extremely rare finding. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 32-year-old man who had undergone technically uneventful cadaveric renal transplantation for focal glomerulosclerosis when 25 years old was evaluated as the result of a 10-month history of bilateral hearing loss. The patient had been taking only CsA (150 mg twice daily) and methylprednisolone. RESULTS: Progressive bilateral SNHL was confirmed by an audiological examination. Eight months after dose reduction of CsA, pure-tone audiometry excluded progression of hearing loss. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, only rare cases of CsA-related hearing loss have been reported, and none after long-term CsA treatment. Audiological findings confirmed the cochlear origin of SNHL in our patient. ...
Cyclosporine Herpetiformis Impetigo Psoriasis Pustular, psoriasis. Hazarika D: Generalized pustular psoriasis of pregnancy successfully treated with cyclosporine. Impetigo herpetiformis (IH) is a rare pustular form of psoriasis in pregnancy, associated with constitutional symptoms and complications of secondary infection and sepsis and an increased risk of fetal abnormalities and stillbirths. In this article we emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment to minimize maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity and considering other therapeutic options like dapsone and cyclosporine as alternative treatment options for IH in case of poor response to corticosteroids. Generalized pustular psoriasis of pregnancy successfully treated with cyclosporine. Successful Treatment of Impetigo Herpetiformis With Oral Cyclosporine During Pregnancy. Clinically and histologically, it bears some resemblance to pustular psoriasis, and the two conditions are discussed within the same entity. Hazarika D. ...
Mitochondrial Permeability Transition (MPT) is reported as the mechanism of acetaminophen induced hepatic damage, however, rat models are resistant to acetaminophen induced toxicity. The occurrence and degree of mitochondrial permeability transition after treatment with 400 mg kgG1 of acetaminophen in albino Wistar rats were assessed. Animals were randomly distributed into seven groups; control, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h based on varying time (in hour) post acetaminophen prior to sacrifice after treatment. Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability Transition (MMPT) pore opening and mitochondrial cytochrome c release were estimated. Opening of MMPT pore and cytochrome c release were observed in 12, 24, 36 and 72 h, when compared with the control group. Liver function and histological results indicated no liver damage. It is concluded that toxic dose of acetaminophen induced mitochondrial permeability transition in rat hepatic tissues without leading to necrotic damage suggesting that rat hepatic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term outcome after implantation of a suprachoroidal cyclosporine drug delivery device in horses with recurrent uveitis. AU - Gilger, Brian C.. AU - Wilkie, David A.. AU - Clode, Allison B.. AU - McMullen, Richard J.. AU - Utter, Mary. AU - Komaromy, Andras M.. AU - Brooks, Dennis E.. AU - Salmon, Jacklin H.. PY - 2010/9/1. Y1 - 2010/9/1. N2 - Objective: To determine the long-term efficacy, complications, and duration of effect of a cyclosporine (CsA) suprachoroidal implant (CSI) in horses with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU). Methods: Horses with ERU were treated with a 6-mm diameter, 25 mg, reservoir matrix CsA implant in the deep sclera adjacent to the suprachoroidal space. Horses with follow-up ,1 year were examined for frequency of uveitis episodes, complications, and vision at last recheck. Results: Data from 151 eyes of 133 horses from the USA and Europe that had CsA devices implanted for ERU were reviewed. Follow-up time ranged from 13 to 85 months after surgery, with ...
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Aim: Induction and maintenance immunosuppression regimens in intestinal transplant widely vary among centers. The aim of this study was to investigate an association between immunosuppression regimens and transplant outcomes.. Methods: We examined adult and pediatric patients who underwent primary intestinal/multivisceral transplant between January 1, 2001 and March 31, 2017 by using the United Network Organ Sharing registry. Intestine transplant without liver graft group and intestine and liver transplant group were separately analyzed. Patients were categorized based on immunosuppression regimens. Induction regimen groups included none, anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) with or without rituximab, basiliximab, and alemtuzumab. Additional maintenance agent groups included none, mycophenolic acid, and sirolimus/everlolimus (mTOR-i). Graft and patient survival, death associated with infection, and incidence of acute rejection were evaluated using Cox and logistic multivariable analyses. Risks were ...
Ciclosporin[edit]. Main article: Ciclosporin. Like tacrolimus, ciclosporin (Novartis' Sandimmune) is a calcineurin inhibitor ( ... Ciclosporin is used in the treatment of acute rejection reactions, but has been increasingly substituted with newer, and less ... Contrary to ciclosporin and tacrolimus, drugs that affect the first phase of T lymphocyte activation, sirolimus affects the ... Ciclosporin is thought to bind to the cytosolic protein cyclophilin (an immunophilin) of immunocompetent lymphocytes, ...
Sandimmune/Neoral (ciclosporin). Prevention of transplant rejection. 821. 2012[83]. −9%. Sandostatin (octreotide). Acromegaly. ... ciclosporin (Neoral/Sandimmun), letrozole (Femara), methylphenidate (Ritalin), terbinafine (Lamisil), and others. ...
Oral cyclosporine may be used. Corticosteroids (e.g. prednisone) are used only if pruritus is a major clinical feature. ... For some breeds, cyclosporine or corticosteroids and immunosuppressant drugs may be effective, and it is postulated, through ...
Topical ciclosporin is sometimes used. Dapsone is sometimes used as a steroid sparing agent. The dose is often increased very ...
As in humans, it may be seen as a side effect to the use of ciclosporin. Newman MG, Takei HH, Klokkevold PR, Carranza FA, eds ... cyclosporine, an immunosuppresant. Of all cases of DIGO, about 50% are attributed to phenytoin, 30% to cyclosporins and the ... Guaguère E, Steffan J, Olivry T (2004). "Cyclosporin A: a new drug in the field of canine dermatology". Vet Dermatol. 15 (2): ... Butler RT, Kalkwarf KL (1987). "Drug-induced gingival hyperplasia: phenytoin, cyclosporine, and nifedipine". JADA (114): 56. ...
ciclosporin (Cyclosporin A). calcineurin inhibitor. unknown. D-penicillamine (seldom used today). Reducing numbers of T- ...
The first drug marketed as a SMEDDS was cyclosporin, and it had significantly improved bioavailability compared with the ... Postolache P; Petrescu O; Dorneanu V; Zanini AC (2002). "Cyclosporine bioavailability of two physically different oral ...
Also like ciclosporin, it has a wide range of interactions. Tacrolimus is primarily metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system ... Although this activity is similar to that of ciclosporin, the incidence of acute rejection is reduced by tacrolimus use over ... "Cyclosporin versus Tacrolimus for Liver Transplanted Patients". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4 (CD005161): CD005161 ... Clinical outcome is better with tacrolimus than with ciclosporin during the first year of liver transplantation. Long-term ...
Establishing the clinical utility of ciclosporin[6] (cyclosporine) in 1982, and tacrolimus in 1991, both leading to FDA ... Developed the clinical applications of cyclosporin. Contributed to the field of immunosuppression. ... "Liver transplantation with use of cyclosporin a and prednisone". N. Engl. J. Med. 305 (5): 266-9. doi:10.1056/ ...
Topical Cyclosporine is reserved for unresponsive cases.[citation needed] Systemic therapy- Oral antihistamines and oral ...
... until ciclosporin was introduced into clinical practice (by Calne as well) in 1978. Ciclosporin has now replaced some of the ... and cyclosporine (ciclosporin) as adjuvant drugs in pemphigus vulgaris". American journal of clinical dermatology. 8 (2): 85-92 ... Henry, M. L.; Sommer, B. G.; Ferguson, R. M. (1985). "Beneficial effects of cyclosporine compared with azathioprine in ... 1993). "Low-dose allopurinol plus azathioprine/cyclosporin/prednisolone, a novel immunosuppressive regimen". Lancet. 342 (8863 ...
Standard prophylaxis involves the use of cyclosporine for six months with methotrexate. Cyclosporin levels should be maintained ... Cyclosporin binds to the cytosolic protein Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A (known as cyclophilin), while tacrolimus binds ... cyclosporin and tacrolimus are common drugs used for GVHD prophylaxis.[citation needed] Graft-versus-host-disease can largely ... Cyclosporine and tacrolimus are inhibitors of calcineurin. Both substances are structurally different but have the same ...
... mycophenolate mofetil and ciclosporin; tacrolimus; thalidomide; infliximab; or plasmapheresis. There is currently a phase III ... for disseminated or localized instances of pyoderma gangrenosum is systemic treatment by corticosteroids and ciclosporin. ...
People taking cyclosporine or glyburide cannot also be prescribed bosentan. In addition to the risk of causing birth defects ...
Moderate: cyclosporine-risk of high blood pressure may be greater in combination with EPO. EPO may lead to variability in blood ... levels of cyclosporine.. *Minor: ACE inhibitors may interfere with hematopoiesis by decreasing the synthesis of endogenous ...
Encephalitis Meningitis Adamo F, O'Brien R (2004). "Use of cyclosporine to treat granulomatous meningoencephalitis in three ... typically cytosine arabinoside and/or cyclosporine or other medications such as azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, or procarbazine ...
S01XA18 Ciclosporin. S01XA20 Artificial tears and other indifferent preparations. QS01XA91 Pirenoxin. 각주[편집]. *↑ "ATC Index". ...
"Pharmacology and side effects of cyclosporine and tacrolimus". UpToDate. 2014-04-10. Bannai H, Lévi S, Schweizer C, Inoue T, ... Calcineurin is the target of a class of drugs called calcineurin inhibitors, which includes cyclosporin, voclosporin, ...
Minkov, M.; Grois, N.; Broadbent, V.; Ceci, A.; Jakobson, A.; Ladisch, S. (1 November 1999). "Cyclosporine A therapy for ...
Cyclosporine A is a current topic of research; preliminary results have shown it to be effective. Children with DOCK8 ...
TS was first described in a 1995 case report as "ciclosporin-induced folliculodystrophy", thought at the time to be an adverse ... A new cyclosporin side-effect]". Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete. 46 (12): 841-6 ... pilomatrix dysplasia and ciclosporin-induced folliculodystrophy, although the last is a misnomer) is a rare cutaneous condition ... effect of ciclosporin treatment. A subsequent report in 1999, which introduced the term "trichodysplasia spinulosa", used ...
A study of two cases in 2001 suggests that the rash responds to oral ciclosporin. Initial treatment with oral and topical ... doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1957.tb13235.x. Bowers PW, Julian CG., PW; Julian, CG (2001). "Dogger Bank Itch and cyclosporin". ...
Oral medications may include hydroxychloroquine, doxycycline, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, or corticosteroids. Topical ...
Frequent relapses treated by: cyclophosphamide or nitrogen mustard or ciclosporin or levamisole. Patients can respond to ...
These immunosuppressive drugs include methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine or azathioprine. In some cases, combinations ...
With cyclosporine the lesions cleared in 10-14 days, but new lesions appeared. The patient gave birth to a healthy baby in the ... "Generalized Pustular Psoriasis of Pregnancy Successfully Treated with Cyclosporine." Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology ... "Generalized pustular psoriasis of pregnancy successfully treated with cyclosporine" in Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. As ... Methotrexate PUVA Hydroxyurea Dapsone Systemic corticosteroids Cyclosporin A Adalimumab Etretinate Isotretinoin (Accutane) ...

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