Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.

D-cycloserine increases positive symptoms in chronic schizophrenic patients when administered in addition to antipsychotics: a double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study. (1/293)

A hypofunction of the glutamatergic system and NMDA receptors in schizophrenia has been hypothesized. Therefore, stimulation of these receptors could be of benefit to patients with schizophrenia. D-cycloserine has been used for this purpose. This study reports the effects of 100 mg D-cycloserine, when added to typical antipsychotics in chronic schizophrenic patients exhibiting prominent negative symptoms, using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel, design. D-cycloserine slightly worsened psychotic symptoms and general psychopathology as compared to placebo. D-cycloserine failed to change negative symptoms and had no effect on extrapyramidal symptoms. The exacerbation of schizophrenic symptoms may be explained by the antagonistic effects of this dose of D-cycloserine at the glycine recognition site of the NMDA receptor due to competition with the endogenous agonist glycine. Another explanation for the increase in psychopathology may be an interaction with the effects of antipsychotics on NMDA mediated neurotransmission. Thus, D-cycloserine in this study did not ameliorate schizophrenic symptoms. However, the fact that they actually worsened suggests that NMDA systems may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Further placebo-controlled studies with lower dosages of D-cycloserine, preferably in drug-free patients, are necessary to evaluate if D-cycloserine is of use for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.  (+info)

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonists modulate homocysteine-induced developmental abnormalities. (2/293)

We showed previously that the induction of neural crest (NC) and neural tube (NT) defects is a general property of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists. Since homocysteine induces NC and NT defects and can also act as an NMDAR antagonist, we hypothesized that the mechanism of homocysteine-induced developmental defects is mediated by competitive inhibition of the NMDAR by homocysteine. If this hypothesis is correct, homocysteine-induced defects will be reduced by NMDAR agonists. To test the hypothesis, we treated chicken embryos during the process of neural tube closure with sufficient homocysteine thiolactone to induce NC and NT defects in approximately 40% of survivors or with homocysteine thiolactone in combination with each of a selected set of NMDAR agonists in 0. 05-5000 nmol doses. Glutamate site agonists selected were L-glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate. Glycine site agonists were glycine, D-cycloserine, and aminocyclopropane-carboxylic acid. Glycine was the most effective overall, reducing defects significantly at two different doses (each P>0.001). These results support the hypothesis that homocysteine may affect NC and NT development by its ability to inhibit the NMDAR. One potentially important consequence of this putative mechanism is that homocysteine may interact synergistically with other NMDAR antagonists to enhance its effect on development.  (+info)

Flavone acetic acid induces a G2/M cell cycle arrest in mammary carcinoma cells. (3/293)

Flavone acetic acid (FAA) is a synthetic flavonoid that demonstrated extraordinary anti-tumour properties in murine models but was not effective in clinical trials. In an effort to better understand the molecular mechanisms by which FAA asserts its tumouricidal activities, we have examined the effect of FAA on the cell cycle. We observed FAA-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest in mammary carcinoma cells at a concentration previously demonstrated to have anti-tumour effects in rodent models. The cell cycle arrest was accompanied by an increase in the P34cdc2 (cdc2) cyclin-dependent kinase activity. Morphological cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a colcemid-like effect of FAA on cytokinesis by causing accumulation of condensed C-metaphases of a sustained mitotic block. The cell cycle effect was blocked by the antioxidants ADPC and ascorbate, the superoxide scavenger Tiron, and the sphingosine kinase inhibitor L-cycloserine, but not by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase. Based on these data, we propose that FAA may induce cell cycle arrest by stimulating the activity of acidic sphingomyelinase leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species.  (+info)

Induction of beta-lactamase influences the course of development in Myxococcus xanthus. (4/293)

Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative bacterium that develops in response to starvation on a solid surface. The cells assemble into multicellular aggregates in which they differentiate from rod-shaped cells into spherical, environmentally resistant spores. Previously, we have shown that the induction of beta-lactamase is associated with starvation-independent sporulation in liquid culture (K. A. O'Connor and D. R. Zusman, Mol. Microbiol. 24:839-850, 1997). In this paper, we show that the chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase of M. xanthus is autogenously induced during development. The specific activity of the enzyme begins to increase during aggregation, before spores are detectable. The addition of inducers of beta-lactamase in M. xanthus, such as ampicillin, D-cycloserine, and phosphomycin, accelerates the onset of aggregation and sporulation in developing populations of cells. In addition, the exogenous induction of beta-lactamase allows M. xanthus to fruit on media containing concentrations of nutrients that are normally too high to support development. We propose that the induction of beta-lactamase is an integral step in the development of M. xanthus and that this induction is likely to play a role in aggregation and in the restructuring of peptidoglycan which occurs during the differentiation of spores. In support of this hypothesis, we show that exogenous induction of beta-lactamase can rescue aggregation and sporulation of certain mutants. Fruiting body spores from a rescued mutant are indistinguishable from wild-type fruiting body spores when examined by transmission electron microscopy. These results show that the signal transduction pathway leading to the induction of beta-lactamase plays an important role in aggregation and sporulation in M. xanthus.  (+info)

Beta-cyanoalanine synthase: purification and characterization. (5/293)

Beta-cyano-L-alanine synthase [L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (adding HCN), EC 4.4.1.9] was purified about 4000-fold from blue lupine seedlings. The enzyme was homoegeneous on gel electrophoresis and free of contamination by other pyridoxal-P-dependent lyases. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 52,000 and contains 1 mole of pyridoxal-P per mole of protein; its isoelectric point is situated at pH 4.7. Its absorption spectrum has two maxima, at 280 and 410 nm. L-Cysteine is the natural primary (amino acid) substrate; beta-chloro- and beta-thiocyano can serve (with considerably lower affinity) instead of cyanide as cosubstrates for cyanoalanine synthase. The synthase is refractory to DL-cycloserine and D-penicillamine, potent inhibitors of many pyridoxal-P-dependent enzymes. Cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes slow isotopic alpha-H exchange in cysteine and in end-product amino acids; the rates of alpha-H exchange in nonreacted (excess) cysteine are markedly increased in the presence of an adequate cosubstrate; no exchange is observed of H atoms in beta-position.  (+info)

A possible involvement of ion transporter in tumor necrosis factor alpha and cycloheximide-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells. (6/293)

We examined the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells from the standpoint of ion channels. Cultured vascular endothelial cells from bovine carotid artery were used. Apoptosis was determined by a propidium iodide assay. Treatment of the endothelial cells with TNFalpha and cycloheximide for 6 h induced nuclear fragmentation in a TNFalpha dose-dependent manner (1-10 ng/ml). Concomitant treatment of endothelial cells with TNFalpha at a dose of 10 ng/ml and cycloheximide at a dose of 10 microg/ml elicited endothelial cell apoptosis as high as 23.4+/-4.1% at 6 h after administration. However, 10 ng/ml TNFalpha alone elicited a little apoptosis at 6 h after its administration (% apoptosis=4.1+/-0.8%). Cycloheximide (10 microg/ml) did not induce apoptosis at all. Concomitant treatment of endothelial cells with 1 mmol/l of 4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid, which is a chloride bicarbonate exchanger blocker, partially inhibited the TNFalpha and cycloheximide-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. On the other hand, endothelial cell apoptosis due to TNFalpha and cycloheximide was completely inhibited by benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp-CH2OC(O)-2,6-dichlorobenzene (50 micromol/l), an inhibitor of caspase. Moreover, pyrrolidine dithiocarbanate, an inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), also suppressed endothelial cell apoptosis induced by TNFalpha and cycloheximide completely. These findings suggest that the endothelial cell apoptosis induced by TNFalpha and cycloheximide is closely related to not only chloride ions, but also both NF-kappaB and caspase activation. That is to say, there is a possibility that chloride ions or bicarbonate (pH) may play an important role in signal transduction such as NF-kappaB and caspase activation in the apoptosis induced by TNFalpha and cycloheximide.  (+info)

Characterization of a Mycobacterium smegmatis mutant that is simultaneously resistant to D-cycloserine and vancomycin. (7/293)

A mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis has been isolated that is simultaneously resistant to both D-cycloserine (D-CS) and vancomycin. Genetic complementation with a PBP4 homolog restores sensitivity to both drugs. Resistance to D-CS and vancomycin in this mutant is most likely due to a novel mechanism involving peptidoglycan assembly at the cell surface.  (+info)

Intracellular modulation of NMDA receptor function by antipsychotic drugs. (8/293)

The present study deals with the functional interaction of antipsychotic drugs and NMDA receptors. We show that both the conventional antipsychotic drug haloperidol and the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine mediate gene expression via intracellular regulation of NMDA receptors, albeit to different extents. Data obtained in primary striatal culture demonstrate that the intraneuronal signal transduction pathway activated by haloperidol, the cAMP pathway, leads to phosphorylation of the NR1 subtype of the NMDA receptor at (897)Ser. Haloperidol treatment is likewise shown to increase (897)Ser-NR1 phosphorylation in rats in vivo. Mutation of (896)Ser and (897)Ser to alanine, which prevents phosphorylation at both sites, inhibits cAMP-mediated gene expression. We conclude that antipsychotic drugs have the ability to modulate NMDA receptor function by an intraneuronal signal transduction mechanism. This facilitation of NMDA activity is necessary for antipsychotic drug-mediated gene expression and may contribute to the therapeutic benefits as well as side effects of antipsychotic drug treatment.  (+info)

Cycloserine is an antibiotic medication used to treat tuberculosis (TB) that is resistant to other antibiotics. It works by killing or inhibiting the growth of the bacteria that cause TB. Cycloserine is a second-line drug, which means it is used when first-line treatments have failed or are not effective.

The medical definition of Cycloserine is:

A bacteriostatic antibiotic derived from Streptomyces orchidaceus that inhibits gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by interfering with peptidoglycan synthesis in the bacterial cell wall. It has been used to treat tuberculosis, but its use is limited due to its adverse effects, including neurotoxicity, which can manifest as seizures, dizziness, and confusion. Cycloserine is also used in the treatment of urinary tract infections and other bacterial infections that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is available in oral form and is typically taken two to four times a day.

Antitubercular agents, also known as anti-tuberculosis drugs or simply TB drugs, are a category of medications specifically used for the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These drugs target various stages of the bacteria's growth and replication process to eradicate it from the body or prevent its spread.

There are several first-line antitubercular agents, including:

1. Isoniazid (INH): This is a bactericidal drug that inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acids, essential components of the mycobacterial cell wall. It is primarily active against actively growing bacilli.
2. Rifampin (RIF) or Rifampicin: A bactericidal drug that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, preventing the transcription of genetic information into mRNA. This results in the interruption of protein synthesis and ultimately leads to the death of the bacteria.
3. Ethambutol (EMB): A bacteriostatic drug that inhibits the arabinosyl transferase enzyme, which is responsible for the synthesis of arabinan, a crucial component of the mycobacterial cell wall. It is primarily active against actively growing bacilli.
4. Pyrazinamide (PZA): A bactericidal drug that inhibits the synthesis of fatty acids and mycolic acids in the mycobacterial cell wall, particularly under acidic conditions. PZA is most effective during the initial phase of treatment when the bacteria are in a dormant or slow-growing state.

These first-line antitubercular agents are often used together in a combination therapy to ensure complete eradication of the bacteria and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains. Treatment duration typically lasts for at least six months, with the initial phase consisting of daily doses of INH, RIF, EMB, and PZA for two months, followed by a continuation phase of INH and RIF for four months.

Second-line antitubercular agents are used when patients have drug-resistant TB or cannot tolerate first-line drugs. These include drugs like aminoglycosides (e.g., streptomycin, amikacin), fluoroquinolones (e.g., ofloxacin, moxifloxacin), and injectable bacteriostatic agents (e.g., capreomycin, ethionamide).

It is essential to closely monitor patients undergoing antitubercular therapy for potential side effects and ensure adherence to the treatment regimen to achieve optimal outcomes and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

'Mycobacterium tuberculosis' is a species of slow-growing, aerobic, gram-positive bacteria that demonstrates acid-fastness. It is the primary causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) in humans. This bacterium has a complex cell wall rich in lipids, including mycolic acids, which provides a hydrophobic barrier and makes it resistant to many conventional antibiotics. The ability of M. tuberculosis to survive within host macrophages and resist the immune response contributes to its pathogenicity and the difficulty in treating TB infections.

M. tuberculosis is typically transmitted through inhalation of infectious droplets containing the bacteria, which primarily targets the lungs but can spread to other parts of the body (extrapulmonary TB). The infection may result in a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from latent TB infection (LTBI) to active disease. LTBI represents a dormant state where individuals are infected with M. tuberculosis but do not show symptoms and cannot transmit the bacteria. However, they remain at risk of developing active TB throughout their lifetime, especially if their immune system becomes compromised.

Effective prevention and control strategies for TB rely on early detection, treatment, and public health interventions to limit transmission. The current first-line treatments for drug-susceptible TB include a combination of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for at least six months. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis present significant challenges in TB control and require more complex treatment regimens.

Under mildly acidic conditions, cycloserine hydrolyzes to give hydroxylamine and D-serine. Cycloserine can be conceptualized as ... "Establishment of an in vitro D-cycloserine-synthesizing system by using O-ureido-L-serine synthase and D-cycloserine synthetase ... Cycloserine is similar in structure to the amino acid D-alanine and works by interfering with the formation of the bacteria's ... Cycloserine was discovered in 1954 from a type of Streptomyces. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential ...
D-cycloserine; L-aspartate; quinolinate, etc. Partial agonists : N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA); NRX-1074; 3,5-dibromo-L- ...
"Cycloserine/lurasidone - NeuroRx". adisinsight.springer.com. Retrieved 7 May 2017. "Deudextromethorphan". adisinsight.springer. ... Cycloserine/lurasidone (NRX-101; Cyclurad) - NMDA receptor glycine site partial agonist and AA combination - specifically under ...
His team also isolated the antibiotic cycloserine. In 1958 his Merck team determined the structure of coenzyme Q10. He later ...
Susceptible to ethambutol, ethionamide, kanamycin and cycloserine. Differential characteristics Antigenic structure: ...
Cycloserine is a second line drug against tuberculosis. Note that cycloserine, while technically an oxazolidone, has a ... The first ever used oxazolidinone was cycloserine (4-amino-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one), a second line drug against tuberculosis since ...
... produces actithiazic acid, virginiamycins and cycloserine. Streptomyces virginiae also produces monensin ...
When taken with cycloserine, seizures have been reported. High rates of hepatotoxicty have been reported when taken with ...
D-cycloserine is a chemical which enhances (agonist) the activity of the NMDA receptors. When used in rats, D-cycloserine was ... "Facilitation of Extinction of Conditioned Fear by D-Cycloserine. Implications for Psychotherapy". Current Directions in ...
Sensitive to compounds such as prothionamide, cycloserine, clarithromycin, gentamicin, amikacin. Resistant to compounds such as ...
It is a derivate of cycloserine and it is bacteriostatic. Galietti F, Giorgis GE, Oliaro A, Boaro D, Ardizzi A, Barberis S, ...
Effects of D-Cycloserine". Neuropsychopharmacology. 35 (10): 2134-2142. doi:10.1038/npp.2010.92. PMC 3055297. PMID 20592716. ...
It has been shown that a combination of acute dosing of d-cycloserine (DCS) with exposure therapy facilitates the effects of ... Hofmann SG, Pollack MH, Otto MW (2006). "Augmentation Treatment of Psychotherapy for Anxiety Disorders with D-Cycloserine". CNS ... March 2006). "Augmentation of exposure therapy with D-cycloserine for social anxiety disorder". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 63 (3): ...
Phosphinate and D-cycloserine are known to inhibit this enzyme. The N-terminal region of the D-alanine-D-alanine ligase is ...
Susceptible to some antibiotics, including streptomycin, ethambutol, cycloserine, ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin. Resistant ...
D-cycloserine has been linked to facilitating better results in exposure therapy. List of phobias Stephen Bouquet, the " ... "D-Cycloserine Augmentation of Exposure-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Posttraumatic ...
It's "resistant to ampicillin, penicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, and cycloserine, but not tetracycline." Six strains have ...
As of 2020, studies on the use of adjunct d-cycloserine are inconclusive. The majority of those that develop a specific phobia ... There are some findings suggesting that adjuvant use of the NMDA receptor partial agonist, d-cycloserine, with virtual reality ...
Karl August Folkers (1906-1997). American biochemist at Merck, known for work on the antibiotics cathomycin and cycloserine. ...
Hofmann has shown that d-cycloserine, a partial agonist of the glutamate receptor can augment extinction learning and speed up ... doi:10.1038/mp.2015.109 Hofmann, S. G. (2016). Schrödinger's cat and d-cycloserine to augment exposure therapy - both are dead ... Hofmann, Stefan (2016). "Schrödinger's cat and d-cycloserine to augment exposure therapy - both are dead and alive". JAMA ... ". "Cognitive Therapy and Research". Hofmann, Stefan G. (March 2014). "D-cycloserine for Treating Anxiety Disorders: Making ...
Examples include cycloserine, penicillin, and polymyxin B. "Antibiotics that affect the cell envelope". v t e (Articles with ...
"A Preliminary Study of D-Cycloserine Augmentation of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder". ...
... and L-cycloserine. Certain members of this class are used as anticonvulsants. Ciesielski, L.; Simler, S.; Gensburger, C.; ... "L-cycloserine: Behavioural and biochemical effects after single and repeated administration to mice, rats and cats". ...
The cells of the organisms are sensitive to chloramphenicol and insensitive to ampicillin, vancomycin, and cycloserine. It ...
At least two compounds, 3-Fluoro-D-alanine and D-Cycloserine are known to inhibit this enzyme. The D-alanine produced by ...
Use of oral contraceptives and treatment with certain anticonvulsants, isoniazid, cycloserine, penicillamine, and ...
... and cycloserine. Administration of quinolone antibiotics to a benzodiazepine-dependent individual can precipitate acute ...
In susceptibility tests the type strain was resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and cycloserine but susceptible to ...
Optimum growth at 30 °C and 37 °C. Resistant to isoniazid, cycloserine, capreomycin, pyrazinamide, and thiosemicarbazone Most ...
... cycloserine. The reason for maintaining the patient on INH is that INH is so potent in treating TB that it is foolish to omit ... and moxifloxacin with cycloserine. There is evidence that previous therapy with a drug for more than a month is associated with ... cycloserine/terizidone Group C: Other core second-line agents (ethambutol, delamanid, pyrazinamide, imipenem-cilastatin/ ...
Under mildly acidic conditions, cycloserine hydrolyzes to give hydroxylamine and D-serine. Cycloserine can be conceptualized as ... "Establishment of an in vitro D-cycloserine-synthesizing system by using O-ureido-L-serine synthase and D-cycloserine synthetase ... Cycloserine is similar in structure to the amino acid D-alanine and works by interfering with the formation of the bacterias ... Cycloserine was discovered in 1954 from a type of Streptomyces. It is on the World Health Organizations List of Essential ...
CYCLOSERINE (UNII: 95IK5KI84Z) (CYCLOSERINE - UNII:95IK5KI84Z) CYCLOSERINE. 250 mg in 250 mg. ... Cycloserine has a pH between 5.5 and 6.5 in a solution containing 100 mg/mL. The molecular weight of cycloserine is 102.09, and ... Acute toxicity from cycloserine can occur if more than 1 g is ingested by an adult. Chronic toxicity from cycloserine is dose ... Each capsule contains cycloserine, 250 mg (2.45 mmol); D and C Yellow No. 10, FD and C Blue No. 1, FD and C Red No. 3, FD and C ...
Medical information for Cycloserine on Pediatric Oncall including Mechanism, Indication, Contraindications, Dosing, Adverse ... Cycloserine. Mechanism : Cycloserine is an analog of the amino acid D-alanine. It interferes with an early step in bacterial ... Ethanol: May increase risk of cycloserine-assoc. CNS toxicity, seizures (additive toxicity). ...
We specialize in Innovative Organic Chemistry and Synthesis of Unique Complex Molecules, Stable Isotope Labelled compounds and Metabolites. ...
Cycloserine. Like ethionamide, cycloserine is a bacteriostatic antituberculosis agent that is useful in certain limited ... For this reason 150 mg/d of pyridoxine should be given with cycloserine. Cycloserine interferes with the elimination of ... Cycloserine. Capreomycin. Kanamycin. Thiacetazone. POTENTIALLY EFFECTIVE DRUGS THAT HAVE NOT BEEN WIDELY USED IN THE THERAPY OF ... There is not enough information to determine the risk of cycloserine or ethionamide; they should be avoided if possible. ...
Tuberculosis (TB) (see the image below), a multisystemic disease with myriad presentations and manifestations, is the most common cause of infectious disease-related mortality worldwide. Although TB rates are decreasing in the United States, the disease is becoming more common in many parts of the world.
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is one of the porphyrias, a group of diseases involving defects in heme metabolism and that results in excessive secretion of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors. AIP manifests itself by abdomen pain, neuropathies, and constipation, but, unlike most types of porphyria, patients with AIP do not have a rash.
Cycloserine. Cycloserine may interfere with calcium and magnesium absorption. The clinical significance of these interactions ... Cycloserine may interfere with the absorption and/or activity of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. The clinical ...
Reversible pellagra-like encephalopathy with ethionamide and cycloserine. Tubercle 1972;53:132. View abstract. ...
D-cycloserine, polymyxin B and incubation at 44°C inhibit the growth of background flora such as Gram-negative organisms and ...
Runner-up presentation competition: A single base pair mutation alters the susceptibility of the host to D- cycloserine ...
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is one of the porphyrias, a group of diseases involving defects in heme metabolism and that results in excessive secretion of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors. AIP manifests itself by abdomen pain, neuropathies, and constipation, but, unlike most types of porphyria, patients with AIP do not have a rash.
2009) D-cycloserine facilitation of fear extinction and exposure-based therapy might rely on lower-level, automatic mechanisms ...
45-50 oCa soğutulduktan sonra filtre ile sterilize edilmiş %5 konsantrasyondaki D-Cycloserine çözeltisinden 10 mL/L olacak ... TSC Agar besiyeri, Florojenik MUP ve D-Cycloserine karışımı olan TSC Agar katkısı ( Clostridium perfringens Supplement ; Merck ... Orth, D.S.: Comparison of sulfite-polymyxin-sulfadiazine medium and tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine medium without eggyolk for ... Sülfit indirgeyen Clostridium ların sayımı için yumurta sarısı ilavesi gerektiğinde; D-Cycloserine çözeltisine ilaveten 80 mL/ ...
Trajectories of change in difficult to treat adult patients receiving D-Cycloserine and concentrated Exposure and Response ...
"Cycloserine has been in the market for 30 to 40 years. It has always been susceptible to degradation, but the issue is of ... The cycloserine tablets analysed for the study were collected from DOT providers homes, many of whom could afford to store the ... Most of the drugs met the prescribed standards but the content of cycloserine in all the districts was a serious concern. This ... The study, undertaken by National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (NIRT), Chennai, found that the content of cycloserine ...
Cycloserine, a second-line TB drug, inhibits cell wall synthesis in susceptible strains of gram-positive and gram-negative ... Like all antituberculosis drugs, cycloserine should be administered in conjunction with other effective TB drugs and not as the ...
... cycloserine, doxycycline , ethionamide, gentamicin , imipenem/cilastatin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin , para-aminosalicylic acid ...
... and D-cycloserine (DCS), an antituberculosis agent and N-methyl-d-aspartate agonist that has been used to facilitate exposure- ...
AFB,susceptibility-Cycloserine - [Pure culture]. ₦9504. Rated 0 out of 5. Add to cart ...
Use of pyridoxine-inactivating drugs (eg, antiseizure drugs, isoniazid, cycloserine, hydralazine, corticosteroids, ...
... cycloserine (oral bacteriostatic second-line agent), and clofazimine and linezolid (agents with unclear efficacy), according to ... cycloserine (15 mg/kg once daily) and clofazimine (5 mg/kg once daily) (8). ...
Effects of scopolamine and D-cycloserine on non-spatial reference memory in rats. Behav Brain Res, 129 (1-2), 211-6. DOI ...
Cycloserine. Ethionamide. R. fabG1 c.-15C,T (1.00). Clofazimine. Para-aminosalicylic_acid. ...
  • Cycloserine clinical laboratory standard powder is available for both direct and indirect methods1 of determining the susceptibility of strains of mycobacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Cycloserine, sold under the brand name Seromycin, is a GABA transaminase inhibitor and an antibiotic, used to treat tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seromycin (Cycloserine Capsules, USP), 3-isoxazolidinone, 4-amino -, (R)- is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is produced by a strain of Streptomyces orchidaceus and has also been synthesized. (nih.gov)
  • For the treatment of tuberculosis, cycloserine is classified as a second-line drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, cycloserine is restricted for use only against multiple drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloserine inhibits cell-wall synthesis in susceptible strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (nih.gov)
  • The Committee added four new medicines to the complementary list of the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: bedaquiline, delamanid, linezolid and terizidone (as a specific alternative to cycloserine). (who.int)
  • The study, undertaken by National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (NIRT), Chennai, found that the content of cycloserine - a second-line anti-TB drug - was below the accepted standard set by the World Health organization in all eight of the districts surveyed, even as most other drugs met the prescribed norms. (tbonline.info)
  • On the 20th day of admission, therefore, rifampicin and ethambutol treatments of the girl were stopped, and anti-tuberculosis treatment was readjusted to high doses of isoniazid (15 mg/kg once daily), pyrazinamide (30 mg/kg/day), amikacin (15 mg/kg/day), levofloxacin (10 mg/kg twice daily), linezolid (10 mg/kg twice daily), cycloserine (15 mg/kg once daily) and clofazimine (5 mg/kg once daily) (8). (who.int)
  • Rather than admit people to the hospital, I used cycloserine , normally reserved for tuberculosis. (medscape.com)
  • Griffith, D.W.: Enumeration of faecal Clostridium perfringens spores in egg-yolk-free Tryptose-Sulfite-Cycloserine Agar. (mikrobiyoloji.org)
  • Orth, D.S.: Comparison of sulfite-polymyxin-sulfadiazine medium and tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine medium without eggyolk for recovering Clostridium perfringens. (mikrobiyoloji.org)
  • Cycloserine is similar in structure to the amino acid D-alanine and works by interfering with the formation of the bacteria's cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloserine is an analog of the amino acid D-alanine. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Overdose of cycloserine may result in paresis, seizures, and coma, while alcohol consumption may increase the risk of seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a cyclic analogue of D-alanine, cycloserine acts against two crucial enzymes important in the cytosolic stages of peptidoglycan synthesis: alanine racemase (Alr) and D-alanine:D-alanine ligase (Ddl). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the drugs met the prescribed standards but the content of cycloserine in all the districts was a serious concern. (tbonline.info)
  • Cycloserine was discovered in 1954 from a type of Streptomyces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 65 percent of a single dose of cycloserine can be recovered in the urine within 72 hours after oral administration. (nih.gov)
  • The cycloserine tablets analysed for the study were collected from DOT providers' homes, many of whom could afford to store the drug only at room temperature. (tbonline.info)
  • Cycloserine works as an antibiotic by inhibiting cell-wall biosynthesis in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • While some studies have suggested taking the NMDA partial agonist D-cycloserine before E/RP sessions may help to amplify CBT response, a study published yesterday in JAMA Psychiatry found D-cycloserine augmentation of CBT did not confer additional benefit relative to placebo among youth with OCD. (psychnews.org)
  • The researchers found that the D-cycloserine plus CBT group and placebo plus CBT group declined at similar rates per assessment point on the CY-BOCS total score (−2.31 and −2.03, respectively) and CGI-S (−0.29 and −0.23, respectively). (psychnews.org)
  • Cycloserine can be conceptualized as a cyclized version of serine, with an oxidative loss of dihydrogen to form the nitrogen-oxygen bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • För bästa upplevelsen rekommenderas en nyare version eller en annan webbläsare. (miclev.se)
  • Subjects received single doses of cycloserine 500 mg after a 12-hour fast (reference), with a high-fat meal, with orange juice, and with antacids. (medscape.com)
  • Limited information from an old study indicates that maternal doses of cycloserine of 1 gram daily produce moderate levels in milk. (nih.gov)
  • Cycloserine is a bacteriostatic antituberculosis agent used with other drugs to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. (medscape.com)
  • Like all antituberculosis drugs, cycloserine should be administered in conjunction with other effective chemotherapy and not as the sole therapeutic agent. (nih.gov)
  • Cycloserine is a broad spectrum antibiotic used as a second line agent for treatment of drug resistant tuberculosis, always in combination with other antituberculosis agents. (nih.gov)
  • Cycloserine was approved for use in the United States in 1964, but its use for most indications has been replaced by more modern antituberculosis agents except in instances of multidrug resistance or of intolerance to the more potent agents such as isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that a single injection of a low dose of D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA receptor agonist, in CHI mice 24 h post-injury, resulted in a faster and greater recovery of motor and memory functions as assessed by neurological severity score and object recognition tests, respectively. (huji.ac.il)
  • D-cycloserine binds to this N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Davis's team discovered that giving the rats just one dose of D-cycloserine just before these extinction training trials speeds up this safety learning process by making the NMDA receptor work better. (nih.gov)
  • 18. D-cycloserine reduces neuropathic pain behavior through limbic NMDA-mediated circuitry. (nih.gov)
  • Cycloserine is a d-alanine analogue of isoxazolidone that was isolated initially from Streptococcus orchidaceus and has moderate activity in vitro against mycobacterial species, probably acting by inhibition of mycobacterial use of amino acids and inhibition of cell wall synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Cycloserine, 3-isoxazolidinone, 4-amino -, (R)- is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is produced by a strain of Streptomyces orchidaceus and has also been synthesized. (nih.gov)
  • Cycloserine clinical laboratory standard powder is available for both direct and indirect methods1 of determining the susceptibility of strains of mycobacteria. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Medications that are known to affect glutamate levels (e.g., riluzole, memantine, C- cycloserine). (nih.gov)
  • When treated with the desipramine and L-cycloserine combination, ceramide levels were lowered, which helped preserve photoreceptors in mice. (nih.gov)
  • The team also observed improved daylight vision in the L-cycloserine treated mice, and that prolonged treatment significantly improved electrical responses of the primary visual cortex to visual stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • With NIMH grant support, Rothbaum and colleagues are currently testing a D-cycloserine-enhanced virtual reality-based exposure therapy for Iraq veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . (nih.gov)
  • Davis then teamed up with Emory's Kerry Ressler, M.D., Ph.D., and Rothbaum for a 2004 pilot study in which D-cycloserine was shown to augment exposure therapy in which people learned to conquer their fear of heights (acrophobia) during trips in a virtual glass elevator. (nih.gov)
  • Allergic reactions have been reported with cycloserine and, if severe, these may be accompanied by mild serum enzyme elevations. (nih.gov)
  • Critical parameters for d-cycloserine enhancement of cognitive-behaviorial therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. (nih.gov)
  • Cycloserine may be effective in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, especially Enterobacter spp. (nih.gov)
  • rarely, cycloserine causes more serious neurological side effects such as acute psychosis, seizures and coma. (nih.gov)
  • The toxicity of cycloserine is closely related to excessive blood levels (above 30 μg/mL), as determined by high dosage or inadequate renal clearance. (nih.gov)
  • Cycloserine blood levels are typically monitored during therapy and the product label recommends monitoring of blood counts, renal function and routine liver tests as well. (nih.gov)
  • After oral administration, cycloserine is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, with peak blood levels occurring in 4 to 8 hours. (nih.gov)
  • The team also found that a combination of desipramine and L-cycloserine reduced lowered ceramide levels, which protected photoreceptors, helped preserve the retina's structure and function, and improved vision. (nih.gov)
  • So far, D-cycloserine enhanced psychotherapy has been found effective for social phobia in two studies, and for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in two out of three studies, according to Rothbaum. (nih.gov)
  • D-cycloserine, is used to "specifically enhance the efficacy of the emotional learning process that takes place in psychotherapy and hopefully make these new emotional memories more robust and long-lasting," explained psychologist Barbara Rothbaum, Ph.D., an NIMH grantee at Emory University, in an editorial in the March 2008 issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry (AJP). (nih.gov)
  • Cycloserine is appears to have little or no hepatotoxic potential, but it is usually used in combination with agents that are known to be hepatotoxic, and its role in the reported cases of liver injury with combination therapy cannot always be excluded. (nih.gov)
  • Cycloserine is usually used in combination with agents that are more clearly linked to liver test abnormalities, and it generally plays little or no role in these abnormalities. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of food, acidic beverages, or antacids on the pharmaco-kinetics of cycloserine have not been evaluated in a crossover study. (medscape.com)
  • Administering cycloserine without a high-fat meal avoids potential alterations in the pattern of absorption. (medscape.com)