Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Silicon Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Microbubbles: Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Liquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Solanum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Astronauts: Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Weightlessness: Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration: An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Space Simulation: An environment simulating one or more parameters of the space environment, applied in testing space systems or components. Often, a closed chamber is used, capable of approximating the vacuum and normal environments of space. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988) This also includes simulated EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY studies in atmosphere exposure chambers or water tanks.Ethylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.Proto-Oncogene Proteins A-raf: A raf kinase subclass expressed primarily in non-neuronal tissues such as SKELETAL MUSCLE. The A-raf kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1.CyclopropanesPropaneH-Reflex: A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Benzenaminium, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanediyl)bis(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-propenyl-), Dibromide: Proposed cholinesterase inhibitor.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Prussia: Former state in north central Germany. Formally abolished March 1, 1947. Kingdom established 1701.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Imino Sugars: Sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom. This substitution prevents normal METABOLISM resulting in inhibition of GLYCOSIDASES and GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASES.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Cycloaddition Reaction: Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.

Pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2-(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone). (1/2057)

The pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone) were studied in both anesthetized animals and isolated organs. Oudenone (10--40 mg/kg i.v.) induced an initial rise in blood pressure followed by a prolonged hypotension in the anesthetized rats. In unanesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), oudenone (5--200 mg/kg p.o.) caused a dose-related decrease in the systolic blood pressure. The initial pressor effect was diminished by pretreatments with phentolamine, guanethidine, hexamethonium and was abolished in the pithed rats. In addition, intracisternal administrations of oudenone (100--600 mug/kg) showed a marked increase in blood pressure in the anesthetized rats, suggesting that the pressor effect may be due to centrally mediated actions. Oudenone, given intra-arterially into the femoral artery (400--800 mug/kg), caused a long-lasting vasodilation in anesthetized dogs. At a relatively high dose (40 mg/kg i.v.), oudenone antagonized all pressor responses to autonomic agents and central vagus nerve stimulation in anesthetized rats and dogs, however, oudenone showed no anti-cholinergic,-histaminergic, beta-adrenergic and adrenergic neuron blocking properties.  (+info)

Formation of lipoxygenase-pathway-derived aldehydes in barley leaves upon methyl jasmonate treatment. (2/2057)

In barley leaves, the application of jasmonates leads to dramatic alterations of gene expression. Among the up-regulated gene products lipoxygenases occur abundantly. Here, at least four of them were identified as 13-lipoxygenases exhibiting acidic pH optima between pH 5.0 and 6.5. (13S,9Z,11E,15Z)-13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid was found to be the main endogenous lipoxygenase-derived polyenoic fatty acid derivative indicating 13-lipoxygenase activity in vivo. Moreover, upon methyl jasmonate treatment > 78% of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are metabolized by hydroperoxide lyase activity resulting in the endogenous occurrence of volatile aldehydes. (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and (3Z)- plus (2E)-hexenal were identified as 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazones using HPLC and identification was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. This is the first proof that (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is formed in plants under physiological conditions. Quantification of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and hexenals upon methyl jasmonate treatment of barley leaf segments revealed that hexenals were the major aldehydes peaking at 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment. Their endogenous content increased from 1.6 nmol.g-1 fresh weight to 45 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in methyl-jasmonate-treated leaf segments, whereas (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, peaking at 48 h of methyl jasmonate treatment increased from 9 to 15 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. Similar to the hexenals, hexanal reached its maximal amount 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment, but increased from 0.6 to 3.0 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. In addition to the classical leaf aldehydes, (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal was detected, thereby raising the question of whether it functions in the degradation of chloroplast membrane constituents, which takes place after methyl jasmonate treatment.  (+info)

Formation of reactive cyclopentenone compounds in vivo as products of the isoprostane pathway. (3/2057)

Cyclopentenone prostaglandins A2 and J2 are reactive compounds that possess unique biological activities. However, the extent to which they are formed in vivo remains unclear. In this study, we explored whether D2/E2-isoprostanes undergo dehydration in vivo to form A2/J2-isoprostanes. Oxidation of arachidonic acid in vitro generated a series of compounds that were confirmed to be A2/J2-isoprostanes by mass spectrometric analyses. A2/J2-isoprostanes were detected in vivo esterified to lipids in livers from normal rats at a level of 5. 1 +/- 2.3 ng/g, and levels increased dramatically by a mean of 24-fold following administration of CCl4. An A2-isoprostane, 15-A2t-isoprostane, was obtained and found to readily undergo Michael addition with glutathione and to adduct covalently to protein. A2/J2-isoprostanes could not be detected in the circulation, even following CCl4 administration, which we hypothesized might be explained by rapid formation of adducts. This was supported by finding that essentially all the radioactivity excreted into the urine following infusion of radiolabeled 15-A2t-isoprostane into a human volunteer was in the form of a polar conjugate(s). These data identify a new class of reactive compounds that are produced in vivo as products of the isoprostane pathway that can exert biological effects relevant to the pathobiology of oxidant injury.  (+info)

Inverse relationship between systemic resistance of plants to microorganisms and to insect herbivory. (4/2057)

Pre-inoculation of plants with a pathogen that induces necrosis leads to the development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to subsequent pathogen attack [1]. The phenylpropanoid-derived compound salicylic acid (SA) is necessary for the full expression of both local resistance and SAR [2] [3]. A separate signaling pathway involving jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in systemic responses to wounding and insect herbivory [4] [5]. There is evidence both supporting and opposing the idea of cross-protection against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores [6] [7]. This is a controversial area because pharmacological experiments point to negative cross-talk between responses to systemic pathogens and responses to wounding [8] [9] [10], although this has not been demonstrated functionally in vivo. Here, we report that reducing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis by silencing the expression of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) reduces SAR to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), whereas overexpression of PAL enhances SAR. Tobacco plants with reduced SAR exhibited more effective grazing-induced systemic resistance to larvae of Heliothis virescens, but larval resistance was reduced in plants with elevated phenylpropanoid levels. Furthermore, genetic modification of components involved in phenylpropanoid synthesis revealed an inverse relationship between SA and JA levels. These results demonstrate phenylpropanoid-mediated cross-talk in vivo between microbially induced and herbivore-induced pathways of systemic resistance.  (+info)

EIN2, a bifunctional transducer of ethylene and stress responses in Arabidopsis. (5/2057)

Ethylene regulates plant growth, development, and responsiveness to a variety of stresses. Cloning of the Arabidopsis EIN2 gene identifies a central component of the ethylene signaling pathway. The amino-terminal integral membrane domain of EIN2 shows similarity to the disease-related Nramp family of metal-ion transporters. Expression of the EIN2 CEND is sufficient to constitutively activate ethylene responses and restores responsiveness to jasmonic acid and paraquat-induced oxygen radicals to mutant plants. EIN2 is thus recognized as a molecular link between previously distinct hormone response pathways. Plants may use a combinatorial mechanism for assessing various stresses by enlisting a common set of signaling molecules.  (+info)

The jasmonate-induced 60 kDa protein of barley exhibits N-glycosidase activity in vivo. (6/2057)

Upon jasmonate treatment barley leaf segments express a putative ribosome-inactivating protein (JIP60). The influence of this protein on translation in planta has been analysed by using barley plants and tobacco plants transformed with a barley cDNA encoding JIP60. In both plant systems JIP60 exhibited N-glycosidase activity in vivo. The depurination of the 25S rRNA of tobacco and barley ribosomes led to accumulation of translationally inactive polysomes.  (+info)

A novel jasmonate- and elicitor-responsive element in the periwinkle secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Str interacts with a jasmonate- and elicitor-inducible AP2-domain transcription factor, ORCA2. (7/2057)

Jasmonate (JA) is an important plant stress hormone that induces various plant defense responses, including the biosynthesis of protective secondary metabolites. The induction of the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Strictosidine synthase (Str) in Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) cells by elicitor requires JA as a second messenger. A 42 bp region in the Str promoter is both necessary and sufficient for JA- and elicitor-responsive expression. This region is unlike other previously identified JA-responsive regions, and contains a GCC-box-like element. Yeast one-hybrid screening identified cDNAs encoding two AP2-domain proteins. These octadecanoid-derivative responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain (ORCA) proteins bind in a sequence-specific manner the JA- and elicitor-responsive element. ORCA2 trans-activates the Str promoter and its expression is rapidly inducible with JA and elicitor, whereas Orca1 is expressed constitutively. The results indicate that a GCC-box-like element and ORCA2 play key roles in JA- and elicitor-responsive expression of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic gene Str.  (+info)

Oligogalacturonide-mediated induction of a gene involved in jasmonic acid synthesis in response to the cell-wall-degrading enzymes of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora. (8/2057)

Identification of Arabidopsis thaliana genes responsive to plant cell-wall-degrading enzymes of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora led to the isolation of a cDNA clone with high sequence homology to the gene for allene oxide synthase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonates. Expression of the corresponding gene was induced by the extracellular enzymes from this pathogen as well as by treatment with methyl jasmonate and short oligogalacturonides (OGAs). This suggests that OGAs are involved in the induction of the jasmonate pathway during plant defense response to E. carotovora subsp. carotovora attack.  (+info)

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Provided are liquid crystal compounds and mixtures incorporating the same. The liquid crystal compounds of the invention generally comprise a cyclopentane group and at least two other rings. In one em
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G-36 Featured G-36 is a cell-permeable non-steroidal antagonist of GPER, inhibiting activation by either 17β-estradiol or the GPER-selective agonist G-1(IC50 = 112 and 165 nM, respectively).. ...
A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of IV Peramivir in Addition to Standard of Care Compared to Standard of Care Alone in Adults and Adolescents Who Are Hospitalized Due to ...
Allosamizoline(1)is an aminocyclitol component of allosamidin, a Streptomyces metabolite, and has a cyclopentane ring originated from D-glucosamine. Biosynthesis of the cyclopentane ring was studied by feeding experiments with a variety of deuterium-labeled glucosamine and glucose. In the feeding experiments with [3-2H]-and [4-2H]-D-glucosamine and [1-2H]-D-glucose, deuterium was incorporated into C-3, C-4, and C-1 of 1, respectively. On the other hand, feeding experiments with [5-2H]-and [6, 6-2H2]-D-glucosamine showed that deuterium on C-5 and one of the two deuterium atoms on C-6 of glucosamine were lost during the cyclopentane ring formation of 1. In the feeding experiments with (6R)-and (6S)-[6-2H1]-D-glucose, the (6R)-deuterium of glucose was incorporated into the proS position on C-6 of 1, but the (6S)-deuterium of glucose was not incorporated into 1. These results suggested that an intermediate with a 6-aldehyde group is involved in the biosynthesis of the cyclopentane ring moiety of 1 ...
Archaeal lipids ensure unprecedented stability of archaea membranes in extreme environments. Here, we incorporate a characteristic structural feature of an archaeal lipid, the cyclopentane ring, into hydrocarbon chains of a short-chain (C12) phosphatidylcholine to explore whether the insertion would allow such a li
Oxylipins including jasmonates are signaling compounds in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) most mutants affected in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signaling are male sterile, whereas the JA-insensitive tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant jai1 is female sterile. The diminished seed formation in jai1 together with the ovule-specific accumulation of the JA biosynthesis enzyme allene oxide cyclase (AOC), which correlates with elevated levels of JAs, suggest a role of oxylipins in tomato flower/seed development. Here, we show that 35S::SlAOC-RNAi lines with strongly reduced AOC in ovules exhibited reduced seed set similarly to the jai1 plants. Investigation of embryo development of wild-type tomato plants showed preferential occurrence of AOC promoter activity and AOC protein accumulation in the developing seed coat and the embryo, whereas 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) was the dominant oxylipin occurring nearly ...
Figure 3. Immunofluorescent localization of procollagen I and Hsp47 in the presence or absence of brefeldin A treatment in CEC. Cells were treated with 2 µg/ml brefeldin A for 30 min, fixed, permeabilized, and stained as described in the text. A. Procollagen I (green) and Hsp47 (red) in brefeldin A-treated cells. B. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (green) and procollagen I (red) in brefeldin A-treated cells. C. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (green) and Hsp47 (red) in brefeldin A-treated cells. D. Phase-contrast microscopy of C. Bar, 10 µm.. ...
Author Summary The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide range of plant immune responses involving genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming that are regulated by the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) Leu zipper transcription factor MYC2. As a master regulator of JA signaling, MYC2 differentially regulates the transcription of different branches of JA-responsive genes through distinct molecular mechanisms. Here, we provide evidence that phosphorylation-dependent turnover of MYC2 is coupled with its function. We show that, during JA response, high accumulation of the MYC2 protein correlates with peaked expression of early wound-responsive genes that are positively regulated by MYC2, whereas low accumulation of the MYC2 protein correlates with peaked expression of late pathogen-responsive genes that are negatively regulated by MYC2. We discovered a 12-amino-acid element in the transcription activation domain of MYC2 that is required for both the proteolysis and the transcriptional activity of MYC2
Page contains details about multiply-alkylated cyclopentanes/APTES-graphene oxide film on silicon wafer . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
This invention is a process of converting n-pentane to cyclopentane. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, n-pentane feed is converted in dual temperature stage process without interstage processing of the first stage product mixture.
The response of individual members of the lipoxygenase multigene family in soybeans to sink deprivation was analyzed. RNase protection assays indicated that a novel vegetative lipoxygenase gene, vlxC, and three other vegetative lipoxygenase mRNAs accumulated in mature leaves in response to a variety of sink limitations. These data suggest that several members of the lipoxygenase multigene family are involved in assimilate partitioning. The possible involvement of jasmonic acid as a signaling molecule regulating assimilate partitioning into the vegetative storage proteins and lipoxygenases was directly assessed by determining the endogenous level of jasmonic acid in leaves from plants with their pods removed. There was no rise in the level of endogenous jasmonic acid coincident with the strong increase in both vlxC and vegetative storage protein VspB transcripts in response to sink limitation. Thus, expression of the vegetative lipoxygenases and vegetative storage proteins is not regulated by ...
In a second approach, we compared the AtPep-PEPR system to systemins - well described DAMPs in tomato with generally similar molecular features to AtPeps. Following up the lead that systemins are important mediators of defense responses against herbivorous insects, we checked whether a similar role would apply to the AtPep-PEPR system. Here, we could show that the AtPep-PEPR system is indeed induced by herbivore feeding and strongly interacts with the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) to orchestrate defense responses. Accordingly, mutants deficient in AtPep-PEPR signaling are strongly impaired in defense responses against the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis, underlining the importance of AtPep signaling in plant defense against herbivores ...
Jasmonic Acid JA Definition - Jasmonic acid (JA), also known commercially as Jasmonate, is a plant hormone produced by many plants, but one that plays an....
There are disclosed compounds of the formula, ##STR1## where n is 0 or 1; A is ##STR2## where X in each occurrence is independently hydrogen, halogen, loweralkyl, hydroxy, nitro, loweralkoxy, amino, cyano, trifluoromethyl or methylthio; Y in each occurrence is independently hydrogen, halogen, loweralkyl, hydroxy, nitro, loweralkoxy, amino, cyano, trifluoromethyl or methylthio; m is 1 or 2; k is 1 or 2; R1 and R2 are independently hydrogen, lower alkyl, ##STR3## or alternatively R1 +R2 taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a cyclopentane, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, pyran, thiopyran, indan or piperidine ring; R3 and R4 are independently hydrogen or loweralkyl, or alternatively R3 +R4 taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a cyclopentane, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, pyran, thiopyran, pyrrolidine or piperidine ring, the term aryl signifying an unsubstituted phenyl group or a phenyl group substituted with 1, 2 or 3 substituents each of which being
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
(His)6-GBF1 is a BFA-resistant ARF-GEF. (A) Fractions enriched in (His)6-GBF1 display a GEF specific for ARFs. Identical volumes (5 μl) of the 50 mM imidazole
Proteinase inhibitor proteins are synthesized in leaves of several plant genera in response to localized and systemic signals that are released from sites of insect and pathogen attacks. Several...
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an EUA for the use of the unapproved (investigational) drug intravenous Peramivir for treatment of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in certain hospitalized adult and pediatric patients. Data on the safety of Peramivir IV are limited. Please consult this Fact Sheet for general information on possible side effects of Peramivir IV. Healthcare providers who prescribe Peramivir IV are responsible for mandatory reporting to FDA MedWatch of all medication errors and selected adverse events occurring during Peramivir IV treatment within 7 calendar days from the onset of the event. The fact sheet includes information on what selected adverse events should be reported to FDA MedWatch.. ...
Jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives play a crucial role in plant adaptation to environmental stress. The exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) results in activation of stress-related genes...
desethermuscarone: analog of muscarone where cyclopentane ring is substituted for the furan ring; RN given refers to parent cpd((cis)-(+-))-isomer; structure
142130-73-2 - UZNXSBPBWFLVDK-NKWVEPMBSA-N - 3-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-cyclopentanol - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Spraying a corn plant with one of its own compounds - 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, or OPDA - can help deter the virus-carrying, pollination-disrupting insect known as the corn-leaf aphid.
Testosterone Cypionate Quick detail Synonyms: Cyponax;TESTOSTERONE CYCLOPENTANE PROPIONATE;TESTOSTERONE CYCLOPENTYLPROPIONATE CAS No.: 58-20-8 M.F.: C27H40O3 M.W.: 412.6 Assays: 99.20% Packing: 1kg/foil bag Reference Standard: USP28 Appearance:...
BioCryst to File Peramivir NDA Supported by BARDA/HHS Funding RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--July 11, 2013 BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (BCRX) today announced that the Biomedical...
Qiang Pu Jin is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Qiang Pu Jin is available on the Drugs.com website.
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Assalamualaikum korang... huh, terkezutzz kan dengan tajuk post tu... Ya Allah, sakit rasanya bila terkena penyakit ni... ni bukan lah 1 penyakit ludah jin.. Buat takut mak je kan?? Memandai je ludah jin.. kesian jin tak bersalah jadi mangsa.. hehee.. Tapi, wallahualam, kalau penyakit ni mungkin dari jin.. boleh jadi kan???~ Anyway, tak tau la penyakit mende ni.. tapi setahu Cik Iman, ini adalah penyakit "GEGATA" aka "GATAL2 ...
Na. Za-pad-nom Bal-ka-nu su po-treb-ni do-dat-ni ko-ra-ci za ra-zvoj ma-log i sred-njeg po-du-zet-niš-tva (SME) te je nuž-no pro-na-ći me-ha-niz-me za pot-po-ru ras-ta tog sek-to-ra, po-ru-čio je Pi-er-re He-il-bronn, pot-pred-sjed-nik EBRDa za po-li-ti-ke i part-ner-stva. Na pa-ne-lu o fi-nan-cij-skim ins-tru-men-ti-ma SMEu, odr-ža-nom u sklo-pu sum-mi-ta ze-ma-lja Za-pad-nog Bal-ka-na u Tr-stu, He-il-bronn je seg-ment ma-log i sred-njeg po-du-zet-niš-tva oci-je-nio mo-to-rom ino-va-ci-ja u re-gi-ji i ge-ne-ra-to-rom eko-nom-skog ras-ta.. Re-kao je da potpora mo-ra ići kroz po-bolj-ša-nja u fi-nan-cij-skom me-nadž-men-tu i kor-po-ra-tiv-nom uprav-lja-nju, ključ-nim fak-to-ri-ma da ma-li po-du-zet-ni-ci pos-ta-nu kre-di-bil-ni kli-jen-ti ba-na-ka. U sri-je-du su EBRD, Svjet-ska ban-ka, EK i EIF pot-pi-sa-li pi-smo na-mje-re za osi-gu-ra-nje dalj-njih 48 mi-li-ju-na eura ma-lom po-du-zet-niš-tvu.. ...
Allene oxide synthase (AOS) mediates the conversion of lipoxygenase-derived fatty acid hydroperoxides to unstable allene epoxides, which supply the precursors for the synthesis of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA). In this study the characterization of AOS gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum) is reported. AOS was constitutively expressed in different organs of flax plants. Additionally, AOS gene expression was enhanced after mechanical wounding in both the directly damaged leaves and in the systemic tissue located distal to the treated leaves. This wound-induced accumulation of AOS required the de novo biosynthesis of other unknown proteins involved in the signaling pathway modulating wound-induced AOS gene expression. Furthermore, the wound-induced AOS mRNA accumulation was correlated with the increase in the levels of JA. Both JA and its precursor, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, activated AOS gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, JA could activate its own biosynthetic pathway ...
Cross talk between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways plays an important role in the regulation and fine tuning of induced defenses that are activated upon pathogen or insect attack. Pharmacological experiments revealed that transcription of JA-responsive marker genes, such as PDF1.2 and VSP2, is highly sensitive to ... read more suppression by SA. This antagonistic effect of SA on JA signaling was also observed when the JA pathway was biologically activated by necrotrophic pathogens or insect herbivores, and when the SA pathway was triggered by a biotrophic pathogen. Furthermore, all 18 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions tested displayed SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression, highlighting the potential significance of this phenomenon in induced plant defenses in nature. During plant-attacker interactions, the kinetics of SA and JA signaling are highly dynamic. Mimicking this dynamic response by applying SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) at ...
Jasmonate (JA) and its derivatives are lipid-based hormone signals that regulate a wide range of processes in plants, ranging from growth and photosynthesis to reproductive development. In particular, JAs are critical for plant defense against herbivory and plant responses to poor environmental conditions and other kinds of abiotic and biotic challenges. Some JAs can also be released as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to permit communication between plants in anticipation of mutual dangers. The isolation of methyl jasmonate from jasmine oil derived from Jasminum grandiflorum led to the discovery of the molecular structure of jasmonates and their name. Jasmonates (JA) are an oxylipin, i.e. a derivative of oxygenated fatty acid. It is biosynthesized from linolenic acid in chloroplast membranes. Synthesis is initiated with the conversion of linolenic acid to 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), which then undergoes a reduction and three rounds of oxidation to form (+)-7-iso-JA, jasmonic acid. Only ...
The phytohormone JA plays a critical role in wound responses (Wasternack, 2007). It is massively produced within a few minutes after wounding by chloroplast- and peroxisome-localized biosynthetic enzymes and is involved both in local and long-distance signaling (Koo et al., 2009; Wasternack and Hause, 2013). Plants impaired in JA biosynthesis or signaling exhibit weakened responses to wounding and are much more susceptible to chewing insects (Howe and Jander, 2008). The JA core signaling pathway is well described (Chini et al., 2007; Thines et al., 2007): JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins sequester transcription factors, notably basic helix-loop-helix factors such as MYC2 to prevent their activation of JA-responsive genes. The binding of the bioactive form of JA, JA-Ile, to the COI1 receptor, an F-box protein that forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase Skp, Cullin, F-box (SCF) containing complex with Skp and Cullin proteins, increases the affinity of COI1 for JAZ proteins, triggering their ...
Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential
Plants cannot avoid to be attacked by an almost infinite number of microorganisms and insects. Consequently they armed themselves with molecular weapons against their attackers. Plant defense responses are the result of a complex signaling network, in which the hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) are the usual suspects under the magnifying glass when researchers investigate host-pest interactions. However, also Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs), C6 molecules, which are very quickly produced and/or emitted upon herbivory or pathogen infection by almost every green plant play an important role in plant defenses. GLVs are semiochemicals used by insects to find their food, their prey or their conspecifics. They have also been reported to be fundamental in indirect defenses and to have a direct effect on pests, but these are not the only roles of GLVs. These volatiles, being probably one of the fastest weapons exploited, are also able to directly elicit or prime plant defense
Specifically cleaves olefinic bonds in cyclic enones. Involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) and perhaps in biosynthesis or metabolism of other oxylipin signaling moleclules. It is required for the spatial and temporal regulation of JA levels during dehiscence of anthers, promoting the stomium degeneration program (By similarity). In vitro, reduces 9S,13S-12-oxophytodienoic acid (9S,13S-OPDA) and 9R,13R-OPDA to 9S,13S-OPC-8:0 and 9R,13R-OPC-8:0, respectively.
PIs and PPOs constitute an important anti-herbivore defense system in tomato (Duffey, 1986; Ryan, 2000). The inability of jai1 plants to express PIs and PPO in response to wounding or JA demonstrates that LeCOI1 is essential for this line of chemical defense. Interestingly, genes that encode PPO and PI-II are not present in the Arabidopsis genome (Allen, 2002; Van der Hoeven et al., 2002). This observation indicates that although components of the JA signaling pathway (i.e., COI1) are conserved in different plant species, many of the target genes regulated by the pathway are specific to a particular plant species or family. This idea is supported by numerous examples of JA-regulated phytochemical defense systems that operate in specific plant lineages (Heil et al., 2001; Memelink et al., 2001; Kessler and Baldwin, 2002; Wasternack and Hause, 2002; Goossens et al., 2003). Additional insight into the role of LeCOI1 in regulating the JA transcriptome in tomato was obtained by cDNA microarray ...
Wound responses in plants have to be coordinated between organs so that locally reduced growth in a wounded tissue is balanced by appropriate growth elsewhere in the body. We used a JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN 10 (JAZ10) reporter to screen for mutants affected in the organ-specific activation of jasmonate (JA) signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Wounding one cotyledon activated the reporter in both aerial and root tissues, and this was either disrupted or restricted to certain organs in mutant alleles of core components of the JA pathway including COI1, OPR3, and JAR1. In contrast, three other mutants showed constitutive activation of the reporter in the roots and hypocotyls of unwounded seedlings. All three lines harbored mutations in Novel Interactor of JAZ (NINJA), which encodes part of a repressor complex that negatively regulates JA signaling. These ninja mutants displayed shorter roots mimicking JA-mediated growth inhibition, and this was due to reduced cell elongation. Remarkably, this ...
17827660] Cloning of the pactamycin biosynthetic gene cluster and characterization of a crucial glycosyltransferase prior to a unique cyclopentane ring formation. (J Antibiot (Tokyo). , 2007 ...
Plants have evolved robust mechanisms to perceive and respond to diverse environmental stimuli.ᅠ The plant phytohormones jasmonates and salicylates play key roles in activating biotic stress response pathways. Recent ...
Making waste a functionality: Oxidative electron transfer-mediated anion-radical transformations are rendered catalytic by employing a 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-N-oxopiperidinium salt with ferrocene. This enables an asymmetric approach to highly functionalized cyclopentane and pyrrolidine derivatives. At the same time the co-generated reduced species TEMPO serves as a useful oxygenating functionality. ...
We examined the actions on ENaC recycling of reagents that alter membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal organization using the restimulation protocol. Treatment with BFA did not affect the first response to forskolin, but it produced a marked inhibition of the subsequent ΔISC. The finding that it was possible to elicit one cycle of forskolin stimulation-recovery suggests that ENaC-containing vesicles available for channel insertion are distal to the Golgi and TGN. The response to restimulation was significantly reduced, however, indicating that ENaC is recycled through BFA-sensitive compartments. Results from a study using BFA-treated toad bladder produced similar findings in response to repeated ADH stimulation; an initial stimulation could be elicited, but subsequent stimulations were abolished by pretreatment with 5 μg/ml BFA (Weng and Wade, 1994). The effect of BFA on ENaC recycling was unexpected in view of its well-documented inhibition of AP-1-dependent trafficking in early compartments ...
CYCLOPENTANONE OXIME 1192-28-5 NMR spectrum, CYCLOPENTANONE OXIME H-NMR spectral analysis, CYCLOPENTANONE OXIME C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
The Terpenes and Testing Bi-Monthly print magazine is a complete technical reference. This blog is separate from the magazine as it addresses the latest cannabis news, product reviews, and more colloquial subject matter. Please refer to our editorial content for a comprehensive assessment of these complicated practices ...
The Terpenes and Testing Bi-Monthly print magazine is a complete technical reference. This blog is separate from the magazine as it addresses the latest cannabis news, product reviews, and more colloquial subject matter. Please refer to our editorial content for a comprehensive assessment of these complicated practices ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
brefeldin A esterase: hydrolyzes brefeldin A to brefeldin A acid & also hydrolyzes ethyl valerate; 372 amino acids; amino acid sequence given in first source
... is effective to improve functions of internal Zang-Fu organs and eliminate pathogenic factors. Extending, pronating, shaking etc can benefit different organs like heart, spleen and stomach, kidney, triple energizer, so Ba Duan Jin get good functions to strengthen muscles, moisten...
... is effective to improve functions of internal Zang-Fu organs and eliminate pathogenic factors. Extending, pronating, shaking etc can benefit different organs like heart, spleen and stomach, kidney, triple energizer, so Ba Duan Jin get good functions to strengthen muscles, moisten...
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Jin S. Hahn, MD is on CAP Network. CAP Network is a virtual workspace, to support collaboration among faculty, graduate students, postdocs and staff.
by Ko, Tae Hee and Ko, Tae Hee and Marquez, Jubert C and Marquez, Jubert C and Kim, Hyoung Kyu and Kim, Hyoung Kyu and Jeong, Seung Hun and Jeong, Seung Hun and Lee, SungRyul and Lee, SungRyul and Youm, Jae Boum and Youm, Jae Boum and Song, In Sung and Song, In Sung and Seo, Dae Yun and Seo, Dae Yun and Kim, Hye Jin and Kim, Hye Jin and Won, Du Nam and Won, Du Nam and Cho, Kyoung Im and Cho, Kyoung Im and Choi, Mun Gi and Choi, Mun Gi and Rhee, Byoung Doo and Rhee, Byoung Doo and Ko, Kyung Soo and Ko, Kyung Soo and Kim, Nari and Kim, Nari and Won, Jong Chul and Won, Jong Chul and Han, Jin and Han, Jin ...
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G protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor 1 is a member of the GPCR family and is encoded in Humans by the GPER gene. Alternate transcriptional splice variants that encode the same protein have been characterized. It is a member of the rhodopsin-like family and is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. GPER binds estrogen with high affinity, resulting in intracellular calcium mobilization and synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in the nucleus.
Jasmonic acid and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant signaling molecules that affect plant growth and gene expression. Primary root growth of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was inhibited 50% when seedlings were grown on agar medium containing 0.1 M MeJA. An ethyl methanesulfonate mutant (jar1) with decreased sensitivity to MeJA inhibition of root elongation was isolated and characterized. Genetic data indicated the trait was recessive and controlled by a single Mendelian factor. MeJA-induced polypeptides were detected in Arabidopsis leaves by antiserum to a MeJA-inducible vegetative storage protein from soybean. The induction of these proteins by MeJA in the mutant was at least 4-fold less in jar1 compared to wild type. In contrast, seeds of jar1 plants were more sensitive than wild type to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid. These results suggest that the defect in jar1 affects a general jasmonate response pathway, which may regulate multiple genes in ...
Jasmonic acid and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant signaling molecules that affect plant growth and gene expression. Primary root growth of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was inhibited 50% when seedlings were grown on agar medium containing 0.1 M MeJA. An ethyl methanesulfonate mutant (jar1) with decreased sensitivity to MeJA inhibition of root elongation was isolated and characterized. Genetic data indicated the trait was recessive and controlled by a single Mendelian factor. MeJA-induced polypeptides were detected in Arabidopsis leaves by antiserum to a MeJA-inducible vegetative storage protein from soybean. The induction of these proteins by MeJA in the mutant was at least 4-fold less in jar1 compared to wild type. In contrast, seeds of jar1 plants were more sensitive than wild type to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid. These results suggest that the defect in jar1 affects a general jasmonate response pathway, which may regulate multiple genes in ...
Bilobalide is a biologically active terpenic trilactone present in Ginkgo biloba. Bilobalide is a main constituent of the terpenoids found in Ginkgo leaves. It also exists in minor amounts in the roots. It is a sesquiterpenoid, i.e. it has a 15-carbon skeleton. Its exact synthesis pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate is still unknown. Bilobalide and ginkgolide both have very similar biosynthesis pathway. Bilobalide is formed by partially degraded from ginkgoglide. Bilibalide is derived from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), which is formed by addition of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) unit, to form a C15 sesquiterpene. Such formation went through the mevalonate pathway (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate MEP pathway. In order to generate bilobalide, C20 ginkgolide 13 must form first. To transform from GGPP to abietenyl cation 5, a single bifunctional enzyme abietadiene synthase E1 is required. However, due to the complexity of ginkgolide structures for ...
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Autor: Pandey, Shree Prakash et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2008; Titel: Herbivory-induced changes in the small-RNA transcriptome and phytohormone signaling in Nicotiana attenuata
1. The kinetics of the hydrogenolysis of cis-1,3-dimethylcyclopentane in the presence of platinized charcoal was studied. 2. The value of the apparent activation energy of the hydrogenolysis of...
Our experiments demonstrate that the benefits of TPI expression in N. attenuata grown in greenhouse conditions outweigh their costs when plants are attacked by M. sexta larvae. Unattacked plants with low constitutive TPI levels produced more seed capsules (AS-: 44, AS-: 34 and A: 49 capsules) than did plants with high TPI levels (WT: 33 and S++: 35 capsules), and 11 days of M. sexta attack reduced seed capsule production per plant in all genotypes and reversed the pattern of seed capsule production with higher reductions in AS (AS-: 91 % and AS-: 68 %) and A (65 %) than in WT (54 %) and S++ (35 %) plants (Fig. 5 and Table 1). This differential reduction in seed capsule production amongst genotypes correlated negatively with larval mass. Across all genotypes, the larger the larval mass, the lower the number of capsules per plant (Fig. 6). This result is consistent with previous demonstrations that endogenous TPIs decrease the performance of M. sexta [33] and with the central prediction of the ...
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Nicotiana attenuata[5] INSECT HERBIVORES[3] ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA[3] SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION[3] DEFENSE[2] defense[2] PLANT-RESPONSES[2] ORAL SECRETIONS[2] DITERPENE GLYCOSIDES[2] CROSS-TALK[2] GENE-EXPRESSION[2] herbivore[2] MANDUCA-SEXTA[2] jasmonic acid[2] insect[2] ...
Title- Jasmonate and Ethylene co-actions. There are currently dozens of identified phytohormones in plant cells and they act in concert to regulate plant growth, development, metabolism and defense. Among phytohormones, jasmonate and ethylene present a fascinating case of synergism and antagonism. They are commonly recognized as defense hormones that act synergistically as well as in antagonistic manner. Plants impaired in jasmonate and/or ethylene signaling are susceptible to infections by necrotrophic fungi, suggesting that both of these hormones are required for defense. JA promotes ethylene biosynthesis in apple fruit ripening through the regulation of MdERFs and ethylene biosynthetic genes by MdMYC2. It supports co action mechanism of both hormones. Moreover, jasmonate and ethylene also act antagonistically, such as in the regulation of apical hook curvature and wounding responses. Ethylene stabilized transcription factors (EIN3 and EIL1) integrate ET and JA signaling in the regulation of ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 14:527-535...Min-Woo Lee , Min Qi , and Yinong Yang...© 2001 The American Phytopathological Society...Endogenous signal molecules such as jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play an important role in induced resistance against pathogen infection and insect herbivory. In rice seedlings, JA is an effective inducer of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against infection of blast fungus (Pyricul...
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The preparation of the cyclopentane 4 proved to be more of a challenge. Rather than attempt an enantioselective synthesis, racemic 11 was prepared in straightforward fashion from commercially-available 2-methylcyclopentenone, by conjugate addition followed by alkylation of the regenerated ketone enolate. Ozonolysis followed by selective reduction then led to 11. Resolution was accomplished by enantioselective reduction of the racemic ketone, to give a 1:1 mixture of separable diastereomers. Reoxidation of one of the diastereromers gave ketone 11, which was determined to be a 96:4 mixture of enantiomers. Homologation followed by allylic silylation then gave 4 as an inconsequential mixture of diastereomers.. Condensation of the allyl silane 4 with 3 proceeded to give exclusively the desired trans dihydropyran 5. McMurry coupling of the derived keto aldehyde gave the diol 13 as a mixture of diastereomers. Oxidation of the mixture gave 2 and its C-8 diastereomer in a ratio of 8:1.. ...
Barman, S; Furukawa, H; Blacque, O; Venkatesan, K; Yaghi, O M; Jin, G X; Berke, H (2011). Incorporation of active metal sites in MOFs via in situ generated ligand deficient metal-linker complexes. Chemical Communications, 47(43):11882-11884.. Wang, G L; Lin, Y J; Berke, H; Jin, G X (2010). Two-step assembly of multinuclear metallacycles with half-sandwich Ir, Rh, and Ru fragments for counteranion encapsulation. Inorganic Chemistry, 49(5):2193-2201.. Wang, G L; Lin, Y J; Blacque, O; Berke, H; Jin, G X (2008). Helical supramolecular assemblies of {2,4,6-[Cp*Rh(E2-1,2-C2B10H10)(NC5H4CH2S)]3(triazine)} (E = S, Se) shaped by Cp*-toluene-Cp* .pi.-stacking forces and BH-pyridine hydrogen bonding. Inorganic Chemistry, (47):2940-2942.. Han, Y F; Lin, Y J; Weng, L H; Berke, H; Jin, G X (2008). Stepwise formation of "organometallic boxes" with half-sandwich Ir, Rh and Ru fragments. Chemical Communications, (3):350-352.. ...
Mouse-over on the FeatureNum for an overview of the expression profile of searched gene/ genes and click the FeatureNum for a detailed view of the graphs. The Locus ID provides links to other databases and the Probe Sequence ID provides links to probe sequence information. The expression profiles can be downloaded as graphs and/or as heat map. Check Select all or the Locus Select or Feature Select buttons to specify genes for downloading and/or heat map construction.. ...
Mouse-over on the FeatureNum for an overview of the expression profile of searched gene/ genes and click the FeatureNum for a detailed view of the graphs. The Locus ID provides links to other databases and the Probe Sequence ID provides links to probe sequence information. The expression profiles can be downloaded as graphs and/or as heat map. Check Select all or the Locus Select or Feature Select buttons to specify genes for downloading and/or heat map construction.. ...
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A phosphate-free automatic dishwashing cleaning composition comprising a crystal growth inhibitor system comprising cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexacarboxylic acid (CHHCA) and cyclopentane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid (CPTCA).
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The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene - Read Online or Download The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene by Katharyn Ranck Book For Free. Available forma: PDF, TXT , ePub , PDB , RTF, Audio Books
In Fragile X syndrome-a genetic mishap that results in cognitive delays-the lack of a translation-repressing protein leads to the rampant accumulation of other proteins in the mouse brain.. 0 Comments. ...
Currently, my work is focused on two projects. The first project deals with the the identification of genetic suppressors of tir-1-1 mediated auxin resistance. In my second project I am studying natural variation in transcriptional auxin responses. Additional interests comprise the natural variation of responses jasmonates and other oxylipins. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where Kyung Jin Min is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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trans-3-Methyl, trans-trans- and trans-cis-3,4-dimethyl-, trans-3,5,5-trimethyl-, and cis- and trans-5-methyl-2-nitrocyclopentanones were prepd. by nitration of substituted cyclopentanone enol acetates with HNO3 at 15 Deg and by nitration of potassium enolates of the substituted cyclopentanones with.... Full description. ...
Name: 2-Hydroxy-4,6-dimethylbenzoic acid CA Name: Salicylic acid,4,6-dimethyl- Molecular Structure: 2-Hydroxy-4,6-dimethylbenzoic acid,Salicylic acid,4,6-dimethyl-,CAS 6370-32-7,166.17,C9H10O3 2-Hydroxy-4,6-dimethylbenzoic acid,Salicylic acid,4,6-dimethyl-,CAS 6370-32-7,166.17,C9H10O3 Molecular Formula:C9H10O3 Molecular Weight: 166.17 CAS Registry Number: 6370-32-7
Certainly no people who would never have received burns or other mechanical damage to the skin of the body.The situation is extremely unpleasant, but it is quite normal.The drugs can be used as a variety of sprays, oils and ointments.One of th.... ...
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t eba ten, kdo nen socka a o p r desetikorun dra poplatek je pod jeho rozli ovac schopnosti. U S jsem roky, d ky v t mu pohybu pen z m m od nich i celkem rozumn podm nky, nejv t po et bankomat a pobo ek.. P edstavte si, e mi t ch p r drobn ch za to stoj . A vzhledem k po tu klient asi i jin m. Pro studenty je mo n cool m-banka..... a rozum m tomu, e ji d vaj p ednost. Pro jin klienty zase jin banka. Fakt to nech pete ...
Rdeča luč. Jugo se ustavi ob rollsu, voznik odpre okno in reče vozniku: Ej, ali imaš električno dvigovanje stekel v avtu, jaz ga imam. Voznik rollsa s posmehljivim nasmeškom: Seveda ga imam. Voznik juga je neumoren: Aliimaš centralno zaklepanje, jaz ga imam. Voznik rollsa pritrdi. Kaj pa klimo, imaš klimo? Jaz jo imam. Šofer v rollsu je že nejevoljen: Seveda jo imam. Jaz imam vse, se ne da. Kaj pa posteljo? Jaz imam v jugu posteljo. Na to voznik rollsa zardi, pritisne plin do konca in brez odgovora oddrvi do svojega prodajalca. Kakšen je to način? Jaz sem za rolls-roycea plačal sto tisoče dolarjev, na koncu pa ima čisto navaden jugo posteljo, jaz pa ne. Takoj vgradite posteljo, naj stane, kolikor hoče! Prodajalec molči in izpolni naročilo. Voznik rollsa se odpravi v iskanje juga po celem mestu in ga šele zvečer najde vsega zamegljenega na zakotnem parkirišču. Trka in trka na juga, dokler se ne odpre okno, skozi katerega se pojavi mokra glava. ...
Mediklin information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Maver Laboratorios, Mediklin indications, usages and related health products lists
Mediplast information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Beiersdorf, Mediplast indications, usages and related health products lists
O jak nedot en p rod to sakra mluv ? Do vojensk ho jezdu chod m na v lety u roky, stejn jako tis ce jin ch lid , ale nedot enou p rodu jsem tam tedy nevid l. Jsou tam hezk lesy, ale stopy po intenzivn lidsk innosti vid te t m na ka d m kroku. jezd je hust protkanej asfaltkama, naraz te tam na mnoho lesn ch kolek i jin ch oplocenek, posed , pa ez po lesn ch pro zk ch, hromad vyrovnan ho d eva atd.. Prost celkem norm ln hospod sky vyu van les. Chod m tam r d, ale nen to prost dn divo ina na Alja ce. O v kendech byste podle hustoty provozu na n kter ch cest ch rozhodn ne ekli, e se nach z te v zak zan z n . A to nemysl m jen okrajov oblasti, kam se o v kendech ofici ln sm ...
Hye Jin Kim, Hee-yeon Choi, Hyun-wook Kim, Ji-hye Choi, Jae-young Jang, Jee-min Seo, Min-jung Lee, Tae Eun Kim, Sung Soo Kim, Jin Soo Lee, Hye Kyung Lee, Joon Oh Hwang, Ji Youn ...
Hello pple i am new here and have 2 cavaliers Jaz a 5yr female and Sammy a 2 and a half male. Sammy is the recent addition as i wanted him as a pet and also the chance to put him with Jaz. 4 wks ago Jaz came into season and of course she wasnt reading to accept the male and would snap at him and he would respect her. then 3 wks this coming Sunday i got woken up to shrieks and ran up to the kitchen. only to find the 2 dogs tied together!! i supported Jaz as she was quite didtressed as this
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Endogenous estrogens mediate protective effects in the cardiovascular system in part due to rapid activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which involves the classical estrogen receptor (ER) α. Estrogen-dependent increases in NO bioactivity may also be mediated by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30), although the contribution of GPER to the overall response to estrogen and the mechanisms involved remain unclear. We have investigated GPER-mediated NO signaling in telomerase-immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial (TIVE) cells as well as estrogen-dependent, GPER-mediated relaxation in mouse aortae. Similar to the non-selective ER agonist 17β-estradiol (E2), the GPER-selective agonist G-1 stimulated phosphorylation of eNOS (ser1171) at 100 nM vs. 0.01% DMSO vehicle (53 +/-7 vs. 19+/-4, p=0.035, n=4). Colorimetric detection of nitric oxide demonstrated that Acetylcholine (Ach) (536 +/-18), E2 (425+/- 18) and G-1 (308 +/-18) also increased NO production in ...
Image: A Simplified Model for Jasmonate-Stimulated Root Hair Development in Arabidopsis. (Image by HAN Xiao) They also discovered that the endogenous CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) -mediated jasmonate signaling pathway is critical for root hair development. The disruption of the COI1 receptor or accumulation of a JAZ repressor (e.g. JAZ4 or JAZ8) decreased root hair length. Further investigation showed that several JAZ repressors interactedwithRHD6 and RSL1, two bHLH transcription factors crucial for root hair development. JAZ proteins repressed the transcriptional function of RHD6 and interfered with the interaction between RHD6 and RSL1. Phenotypic analysis showed that jasmonate promoted root hair growth in a manner dependent on RHD6and RSL1. It also showed that overexpressing RHD6 largely rescued the root hair-defective phenotypes of coi1-2 and JAZ8-ΔJas-9 plants. "Our study provides a mechanistic understanding of how JAZ repressors directly regulate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Discovery of WRKY transcription factors through transcriptome analysis and characterization of a novel methyl jasmonate-inducible PqWRKY1 gene from Panax quinquefolius. AU - Sun, Yongzhen. AU - Niu, Yunyun. AU - Xu, Jiang. AU - Li, Ying. AU - Luo, Hongmei. AU - Zhu, Yingjie. AU - Liu, Mingzhu. AU - Wu, Qiong. AU - Song, Jingyuan. AU - Sun, Chao. AU - Chen, Shilin. PY - 2013/8/1. Y1 - 2013/8/1. N2 - Transcription factors (TFs) are important regulating factors that can mediate many life processes. However, no TF genes have previously been reported in Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng), with the exception of a few expressed sequence tags. In this study, 753 unigenes (unique sequences) have been annotated in the plant transcription factor database PlnTFDB (version 3.0) by mining a 454 transcriptome dataset of P. quinquefolius. After classification of the unigenes, 45 unigenes were discovered to be annotated as WRKY transcripts in the public databases. Furthermore, PqWRKY1, one of ...
Aphids and other herbivorous insects are able to travel between plants in their environment. While plants cannot directly choose their consumers, they may stop or mitigate the harmful effects of herbivory using secondary metabolites. A salicylic acid (SA) pathway facilitates defense from biotrophic fungi and some necrotrophic pathogens, while a jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is associated with defense from other necrotrophic pathogens and chewing insects. We investigated the effect of deficiency in SA or JA in Arabidopsis thaliana on plant growth and on herbivory by green peach aphids (Myzus persicae). Three ascensions of A. thaliana were placed in two blocks with three aphids on each individual. The genotypes consisted of a SA-deficient ascension (Sid2), a JA-deficient ascension (Lox2), and a wild type (Col). Wild-type A. thaliana showed significantly greater growth relative to the other ascensions, suggesting better performance, as well as dramatically higher aphid count. Aphid count showed a ...
Plants respond to insect herbivory through the production of biochemicals that function as either direct defenses or indirect defenses via the attraction of natural enemies. While attack by closely related insect pests can result in distinctive levels of induced plant defenses, precise biochemical mechanisms responsible for differing responses remain largely unknown. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) responds to Fall armyworm (FAW; Spodoptera frugiperda) herbivory through the detection of fragments of ATP synthase γ-subunit (cATPC) proteins, termed inceptin-related peptides, present in larval oral secretions (OS). In contrast to generalists like FAW, OS of the legume specializing Velvetbean caterpillar (VBC; Anticarsia gemmatalis) does not elicit ethylene production and demonstrates significantly lower induced volatile emission in direct herbivory comparisons. Unlike all other Lepidoptera OS examined, which preferentially contain inceptin [Vu-In; +ICDINGVCVDA-], VBC OS contains predominantly a ...
Monoterpenoids (C10 terpenoids) are a group of terpenoids consisting of two isoprene units. They are derived from geranyl diphosphate (GPP). Most monoterpenoids are volatile oils with highly distinctive aromas and flavors, such as essential oils, turpentine, and oleoresins of coniferous plants. This map shows some examples. The monoterpene ketone l-menthone is specifically converted to l-menthol and d-neomenthol in mature peppermint leaves. The iridoids constitute a family of highly oxygenated monoterpenes, mixtures of which are present in many medicinal plants, such as valerian. They are derived from geraniol or nerol via oxidation of a terminal methyl group. The cyclopentane ring of loganin can itself be cleaved in a further P450-dependent step, leading to secologanin, which provides the carbon skeleton for many powerfully bioactive secondary metabolites of indole alkaloids ...
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... cyclopentanes MeSH D02.455.426.392.368.450.350 --- cycloleucine MeSH D02.455.426.392.368.533 --- cyclopropanes MeSH D02.455. ...
Acetal 1 has been used in this context, and provides cyclopentanes with the acetal functionality exo to the newly formed ring ...
Building from this, several electrocyclic ring openings of β-alkoxy cyclopentanes have been reported. These are typically ...
"The conversion of carbohydrate derivatives into functionalized cyclohexanes and cyclopentanes". Chem. Rev. 93 (8): 2779-2831. ...
Pennzane - lubrication technology Media related to Cyclopentanes at Wikimedia Commons. ...
The dissonance in polarity clearly limits the ways by which cyclopentanes can be disconnected which becomes evident in the ... In contrast to the larger, fully "consonant" cyclohexane scaffold cyclopentanes and their derivatives are "dissonant" according ...
The Wolff rearrangement is capable of contracting cyclohexanones to cyclopentanes, but is infrequently used to do so, because ...
Cyclopentanes. * *Cyclohexanes (Chair, Boat, Geometric Isomers). * *Calculations Using ΔG° = -RT ln K ...
Cyclopentanes. * *Cyclohexanes (Chair, Boat, Geometric Isomers). * *Calculations Using ΔG° = -RT ln K ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where James M Takacs is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
ABT-199 is a highly potent, selective and orally bioavailable Bcl-2 inhibitor with a Ki of less than 0.01 nM. IC50 & Target Ki: |0.01 nM (Bcl-2), 48 nM (Bcl-xl), 245 nM (Bcl-w), |444 nM (Mcl-1)[1] In Vitro ABT-199 potently kills FL5.12-BCL-2
Manuzak, J. A., Zevin, A. S., Cheu, R., Richardson, B., Modesitt, J., Hensley-McBain, T., Miller, C., Gustin, A. T., Coronado, E., Gott, T., Fang, M., Cartwright, M., Wangari, S., Agricola, B., May, D., Smith, E., Hampel, H. B., Gale, M., Cameron, C. M., Cameron, M. J. & 2 others, Smedley, J. & Klatt, N. R., May 1 2020, In : Mucosal Immunology. 13, 3, p. 471-480 10 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Lithium-based ionic liquids as novel lubricant additives for multiply alkylated cyclopentanes (MACs) Zenghong Song, Yongmin ... were synthesized and evaluated as novel lubricant additives for multiply alkylated cyclopentanes (MACs). They were found to be ...
For example, the conformational changes of cyclopentanes and cyclohexenes containing heteroatoms can be investigated using far- ...
... , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Hydroxybenzoates , Metabolism , Oxylipins , Metabolism , Plant ... Acetates , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Cell Membrane , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Cyclopentanes , Disease ... Acetates , Pharmacology , Bupleurum , Cell Biology , Genetics , Cell Membrane , Metabolism , Cyclopentanes , Pharmacology , ... Adipocytes , Alcohols , Animals , Bone and Bones , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Cyclopentanes , Durapatite , ...
Amantadine , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Antiviral Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cyclopentanes , Chemistry , Pharmacology ...
Cyclopentanes / metabolism* * Enzyme Induction * Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / metabolism* * Intramolecular Oxidoreductases / ...
Cyclopentanes. DNA-Binding Proteins. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Fatty Acids, Omega-3 ...
Acetates/administration & dosage , Antibiosis , Cyclopentanes/administration & dosage , Larva/physiology , Moths/physiology , ...
Cyclopentanes / pharmacology* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
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Composition (wt.) Normal Hexane Methyl Pentanes Methyl Cyclo Pentanes. 58 to 62% 25 to 30% 10 to 15%. ...
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Doherty, S., Knight, J. G., Ellison, J. R., Goodrich, P., Hall, L., Hardacre, C., Muldoon, M. J., Park, S., Ribeiro, A., Nieto de Castro, C. A., Lourenço, M. J. & Davey, P., 01 Mar 2014, In : Green Chemistry. 16, 3, p. 1470-1479 10 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
... cyclopentanes cyclopentyldienes, and substituted aryl and cycloalkyl and cycloalkenes such as, for example, pyridines, ...
keywords = "Wittig reactions, cyclopentanes, enzymatic resolution, oxidation, stereochemistry",. author = "Lor{\a}nd Kiss and ...
Cyclopentanes - pharmacology , Plant Roots - drug effects , Astragalus membranaceus - drug effects , Plant Proteins - genetics ...
Cyclopentanes - pharmacology , Plant Growth Regulators - pharmacology , Ribes - drug effects , Anthocyanin , Antioxidants , ... Cyclopentanes - pharmacology , Secondary Metabolism , Oxylipins - metabolism , Animals , Plant Leaves - metabolism , ... Cyclopentanes - metabolism , Acetates - pharmacology , Plant Proteins - metabolism , Tobacco - physiology , Proteins , ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Auto-Tandem Catalysis: PdII-Catalysed Dehydrogenation/Oxidative Heck Reaction of Cyclopentane-1,3-diones. AU - Lamb, Claire J. C.. AU - Nderitu, Bryan G.. AU - McMurdo, Gemma. AU - Tobin, John M.. AU - Vilela, Filipe. AU - Lee, Ai-Lan. PY - 2017/12/22. Y1 - 2017/12/22. N2 - A Pd(II) catalyst system has been used to successfully catalyse two mechanistically distinct reactions in a onepot procedure: dehydrogenation of 2,2-disubstituted cyclopentane-1,3-diones and the subsequent oxidative Heck coupling. This auto tandem catalytic reaction is applicable to both batch and continuous flow processes, with the latter being the first example of a tandem aerobic dehydrogenation/oxidative Heck in flow. In addition, a telescoped reaction involving enantioselective desymmetrisation of the all-C quaternary centre was successfully achieved.. AB - A Pd(II) catalyst system has been used to successfully catalyse two mechanistically distinct reactions in a onepot procedure: dehydrogenation of ...
Cyclopentanes (MeSH) * Gene Expression Regulation, Plant (MeSH) * Molecular Sequence Data (MeSH) * Oxylipins (MeSH) ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis of (S)-3-Amino-4-(difluoromethylenyl)-cyclopent-1-ene-1-carboxylic Acid (OV329), a Potent Inactivator of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Aminotransferase. AU - Moschitto, Matthew J.. AU - Silverman, Richard B.. PY - 2018/8/3. Y1 - 2018/8/3. N2 - (S)-3-Amino-4-(difluoromethylenyl)cyclopent-1-ene-1-carboxylic acid (OV329, 1) is being developed for the treatment of epilepsy and addiction. The previous 14-step synthesis of OV329 was low yielding, involved an unselective α-elimination to form the cyclopentene, required the use of tert-butyllithium, and produced toxic selenium byproducts in the penultimate step. A new synthesis, which avoids the aforementioned issues, was carried out on large scale, reducing the step count from 14 to 9 steps and increasing the overall yield from 3.7% to 8.1%.. AB - (S)-3-Amino-4-(difluoromethylenyl)cyclopent-1-ene-1-carboxylic acid (OV329, 1) is being developed for the treatment of epilepsy and addiction. The previous 14-step synthesis of OV329 was low ...
  • Design and Synthesis of a Novel Series of 1,2-Disubstituted Cyclopentanes as Small, Potent Potentiators of 2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propanoic Acid (AMPA) Receptors. (alfa.com)
  • We applied this process for the synthesis of complex cyclopentanes utilizing chiral a,b-unsaturated acylammonium intermediates, readily generated by activation of commodity unsaturated acid chlorides with chiral isothiourea catalysts. (danielromogroup.com)
  • In another aspect, conjugate addition approach has been employed to build up the stereochemistry of Prostaglandin cyclopentanes. (patent-de.com)
  • The 2 in two butene means that there is a double bond as it ends in 'en' and the double bond is between Carbon 2 and 3. (ucla.edu)
  • Unlike other carbon rings, such as cyclohexanes and cyclopentanes, bicyclobutanes are rarely found in nature. (eurekalert.org)
  • A team at UC Davis has optimized the levulinic ester self-condensation reaction and the efficient conversion of its products-which are highly branched cyclopentadienes-into a mixture of substituted cyclopentanes with high octane ratings and excellent density and flow properties. (greencarcongress.com)
  • This efficient methodology enables the construction of two C-C bonds, one C-O bond, two rings and up to three contiguous stereogenic centres delivering complex cyclopentanes with high levels of relative and absolute stereocontrol. (danielromogroup.com)
  • Acetal 1 has been used in this context, and provides cyclopentanes with the acetal functionality exo to the newly formed ring with high selectivity. (wikipedia.org)