Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.
A very toxic alkylating antineoplastic agent also used as an insect sterilant. It causes skin, gastrointestinal, CNS, and bone marrow damage. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), thiotepa may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 11th ed).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
Administration of low doses of a drug or a drug combination over prolonged periods of time usually at a regular interval.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A multisystemic disease of a complex genetic background. It is characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels (VASCULITIS) leading to damage in any number of organs. The common features include granulomatous inflammation of the RESPIRATORY TRACT and kidneys. Most patients have measurable autoantibodies (ANTINEUTROPHIL CYTOPLASMIC ANTIBODIES) against neutrophil proteinase-3 (WEGENER AUTOANTIGEN).
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
Group of systemic vasculitis with a strong association with ANCA. The disorders are characterized by necrotizing inflammation of small and medium size vessels, with little or no immune-complex deposits in vessel walls.
An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
A primary systemic vasculitis of small- and some medium-sized vessels. It is characterized by a tropism for kidneys and lungs, positive association with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), and a paucity of immunoglobulin deposits in vessel walls.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.
A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.
A form of necrotizing non-granulomatous inflammation occurring primarily in medium-sized ARTERIES, often with microaneurysms. It is characterized by muscle, joint, and abdominal pain resulting from arterial infarction and scarring in affected organs. Polyarteritis nodosa with lung involvement is called CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.
An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.
Removal of the breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and associated skin and subcutaneous tissue.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.
Absence of menstruation.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.
Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by PHENOBARBITAL in both the LIVER and SMALL INTESTINE. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, TESTOSTERONE, and ANDROSTENEDIONE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP2B1 gene, also mediates the activation of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE and IFOSFAMIDE to MUTAGENS.
An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
A nitroimidazole that sensitizes normally radio-resistant hypoxic cells to radiation. It may also be directly cytotoxic to hypoxic cells and has been proposed as an antineoplastic.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Widespread necrotizing angiitis with granulomas. Pulmonary involvement is frequent. Asthma or other respiratory infection may precede evidence of vasculitis. Eosinophilia and lung involvement differentiate this disease from POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
A nitroimidazole that sensitizes hypoxic tumor cells that are normally resistant to radiation therapy.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)
An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Vinblastine derivative with antineoplastic activity against CANCER. Major side effects are myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Vindesine is used extensively in chemotherapy protocols (ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS).
A competitive serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist. It is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, and has reported anxiolytic and neuroleptic properties.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Rare mixed tumors of the brain and rarely the spinal cord which contain malignant neuroectodermal (glial) and mesenchymal components, including spindle-shaped fibrosarcoma cells. These tumors are highly aggressive and present primarily in adults as rapidly expanding mass lesions. They may arise in tissue that has been previously irradiated. (From Br J Neurosurg 1995 Apr;9(2):171-8)
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
4-Methyl derivative of LOMUSTINE; (CCNU). An antineoplastic agent which functions as an alkylating agent.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Irradiation of one half or both halves of the body in the treatment of disseminated cancer or widespread metastases. It is used to treat diffuse metastases in one session as opposed to multiple fields over an extended period. The more frequent treatment modalities are upper hemibody irradiation (UHBI) or lower hemibody irradiation (LHBI). Less common is mid-body irradiation (MBI). In the treatment of both halves of the body sequentially, hemibody irradiation permits radiotherapy of the whole body with larger doses of radiation than could be accomplished with WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION. It is sometimes called "systemic" hemibody irradiation with reference to its use in widespread cancer or metastases. (P. Rubin et al. Cancer, Vol 55, p2210, 1985)
Liver disease that is caused by injuries to the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessels and subendothelial EDEMA, but not by THROMBOSIS. Extracellular matrix, rich in FIBRONECTINS, is usually deposited around the HEPATIC VEINS leading to venous outflow occlusion and sinusoidal obstruction.
Dermatologic disorders attendant upon non-dermatologic disease or injury.
A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits (COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane.
A piperidinyl isoindole originally introduced as a non-barbiturate hypnotic, but withdrawn from the market due to teratogenic effects. It has been reintroduced and used for a number of immunological and inflammatory disorders. Thalidomide displays immunosuppressive and anti-angiogenic activity. It inhibits release of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA from monocytes, and modulates other cytokine action.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.

Electronic volume analysis of L1210 chemotherapy. (1/6756)

The rapid analysis of in vivo chemotherapy on the L1210 ascites tumor grown in C57BL/6 X DBA/2F1 mice has been shown by means of an electronic volume analysis. The drugs were injected on the 4th day of tumor growth, and the cells in the peritoneal cavity were studied at 24-hr intervals on the 5th through 7th day. Using the electronic cell volume distributions, combined with labeling indices, cell morphology, and cell counts, it was found that the alkylating agents. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide, at the dosages used, were more effective than the S-phase-specific drugs, palmitoyl ester of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, vincristine, and methotrexate.  (+info)

In vivo modulation of alternative pathways of P-450-catalyzed cyclophosphamide metabolism: impact on pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity. (2/6756)

The widely used anticancer prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA) is activated in liver by a 4-hydroxylation reaction primarily catalyzed by cytochrome P-4502B and P-4502C enzymes. An alternative metabolic pathway involves CPA N-dechloroethylation to yield chloroacetaldehyde (CA), a P-4503A-catalyzed deactivation/neurotoxication reaction. The in vivo modulation of these alternative, competing pathways of P-450 metabolism was investigated in pharmacokinetic studies carried out in the rat model. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for 4-OH-CPA and CA were increased by 3- to 4-fold, and apparent plasma half-lives of both metabolites were correspondingly shortened in rats pretreated with phenobarbital (PB), an inducer of P-4502B and P-4503A enzymes. However, PB had no net impact on the extent of drug activation or its partitioning between these alternative metabolic pathways, as judged from AUC values (area-under-the-plasma concentration x time curve) for 4-OH-CPA and CA. The P-4503A inhibitor troleandomycin (TAO) decreased plasma Cmax and AUC of CA (80-85% decrease) without changing the Cmax or AUC of 4-OH-CPA in uninduced rats. In PB-induced rats, TAO decreased AUCCA by 73%, whereas it increased AUC4-OH-CPA by 93%. TAO thus selectively suppresses CPA N-dechloroethylation, thereby increasing the availability of drug for P-450 activation via 4-hydroxylation. By contrast, dexamethasone, a P-4503A inducer and antiemetic widely used in patients with cancer, stimulated large, undesirable increases in the Cmax and AUC of CA (8- and 4-fold, respectively) while reducing the AUC of the 4-hydroxylation pathway by approximately 60%. Tumor excision/in vitro colony formation and tumor growth delay assays using an in vivo 9L gliosarcoma solid tumor model revealed that TAO suppression of CPA N-dechloroethylation could be achieved without compromising the antitumor effect of CPA. The combination of PB with TAO did not, however, enhance the antitumor activity of CPA, despite the approximately 2-fold increase in AUC4-OH-CPA, suggesting that other PB-inducible activities, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase, may counter this increase through enhanced deactivation of the 4-hydroxy metabolite. Together, these studies demonstrate that the P-4503A inhibitor TAO can be used to effectively modulate CPA metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vivo in a manner that decreases the formation of toxic metabolites that do not contribute to antitumor activity.  (+info)

Antitumor agents. I. Effect of 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide on liver microsomes and thymus of rat. (3/6756)

Effects of antitumor agents on rat liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and thymus lymphocytes were studied in male Wistar rats. High doses of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cyclophosphamide (CP) given parenterally for 6 days caused a partial decrease in whole body weight and the microsomal enzyme content such as cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome b5. Aniline p-hydroxylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities also decreased in rats dosed for 5 days decreased compared with the control. Both compounds in the high concentrations produced spectral change of "modified type II". However, the magnitude of the spectral changes observed was independent of the the concentration of substrate added. The addition of NADPH to the microsomes-substrate mixture modified the spectral change. Both drugs caused a considerable decrease in thymus weight and the number of thymus lymphocytes, while the alkaline phosphatase activity was enhanced in 5-FU groups, indicating that the agents cause a significant involution of the thymus. Decrease in the total number of the lymphocytes was greater than that in the blood leucocytes.  (+info)

Bone marrow transplantation in pediatric patients with therapy-related myelodysplasia and leukemia. (4/6756)

Eleven children underwent BMT for therapy-related MDS or leukemia, four from HLA-identical siblings and seven from unrelated donors. Ten of the 11 were conditioned with busulfan and cyclophosphamide as the majority had received prior irradiation to the chest and/or abdomen. All patients engrafted. Regimen-related toxicity was more common when compared to historical controls. Eight patients developed acute GVHD and four of eight who survived 100 days post transplant developed extensive chronic GVHD. Non-relapse related mortality occurred in three patients. Five patients developed recurrent malignancy: one died from recurrence of osteosarcoma, three died of recurrent leukemia or MDS and another developed two subsequent malignancies (duodenal carcinoma and anaplastic astrocytoma). Three survive disease-free at 14+, 22+ and 43+ months for a 2 year actuarial cancer-free survival of 24% (95% confidence interval = 5-53%). Although allogeneic BMT can be curative, regimen-related toxicity is frequent and recurrent malignancy remains the major obstacle.  (+info)

Increase of hematopoietic responses by triple or single helical conformer of an antitumor (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan preparation, Sonifilan, in cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice. (5/6756)

It has been suggested that the immunopharmacological activity of soluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan depends on its conformation in mice. In this study, we examined the relationship between the conformation of Sonifilan (SPG) and hematopietic responses in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced leukopenic mice. SPG, a high molecular weight (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, has a triple helical conformation in water, and it was changed by treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide to the single helical conformer (SPG-OH). The effects of SPG or SPG-OH on hematopoietic responses in cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice were investigated by monitoring i) gene expression of cytokines by RT-PCR, ii) protein synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) by ELISA and iii) colony formation of bone marrow cells (BMC). The mice administered Cy and SPG or SPG-OH expressed and produced higher levels of IL-6 mRNA and protein than the mice administered only Cy. Gene expression of NK1.1 was also induced by Cy/SPG (or SPG-OH) treatment. Induced gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) by SPG/SPG-OH were also found in in vitro culture of BMC from Cy treated mice. These results strongly suggested that conformation of the glucans, single and triple helix, are independent of the hematopietic response.  (+info)

The effect of fluconazole on cyclophosphamide metabolism in children. (6/6756)

Fluconazole is increasingly used in children receiving chemotherapy. Many of these patients are being treated with cyclophosphamide, which must undergo hepatic metabolism to produce active alkylating species. As a consequence of the cytochrome P-450 inhibitory properties of fluconazole, a potential interaction exists between these two agents that could influence the therapeutic effect of cyclophosphamide. To investigate this interaction, a retrospective case series of patients was chosen from a population of children with a previously established profile of cyclophosphamide metabolism. Twenty-two children who were not receiving other therapy known to influence drug metabolism were selected and analyzed in terms of fluconazole treatment; of these, nine were receiving fluconazole and thirteen were identified as controls. Study design was not randomized. The plasma clearance of cyclophosphamide was lower in patients receiving fluconazole [mean(SD) 2.4(0.71) versus 4.2(1.2) l/h/m2, p =.001]. In vitro studies were performed to characterize the interaction between fluconazole and cyclophosphamide in six human liver microsomes. The concentration of fluconazole required to reduce the production of 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide to 50% of control values (IC50) varied between 9 and 80 microM (median 38 microM). Further studies of the effect of fluconazole on 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide production in vivo are warranted to determine whether this interaction reduces the therapeutic effect of cyclophosphamide in clinical practice.  (+info)

Multimodality therapy for locally advanced and limited stage IV breast cancer: the impact of effective non-cross-resistance late-consolidation chemotherapy. (7/6756)

To determine the effectiveness of non-cross-resistant late-consolidation chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) and stage IV breast cancer, we review our experience with two regimens. Between 1985 and 1991, we enrolled 56 patients with LABC, who were treated with a doxorubicin-based adjuvant regimen, followed by a late-consolidation non-cross-resistant regimen containing methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and cyclophosphamide. Between 1985 and 1996, a total of 45 patients with limited stage IV breast cancer underwent surgical excision of all evaluable disease, making them metastatic (stage IV) with no evaluable disease. Surgery was followed by a doxorubicin-containing regimen and then a late-consolidation non-cross-resistant regimen, which was either methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatinum, and cyclophosphamide or 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin. Twenty-four patients with limited bone metastases that were unresectable were treated with a doxorubicin-containing regimen, radiation therapy to all sites of disease, and then one of the two late non-cross-resistant regimens. With a median follow-up of 84 months, 78% of patients with LABC are alive, and 68% are free of disease. After a median follow-up of 44 months, 53% of patients with stage IV with no evaluable disease are alive and free of disease. The use of non-cross-resistant late-consolidation chemotherapy is an effective strategy in the treatment of patients with LABC and selected patients with limited stage IV breast cancer.  (+info)

Can we cure indolent lymphomas? (8/6756)

The current consensus is that indolent lymphomas are incurable disorders. There are some indications that these malignancies are potentially curable. Indeed, not all indolent lymphomas are currently incurable. For example, patients with Ann Arbor stage I-II indolent lymphomas can experience long-term disease-free survival and probable cure. Also, from the available literature data, it seems that the achievement of a molecular complete remission is a desirable objective. Patients who achieve a persistently negative PCR state seldom relapse, whereas the opposite is true for persistently positive cases. In view of its excellent correlation with disease-free survival when examined serially in multiple blood or marrow samples, the PCR technique has the potential of providing a tumor marker that can be used as an early end point for clinical trials. By serving as an early surrogate end point, PCR could play an important role in expediting the development of new treatment strategies. Whether IFN is capable of increasing the molecular complete remission rate as measured by PCR is not known. However, it is clear that from the clinical standpoint, IFN has been able to increase 2-fold the length of remission in patients with advanced indolent lymphomas. In at least two studies, this has been associated with prolongation of survival. More intensive regimens such as alternating triple therapy, when used in combination with IFN, seem to have improved the quality of remissions as judged by the PCR assay. Finally, the site where the bcl-2 breakpoint occurs seems to have clinical significance. Those follicular lymphomas with germ-line bcl-2, in our experience, have behaved more aggressively than the others, and their failure-free survival seems different from the usual indolent lymphomas and more closely resembles the large cell lymphomas. Although the biological significance of this observation is not yet understood, this group might actually constitute a prognostically different subset with a more aggressive and perhaps more curable lymphoma. Whether the plateau observed in their failure-free survival curve will be maintained with more follow-up and whether they might be a curable subset remain to be determined.  (+info)

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PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. Identify the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) and dose limiting toxicity (DLT) of cyclophosphamide when combined with escalating doses of ABT-888 (veliparib).. II. Identify the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) and dose limiting toxicity (DLT) of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin (doxorubicin hydrochloride) when combined with escalating doses of ABT-888.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. Evaluate any effect of ABT-888 on the systemic clearance of parent cyclophosphamide and the dose normalized area under the curve (AUC) of 4-hydroxy (4-OH) cyclophosphamide when used in combination, using historical single-agent cyclophosphamide and 4-OH data.. II. Evaluate any effect of cyclophosphamide administration on the systemic pharmacokinetics of ABT-888 and its primary metabolite A-925088 (M8), by comparing pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of ABT-888 on day 1 (before cyclophosphamide) and day 3 (with cyclophosphamide administration); PK samples for analysis will not be collected from patients ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. Identify the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) and dose limiting toxicity (DLT) of cyclophosphamide when combined with escalating doses of ABT-888 (veliparib).. II. Identify the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) and dose limiting toxicity (DLT) of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin (doxorubicin hydrochloride) when combined with escalating doses of ABT-888.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. Evaluate any effect of ABT-888 on the systemic clearance of parent cyclophosphamide and the dose normalized area under the curve (AUC) of 4-hydroxy (4-OH) cyclophosphamide when used in combination, using historical single-agent cyclophosphamide and 4-OH data.. II. Evaluate any effect of cyclophosphamide administration on the systemic pharmacokinetics of ABT-888 and its primary metabolite A-925088 (M8), by comparing pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of ABT-888 on day 1 (before cyclophosphamide) and day 3 (with cyclophosphamide administration); PK samples for analysis will not be collected from patients ...
The PAM50-based (Prosigna) risk of recurrence (ROR) score and intrinsic subtypes are prognostic for women with high-risk breast cancer. We investigate the predictive ability of Prosigna regarding the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide-based adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal patients with high-risk breast cancer. Prosigna assays were performed on the NanoString platform in tumors from participants in Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) 77B, a four-arm trial that randomized premenopausal women with high-risk early breast cancer to no systemic treatment, levamisole, oral cyclophosphamide (C) or cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF). In total, this retrospective analysis included 460 women (40% of the 1146 randomized patients). The continuous Prosigna ROR score was prognostic in the no systemic treatment group (unadjusted P | 0.001 for disease-free survival (DFS), P = 0.001 for overall survival (OS)). No statistically significant interaction of continuous ROR score and treatment on DFS and
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Looking for cyclophosphamide? Find out information about cyclophosphamide. trade name for the drug cyclophosphamide, used to inhibit growth of tumors and rapidly proliferating cells. It is used in the treatment of leukemia,... Explanation of cyclophosphamide
Cyclophosphamide is one of the most active chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of many cancerous conditions. Sometimes it may resistant and cannot act properly. As a result, treatment failure developed. Resistance to cyclophosphamide is multifactorial with a diverse spectrum of mechanisms observed in cancer treatment which includes;. ► Cell may uptake reduced amount of drug and this small amount of drug fails to stop the growth of cancer cells.. ► Cyclophosphamide is activated by liver cytochrome P-450 oxidase system. Sometimes, the activity of these enzymes may be reduced. Therefore, the inactive cyclophosphamide cannot convert into appropriate amount of active cytotoxic metabolites which ultimately fails to stop the growth of cancer cells.. ► Within the cells, the level of sulfhydryl proteins including glutathione and glutathione associated enzymes may be increased. The high level of sulfhydryl proteins may interact with the active metabolites of cyclophosphamide and prevent its ...
Analysis of the effect of cyclophosphamide on peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression. Certain chemotherapeutic drugs such as cyclophosphamide can enhance the antitumor efficacy of immunotherapy because of their capacity to modulate innate and adaptive immunity. Indeed, it has been argued that this capacity may be more significant to chemotherapeutic efficacy in general than is presently appreciated. To gain insights into the core mechanisms of chemoimmunotherapy, we methodically profiled the effects of cyclophosphamide on gene expression in bone marrow, spleen and peripheral blood, and on cytokine expression in plasma and bone marrow of tumor-bearing mice. Gene and protein expression were modulated early and transiently by cyclophosphamide, leading to upregulation of a variety of immunomodulatory factors, including danger signals, pattern recognition receptors, inflammatory mediators, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors. These factors are involved in sensing
New and more conservative approaches in treatment are a major advance. For 30 years the US National Institutes of Health have dominated the treatment of lupus nephritis with controlled trials of monthly high dose intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide, now the standard treatment for nephritis and severe lupus. However, adverse effects such as ovarian failure and infections are significant with prolonged treatment.1 As most lupus patients are women of childbearing age, this price has been high and patients and clinicians are questioning this protocol. Recent studies offer two different approaches that may be as effective and better tolerated.. The use of low dose cyclophosphamide, pioneered at St Thomas Hospital, London, was recently compared with the US regimen in a European study.2 3 There were similar improvements in renal variables in proliferative lupus nephritis with both regimens but with a tendency to lower toxicity in the group receiving cyclophosphamide at low dosages. This probably ...
This trial wil investigate the efficacy of capecitabine/cyclophosphamide combination therapy for patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer who have
An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of two mouse thrombocytopenia models induced by cyclophosphamide at two different administration routes to determine a proper cyclophosphamide administration route that could cause stable thrombocytopenia. A suitable drug dosage that could induce thrombocytopenia in mouse efficiently with the definite administration route was then investigated. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into Normal, Model A and Model B groups. To Model A, 200 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide was given by vena caudalis injection as first dose and 30 mg/kg as maintenance dose by intraperitoneal injection at the following 6 days. To Model B, 150 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide was given by subcutaneous injection once a day for consecutive 3 days. All groups were under investigation for 15 days. The result suggested that a decrease in the number of blood platelets of Model B at the 7th day were significantly than that of Normal. Other platelet related indices like platelet distribution ...
Second malignancies have developed in some patients treated with cyclophosphamide used alone or in association with other antineoplastic drugs and/or modalities. Most frequently, they have been urinary bladder, myeloproliferative, or lymphoproliferative malignancies. Second malignancies most frequently were detected in patients treated for primary myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative malignancies or nonmalignant disease in which immune processes are believed to be involved pathologically. In some cases, the second malignancy developed several years after cyclophosphamide treatment had been discontinued. In a single breast cancer trial utilizing two to four times the standard dose of cyclophosphamide in conjunction with doxorubicin a small number of cases of secondary acute myeloid leukemia occurred within two years of treatment initiation. Urinary bladder malignancies generally have occurred in patients who previously had hemorrhagic cystitis. In patients treated with ...
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Following IV administration, elimination half-life (t1/2) ranges from 3 to 12 hours with total body clearance (CL) values of 4 to 5.6 L/h. Pharmacokinetics are linear over the dose range used clinically. When cyclophosphamide was administered at 4 g/m2 over a 90 minutes infusion, saturable elimination in parallel with first-order renal elimination describe the kinetics of the drug.. Absorption After oral administration, peak concentrations of cyclophosphamide occurred at one hour. Area under the curve ratio for the drug after oral and IV administration (AUCpo : AUCiv) ranged from 0.87 to 0.96.. Distribution Approximately 20% of cyclophosphamide is protein bound, with no dose dependent changes. Some metabolites are protein bound to an extent greater than 60%. Volume of distribution approximates total body water (30 to 50 L).. Metabolism The liver is the major site of cyclophosphamide activation. Approximately 75% of the administered dose of cyclophosphamide is activated by hepatic microsomal ...
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The liver cytochrome P-450 oxidase system stimulating drugs such as phenytoin, phenobarbital and so on if administered with cyclophosphamide, it can increase the rate of metabolism of cyclophosphamide to its cytotoxic metabolites. In this setting, the physician should be alert for possible desirable or undesirable effects. Sometimes, the dose may need to be adjusted or liver cytochrome P-450 oxidase system stimulating drugs should be avoided.. ...
Modern medicine had achieved the pinnacle of human. HBV reactivation has been noted in Breast Cancer patients following Cytoxan and Adriamycin chemotherapy,.. followed by doxorubicin (7.2 %) and vincristine. chemotherapy is to bring the disease into remission). Cyclophosphamide Daunorubicin Prednisone.Inicio » Arranca el US Open. â I went to have my pre-chemotherapy blood check this week. org/index.php/cytoxan-adriamycin-taxol.pdf gesture deliberate.. . ineligible for standard high-dose chemotherapy with. to vincristine plus doxorubicin plus. SE, Szubert AJ, et al. Cyclophosphamide,.Facial ,, Facial Mask Beauty Treatment. Facial Mask Beauty Treatment ¿Por qué pagar por la máscara cuándo usted puede usar ingredientes básicos encontrados ...
Hancock, E J. and Kilburn, D G., The effects of cyclophosphamide on in vitro cytotoxic responses to a syngeneic tumour. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 988 ...
Cyclophosphamide treatment on a six-day repeating metronomic schedule induces a dramatic, innate immune cell-dependent regression of implanted gliomas. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms whereby metronomic cyclophosphamide induces innate immune cell mobilization and recruitment, or about the role of DNA damage and cell stress response pathways in eliciting the immune responses linked to tumor regression. Untreated and metronomic cyclophosphamide-treated human U251 glioblastoma xenografts were analyzed on human microarrays at two treatment time points to identify responsive tumor cell-specific factors and their upstream regulators. Mouse microarray analysis across two glioma models (human U251, rat 9L) was used to identify host factors and gene networks that contribute to the observed immune and tumor regression responses. Metronomic cyclophosphamide increased expression of tumor cell-derived DNA damage, cell stress, and cell death genes, which may facilitate innate immune
The standard treatment for severe GPA is to induce remission with immunosuppressants such as rituximab or cyclophosphamide in combination with high-dose corticosteroids.[8][21] Intravenous pulse corticosteroids and plasmapheresis are also recommended if manifestations of severe GPA, such as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, glomerulonephritis (as seen in pulmonary-renal syndrome), or mesenteric ischemia, are observed.[5][9] The use of plasmapheresis in those with GPA and acute kidney failure (renal vasculitis) reduces progression to end-stage kidney disease at three months.[9]. Oral and intravenous cyclophosphamide are both effective for induction of GPA remission. Oral cyclophosphamide at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day was the standard treatment for many years; this regimen resulted in complete remission in more than 75% of people with GPA but is associated with significant toxicities including infertility, inflammation and bleeding from the bladder, and bladder cancer.[8] In contrast, administering pulsed ...
Administration of cyclophosphamide at a dose which is lethal to 10% of control athymic nude mice resulted in sudden death within 3 h in all mice that had been pretreated with the glutathione synthesis inhibitor l-buthionine-SR-sulfoximine. In Fischer 344 rats pretreated with l-buthionine-SR-sulfoximine, the cyclophosphamide dose producing 100% acute toxicity was lowered from 500-150 mg/kg; cardiac monitoring revealed ventricular fibrillation to be the cause of death. These and additional studies reported demonstrate that cytoplasmic glutathione is an important protectant against the cardiac and skeletal muscle toxicity of cyclophosphamide and indicate that such toxicity may be substantially increased by glutathione depletion. Since diet and many drugs (including cyclophosphamide itself) are known to affect glutathione levels, the present studies suggest that cardiac and skeletal muscle glutathione content is likely to be a clinically significant determinant of the frequency and severity of the ...
prednisone, 1 mg/kg per day for the first month, followed by gradual tapering on an alternate-day or daily schedule with discontinuation after ∼6-9 months. Cyclophosphamide is given in doses of 2 mg/kg per day orally, but as it is renally eliminated, dosage reduction should be considered in patients with renal insufficiency. Some reports have indicated therapeutic success with less frequent and severe toxic side effects using IV cyclophosphamide. In a recent randomized trial, IV cyclophosphamide 15 mg/kg, three infusions given every 2 weeks, then every 3 weeks thereafter, was compared to cyclophosphamide 2 mg/kg daily given for 3 months followed by 1.5 mg/kg daily. Although IV cyclophosphamide was found to have a comparable rate of remission with a lower cumulative cyclophosphamide dose and occurrence of leukopenia, the use of a consolidation phase and an insufficient frequency of blood count monitoring may have negatively influenced the results in those who received daily cyclophosphamide. Of ...
Medulloblastoma, the most common malignancy of childhood, was originally shown to be sensitive to cyclophosphamide in 1981. We have used combined laboratory and clinical investigations to demonstrate the synergy of cyclophosphamide and vincristine in the treatment of this tumor, the therapeutic gain …
PURPOSE: To estimate the cost effectiveness of TAC (docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide) compared with FAC (fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide) when administered as adjuvant therapy to women with node-positive early breast cancer in the United Kingdom (UK), both with and without primary prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). METHODS: A standard health economic Markov model estimated the cost and outcome for node-positive early breast cancer patients, from initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy to death.
Fig. 1. a, antiangiogenic versus conventional scheduling of cyclophosphamide for drug-resistant Lewis lung carcinoma. ▵, control saline; ○, conventional schedule [150 mg/kg every other day for three doses (white arrows, total 450 mg/kg) every 21 days]; •, antiangiogenic schedule (170 mg/kg every 6 days, CTX, thin black arrows); ▪, antiangiogenic schedule of cyclophosphamide and TNP-470 (170 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 12.5 mg/kg TNP-470 administered on the same day of the 6-day cycle for seven cycles, CTX + TNP, thick black arrows). The inset (top right) has magnified axes for the first 21 days of therapy (n = 6 mice/group). All control and conventional schedule-treated mice died with large tumor burdens. Therapy was discontinued on the antiangiogenic schedule of cyclophosphamide alone after two of six mice died with pulmonary inflammation, accompanied by high peripheral leukocyte counts. No mouse on either schedule had visibly detectable pulmonary metastases at time of death. Therapy was ...
BACKGROUND: The original aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment sequence and anthracycline requirement in docetaxel, cyclophosphamide and trastuzumab therapy. After one death in the anthracycline-containing arm, the protocol was amended to terminate the randomization. The single-docetaxel, cyclophosphamide and trastuzumab arm was continued to examine the efficacy and safety of the anthracycline-free regimen. METHODS: Women with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive, operable and primary breast cancer were randomized to receive 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (four cycles) followed by docetaxel, cyclophosphamide and trastuzumab (four cycles), or docetaxel, cyclophosphamide and trastuzumab followed by 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide, or docetaxel, cyclophosphamide and trastuzumab (six cycles). After the protocol amendment, patients were allocated to the docetaxel, cyclophosphamide and trastuzumab arm alone. The primary endpoint was a ...
a dose escalating phase 1 study of intravenous MM-398 (given once per three week cycle) together with intravenous cyclophosphamide (daily x 5 doses) in patients with recurrent or refractory pediatric solid tumors. all patients will participate in up to 28 days of screening, during which they will be assessed for eligibility and screened for the uGT1a1*28 allele. intravenous Cyclophosphamide Dosing: all patients will receive cyclophosphamide 250 mg/m2 intravenously (given over 30 minutes) daily for 5 days. MM-398 Dosing: MM-398 will be administered intravenously over 90 minutes on the 3rd day of the 5 day course of cyclophosphamide. The MM-398 + cyclophosphamide regimen will be administered every 3 weeks, unless precluded by progressive disease (radiologic or clinical deterioration) or unacceptable toxicity. The MM-398 will be dose-escalated as follows: Dose Level: 1a (30 mg/m2), 1 (60 mg/m2), 2 (90 mg/m2), 3 (120 mg/m2), 4 (150 mg/m2), 5 (180 mg/m2), 6 (210 mg/m2) adverse events (aes) will be ...
In an ongoing prospective randomized study, 113 evaluable patients have received either a three-drug combination that included cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin and 5-fluorouracil (CAF) or a five-drug combination including cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine and prednisone (CMFVP) given intermittently 1 week out of 4. Responses (64%), median duration of response (32 weeks), and median duration of disease control (32 weeks) achieved with CAF were superior to those achieved with CMFVP (37%, 22 weeks, 17 weeks, respectively). Morbidity secondary to CAF was significant, with nausea and vomiting, malaise, total alopecia, and granulocytopenia being the main features. ...
High-dose cyclophosphamide induces specific tumor immunity with concomitant recruitment of LAMP1/CD107a- expressing CD4-positive T cells into tumor sitesHigh-dose cyclophosphamide induces specific tumor immunity with concomitant recruitment of LAMP1/CD107a- expressing CD4-positive T cells into tumor sites ...
Cyclophosphamide is carcinogenic and may increase the risk of developing lymphomas, leukemia, skin cancer, transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder or other malignancies.[29] Myeloproliferative neoplasms, including acute leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma, occurred in 5 of 119 rheumatoid arthritis patients within the first decade after receiving cyclophosphamide, compared with one case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 119 rheumatoid arthritis patients with no history.[30] Secondary acute myeloid leukemia (therapy-related AML, or t-AML) is thought to occur either by cyclophosphamide-inducing mutations or selecting for a high-risk myeloid clone.[31]. This risk may be dependent on dose and other factors, including the condition, other agents or treatment modalities (including radiotherapy), treatment length and intensity. For some regimens, it is rare. For instance, CMF-therapy for breast cancer (where the cumulative dose is typically less than 20 grams of cyclophosphamide) ...
Description of the drug cyclophosphamide oral/injection. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is cyclophosphamide oral/injection!
Buy Cyclophosphamide Online! Cyclophosphamide is an immunosuppressant, which means that it suppresses your bodys immune or defence system. The rest of this document is about Cyclophosphamide when it is prescribed for cancer, so if you have been given it for a condition like rheumatoid arthritis, please speak with your doctor if you have any questions.
The authors evaluated the combination of etoposide/cyclophosphamide (VP/CY) as initial, presurgical therapy for patients with osteosarcoma and found an 88% response rate for the primary tumor and any metastases. After definitive, limb-salvage surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy with etoposide, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and doxorubicin, patients without metastases at diagnosis whose cases were followed for a median of 2 years from diagnosis achieved a relapse-free survival (RFS) probability of 78% +/- 9%. This result is equivalent to the best adjuvant chemotherapy results reported to date. Patients without metastases at diagnosis had significantly better RFS probability (78% +/- 9%) than those with metastases at diagnosis (0%). Transient, severe myelosuppression has been the only major toxicity of the VP/CY courses. No irreversible organ damage or toxic deaths have been seen in patients enrolled in this study. The authors conclude that the combination of VP/CY is effective treatment for ...
Source: Yeo W, Lau TK, Kwok CC, et al. NEPA efficacy and tolerability during (neo)adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care, 29 January 2020. DOI:10.1136/bmjspcare-2019-002037
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In Response: In their Letter to the Editor, Reiriz et al. have questioned the generalization of results that we recently presented about a rodent model to assess cognitive impairments induced by cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil (1). In our study, we evaluated the effects of chronic regimens of these two chemotherapeutic agents on performance of young and aged female F344 rats in two complex learning tasks, the Morris water maze and the Stone 14-unit T-maze. Both tasks involve multiple trials spread over several days and required the rat to learn and remember complex spatial relationships. Our results showed that, with 8 weeks of recovery from the chemotherapeutic regimens, rats treated with either cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg) or 5-fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) surprisingly did significantly better than untreated controls in both learning tasks. However, after providing even longer periods of recovery, 29 to 42 weeks, we observed no significant differences in maze performance between treated rats ...
There is a growing concern about pharmaceuticals entering the aquatic environment. Many of these compounds cannot be removed completely in sewage treatment plants. To remove these unwanted medicines from water, oxidative degradation techniques may complement the current purification steps. In this paper we studied the effect of advanced oxidation on the cytostatic drug cyclophosphamide (CP) by comparing thermal plasma activation with UV/H2O2 treatment. Plasma activated water (PAW) contains highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) as a result of electric gas discharges in air over water. CP solutions in tap water were oxidized over a period of 120 min and subsequently analyzed by LC-MS/MS to measure the compound degradation. Plasma activation was applied at 50, 100, or 150 W electric power input and UV/H2O2 treatment was carried out by the addition of H2O2 and placing an UV-C source above the test solution for immediate irradiation. The oxidative degradation of CP in PAW resulted in a ...
Buy Cyclophosphamide Online! Cyclophosphamide is a medication used as chemotherapy and to suppress the immune system. As chemotherapy it is used to treat lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma, and sarcoma.
Metronomic cyclophosphamide given on an intermittent, 6-day repeating schedule, but not on an exposure dose-equivalent daily schedule, activates an anti-tumor innate immune response that leads to major regression of large implanted gliomas, without anti-angiogenesis. Mice bearing implanted 9L gliomas were used to investigate the effects of this 6-day repeating, immunogenic cyclophosphamide schedule on myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which are pro-angiogenic and can inhibit anti-tumor immunity, and to elucidate the mechanism whereby the innate immune cell-dependent tumor regression response to metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment is blocked by several anti-angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Intermittent metronomic cyclophosphamide scheduling strongly increased glioma-associated CD11b+ immune cells but not CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells, while bone marrow and spleen reservoirs of the suppressor cells were decreased. The inhibition of immune cell recruitment and tumor
Metronomic cyclophosphamide given on an intermittent, 6-day repeating schedule, but not on an exposure dose-equivalent daily schedule, activates an anti-tumor innate immune response that leads to major regression of large implanted gliomas, without anti-angiogenesis. Mice bearing implanted 9L gliomas were used to investigate the effects of this 6-day repeating, immunogenic cyclophosphamide schedule on myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which are pro-angiogenic and can inhibit anti-tumor immunity, and to elucidate the mechanism whereby the innate immune cell-dependent tumor regression response to metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment is blocked by several anti-angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Intermittent metronomic cyclophosphamide scheduling strongly increased glioma-associated CD11b+ immune cells but not CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells, while bone marrow and spleen reservoirs of the suppressor cells were decreased. The inhibition of immune cell recruitment and tumor
Considering drug-induced lipid peroxidation as a possible mediator of drug-induced toxicity and exploiting the free radical scavenging action of antioxidants, the present study was designed to evaluate the antiperoxidative potential of morin on cyclophosphamide/flutamide-induced lipid peroxidation and also to evaluate the effect of morin on cyclophosphamide/flutamide-induced changes in cholesterol content in rabbit blood sample. This evaluation was done by measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and nitric oxide (NO) content of blood samples as markers of lipid peroxidation. In the cholesterol profile total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol content of rabbit blood was determined. The study reveals the lipid peroxidation induction capacity of cyclophosphamide/flutamide and the antiperoxidative potential of morin on cyclophosphamide/flutamide-induced lipid peroxidation. It was also observed that morin has protective effect on
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carcinosarcoma of bladder following long-term cyclophosphamide therapy. AU - Sigal, S. H.. AU - Tomaszewski, J. E.. AU - Brooks, J. J.. AU - Wein, A.. AU - LiVolsi, V. A.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - Since the advent of long-term cyclophosphamide therapy, an association between this agent and the subsequent development of bladder neoplasms has been documented. Only six sarcomas have been reported, to our knowledge. This report describes the first case in which a leiomyosarcoma and an invasive transitional cell carcinoma (ie, carcinosarcoma) developed in a patient with non-Hodgkins lymphoma treated with 240 g of cyclophosphamide over a 6.5-year period.. AB - Since the advent of long-term cyclophosphamide therapy, an association between this agent and the subsequent development of bladder neoplasms has been documented. Only six sarcomas have been reported, to our knowledge. This report describes the first case in which a leiomyosarcoma and an invasive transitional cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase II study of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone immunochemotherapy followed by yttrium-90- ibritumomab tiuxetan in untreated mantle-cell lymphoma. T2 - Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study E1499. AU - Smith, Mitchell R.. AU - Li, Hailun. AU - Gordon, Leo. AU - Gascoyne, Randy D.. AU - Paietta, Elisabeth. AU - Forero-Torres, Andres. AU - Kahl, Brad S.. AU - Advani, Ranjana. AU - Hong, Fangxin. AU - Horning, Sandra J.. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - Purpose: To test the hypothesis that consolidation therapy with yttrium-90 ( 90Y) -ibritumomab tiuxetan after brief initial therapy with four cycles of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) in patients with previously untreated mantle-cell lymphoma would be a well-tolerated regimen that would improve outcomes compared with historical R-CHOP data. Patients and Methods: Patients ≥ 18 years old with histologically confirmed mantle-cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multicycle dose-intensive chemotherapy for women with high-risk primary breast cancer. T2 - Results of International Breast Cancer Study Group trial 15-95. AU - Basser, Russell L.. AU - ONeil, Anne. AU - Martinelli, Giovanni. AU - Green, Michael D.. AU - Peccatori, Fedro. AU - Cinieri, Severio. AU - Caotes, Alan S.. AU - Gelber, Richard D.. AU - Aebi, Stefan. AU - Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica. AU - Viale, Guiseppe. AU - Price, Karen N.. AU - Goldhirsch, Aron. PY - 2006/1/20. Y1 - 2006/1/20. N2 - Purpose: To compare adjuvant dose-intensive epirubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy administered with filgrastim and progenitor cell support (DI-EC) with standard-dose anthracycline-based chemotherapy (SD-CT) for patients with early-stage breast cancer and a high risk of relapse, defined as stage II disease with 10 or more positive axillary nodes; or an estrogen receptor-negative or stage III tumor with five or more positive axillary nodes. Patients and Methods: Three hundred ...
Hellman, S and Grate, H E., Effect of cyclophosphamide on the murine hematopoietic stem cell compartment as measured by different assay techniques. (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 1381 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insight on mechanism of hyponatraemia induced by low-dose intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide. AU - Park, Se Jin. AU - Kim, Ji Hong. AU - Shin, Jae Il. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1093/ndt/gfq429. DO - 10.1093/ndt/gfq429. M3 - Letter. C2 - 20650905. AN - SCOPUS:77957241620. VL - 25. JO - Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. JF - Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. SN - 0931-0509. IS - 10. ER - ...
Cytoxan Order cyclophosphamide cytoxan price taxotere cytoxan chemotherapy iv cytoxan for lupus cytoxan iv infusion rate adriamycin cytoxan regimen.This is known as a cost-plus. two procedures in 850 women with invasive breast cancer who had their tumors removed and underwent radiation and chemotherapy.. said this is thought to be the first phase III trial to investigate whether an MEK inhibitor combined with chemotherapy can. How much will it cost to send.... cialis decided wobbleboards removal, chemotherapy, bursitis. [/URL] polyphonic cyclophosphamide. low cost levitra 20 mg placebos levitra deaths.Inicio » Maratón CDMX. Another year finasteride uk cost. Im doing a masters in law taxotere cytoxan herceptin chemo Under WTO rules Russia has.Tablets what are they for cytoxan and prednisone is awesome symptoms to look for. Following chemotherapy light period why does taking prednisone cause depression.200 AÑOS DE ONCOLOGIA. if surgery was supplemented by chemotherapy,. The cost of sequencing ...
Source: This may include additional laboratory tests or procedures treatment 1st degree burn 50 mg cyclophosphamide for sale, or consultation with other health care professionals symptoms 3 days after conception order 50mg cyclophosphamide with mastercard. If a subject dies during participation in the study or during a recognized follow-up period medicine guide purchase 50 mg cyclophosphamide fast delivery, the investigator will provide the Lead Site with a copy of any autopsy reports. The investigator will always provide an assessment of causality at the time of the initial report as described in Section 11. If the electronic system is unavailable for greater than 24 hours, the site will fax and email. The investigator will then submit a detailed written report to the Clinical Coordinating Center and the local Institutional Review Board no later than 5 calendar days after the investigator discovers the event. A serious adverse event is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte/monocyte ratio during rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone treatment cycles predicts clinical outcomes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. AU - Porrata, Luis F.. AU - Ristow, Kay M.. AU - Habermann, Thomas M.. AU - Witzig, Thomas E.. AU - Colgan, Joseph P.. AU - Inwards, David J.. AU - Ansell, Stephen M.. AU - Micallef, Ivana N.. AU - Johnston, Patrick B.. AU - Nowakowski, Grzegorz. AU - Thompson, Carrie A.. AU - Markovic, Svetomir N.. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - A limitation of the prognostic factor peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (ALC/AMC) at diagnosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is its inability to sequentially assess the host/tumor microenvironment interaction and clinical outcomes during treatment. Therefore, we studied the ALC/AMC ratio at each rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) cycle as a predictor for survival. We studied ...
This randomized phase III trial studies how well doxorubicin hydrochloride and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel with or without carboplatin work in
Antiangiogenic therapies can now be regarded as an established antitumor strategy and LDM represents a promising approach in this respect (1), especially when it is combined with targeted antiangiogenic drugs for long-term maintenance-type regimens (9, 10, 15). LDM frequently involves daily oral cytotoxic drug administration, as it is the case with CPA, the clinically most commonly used drug in this treatment setting (1, 3, 8-14). Although the oral route is very practical and appealing, it also raises new challenges, such as treatment compliance by patients and pharmacokinetic issues that potentially differ from conventional, cyclic MTD chemotherapy administration. The findings of our study shed light on several important issues about the clinical translation of the LDM concept.. Previous studies with the PC-3 model suggested that host-mediated mechanisms, such as altered CPA biotransformation, might contribute to acquired resistance to LDM CPA (17). We now show that neither tumor growth ...
This study will compare the efficacy and tolerability of standard high-dose epirubicin + cyclophosphamide (EC) with those of docetaxel (D) followed by high-dose
Severe immune suppression is frequent in late-stage tumor patients and promotes tumor immune evasion and subsequent tumor progression. Regulatory T cells (Treg) are major suppressors of anti-tumor immune responses. Therefore, targeting of Treg has become a key goal of anti-tumor therapy. Several pre …
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of docetaxel plus cyclophosphamide(TC) compared with docetaxel, anthracycline, and cyclophosphamide(TEC) in neoadjuvant treatment of triple negative or HER2 positive breast cancer. Elig
en] Purpose: Randomized trial LNH93-3 was conducted on patients who had poor-prognosis aggressive lymphoma and were younger than 60 years with two to three factors of the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index to evaluate the benefit of early high-dose therapy (HDT) with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Patients and Methods: Patients were randomized between doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin, and prednisone (ACVBP) chemotherapy followed by sequential consolidation and an experimental shortened treatment consisting of three cycles with escalated doses of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, vindesine, bleomycin, and prednisone and collection of peripheral-blood stem cells. On day 60, HDT was administered with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan followed by ASCT. Results: Eligible patients (n = 370) with aggressive lymphoma were analyzed. For ACVBP (181 patients) and HDT (189 patients), respective complete remission rates were 64% ...
Easy to read patient leaflet for Cytoxan (Cyclophosphamide Injection). Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects. Also: Cytoxan coupon canada, Cytoxan does order matter, Cytoxan next day shipping, Purchase cytoxan online pharmacy uk, Cytoxan order online shopping australia
Objective: To update the follow-up of the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial (ELNT), a randomised prospective trial comparing low-dose (LD) and high-dose (HD) intravenous (IV) cyclophosphamide (CY) followed by azathioprine (AZA) as treatment for proliferative lupus nephritis.. Patients and methods: Data for survival and kidney function were prospectively collected during a 10-year period for the 90 patients randomised in the ELNT, except in 6 lost to follow-up.. Results: Death, sustained doubling of serum creatinine and end-stage renal disease rates did not differ between the LD and HD group (5/44 (11%) vs 2/46 (4%), 6/44 (14%) vs 5/46 (11%) and 2/44 (5%) vs 4/46 (9%), respectively) nor did mean serum creatinine, 24 h proteinuria and damage score at last follow-up. Most patients in both groups were still treated with glucocorticoids, other immunosuppressant agents and blood pressure lowering drugs. After 10 years of follow-up, the positive predictive value for a good outcome of an early drop in ...
Objective: To update the follow-up of the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial (ELNT), a randomised prospective trial comparing low-dose (LD) and high-dose (HD) intravenous (IV) cyclophosphamide (CY) followed by azathioprine (AZA) as treatment for proliferative lupus nephritis.. Patients and methods: Data for survival and kidney function were prospectively collected during a 10-year period for the 90 patients randomised in the ELNT, except in 6 lost to follow-up.. Results: Death, sustained doubling of serum creatinine and end-stage renal disease rates did not differ between the LD and HD group (5/44 (11%) vs 2/46 (4%), 6/44 (14%) vs 5/46 (11%) and 2/44 (5%) vs 4/46 (9%), respectively) nor did mean serum creatinine, 24 h proteinuria and damage score at last follow-up. Most patients in both groups were still treated with glucocorticoids, other immunosuppressant agents and blood pressure lowering drugs. After 10 years of follow-up, the positive predictive value for a good outcome of an early drop in ...
Purpose Anthracyclines (including doxorubicin) are still the backbone of commonly used breast cancer chemotherapy regimens. Despite increasing use of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) combinations...
RATIONALE: Adjusting the dose of drugs used in chemotherapy such as cyclophosphamide may decrease side effects while stopping cancer cells from dividing
Cyclophosphamide Hydrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Cyclophosphamide Hydrate is available on the website.
Take Cytoxan exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Your dose will vary depending on the type of cancer, the other chemotherapy medications you are taking, and whether you develop bothersome or dangerous side effects. Sometimes Cytoxan is taken every day, and sometimes it is taken intermittently (such as twice a week or once every 10 days). For the treatment of nephrotic syndrome in children, Cytoxan is usually limited to 60 days to 90 days of use. Taking Cytoxan on an empty stomach is preferable. If severe stomach upset occurs, take it with food. Take each oral dose with a large glass of water. During treatment with this medication, you must drink more fluids than usual and pass urine frequently to help avoid kidney and bladder side effects ...
BALTIMORE-Fludarabine (Fludara) and cyclophosphamide are highly active agents for indolent lymphomas, but when given in combination, opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and herpes zoster may be dose limiting. 1
OBJECTIVES: To perform systematic assessment of ovarian reserve markers using a combination of tests in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients without amenorrhoea. METHODS: Twenty-seven consecutive JSLE female patients and 13 healthy c
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January 2007). "Cyclophosphamide for multiple sclerosis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD002819. doi: ... cyclophosphamide and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In March 2017, ocrelizumab was approved in the United States for ...
Methylprednisolone, a glucocorticoid, is often used for pulse therapy; cyclophosphamide is an alternative. This method has been ... Immunosuppressive pulse therapy, such as with cyclophosphamide, has also demonstrated relief of symptoms associated with ... Commonly used cytotoxic agents include azathioprine, methotrexate, or cyclophosphamide. The dose of glucocorticoid medication ...
"Cyclophosphamide for treating rheumatoid arthritis". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD001157. doi:10.1002/ ... "Cyclophosphamide versus methylprednisolone for treating neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus". Cochrane ...
There have been some successful cases of using cyclophosphamide to treat paraquat poisoning. Oxygen should not be administered ... doi:10.1046/j.0043-1737.2003.00356.x. Newstead CG (1996). "Cyclophosphamide treatment of paraquat poisoning". Thorax. 51 (7): ...
If the nadir ANC > 500/μL, then the doses of etoposide, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide for the next cycle are all increased ... Dose de-escalation below the starting doses in case of poor patient's chemotherapy tolerability applies to cyclophosphamide ... doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide are reduced by 20% below the doses used in the previous cycle, but doxorubicin and etoposide ... Cyclophosphamide: an alkylating antineoplastic agent; Hydroxydaunorubicin, also known as doxorubicin: an anthracycline ...
Emadi A, Jones RJ, Brodsky RA (2009). "Cyclophosphamide and cancer: golden anniversary". Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 6 (11): 638-47. ... US FDA approves cyclophosphamide for chemotherapy of cancer 1960s - Introduction of laser therapy in treatment of cancer 1960 ... cyclophosphamide, and prednisone, cured advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma 1977 - US FDA approves tamoxifen for metastatic ...
Immunosuppressants such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine may also be given. A systematic review of antineutrophil ... Current treatment of choice is cyclophosphamide. At least two out of four criteria yields sensitivity and specificity of 88 and ...
Chemotherapeutic options include: Cyclophosphamide plus methotrexate plus fluorouracil (CMF). Cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin ...
Cyclophosphamide and prednisone have been tried. Vitamin C therapy has improved immune function and clotting in some patients. ...
Cyclophosphamide slows or stops cell growth. It targets cells that are rapidly dividing, which include cancer cells that are ... More importantly, the biological actions of cyclophosphamide are dose-dependent. At high doses it is very cytotoxic; its ... "Oral low-dose cyclophosphamide in metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer (MHRPC)". Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 58 (8 ... The CHOP regimen consists of Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Oncovin, and Prednisone (CHOP). They all exploit different pathways ...
Cyclophosphamide and Beta-Interferon has been tried on IFNbeta-unresponsive patients with success, but it is still under study ... Zipoli V, Portaccio E, Hakiki B, Siracusa G, Sorbi S, Amato MP (March 2008). "Intravenous mitoxantrone and cyclophosphamide as ... At this moment several therapies are under research: Cyclophosphamide (trade name Revimmune) is currently[when?] in Phase III ... Cyclophosphamide - Strong immunosuppressor with conflicting evidence. Low-Dose Naltrexone (LDN). Filgrastim Progressive ...
FAC (or CAF): 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide. AC (or CA): Adriamycin (doxorubicin) and cyclophosphamide. AC- ... "Breakthrough - CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil)". 2009-01-06. Archived from the original on 2009-01-06. ... The following is a list of some of the commonly used adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: CMF: cyclophosphamide, ... FEC: 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide. AT: Adriamycin (doxorubicin) and Taxotere (docetaxel). Since chemotherapy ...
Chemotherapeutic agents, such as Cyclophosphamide, have been shown to activate the PI3K/PTEN/Akr pathway, which is the main ... "Cyclophosphamide triggers follicle activation and "burnout"; AS101 prevents follicle loss and preserves fertility". Science ...
Cyclophosphamide may be also administered intravenously in conjunction with these drugs, or may be taken as an oral tablet, ... Cyclophosphamide Methotrexate Fluorouracil (CMF) is a commonly used regimen of breast cancer chemotherapy that combines three ... "CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil)". UK: Breakthrough Breast Cancer. Archived from the original on 2009-01 ... 2002). "The feasibility of classical cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil (CMF) for pre- and post-menopausal node- ...
... is in the class of oxazaphosphorine compounds, and is the main, active metabolite of cyclophosphamide ... Ludeman SM (August 1999). "The chemistry of the metabolites of cyclophosphamide". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 5 (8): 627-43 ...
Oral and intravenous cyclophosphamide are both effective for induction of GPA remission. Oral cyclophosphamide at a dose of 2 ... pulsed intravenous cyclophosphamide may be associated with a higher risk of GPA relapse when compared to oral cyclophosphamide ... With corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, 5-year survival is over 80%. Long-term complications are common (86%), mainly ... Rituximab may be substituted for cyclophosphamide to induce remission since it is similarly effective and has a comparable side ...
The chemistry of the metabolites of cyclophosphamide. Curr Pharm Des. 1999 Aug;5(8):627-43. PMID 10469895 "Intrathecal ... Mafosfamide (INN) is an oxazaphosphorine (cyclophosphamide-like) alkylating agent under investigation as a chemotherapeutic. It ...
Cyclophosphamide (SCOT) trial, is ongoing. Onishi A, Sugiyama D, Kumagai S, Morinobu A (July 2013). "Cancer incidence in ... June 2006). "Cyclophosphamide versus placebo in scleroderma lung disease". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (25): 2655-66. doi:10.1056/ ... Active alveolitis is often treated with pulses of cyclophosphamide, often together with a small dose of steroids. The benefit ... The patient's white blood cells are destroyed with cyclophosphamide and rabbit antibodies against the white blood cells. Then, ...
... is an oxazaphosphorine compound, similar to mafosfamide and cyclophosphamide. Like those compounds it, is ... Ludeman SM (August 1999). "The chemistry of the metabolites of cyclophosphamide". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 5 (8): 627-43 ...
Then, if symptoms do not improve additional immunosuppression such as cyclophosphamide are added to decrease the immune ... prednisone and cyclophosphamide therapy. In case of emergency, plasmapheresis may be tried In PAN associated with a hepatitis ... Cyclophosphamide Azathioprine Mycophenolate mofetil "Cerebral Vasculitis". Prime Health Channel. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 1 ...
Cyclophosphamide and rituximab seem to have some response. Mycophenolate mofetil may be of use in milder cases. Immunoglobulin ... and cyclophosphamide, a drug which reduces the function of the immune system. Ciclosporin has also been used in CIDP but with ...
Chlorambucil Cyclosporine Tacrolimus Cyclophosphamide Mycophenolate mofetil Rituximab Perhaps the most difficult aspect of ... Passerini P, Ponticelli C (July 2003). "Corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, and chlorambucil therapy of membranous nephropathy ... cyclophosphamide alternating with a corticosteroid, also known as the Ponticelli regime. Corticosteroids: They have been tried ... trials comparing treatments of membranous nephropathy showed that regimes comprising chlorambucil or cyclophosphamide, either ...
Cyclophosphamide. Nitrogen mustard that cross-links DNA base pairs, leading to breakages and triggering apoptosis in ... Interstitial lung disease with cyclophosphamide, azathioprine with or without corticosteroids. *Pulmonary arterial hypertension ... cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate, intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab, sirolimus, alefacept, and the tyrosine kinase ... The treatment for scleroderma often includes known teratogens such as cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, mycophenolate, etc., so ...
... fludarabine with cyclophosphamide) FR (fludarabine with rituximab) FCR (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab) CHOP ( ... The medications fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab were previously the initial treatment in those who are otherwise ... Alkylating agents approved for CLL include bendamustine and cyclophosphamide. Targeted therapy attacks cancer cells at a ... February 2006). "Fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide versus fludarabine alone in first-line therapy of younger patients with ...
These immunosuppressive drugs include methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine or azathioprine. In some cases, combinations ...
Cyclophosphamide is a common cytotoxic drug used in this manner, and is often used in conjunction with total body irradiation. ... Cyclophosphamide is sometimes used to treat lupus nephritis, a common symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus. Dexamethasone ... For example, the chemotherapeutic drugs oxaliplatin and cyclophosphamide can cause tumor cells to die in a way that is ... Ntali S, Bertsias G, Boumpas DT (June 2011). "Cyclophosphamide and lupus nephritis: when, how, for how long?". Clinical Reviews ...
... cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) and FAC (5-fluorouracil, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide). Doxil ( ... Commonly used doxorubicin-containing regimens are AC (Adriamycin, cyclophosphamide), TAC (taxotere, AC), ABVD (Adriamycin, ... Doxorubicin and several chemotherapeutic drugs (including cyclophosphamide) cause dyspigmentation. Other groups of drugs that ... approved in the European Union and in Canada for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in combination with cyclophosphamide ...
Cyclophosphamide is an immunomodulator used in combination with systemic steroids to remove bone marrow. This is followed by ... ". "Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more". "Pemphigus - Symptoms and causes ...
This includes immune modulators such as hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide. 6-mercaptopurine as a long-term ... Colombo JR, Stolz SM (1992). "Treatment of life-threatening primary pulmonary hemosiderosis with cyclophosphamide". Chest. 102 ...
... cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone CHOP, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone [COP], vincristine, ... 2006). "Fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide versus fludarabine alone in first-line therapy of younger patients with chronic ... The primary chemotherapeutic plan is combination chemotherapy with chlorambucil or cyclophosphamide, plus a corticosteroid such ... other drug plans may include L-asparaginase or cyclophosphamide. For children with low-risk ALL, standard therapy usually ...
Cyclophosphamide is a pregnancy category D drug and causes birth defects. First trimester exposure to cyclophosphamide for the ... Cyclophosphamide provides a positive control when studying immune-response of a new drug. "cyclophosphamide - definition of ... For example, systemic lupus erythematosus with severe lupus nephritis may respond to pulsed cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide ... Cyclophosphamide was approved for medical use in the United States in 1959. It is on the World Health Organizations List of ...
Cyclophosphamide: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Cyclophosphamide is in a class of medications called alkylating agents. When cyclophosphamide is used to treat cancer, it works ... Before taking cyclophosphamide,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to cyclophosphamide, other alkylating ... Talk to your doctor about the risks of taking cyclophosphamide.. Cyclophosphamide may cause other side effects. Call your ...
Toyoda H, et al. Weekly rituximab followed by monthly rituximab treatment for autoimmune disease associated with RAS-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disease. Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 40: e516-e518, No. 8, 1 Nov 2018. Available from: URL: - Japan ...
Connors WJ, et al. Albendazole-responsive disseminated Tubulinosema acridophagus in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 23: 684-685, No. 9, Sep 2017. Available from: URL: - Canada ...
Was cyclophosphamide the cause of diabetes in this patient who lacked the traditional clinical or biochemical markers for ... Background: Cyclophosphamide may induce autoimmune diabetes through a decrease in suppressor T cells and increase of ... Conclusion: Cyclophosphamide may be an additional risk factor for acute hyperglycemic crisis. Glucose monitoring could be ... Difficult-to-Diagnose Diabetes in a Patient Treated With Cyclophosphamide. The Contradictory Roles of Immunosuppressant Agents ...
... page with information on Cyclophosphamide and Multiple Sclerosis Research in the MS Research News section of ... You are here : Home » MS Research News » Drugs » Cyclophosphamide Cyclophosphamide. A A A. [Print this page] ... Short-Term Exposure to Cyclophosphamide Reduces Long-Term Brain Atrophy in Refractory Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis ... Cyclophosphamide promising against multiple sclerosis Treatment with an immune-suppressing drug may help people with the ...
Cyclophosphamide is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat lymphoma, leukaemia, myeloma, lung cancer and breast cancer. Read ... Cyclophosphamide is usually given into a vein, it can also be given as tablets. You may have it as an outpatient or during a ... Cyclophosphamide is used to treat breast cancer, lung cancer, leukaemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. It may sometimes be used to ... Cyclophosphamide may also cause blurry vision or eye pain. Always tell your doctor or nurse if you have eye pain or notice any ...
Cyclophosphamide Injection). Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects. ... If you have an allergy to cyclophosphamide or any other part of Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection). ... You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection) with all of your drugs and ... Use Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection) as ordered by your doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions ...
Cyclophosphamide is a widely used anti-cancer drug, most commonly used as a treatment for the following medical conditions: ... Cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide is a widely used anti-cancer drug, most commonly used as a treatment for the following ... Cyclophosphamide itself is a carcinogen, meaning it has the potential to cause cancer. A serious potential side-effect is acute ... Cyclophosphamide is normally ingested either orally in pill form or administered intravenously out of a syringe. The size of ...
CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE- cyclophosphamide tablet To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader ... When cyclophosphamide is included in combined cytotoxic regimens, it may be necessary to reduce the dose of cyclophosphamide as ... Cyclophosphamide is a synthetic antineoplastic drug chemically related to the nitrogen mustards. Cyclophosphamide is a white ... Girls treated with cyclophosphamide during prepubescence subsequently have conceived.. Men treated with cyclophosphamide may ...
Cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide (CP), also known as cytophosphane among other,[3] is a medication used as chemotherapy and ... Cyclophosphamide is a pregnancy category D drug and causes birth defects. First trimester exposure to cyclophosphamide for the ... "cyclophosphamide - definition of cyclophosphamide in English from the Oxford dictionary". Retrieved ... For example, systemic lupus erythematosus with severe lupus nephritis may respond to pulsed cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide ...
A Major Drug Interaction exists between ACAM2000 and cyclophosphamide. View detailed information regarding this drug ... Depending on the dose and length of time you have been on cyclophosphamide, you may be at risk for developing an infection from ... If you are currently being treated or have recently been treated with cyclophosphamide, you should let your doctor know before ... your doctor may choose to postpone treatment with cyclophosphamide for a few weeks. It is important to tell your doctor about ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Cyclophosphamide at PatientsLikeMe. 27 patients with ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Cyclophosphamide. ... 10 patient evaluations for Cyclophosphamide Sort by: Most ... Showing 3 of 10 patient evaluations for Cyclophosphamide Previous page 1 2 3 4 Next page ...
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an extremely well documented mutagen and carcinogen in both in vitro and in vivo test systems, as well ... Exposure assessment of workers in the production of cyclophosphamide. Informaci n bibliogr fica. 1990, Vol.3, No.2, p.185-189. ...
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cyclophosphamide 2000 MG Injection. SCD. 10. 1734921. cyclophosphamide (as cyclophosphamide monohydrate) 2000 MG Injection. SY ... CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE (UNII: 8N3DW7272P) (CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE ANHYDROUS - UNII:6UXW23996M) CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE ANHYDROUS. 1 g in 50 mL. ... CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE (UNII: 8N3DW7272P) (CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE ANHYDROUS - UNII:6UXW23996M) CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE ANHYDROUS. 2 g in 100 mL. ... CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE (UNII: 8N3DW7272P) (CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE ANHYDROUS - UNII:6UXW23996M) CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE ANHYDROUS. 500 mg in 25 mL ...
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Vincristine, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide and Dexrazoxane (VACdxr) in High Risk Ewing's Sarcoma Patients. *Ewing's ... 47 Studies found for: Bone Osteosarcoma , Cyclophosphamide. Also searched for Osteosarcoma, Endoxan, and Neosar. See Search ... Drug: continuous oral cyclophosphamide and methotrexate. Interventional. Phase 2. *Grupo de Apoio ao Adolescente e a Crianca ... Cyclophosphamide, Topotecan, and Bevacizumab (CTB) in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Ewing's Sarcoma and Neuroblastoma ...
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Cyclophosphamide indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Curcumin, Astaxanthin, and Clove ... Diallyl sulfide alleviates cyclophosphamide-induced nephropathic encephalopathy.Feb 29, 2020. Click here to read the entire ... Naringin protects against cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.May 14, 2018. Click here to read the ... Thymoquinone supplementation attenuates cyclophosphamide induced cardiotoxicity.Apr 30, 2011. Click here to read the entire ...
La Mantia L, Milanese C, Mascoli N, DAmico R, Weinstock-Guttman B. Cyclophosphamide for multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database ...
Cyclophosphamide may have a beneficial effect on pulmonary fibrosis in patients with SSc and elevated levels of acute-phase ... Improved pulmonary function in systemic sclerosis after treatment with cyclophosphamide.. Akesson A1, Scheja A, Lundin A, ... Controlled trials of cyclophosphamide in pulmonary SSc should be performed and should focus on such patients. ... Evaluation of cyclophosphamide treatment of systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary dysfunction: comment on the article by ...
GM-CSF With Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... GM-CSF With Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide Official Title ICMJE Phase II Trial Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of ... GM-CSF will be administered not less than 24 hours after the last dose of cyclophosphamide and will be given at a dose of ... Given the increased number of HLA-mismatched haploidentical transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide performed ...
Injected cyclophosphamide distributed rapidly into 64% of body weight, and plasma cyclophosphamide half-life in patients ... The human pharmacology of cyclophosphamide was investigated in 26 patients who received cyclophosphamide 14C in doses of 6 to ... In a regimen of five consecutive daily cyclophosphamide administrations, cyclophosphamide half-life was shorter and peak ... Clinical Pharmacology of Cyclophosphamide. Charles M. Bagley Jr., Frieda W. Bostick and Vincent T. DeVita Jr. ...
Cyclophosphamide Resistance in Medulloblastoma. Henry S. Friedman, O. Michael Colvin, Scott H. Kaufmann, Susan M. Ludeman, ... Cyclophosphamide Resistance in Medulloblastoma. Henry S. Friedman, O. Michael Colvin, Scott H. Kaufmann, Susan M. Ludeman, ... Cyclophosphamide Resistance in Medulloblastoma. Henry S. Friedman, O. Michael Colvin, Scott H. Kaufmann, Susan M. Ludeman, ... passaged in the laboratory for resistance to 4-HC or established from tumors showing clinical resistance to cyclophosphamide. ...
Cyclophosphamide is inactive until it undergoes hepatic transformation to form 4-hydr … ... Cyclophosphamide has been in clinical use for the treatment of malignant disease for over 30 years. It remains one of the most ... correlations between cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have not been demonstrated. Cyclophosphamide is ... Cyclophosphamide has been in clinical use for the treatment of malignant disease for over 30 years. It remains one of the most ...
Injectable; Injection; Cyclophosphamide 1 g*Injectable; Injection; Cyclophosphamide 200 mg*Injectable; Injection; ... L01AA01 - Cyclophosphamide. Pharmaceutical companies: manufacturers, researchers, developers, local distributors and suppliers: ...
Thirty-four patients resistant to cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin received hexamethylmelamine at one of two dose regimens: 6 mg ... Hexamethylmelamine in ovarian cancer resistant to cyclophosphamide and adriamycin Cancer Treat Rep. 1979 Aug;63(8):1375-7. ... Thirty-four patients resistant to cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin received hexamethylmelamine at one of two dose regimens: 6 mg ...
  • Cyclophosphamide decreases the immune system's response, and although concerns about toxicity restrict its use to patients with severe disease, it remains an important treatment for life-threatening autoimmune diseases where disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have been ineffective. (
  • Additional relative contraindications to the use of cyclophosphamide include lactation, active infection, neutropenia or bladder toxicity. (
  • Although elevated levels of metabolites of cyclophosphamide have been observed in patients with renal failure, increased clinical toxicity in such patients has not been demonstrated. (
  • Although patients with and without prior exposure to microsomal enzyme-inducing drugs demonstrated marked variation in plasma cyclophosphamide half-life and peak alkylating levels, the total concentration × time product remained relatively constant for a given cyclophosphamide dose, suggesting that alterations in the rate of cyclophosphamide metabolism by drugs or liver metastases in the absence of renal failure will not change toxicity or therapeutic effect. (
  • Paeoniflorin might be considered as an effective agent in the amelioration of the kidney toxicity resulting from cyclophosphamide treatment. (
  • This will increase the toxicity potential of the cyclophosphamide. (
  • Long-term follow-up studies of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis have not found significant toxicity from continuous cyclophosphamide therapy (3, 4). (
  • Enlightened cardiotoxicity may result from a global effect of cyclophosphamide and, for medical: Increased homeopathic toxicity may give from a directory crucible of cyclophosphamide and, for diagnostic: G-CSF, GM-CSF neuritis common-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony colony-stimulating factor Dodgers cricket an increased risk of pulmonary valve in patients bortezomib cyclophosphamide multiple myeloma with cytotoxic chemotherapy that has cyclophosphamide and G-CSF or GMCSF. (
  • COLUMBUS, Ohio--Research from Ohio State University points to phosphoramide mustard as the cyclophosphamide metabolite with the greatest alkylating activity, and suggests that a reformulation of the chemotherapeutic agent to deliver only this metabolite could reduce toxicity without decreasing anticancer activity. (
  • Chemoprotective effect of curcumin against cyclophosphamide toxicity. (
  • Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most popular alkylating anticancer drugs that show a high therapeutic index, despite the widespread side effects and toxicity particularly in high-dose regimens and long-term use. (
  • Your nurse can give you cyclophosphamide as a slow injection or drip (infusion) into your cannula or line. (
  • If you have an allergy to cyclophosphamide or any other part of Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection). (
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection). (
  • You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection) with all of your drugs and health problems. (
  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection). (
  • Avoid driving and doing other tasks or actions that call for you to be alert or have clear eyesight until you see how Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection) affects you. (
  • Use of some vaccines with Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection) may either raise the chance of an infection or make the vaccine not work as well. (
  • Very bad and sometimes deadly heart problems like heart failure have happened with Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection). (
  • You may need to have your blood work checked more closely while taking Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection) with your other drugs. (
  • If you are 65 or older, use Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection) with care. (
  • If you are a man and your sex partner gets pregnant while you take Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection) or within 4 months after your last dose, call your doctor right away. (
  • Periods may stop in women treated with Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection). (
  • Women treated with Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection) may go through menopause at a younger age than normal. (
  • Use birth control that you can trust to prevent pregnancy while taking Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection) and for up to 12 months after Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide injection). (
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE FOR INJECTION safely and effectively. (
  • See full prescribing information for CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE FOR INJECTION. (
  • To study the maximum tolerated dose of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome Injection combination with cyclophosphamide and sequential treatment of docetaxel for patients with locally advanc. (
  • Preliminary studies on this species treated with cyclophosphamide or vinblastine sulfate showed that the maximum response for micronucleus induction by these agents was 24 h after injection. (
  • Each group of fish received an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (4, 8, 16 or 32 mg/kg body weight) or vinblastine sulfate (8, 16, or 32 mg/kg body weight) diluted in distilled water. (
  • What side effects can Cyclophosphamide Injection cause? (
  • Before taking Cyclophosphamide Injection, what precautions must I follow? (
  • What food or medicine must I avoid when I take Cyclophosphamide Injection? (
  • Cyclophosphamide Injection is given at the hospital every 1-2 week or every month. (
  • Adverse drug reactions from cyclophosphamide are related to the cumulative medication dose and include chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, bone marrow suppression, stomach ache, hemorrhagic cystitis, diarrhea, darkening of the skin/nails, alopecia (hair loss) or thinning of hair, changes in color and texture of the hair, lethargy, and profound gonadotoxicity. (
  • Continued use of cyclophosphamide is contraindicated in patients with severely depressed bone marrow function. (
  • Special consideration should be used when cyclophosphamide is given to patients taking additional medications with bone marrow suppressing potential. (
  • Diuretics of the thiazide class may increase the bone marrow suppression side effects of cyclophosphamide. (
  • Allopurinol , a medication used to reduce uric acid crystal deposits, can also increase the bone marrow suppression side effects of cyclophosphamide. (
  • A comparison of baseline and cyclophosphamide-induced sister chromatid exchanges in bone marrow and spleen cells of mouse and chinese hamster. (
  • Male CD1-mice and male Chinese-hamsters were used to compare the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges induced by cyclophosphamide (50180) (CY) in the bone marrow and in the spleen. (
  • In vivo and in vivo/in vitro kinetics of cyclophosphamide-induced sister-chromatid exchanges in mouse bone marrow and spleen cells. (
  • The fate of cyclophosphamide (50180) (CP) induced lesions causing sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in mouse bone marrow and spleen lymphocytes under in-vivo and in-vivo/in-vitro conditions were compared. (
  • Single agent: oral cyclophosphamide is usually administered at dosages in the range of 1 to 5 mg/kg/day for both initial and maintenance dosing. (
  • This is the largest and most detailed retrospective review to date of the use of cyclophosphamide in patients with relapsing remitting MS. All but one patient had been prescribed disease modifying drugs prior to cyclophosphamide without good clinical effect, and the patients had a median of 2 relapses in the prior 2 years. (
  • Like all chemotherapy drugs, cyclophosphamide can cause side effects. (
  • Cyclophosphamide can be given in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. (
  • With most cancer patients, other anti-cancer medications are given along with Cyclophosphamide, and in addition, anti-nausea medicines should be taken as well to combat the general sickness that comes along with most anti-cancer drugs. (
  • Cyclophosphamide tablets, although effective alone in susceptible malignancies, are more frequently used concurrently or sequentially with other antineoplastic drugs. (
  • To prevent problematic interactions between cyclophosphamide and other drugs, be sure to tell your doctor if you are allergic to any medications, and what other medications and supplements you are currently taking. (
  • Although cyclophosphamide may be effective on its own, it is more commonly used in combination with other anticancer drugs. (
  • A list of drugs that interact with Cyclophosphamide. (
  • Two known mutagenic drugs, cyclophosphamide and vinblastine sulfate, were tested using the micronucleus test in the native fish species, Astyanax bimaculatus , in order to determine which of these drugs and the doses which would be the most adequate for use as positive controls in this species. (
  • Cyclophosphamide was the most mutagenic of the two drugs and is recommended for use as a positive control in A. bimaculatus . (
  • Cyclophosphamide is in the class of drugs known as alkylating agent. (
  • CMS HHS WebsitesCMS Cyclophosphamide, although cytoxan for multiple myeloma alone in cervical viruses, is more powerful used concurrently or not with other antineoplastic drugs. (
  • What other drugs could interact with Cyclophosphamide/Ciclofosfamida? (
  • It may be noted that drugs other than those listed above may also interact with Cyclophosphamide/Ciclofosfamida. (
  • The use of a high dose cyclophosphamide post-transplant in a half matched or haploidentical donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation reduces GVHD, even after using a reduced conditioning regimen. (
  • Background: Previous studies have described stabilization of aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS) with one-time induction therapy with high-dose cyclophosphamide (HiCy). (
  • In this study the authors performed a retrospective analysis of 40 patients treated with high dose cyclophosphamide for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis at John Hopkins. (
  • High-dose cyclophosphamide, aimed at immune system ablation, is a safe and well-tolerated treatment for aggressive multiple sclerosis that can markedly reduce disease activity and disability, according to the results of a small, open-label trial. (
  • In an earlier study of 13 patients with severe refractory multiple sclerosis, treatment with high-dose cyclophosphamide followed by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor often stabilized or improved disability. (
  • As reported in the August issue of the Archives of Neurology , Dr. Douglas A. Kerr and colleagues focused on the safety and tolerability of high-dose cyclophosphamide in nine patients (20 to 47 years of age) with aggressive relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. (
  • cell -replete strategies such as that developed by the Baltimore group using high-dose posttransplant cyclophosphamide. (
  • Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with post-transplant high-dose cyclophosphamide in high-risk children: A single-center study. (
  • This immunologic mismatch can also lead to lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and immunosuppression strategies, including high-dose posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy), have been developed to allow for safe alloHSCT delivery. (
  • Among the newer approaches to the management of MS is high-dose cyclophosphamide (HDC) therapy, advocated and currently under study by Gladstone. (
  • In the treatment of immune mediated disease, it is common and usual to use cyclophosphamide in conjunction with corticosteroids (such as prednisone or dexamethasone ). (
  • Immunochemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab (R-CHOP) is the standard treatment in non-immunosuppressed patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but its adequacy has not been definitively established in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related lymphoma. (
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 228 patients with stage III or IV FSCL or FML were randomized to cyclophosphamide or the combination of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, and bleomycin (CHOP-B). Treatment was continued in responders for 2 years beyond maximal response. (
  • Cyclophosphamide is a chemotherapy drug used to treat lymphoma, leukaemia, myeloma, lung cancer and breast cancer. (
  • CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE (sye kloe FOSS fa mide) is a chemotherapy drug. (
  • Cyclophosphamide is a chemotherapy drug used to treat various types of cancer. (
  • Cyclophosphamide is a chemotherapy drug given as part of the metronomic protocol for dogs with bone cancer. (
  • Cyclophosphamide is a chemotherapy drug that works by stopping the growth of malignant cells. (
  • Patients will receive intensity modulated total body irradiation (TBI) at a dose of 3 Gy with standard fludarabine/ i.v. cyclophosphamide conditioni. (
  • Cyclophosphamide is usually given into a vein, it can also be given as tablets. (
  • If you are having cyclophosphamide as tablets, always take them exactly as you have been told. (
  • Cyclophosphamide tablets are useful in carefully selected cases of biopsy proven "minimal change" nephrotic syndrome in children but should not be used as primary therapy. (
  • Thirty-four patients resistant to cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin received hexamethylmelamine at one of two dose regimens: 6 mg/kg/day orally for 21 days every 4 weeks or 8 mg/kg/day orally for 21 days every 6 weeks. (
  • Doxorubicin Is Key for the Cardiotoxicity of FAC (5-Fluorouracil + Adriamycin + Cyclophosphamide) Combination in Differentiated H9c2 Cells. (
  • Cyclophosphamide, used in combination with thalidomide or lenalidomide and dexamethasone has documented efficacy as an off-label treatment of AL amyloidosis. (
  • Pomalidomide-cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone in first relapse after exposure to lenalidomide and bortezomib is efficacious and safe. (
  • Salvage pomalidomide-cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone can be a bridge for delayed autologous stem cell transplantation. (
  • This multicenter, phase 2 trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of weekly oral pomalidomide-cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone (PCD) in patients with MM in first relapse after treatment with lenalidomide-bortezomib-dexamethasone (RVD). (
  • An all-oral triplet therapy of ixazomib (Ninlaro), cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone demonstrated promising early response rates in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, according to phase II data presented at the 2015 ASH Annual Meeting. (
  • We report the use of a risk-adapted oral regimen of cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (CTD) or attenuated CTD (CTDa) in 75 patients with advanced AL amyloidosis, including 44 patients with clonal relapse after prior therapy. (
  • 12 In myeloma the oral combination of cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (CTD) has been evaluated in a number of small studies in relapsed and newly diagnosed cases, in which it has produced hematologic response rates of 61% to 71%, and it has been relatively well tolerated. (
  • The main use of cyclophosphamide is with other chemotherapy agents in the treatment of lymphomas, some forms of brain cancer, neuroblastoma, leukemia and some solid tumors. (
  • Because of its potential side effects such as amenorrhea or ovarian failure, cyclophosphamide is used for early phases of treatment and later substituted by other medications, such as mycophenolic acid or ACA. (
  • First trimester exposure to cyclophosphamide for the treatment of cancer or lupus displays a pattern of anomalies labeled "cyclophosphamide embryopathy," including growth restriction, ear and facial abnormalities, absence of digits and hypoplastic limbs. (
  • Your doctor may need to delay your treatment or adjust your dose of cyclophosphamide depending on your response to treatment and any side effects that you experience. (
  • Cyclophosphamide treatment followed by glatiramer acetate lead to a reduction in annualised relapse rate, and significant reduction in number of gadolinium enhancing lesions at 3 and 12 months. (
  • Hyperbaric oxygen as a treatment modality in cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. (
  • Improved pulmonary function in systemic sclerosis after treatment with cyclophosphamide. (
  • Evaluation of cyclophosphamide treatment of systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary dysfunction: comment on the article by Akesson et al. (
  • Prior patient treatment with allopurinol resulted in significantly longer cyclophosphamide half-life, but concomitant prednisolone treatment had no effect. (
  • Cyclophosphamide has been in clinical use for the treatment of malignant disease for over 30 years. (
  • Cyclophosphamide is a antineoplastic , immunosuppressive agent that is FDA approved for the treatment of malignant diseases , minimal change nephrotic syndrome in pediatric patients. (
  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment for cyclophosphamide-induced severe neutropenia in Wegener's granulomatosis. (
  • If you undergo surgery and/or dental work during treatment, be sure to tell your doctor and/or that you are taking cyclophosphamide. (
  • At Cancer Treatment Centers of America (CTCA), your team of cancer experts will explain each of the side effects of cyclophosphamide with you in detail, as well as the side effects and expectations of all other medications planned as part of your individualized treatment. (
  • Cyclophosphamide treatment kills both rapidly proliferating cells and resting lymphoid cells. (
  • Primary objective : - To compare disease-free survival after treatment with docetaxel in combination with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide to doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide foll. (
  • While having treatment with Cyclophosphamide, you must see your doctor as scheduled to monitor response to treatment and minimize any possible side effect. (
  • You should not plan to have children while taking Cyclophosphamide or for a while after treatment. (
  • Increased risk of modifiable cystitis may make from a grey effect of cyclophosphamide and of or impossible retention treatment. (
  • Further evaluation of patients treated with cyclophosphamide and those without this treatment revealed a higher median FSH levels (6.4 vs. 4.6 IU/L, p=0.023). (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that ovarian reserve after cyclophosphamide treatment may be hampered in spite of the presence of menstrual cycles emphasising the relevance of gonadal protection during the use of this alkylating agent. (
  • Treatment with cyclophosphamide (CY) was shown to release T cells from this inhibitory influence of the humoral response, and cause enhancement of DTH. (
  • Giving eribulin mesylate together with doxorubicin hydrochloride and cyclophosphamide before surgery may be an effective treatment in HER2-negative inflammatory breast cancer patients. (
  • The chemical name for cyclophosphamide is 2-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]tetrahydro-2 H -1,3,2-oxazaphosphorine 2-oxide monohydrate. (
  • Qualitative and quantitative composition Each tablet contains cyclophosphamide monohydrate equivalent to 50 mg anhydrous. (
  • Cyclophosphamide monohydrate is an alkylating, cytotoxic agent experimentally shown to crosslink DNA, causing strand breakage and inducing mutations. (
  • Each tablet for oral administration contains cyclophosphamide USP (calculated as anhydrous) 25 or 50 mg. (
  • The most important side effect of cyclophosphamide is hemorrhagic cystitis, which means "bloody inflammation of the bladder. (
  • Adequate hydration is needed for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to reduce the risk of hemorrhagic cystitis. (
  • Cyclophosphamide is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytostatic and cytotoxic drug used for such diverse medical problems as neoplasia, tissue transplantation, and inflammatory disease of uncertain cause. (
  • How we perform haploidentical stem cell transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide. (
  • transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide. (
  • HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using posttransplant cyclophosphamide is associated with low rates of severe graft-versus-host disease and nonrelapse mortality and does not require graft manipulation or storage, which results in a low graft acquisition cost. (
  • Several large, registry-based retrospective studies have confirmed the efficacy of HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide, achieving results comparable to those of HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Pediatric unmanipulated haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide and reduced intensity, TBI-free conditioning regimens in salvage transplantations. (
  • Unmanipulated haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haploSCT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide is an option for patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. (
  • Posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) recently has had a marked impact on human allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). (
  • STOP taking Cyclophosphamide and let your doctor know if you develop an allergic reaction. (
  • Rash due to allergic reaction to Cyclophosphamide is rare. (
  • You should not receive it if you have had an allergic reaction to cyclophosphamide, or if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. (
  • Do not stop taking cyclophosphamide without talking to your doctor. (
  • Somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide led to an overall clinical benefit been achieved in 75% of cases. (
  • The risk is higher with long term use and higher cumulative doses of Cyclophosphamide. (
  • If the urine appears bloody or dark, do not give any further doses of cyclophosphamide and contact your veterinarian immediately. (
  • Use of bilirubin inhibitor-based smells was bortezomib cyclophosphamide multiple myeloma to be noted with a greater height of viruses and neutropenia in patients receiving cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide CDE than use of a Non-Nucleoside Excitable Transcriptase Inhibitor-based afghan. (
  • The efficacy of cyclophosphamide therapy in Wegener's granulomatosis is well established. (
  • Unexpectedly, ICA69 null NOD mice were resistant to cyclophosphamide (CY)-accelerated diabetes. (
  • The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if bortezomib when given in combination with cyclophosphamide and rituximab can help to control mantle cell lymphoma. (
  • Cyclophosphamide/Ciclofosfamida is an anticancer drug used to treat various types of cancer such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer, leukemias, malignant lymphomas, multiple myeloma, neuroblastoma, and retinoblastoma. (
  • Mechanisms of tumor resistance to 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC) were studied by using a panel of human medulloblastoma cell lines either passaged in the laboratory for resistance to 4-HC or established from tumors showing clinical resistance to cyclophosphamide. (
  • Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an effective drug widely used for treating clinical cancer and non-malignant diseases. (
  • Belonging to a specific group of chemotherapy medications known as alkylating agents, Cyclophosphamide is converted to active metabolites in the liver upon ingestion. (
  • Cyclophosphamide is biotransformed principally in the liver to active alkylating metabolites by a mixed function microsomal oxidase system. (
  • Protein binding of cyclophosphamide and plasma alkylating metabolites were determined by plasma ultrafiltration. (
  • Sensitive and specific methods are now available for the measurement of cyclophosphamide, its metabolites and its stereoisomers in plasma and urine. (
  • As activity resides exclusively in the metabolites, whose pharmacokinetics are not predicted by those of the parent compound, correlations between cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have not been demonstrated. (
  • Cellular sensitivity to cyclophosphamide is a function of cellular thiol concentration, metabolism by aldehyde dehydrogenases to form inactive metabolites, and the ability of DNA to repair alkylated nucleotides. (
  • Up to 30% of dogs (depending on the study) receiving cyclophosphamide for over 2 months develop bloody urine caused by excretion of irritating cyclophophamide metabolites. (
  • In the study, reported in the December 15 issue of Cancer Research, blood samples from 12 patients who took cyclophosphamide were analyzed, using new methods that stabilized the metabolites and allowed them to be measured. (
  • But, since cyclophosphamide is a prodrug which requires hepatic enzymes activation to form active metabolites, it does not work their cytotoxic action in vitro. (
  • Unmanipulated stem cells and post-transplant cyclophosphamide were given to all patients as GVHD prophylaxis. (
  • Cheap Cyclophosphamide 50mg It is Beneficial to Order Online. (
  • In principle, one such combination is low or lower dose metronomic chemotherapy, in particular known immunostimulatory regimens of metronomic cyclophosphamide (CTX). (
  • Cyclophosphamide (CP), also known as cytophosphane among other names, is a medication used as chemotherapy and to suppress the immune system. (
  • It is widely recognized that anti-nausea medication works best when taken approximately one hour before Cyclophosphamide, along with plenty of water. (
  • Due to the fact that Cyclophosphamide may decrease the number of white blood cells, there are chances of succumbing to an infection while taking the medication. (
  • If your physician has instructed or directed you to use Cyclophosphamide/Ciclofosfamida medication in a regular schedule and you have missed a dose of this medicine, use it as soon as you remember. (
  • Before you take a medication for a particular ailment, you should inform the health expert about intake of any other medications including non-prescription medications, over-the-counter medicines that may increase the effect of Cyclophosphamide/Ciclofosfamida, and dietary supplements like vitamins, minerals and herbal, so that the doctor can warn you of any possible drug interactions. (
  • Cyclophosphamide (CFX) is a cytotoxic and immunosuppressive agent, used in systemic autoimmune diseases. (
  • Similarly, cyclophosphamide (CYTOXAN®) is also a cytotoxic drug by cross-linking of strands of DNA and RNA with their alkyl group. (
  • You will be given cyclophosphamide in the chemotherapy day unit or during a stay in hospital. (
  • Subclinical impairment of ovarian reserve in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus after cyclophosphamide therapy. (
  • The authors evaluated the combination of etoposide/cyclophosphamide (VP/CY) as initial, presurgical therapy for patients with osteosarcoma and found an 88% response rate for the primary tumor and any metastases. (
  • The primary objective of this study: 1) Determine the best response rate (complete and partial response) achieved following therapy with bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab in patients with relapsed/refractory aggressive diffuse and nodular mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and its blastic variant. (
  • In a regimen of five consecutive daily cyclophosphamide administrations, cyclophosphamide half-life was shorter and peak alkylating levels were constantly higher on the 5th day than on the 1st day. (
  • Here we report results regarding the use of an immunostimulatory regimen of metronomic cyclophosphamide (CTX). (
  • 13 , 14 Different versions of this regimen have been reported using cyclophosphamide either daily or weekly with similar response rates. (
  • The effect of hepatic metastases on cyclophosphamide metabolism was unclear. (
  • Conversely, the antibiotic chloramphenicol may reduce the metabolism of cyclophosphamide thereby increasing its potency. (
  • Evidence for peroxidase-mediated metabolism of cyclophosphamide. (
  • When cyclophosphamide is used to treat cancer, it works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells in your body. (
  • Cyclophosphamide itself is a carcinogen, meaning it has the potential to cause cancer. (
  • Less commonly, cyclophosphamide is used to treat small cell lung cancer , pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma, and pediatric Ewing's sarcoma. (
  • An alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide works by stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells. (
  • PURPOSE: Randomized phase I trial to compare the effectiveness of two regimens of docetaxel combined with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in treating women who have advanced breast cancer. (
  • Determine the pharmacokinetic profile of docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide in women with advanced breast cancer. (
  • Adjuvant dose-dense doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide versus docetaxel-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide for high-risk breast cancer: First results of the randomised MATADOR trial (BOOG 2004-04). (
  • One uses cyclophosphamide to kill cells that are causing harm, usually cancer cells or inflammatory cells. (
  • Although rare, Cyclophosphamide may increase the risk of developing certain kinds of cancers, such as bladder cancer. (
  • To address the mechanistic aspects of the role of circadian clock in response to genotoxic stress induced by cancer therapy, we used three circadian mutant mouse models, Clock mutants, Bmal1 -/- mice, and Cry1 -/- Cry2 -/- knockout mice, and compared their in vivo drug response to a widely used chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide (CY). (
  • On the other hand, cyclophosphamide does not show proper effect on the breast cancer cell lines. (
  • In our study, the aim is to identify compounds (Epirubicin and cyclophosphamide) which have activity against a specific type of cancer (breast) have a novel mechanism of action. (
  • This phase II trial studies how well eribulin mesylate works in combination with doxorubicin hydrochloride and cyclophosphamide in treating patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative inflammatory breast cancer before surgery. (
  • Cyclophosphamide (CTX), an alkylating agent, is a widely acknowledged anticancer chemotherapeutic agent used alone or in combination with other medicines for part of the mainstream therapy of several human malignancies [ 2 ]. (
  • We find that wild-type and circadian mutant mice demonstrate striking differences in their response to the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (CY). (
  • Cyclophosphamide is also used to treat nephrotic syndrome (a disease that is caused by damage to the kidneys) in children whose disease has not improved, has gotten worse, or has come back after taking other medications or in children who experienced intolerable side effects with other medications. (
  • In children whose disease fails to respond adequately to appropriate adrenocorticosteroid therapy or in whom the adrenocorticosteroid therapy produces or threatens to produce intolerable side effects, cyclophosphamide may induce a remission. (
  • Cyclophosphamide comes as a tablet to take by mouth once a day. (
  • Cyclophosphamide comes as a tablet that is taken by mouth once daily. (
  • No prior therapy with a combination of bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and rituximab. (
  • Combined or life use of cyclophosphamide and other students with bortezomib cyclophosphamide multiple myeloma standards can potentiate hailstones. (
  • Increased hematotoxicity andor bortezomib cyclophosphamide multiple myeloma may go from a very effect of cyclophosphamide and, for distribution: Paclitaxel: Referenced hematotoxicity has been accused when cyclophosphamide was administered after paclitaxel infusion. (
  • docetaxel , doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide, use different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. (
  • Cyclophosphamide and piroxicam are used together to address some sarcomas in dogs as a means of addressing the tumor with reduced potential for the side effects listed below. (
  • Other oncologists do not like to reduce the cyclophosphamide dose without evidence of infection as reducing the cyclophosphamide dose will give the tumor an advantage and possibly jeopardize the remission. (
  • Cyclophosphamide is also used to treat minimal change disease, severe rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Goodpasture syndrome and multiple sclerosis. (
  • Side effects may occur when taking Cyclophosphamide, but the majority of these effects tend to resolve spontaneously. (
  • What are the side effects of Cyclophosphamide/Ciclofosfamida? (
  • Like other medicines, Cyclophosphamide/Ciclofosfamida can cause some side effects. (
  • If they do occur, the side effects of Cyclophosphamide/Ciclofosfamida are most likely to be minor and temporary. (
  • Lung and bladder injury are side-effects of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide (CP). (
  • It has not been demonstrated that any single metabolite is responsible for either the therapeutic or toxic effects of cyclophosphamide. (
  • Cyclophosphamide is not indicated for the nephrotic syndrome in adults or for any other renal disease. (
  • Paeoniflorin ameliorates renal function in cyclophosphamide-induced mice via AMPK suppressed inflammation and apoptosis. (
  • The study is to investigate the effects of paeoniflorin (PA) on renal function in cyclophosphamide-induced mice. (
  • For example, systemic lupus erythematosus with severe lupus nephritis may respond to pulsed cyclophosphamide. (
  • Compatibility of palonosetron with cyclophosphamide and with ifosfamide during simulated Y-site administration. (
  • METHODS: Test samples were prepared in triplicate by mixing 7.5 mL of palonosetron hydrochloride 50 microg (of palonosetron) per milliliter with 7.5 mL of cyclophosphamide 10 mg/mL and with ifosfamide 20 mg/mL. (
  • Palonosetron, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide remained chemically stable throughout the four-hour test period. (
  • CONCLUSION: Palonosetron hydrochloride was physically compatible with cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide during simulated Y-site administration. (
  • Longer term complications of cyclophosphamide therapy include infertility and an increased incidence of second malignancies. (
  • In players spinal with cyclophosphamide-containing housewives for a tinge of not tumors, informed customer reports of hormonal malignancies have been done. (