A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
An extract of absinthium and other bitter herbs, containing 60% alcohol. Prolonged ingestion causes nervousness, convulsions, trismus, amblyopia, optic neuritis, and mental deterioration. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.
Risk or hazard associated with the handling and use of chemicals.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
An environment simulating one or more parameters of the space environment, applied in testing space systems or components. Often, a closed chamber is used, capable of approximating the vacuum and normal environments of space. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988) This also includes simulated EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY studies in atmosphere exposure chambers or water tanks.
A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.
Sulfonic acid derivatives that are substituted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon group.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)

Pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2-(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone). (1/2057)

The pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone) were studied in both anesthetized animals and isolated organs. Oudenone (10--40 mg/kg i.v.) induced an initial rise in blood pressure followed by a prolonged hypotension in the anesthetized rats. In unanesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), oudenone (5--200 mg/kg p.o.) caused a dose-related decrease in the systolic blood pressure. The initial pressor effect was diminished by pretreatments with phentolamine, guanethidine, hexamethonium and was abolished in the pithed rats. In addition, intracisternal administrations of oudenone (100--600 mug/kg) showed a marked increase in blood pressure in the anesthetized rats, suggesting that the pressor effect may be due to centrally mediated actions. Oudenone, given intra-arterially into the femoral artery (400--800 mug/kg), caused a long-lasting vasodilation in anesthetized dogs. At a relatively high dose (40 mg/kg i.v.), oudenone antagonized all pressor responses to autonomic agents and central vagus nerve stimulation in anesthetized rats and dogs, however, oudenone showed no anti-cholinergic,-histaminergic, beta-adrenergic and adrenergic neuron blocking properties.  (+info)

Formation of lipoxygenase-pathway-derived aldehydes in barley leaves upon methyl jasmonate treatment. (2/2057)

In barley leaves, the application of jasmonates leads to dramatic alterations of gene expression. Among the up-regulated gene products lipoxygenases occur abundantly. Here, at least four of them were identified as 13-lipoxygenases exhibiting acidic pH optima between pH 5.0 and 6.5. (13S,9Z,11E,15Z)-13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid was found to be the main endogenous lipoxygenase-derived polyenoic fatty acid derivative indicating 13-lipoxygenase activity in vivo. Moreover, upon methyl jasmonate treatment > 78% of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are metabolized by hydroperoxide lyase activity resulting in the endogenous occurrence of volatile aldehydes. (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and (3Z)- plus (2E)-hexenal were identified as 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazones using HPLC and identification was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. This is the first proof that (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is formed in plants under physiological conditions. Quantification of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and hexenals upon methyl jasmonate treatment of barley leaf segments revealed that hexenals were the major aldehydes peaking at 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment. Their endogenous content increased from 1.6 nmol.g-1 fresh weight to 45 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in methyl-jasmonate-treated leaf segments, whereas (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, peaking at 48 h of methyl jasmonate treatment increased from 9 to 15 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. Similar to the hexenals, hexanal reached its maximal amount 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment, but increased from 0.6 to 3.0 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. In addition to the classical leaf aldehydes, (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal was detected, thereby raising the question of whether it functions in the degradation of chloroplast membrane constituents, which takes place after methyl jasmonate treatment.  (+info)

Formation of reactive cyclopentenone compounds in vivo as products of the isoprostane pathway. (3/2057)

Cyclopentenone prostaglandins A2 and J2 are reactive compounds that possess unique biological activities. However, the extent to which they are formed in vivo remains unclear. In this study, we explored whether D2/E2-isoprostanes undergo dehydration in vivo to form A2/J2-isoprostanes. Oxidation of arachidonic acid in vitro generated a series of compounds that were confirmed to be A2/J2-isoprostanes by mass spectrometric analyses. A2/J2-isoprostanes were detected in vivo esterified to lipids in livers from normal rats at a level of 5. 1 +/- 2.3 ng/g, and levels increased dramatically by a mean of 24-fold following administration of CCl4. An A2-isoprostane, 15-A2t-isoprostane, was obtained and found to readily undergo Michael addition with glutathione and to adduct covalently to protein. A2/J2-isoprostanes could not be detected in the circulation, even following CCl4 administration, which we hypothesized might be explained by rapid formation of adducts. This was supported by finding that essentially all the radioactivity excreted into the urine following infusion of radiolabeled 15-A2t-isoprostane into a human volunteer was in the form of a polar conjugate(s). These data identify a new class of reactive compounds that are produced in vivo as products of the isoprostane pathway that can exert biological effects relevant to the pathobiology of oxidant injury.  (+info)

Inverse relationship between systemic resistance of plants to microorganisms and to insect herbivory. (4/2057)

Pre-inoculation of plants with a pathogen that induces necrosis leads to the development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to subsequent pathogen attack [1]. The phenylpropanoid-derived compound salicylic acid (SA) is necessary for the full expression of both local resistance and SAR [2] [3]. A separate signaling pathway involving jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in systemic responses to wounding and insect herbivory [4] [5]. There is evidence both supporting and opposing the idea of cross-protection against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores [6] [7]. This is a controversial area because pharmacological experiments point to negative cross-talk between responses to systemic pathogens and responses to wounding [8] [9] [10], although this has not been demonstrated functionally in vivo. Here, we report that reducing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis by silencing the expression of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) reduces SAR to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), whereas overexpression of PAL enhances SAR. Tobacco plants with reduced SAR exhibited more effective grazing-induced systemic resistance to larvae of Heliothis virescens, but larval resistance was reduced in plants with elevated phenylpropanoid levels. Furthermore, genetic modification of components involved in phenylpropanoid synthesis revealed an inverse relationship between SA and JA levels. These results demonstrate phenylpropanoid-mediated cross-talk in vivo between microbially induced and herbivore-induced pathways of systemic resistance.  (+info)

EIN2, a bifunctional transducer of ethylene and stress responses in Arabidopsis. (5/2057)

Ethylene regulates plant growth, development, and responsiveness to a variety of stresses. Cloning of the Arabidopsis EIN2 gene identifies a central component of the ethylene signaling pathway. The amino-terminal integral membrane domain of EIN2 shows similarity to the disease-related Nramp family of metal-ion transporters. Expression of the EIN2 CEND is sufficient to constitutively activate ethylene responses and restores responsiveness to jasmonic acid and paraquat-induced oxygen radicals to mutant plants. EIN2 is thus recognized as a molecular link between previously distinct hormone response pathways. Plants may use a combinatorial mechanism for assessing various stresses by enlisting a common set of signaling molecules.  (+info)

The jasmonate-induced 60 kDa protein of barley exhibits N-glycosidase activity in vivo. (6/2057)

Upon jasmonate treatment barley leaf segments express a putative ribosome-inactivating protein (JIP60). The influence of this protein on translation in planta has been analysed by using barley plants and tobacco plants transformed with a barley cDNA encoding JIP60. In both plant systems JIP60 exhibited N-glycosidase activity in vivo. The depurination of the 25S rRNA of tobacco and barley ribosomes led to accumulation of translationally inactive polysomes.  (+info)

A novel jasmonate- and elicitor-responsive element in the periwinkle secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Str interacts with a jasmonate- and elicitor-inducible AP2-domain transcription factor, ORCA2. (7/2057)

Jasmonate (JA) is an important plant stress hormone that induces various plant defense responses, including the biosynthesis of protective secondary metabolites. The induction of the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Strictosidine synthase (Str) in Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) cells by elicitor requires JA as a second messenger. A 42 bp region in the Str promoter is both necessary and sufficient for JA- and elicitor-responsive expression. This region is unlike other previously identified JA-responsive regions, and contains a GCC-box-like element. Yeast one-hybrid screening identified cDNAs encoding two AP2-domain proteins. These octadecanoid-derivative responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain (ORCA) proteins bind in a sequence-specific manner the JA- and elicitor-responsive element. ORCA2 trans-activates the Str promoter and its expression is rapidly inducible with JA and elicitor, whereas Orca1 is expressed constitutively. The results indicate that a GCC-box-like element and ORCA2 play key roles in JA- and elicitor-responsive expression of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic gene Str.  (+info)

Oligogalacturonide-mediated induction of a gene involved in jasmonic acid synthesis in response to the cell-wall-degrading enzymes of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora. (8/2057)

Identification of Arabidopsis thaliana genes responsive to plant cell-wall-degrading enzymes of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora led to the isolation of a cDNA clone with high sequence homology to the gene for allene oxide synthase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonates. Expression of the corresponding gene was induced by the extracellular enzymes from this pathogen as well as by treatment with methyl jasmonate and short oligogalacturonides (OGAs). This suggests that OGAs are involved in the induction of the jasmonate pathway during plant defense response to E. carotovora subsp. carotovora attack.  (+info)

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Provided are liquid crystal compounds and mixtures incorporating the same. The liquid crystal compounds of the invention generally comprise a cyclopentane group and at least two other rings. In one em
Influenza virus infections are known to persist longer in patients with underlying diseases, including respiratory tract diseases, and tend to become complicated by secondary influenza-associated infections, such as pneumonia. To assess the efficacy and safety of the novel anti-influenza virus drug peramivir in high-risk patients, we conducted a clinical trial of patients with diabetes or chronic respiratory tract diseases and patients being treated with drugs that suppress immune function. In this multicenter, uncontrolled, randomized, double-blind study, peramivir was intravenously administered at 300 or 600 mg/day for 1 to 5 days, as needed. Efficacy was investigated in 37 patients (300 mg, n = 18 patients; 600 mg, n = 19 patients). The median durations of influenza illness were 68.6 h (90% confidence interval, 41.5 to 113.4 h) overall, 114.4 h (90% confidence interval, 40.2 to 235.3 h) in the 300-mg group, and 42.3 h (90% confidence interval, 30.0 to 82.7 h) in the 600-mg group. The hazard ...
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
G-36 Featured G-36 is a cell-permeable non-steroidal antagonist of GPER, inhibiting activation by either 17β-estradiol or the GPER-selective agonist G-1(IC50 = 112 and 165 nM, respectively).. ...
A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of IV Peramivir in Addition to Standard of Care Compared to Standard of Care Alone in Adults and Adolescents Who Are Hospitalized Due to ...
Allosamizoline(1)is an aminocyclitol component of allosamidin, a Streptomyces metabolite, and has a cyclopentane ring originated from D-glucosamine. Biosynthesis of the cyclopentane ring was studied by feeding experiments with a variety of deuterium-labeled glucosamine and glucose. In the feeding experiments with [3-2H]-and [4-2H]-D-glucosamine and [1-2H]-D-glucose, deuterium was incorporated into C-3, C-4, and C-1 of 1, respectively. On the other hand, feeding experiments with [5-2H]-and [6, 6-2H2]-D-glucosamine showed that deuterium on C-5 and one of the two deuterium atoms on C-6 of glucosamine were lost during the cyclopentane ring formation of 1. In the feeding experiments with (6R)-and (6S)-[6-2H1]-D-glucose, the (6R)-deuterium of glucose was incorporated into the proS position on C-6 of 1, but the (6S)-deuterium of glucose was not incorporated into 1. These results suggested that an intermediate with a 6-aldehyde group is involved in the biosynthesis of the cyclopentane ring moiety of 1 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A cyclopentane conformational restraint for a peptide nucleic acid. T2 - Design, asymmetric synthesis, and improved binding affinity to DNA and RNA. AU - Myers, Michael C.. AU - Witschi, Mark A.. AU - Larionova, Nataliya V.. AU - Franck, John M.. AU - Haynes, Russell D.. AU - Hara, Toshiaki. AU - Grajkowski, Andrzej. AU - Appella, Daniel H.. PY - 2003/7/24. Y1 - 2003/7/24. N2 - (Matrix presented) A strategy to restrict the highly flexible backbone conformation of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) by incorporation of a cyclopentane ring is proposed. An asymmetric synthesis of cyclopentane-modified PNA is reported, and its binding properties were determined. The cyclopentane ring leads to a significant improvement in the binding properties of the resulting PNA to DNA and RNA.. AB - (Matrix presented) A strategy to restrict the highly flexible backbone conformation of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) by incorporation of a cyclopentane ring is proposed. An asymmetric synthesis of ...
Archaeal lipids ensure unprecedented stability of archaea membranes in extreme environments. Here, we incorporate a characteristic structural feature of an archaeal lipid, the cyclopentane ring, into hydrocarbon chains of a short-chain (C12) phosphatidylcholine to explore whether the insertion would allow such a li
Oxylipins including jasmonates are signaling compounds in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) most mutants affected in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signaling are male sterile, whereas the JA-insensitive tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant jai1 is female sterile. The diminished seed formation in jai1 together with the ovule-specific accumulation of the JA biosynthesis enzyme allene oxide cyclase (AOC), which correlates with elevated levels of JAs, suggest a role of oxylipins in tomato flower/seed development. Here, we show that 35S::SlAOC-RNAi lines with strongly reduced AOC in ovules exhibited reduced seed set similarly to the jai1 plants. Investigation of embryo development of wild-type tomato plants showed preferential occurrence of AOC promoter activity and AOC protein accumulation in the developing seed coat and the embryo, whereas 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) was the dominant oxylipin occurring nearly ...
Figure 3. Immunofluorescent localization of procollagen I and Hsp47 in the presence or absence of brefeldin A treatment in CEC. Cells were treated with 2 µg/ml brefeldin A for 30 min, fixed, permeabilized, and stained as described in the text. A. Procollagen I (green) and Hsp47 (red) in brefeldin A-treated cells. B. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (green) and procollagen I (red) in brefeldin A-treated cells. C. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (green) and Hsp47 (red) in brefeldin A-treated cells. D. Phase-contrast microscopy of C. Bar, 10 µm.. ...
Author Summary The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide range of plant immune responses involving genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming that are regulated by the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) Leu zipper transcription factor MYC2. As a master regulator of JA signaling, MYC2 differentially regulates the transcription of different branches of JA-responsive genes through distinct molecular mechanisms. Here, we provide evidence that phosphorylation-dependent turnover of MYC2 is coupled with its function. We show that, during JA response, high accumulation of the MYC2 protein correlates with peaked expression of early wound-responsive genes that are positively regulated by MYC2, whereas low accumulation of the MYC2 protein correlates with peaked expression of late pathogen-responsive genes that are negatively regulated by MYC2. We discovered a 12-amino-acid element in the transcription activation domain of MYC2 that is required for both the proteolysis and the transcriptional activity of MYC2
Page contains details about multiply-alkylated cyclopentanes/APTES-graphene oxide film on silicon wafer . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
This invention is a process of converting n-pentane to cyclopentane. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, n-pentane feed is converted in dual temperature stage process without interstage processing of the first stage product mixture.
The response of individual members of the lipoxygenase multigene family in soybeans to sink deprivation was analyzed. RNase protection assays indicated that a novel vegetative lipoxygenase gene, vlxC, and three other vegetative lipoxygenase mRNAs accumulated in mature leaves in response to a variety of sink limitations. These data suggest that several members of the lipoxygenase multigene family are involved in assimilate partitioning. The possible involvement of jasmonic acid as a signaling molecule regulating assimilate partitioning into the vegetative storage proteins and lipoxygenases was directly assessed by determining the endogenous level of jasmonic acid in leaves from plants with their pods removed. There was no rise in the level of endogenous jasmonic acid coincident with the strong increase in both vlxC and vegetative storage protein VspB transcripts in response to sink limitation. Thus, expression of the vegetative lipoxygenases and vegetative storage proteins is not regulated by ...
Interpretive Summary: For many years, treatment of plants with the mineral silicon has been known to improve their ability to withstand the effects of a wide variety of stresses, although silicon is not considered essential or necessarily beneficial for the normal growth and development of non-stressed plants. This phenomenon has been observed for both so-called abiotic stresses such as tolerance to cold and drought, as well as biotic stresses such as insect attack and infection by pathogenic microorganisms. While the role of silicon in enhancing resistance to various stresses has been unequivocally established, details surrounding the underlying mechanism for how its effects are mediated remain largely unknown. In this study we have established a link between the stress-associated plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA), which regulates plant responses to diverse stresses, and the effects of silicon. Attack of rice plants by the destructive leaf folder (LF) insect herbivore was used as the focus of ...
In a second approach, we compared the AtPep-PEPR system to systemins - well described DAMPs in tomato with generally similar molecular features to AtPeps. Following up the lead that systemins are important mediators of defense responses against herbivorous insects, we checked whether a similar role would apply to the AtPep-PEPR system. Here, we could show that the AtPep-PEPR system is indeed induced by herbivore feeding and strongly interacts with the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) to orchestrate defense responses. Accordingly, mutants deficient in AtPep-PEPR signaling are strongly impaired in defense responses against the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis, underlining the importance of AtPep signaling in plant defense against herbivores ...
Diseases caused by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens result in enormous reductions in yield and quality from agricultural crops around the world. However, although plants are continuously challenged by pathogenic microorganisms, the development of disease is a relatively rare event. It is clear, therefore, that plants possess efficient defense systems. Effective induction of the defense response requires pathogen recognition followed by a network of signal transduction processes, resulting in the rapid activation of defense gene expression. A number of secondary signal molecules such as salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and ethylene act to amplify and regulate defense responses after initial activation (Dong, 1998; Reymond and Farmer, 1998; Schenk et al., 2000). Interestingly, the SA- and jasmonate/ethylene-dependent signaling pathways appear to modulate plant defense responses against different classes of pathogens (for review, see ...
Jasmonates are important signals in plant stress responses and plant development. An essential step in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) is catalysed by ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (AOC) which establishes the naturally occurring enantiomeric structure of jasmonates. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four genes encode four functional AOC polypeptides (AOC1, AOC2, AOC3, and AOC4) raising the question of functional redundancy or diversification. Analysis of transcript accumulation revealed an organ-specific expression pattern, whereas detailed inspection of transgenic lines expressing the GUS reporter gene under the control of individual AOC promoters showed partially redundant promoter activities during development: (i) In fully developed leaves, promoter activities of AOC1, AOC2, and AOC3 appeared throughout all leaf tissue, but AOC4 promoter activity was vascular bundle-specific; (ii) only AOC3 and AOC4 showed promoter activities in roots; and (iii) partially specific promoter activities were found for ...
Jasmonic Acid JA Definition - Jasmonic acid (JA), also known commercially as Jasmonate, is a plant hormone produced by many plants, but one that plays an....
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Thujone ( ( listen)) is a ketone and a monoterpene that occurs naturally in two diastereomeric forms: (−)-α-thujone and (+)-β-thujone. It has a menthol odor. Though it is best known as a chemical compound in the spirit absinthe, which contains only small quantities of thujone, it is unlikely to be responsible for absinthes alleged psychedelic effects ...
There are disclosed compounds of the formula, ##STR1## where n is 0 or 1; A is ##STR2## where X in each occurrence is independently hydrogen, halogen, loweralkyl, hydroxy, nitro, loweralkoxy, amino, cyano, trifluoromethyl or methylthio; Y in each occurrence is independently hydrogen, halogen, loweralkyl, hydroxy, nitro, loweralkoxy, amino, cyano, trifluoromethyl or methylthio; m is 1 or 2; k is 1 or 2; R1 and R2 are independently hydrogen, lower alkyl, ##STR3## or alternatively R1 +R2 taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a cyclopentane, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, pyran, thiopyran, indan or piperidine ring; R3 and R4 are independently hydrogen or loweralkyl, or alternatively R3 +R4 taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a cyclopentane, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, pyran, thiopyran, pyrrolidine or piperidine ring, the term aryl signifying an unsubstituted phenyl group or a phenyl group substituted with 1, 2 or 3 substituents each of which being
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(His)6-GBF1 is a BFA-resistant ARF-GEF. (A) Fractions enriched in (His)6-GBF1 display a GEF specific for ARFs. Identical volumes (5 μl) of the 50 mM imidazole
Proteinase inhibitor proteins are synthesized in leaves of several plant genera in response to localized and systemic signals that are released from sites of insect and pathogen attacks. Several...
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an EUA for the use of the unapproved (investigational) drug intravenous Peramivir for treatment of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in certain hospitalized adult and pediatric patients. Data on the safety of Peramivir IV are limited. Please consult this Fact Sheet for general information on possible side effects of Peramivir IV. Healthcare providers who prescribe Peramivir IV are responsible for mandatory reporting to FDA MedWatch of all medication errors and selected adverse events occurring during Peramivir IV treatment within 7 calendar days from the onset of the event. The fact sheet includes information on what selected adverse events should be reported to FDA MedWatch.. ...
Jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives play a crucial role in plant adaptation to environmental stress. The exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) results in activation of stress-related genes...
desethermuscarone: analog of muscarone where cyclopentane ring is substituted for the furan ring; RN given refers to parent cpd((cis)-(+-))-isomer; structure
The role of jasmonic acid (JA) in plant wounding response has been demonstrated. However, the source of JA in wound signaling remains unclear. In the present study, pea seedlings were used as material to investigate the systemic induction of JA and the activation of lipoxygenase (LOX)-dependent octadecanoid pathway upon wounding. The results showed that endogenous JA could induce two peaks in the ...
142130-73-2 - UZNXSBPBWFLVDK-NKWVEPMBSA-N - 3-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-cyclopentanol - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Spraying a corn plant with one of its own compounds - 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, or OPDA - can help deter the virus-carrying, pollination-disrupting insect known as the corn-leaf aphid.
Testosterone Cypionate Quick detail Synonyms: Cyponax;TESTOSTERONE CYCLOPENTANE PROPIONATE;TESTOSTERONE CYCLOPENTYLPROPIONATE CAS No.: 58-20-8 M.F.: C27H40O3 M.W.: 412.6 Assays: 99.20% Packing: 1kg/foil bag Reference Standard: USP28 Appearance:...
Jasmonic acid and other fatty‐acid‐derived compounds called oxylipins are signals in stress responses and development of plants
Project context and objectives Oxylipin synthesis is triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses as well as also taking place during...
BioCryst to File Peramivir NDA Supported by BARDA/HHS Funding RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--July 11, 2013 BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (BCRX) today announced that the Biomedical...
Jual meja operasi lengkap dan resmi dengan harga yang terjangkau. Dapatkan harga meja operasi murah dan alat kesehatan lainnya di Medicalogy |✓ Pengiriman cepat ✓ Original
Qiang Pu Jin is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Qiang Pu Jin is available on the Drugs.com website.
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Assalamualaikum korang... huh, terkezutzz kan dengan tajuk post tu... Ya Allah, sakit rasanya bila terkena penyakit ni... ni bukan lah 1 penyakit ludah jin.. Buat takut mak je kan?? Memandai je ludah jin.. kesian jin tak bersalah jadi mangsa.. hehee.. Tapi, wallahualam, kalau penyakit ni mungkin dari jin.. boleh jadi kan???~ Anyway, tak tau la penyakit mende ni.. tapi setahu Cik Iman, ini adalah penyakit GEGATA aka GATAL2 ...
Na. Za-pad-nom Bal-ka-nu su po-treb-ni do-dat-ni ko-ra-ci za ra-zvoj ma-log i sred-njeg po-du-zet-niš-tva (SME) te je nuž-no pro-na-ći me-ha-niz-me za pot-po-ru ras-ta tog sek-to-ra, po-ru-čio je Pi-er-re He-il-bronn, pot-pred-sjed-nik EBRDa za po-li-ti-ke i part-ner-stva. Na pa-ne-lu o fi-nan-cij-skim ins-tru-men-ti-ma SMEu, odr-ža-nom u sklo-pu sum-mi-ta ze-ma-lja Za-pad-nog Bal-ka-na u Tr-stu, He-il-bronn je seg-ment ma-log i sred-njeg po-du-zet-niš-tva oci-je-nio mo-to-rom ino-va-ci-ja u re-gi-ji i ge-ne-ra-to-rom eko-nom-skog ras-ta.. Re-kao je da potpora mo-ra ići kroz po-bolj-ša-nja u fi-nan-cij-skom me-nadž-men-tu i kor-po-ra-tiv-nom uprav-lja-nju, ključ-nim fak-to-ri-ma da ma-li po-du-zet-ni-ci pos-ta-nu kre-di-bil-ni kli-jen-ti ba-na-ka. U sri-je-du su EBRD, Svjet-ska ban-ka, EK i EIF pot-pi-sa-li pi-smo na-mje-re za osi-gu-ra-nje dalj-njih 48 mi-li-ju-na eura ma-lom po-du-zet-niš-tvu.. ...
Allene oxide synthase (AOS) mediates the conversion of lipoxygenase-derived fatty acid hydroperoxides to unstable allene epoxides, which supply the precursors for the synthesis of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA). In this study the characterization of AOS gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum) is reported. AOS was constitutively expressed in different organs of flax plants. Additionally, AOS gene expression was enhanced after mechanical wounding in both the directly damaged leaves and in the systemic tissue located distal to the treated leaves. This wound-induced accumulation of AOS required the de novo biosynthesis of other unknown proteins involved in the signaling pathway modulating wound-induced AOS gene expression. Furthermore, the wound-induced AOS mRNA accumulation was correlated with the increase in the levels of JA. Both JA and its precursor, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, activated AOS gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, JA could activate its own biosynthetic pathway ...
Cross talk between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways plays an important role in the regulation and fine tuning of induced defenses that are activated upon pathogen or insect attack. Pharmacological experiments revealed that transcription of JA-responsive marker genes, such as PDF1.2 and VSP2, is highly sensitive to ... read more suppression by SA. This antagonistic effect of SA on JA signaling was also observed when the JA pathway was biologically activated by necrotrophic pathogens or insect herbivores, and when the SA pathway was triggered by a biotrophic pathogen. Furthermore, all 18 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions tested displayed SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression, highlighting the potential significance of this phenomenon in induced plant defenses in nature. During plant-attacker interactions, the kinetics of SA and JA signaling are highly dynamic. Mimicking this dynamic response by applying SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) at ...
Jasmonate (JA) and its derivatives are lipid-based hormone signals that regulate a wide range of processes in plants, ranging from growth and photosynthesis to reproductive development. In particular, JAs are critical for plant defense against herbivory and plant responses to poor environmental conditions and other kinds of abiotic and biotic challenges. Some JAs can also be released as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to permit communication between plants in anticipation of mutual dangers. The isolation of methyl jasmonate from jasmine oil derived from Jasminum grandiflorum led to the discovery of the molecular structure of jasmonates and their name. Jasmonates (JA) are an oxylipin, i.e. a derivative of oxygenated fatty acid. It is biosynthesized from linolenic acid in chloroplast membranes. Synthesis is initiated with the conversion of linolenic acid to 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), which then undergoes a reduction and three rounds of oxidation to form (+)-7-iso-JA, jasmonic acid. Only ...
Plants develop an enhanced defensive capacity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens after colonization of the roots by selected strains of nonpathogenic, fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) functions independently of salicylic acid but requires responsiveness to the plant hormones jasmonic acid and ethylene. ... read more In contrast to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance, rhizobacteria-mediated ISR is not associated with changes in the expression of genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins. To identify ISR-related genes, we surveyed the transcriptional response of over 8,000 Arabidopsis genes during rhizobacteria-mediated ISR. Locally in the roots, ISR-inducing Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r bacteria elicited a substantial change in the expression of 97 genes. However, systemically in the leaves, none of the approximately 8,000 genes tested showed a consistent change in expression in response to ...
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The phytohormone JA plays a critical role in wound responses (Wasternack, 2007). It is massively produced within a few minutes after wounding by chloroplast- and peroxisome-localized biosynthetic enzymes and is involved both in local and long-distance signaling (Koo et al., 2009; Wasternack and Hause, 2013). Plants impaired in JA biosynthesis or signaling exhibit weakened responses to wounding and are much more susceptible to chewing insects (Howe and Jander, 2008). The JA core signaling pathway is well described (Chini et al., 2007; Thines et al., 2007): JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins sequester transcription factors, notably basic helix-loop-helix factors such as MYC2 to prevent their activation of JA-responsive genes. The binding of the bioactive form of JA, JA-Ile, to the COI1 receptor, an F-box protein that forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase Skp, Cullin, F-box (SCF) containing complex with Skp and Cullin proteins, increases the affinity of COI1 for JAZ proteins, triggering their ...
Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential
Herbivore damage by chewing insects activates jasmonate (JA) signalling that can elicit systemic defense responses in rice. Few details are known, however, concerning the mechanism, whereby JA signalling modulates nutrient status in rice in response to herbivory. (15NH4)2SO4 labelling experiments, proteomic surveys, and RT‐qPCR analyses were used to identify the roles of JA signalling in nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation in rice plants. Exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to rice seedlings led to significantly reduced N uptake in roots and reduced translocation of recently‐absorbed 15N from roots to leaves, likely occurring as a result of down‐regulation of glutamine synthetase cytosolic isozyme 1-2 and ferredoxin-nitrite reductase. Shoot MeJA treatment resulted in a remobilization of endogenous unlabelled 14N from leaves to roots, and root MeJA treatment also increased 14N accumulation in roots but did not affect 14N accumulation in leaves of rice. Additionally, proteomic and RT
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.12436 Interpretive Summary: Insects are one of the biggest constraints on plant productivity. Plants respond to insect attack by launching two types of defenses: direct defense and indirect defense. Direct defense includes all plant responses that suppress attacking insects by directly affecting the physiology and/or behavior of the attackers. Indirect defense includes all plant traits that by themselves do not affect host resistance, but can attract natural enemies of the attacking insects and thus reduce plant loss. This paper provides a detailed review of current literature on plant indirect defense. A better understanding of indirect plant defense may lead to novel cost-effective insect control strategies. Technical Abstract: Plants respond to herbivore attack by launching two types of defenses: direct defense and indirect defense. Direct defense includes all plant traits that increase the resistance of host plants to attacking insect herbivores by ...
Plants cannot avoid to be attacked by an almost infinite number of microorganisms and insects. Consequently they armed themselves with molecular weapons against their attackers. Plant defense responses are the result of a complex signaling network, in which the hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) are the usual suspects under the magnifying glass when researchers investigate host-pest interactions. However, also Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs), C6 molecules, which are very quickly produced and/or emitted upon herbivory or pathogen infection by almost every green plant play an important role in plant defenses. GLVs are semiochemicals used by insects to find their food, their prey or their conspecifics. They have also been reported to be fundamental in indirect defenses and to have a direct effect on pests, but these are not the only roles of GLVs. These volatiles, being probably one of the fastest weapons exploited, are also able to directly elicit or prime plant defense
Specifically cleaves olefinic bonds in cyclic enones. Involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) and perhaps in biosynthesis or metabolism of other oxylipin signaling moleclules. It is required for the spatial and temporal regulation of JA levels during dehiscence of anthers, promoting the stomium degeneration program (By similarity). In vitro, reduces 9S,13S-12-oxophytodienoic acid (9S,13S-OPDA) and 9R,13R-OPDA to 9S,13S-OPC-8:0 and 9R,13R-OPC-8:0, respectively.
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: Diethyl 2,5-dioxohexahydro-3H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,4-furo[3,2-c]pyran]-3,3-dicarboxylate.
Remarkably, only a few low molecular mass signals, including jasmonic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid, upregulate the expression of scores of defense-related genes. Using these regulators, the plant fine-tunes its defense gene expression against aggressors which, in some cases, may be able to disr …
PIs and PPOs constitute an important anti-herbivore defense system in tomato (Duffey, 1986; Ryan, 2000). The inability of jai1 plants to express PIs and PPO in response to wounding or JA demonstrates that LeCOI1 is essential for this line of chemical defense. Interestingly, genes that encode PPO and PI-II are not present in the Arabidopsis genome (Allen, 2002; Van der Hoeven et al., 2002). This observation indicates that although components of the JA signaling pathway (i.e., COI1) are conserved in different plant species, many of the target genes regulated by the pathway are specific to a particular plant species or family. This idea is supported by numerous examples of JA-regulated phytochemical defense systems that operate in specific plant lineages (Heil et al., 2001; Memelink et al., 2001; Kessler and Baldwin, 2002; Wasternack and Hause, 2002; Goossens et al., 2003). Additional insight into the role of LeCOI1 in regulating the JA transcriptome in tomato was obtained by cDNA microarray ...
17827660] Cloning of the pactamycin biosynthetic gene cluster and characterization of a crucial glycosyltransferase prior to a unique cyclopentane ring formation. (J Antibiot (Tokyo). , 2007 ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 13:347-351...Dhirendra Kumar and Daniel F. Klessig...© 2000 The American Phytopathological Society...In tobacco, two mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, designated salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wounding-induced protein kinase (WIPK) are activated in a disease resistance-specific manner following pathogen infection or elicitor treatment. To investigate whether nitric ox...
Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses r …
Plants have evolved robust mechanisms to perceive and respond to diverse environmental stimuli.ᅠ The plant phytohormones jasmonates and salicylates play key roles in activating biotic stress response pathways. Recent ...
The importance of the two chiral centers at C-3 and C-7 in the molecular structure of jasmonic acid in plant responses was investigated. We separated methyl jasmonate (MeJA) into (3R)- and (3S)-isomers with a fixed stereochemistry at C-3, but epimerization at C-7 is possible. The four isomers of the nonepimerizable analog 7-methyl MeJA were synthesized. These six esters and their corresponding aci ...
Making waste a functionality: Oxidative electron transfer-mediated anion-radical transformations are rendered catalytic by employing a 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-N-oxopiperidinium salt with ferrocene. This enables an asymmetric approach to highly functionalized cyclopentane and pyrrolidine derivatives. At the same time the co-generated reduced species TEMPO serves as a useful oxygenating functionality. ...
We examined the actions on ENaC recycling of reagents that alter membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal organization using the restimulation protocol. Treatment with BFA did not affect the first response to forskolin, but it produced a marked inhibition of the subsequent ΔISC. The finding that it was possible to elicit one cycle of forskolin stimulation-recovery suggests that ENaC-containing vesicles available for channel insertion are distal to the Golgi and TGN. The response to restimulation was significantly reduced, however, indicating that ENaC is recycled through BFA-sensitive compartments. Results from a study using BFA-treated toad bladder produced similar findings in response to repeated ADH stimulation; an initial stimulation could be elicited, but subsequent stimulations were abolished by pretreatment with 5 μg/ml BFA (Weng and Wade, 1994). The effect of BFA on ENaC recycling was unexpected in view of its well-documented inhibition of AP-1-dependent trafficking in early compartments ...
CYCLOPENTANONE OXIME 1192-28-5 NMR spectrum, CYCLOPENTANONE OXIME H-NMR spectral analysis, CYCLOPENTANONE OXIME C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
The Terpenes and Testing Bi-Monthly print magazine is a complete technical reference. This blog is separate from the magazine as it addresses the latest cannabis news, product reviews, and more colloquial subject matter. Please refer to our editorial content for a comprehensive assessment of these complicated practices ...
The Terpenes and Testing Bi-Monthly print magazine is a complete technical reference. This blog is separate from the magazine as it addresses the latest cannabis news, product reviews, and more colloquial subject matter. Please refer to our editorial content for a comprehensive assessment of these complicated practices ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
brefeldin A esterase: hydrolyzes brefeldin A to brefeldin A acid & also hydrolyzes ethyl valerate; 372 amino acids; amino acid sequence given in first source
Ba Duan Jin is effective to improve functions of internal Zang-Fu organs and eliminate pathogenic factors. Extending, pronating, shaking etc can benefit different organs like heart, spleen and stomach, kidney, triple energizer, so Ba Duan Jin get good functions to strengthen muscles, moisten...
Ba Duan Jin is effective to improve functions of internal Zang-Fu organs and eliminate pathogenic factors. Extending, pronating, shaking etc can benefit different organs like heart, spleen and stomach, kidney, triple energizer, so Ba Duan Jin get good functions to strengthen muscles, moisten...
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Yi Jin Jing ( Tendon-Muscle Strengthening Exercises ) is a health and fitness exercise handed down from ancient China. Based on the 12 routines, Yi Jin Jing features key points of the original exercises while putting the theory, skills and effects on the same solid foundation as knowledge of...
Jin S. Hahn, MD is on CAP Network. CAP Network is a virtual workspace, to support collaboration among faculty, graduate students, postdocs and staff.
by Ko, Tae Hee and Ko, Tae Hee and Marquez, Jubert C and Marquez, Jubert C and Kim, Hyoung Kyu and Kim, Hyoung Kyu and Jeong, Seung Hun and Jeong, Seung Hun and Lee, SungRyul and Lee, SungRyul and Youm, Jae Boum and Youm, Jae Boum and Song, In Sung and Song, In Sung and Seo, Dae Yun and Seo, Dae Yun and Kim, Hye Jin and Kim, Hye Jin and Won, Du Nam and Won, Du Nam and Cho, Kyoung Im and Cho, Kyoung Im and Choi, Mun Gi and Choi, Mun Gi and Rhee, Byoung Doo and Rhee, Byoung Doo and Ko, Kyung Soo and Ko, Kyung Soo and Kim, Nari and Kim, Nari and Won, Jong Chul and Won, Jong Chul and Han, Jin and Han, Jin ...
Kami masing2 diberi satu meja dlm pejabat..tp segan kot nak g duduk situ..last2 sume duduk lam satu group kat satu meja besar..tu pun kdg2 cikgu2 take over lepak2..last2 kitorang berpecah in pairs g observe persekitaran..gi lawat kelas khas..amek gamba apa yg patut.. g interview cikgu media ( Puan Edawati ) kat library..n then berkumpul balik kat bilik guru interview cikgu Inggeris ( Puan Harjit Kaur ) & discuss pasal aktiviti yg kene handle ngn bebudak minggu ke-2 nnt..harini byk jugak dpt kumpul bahan utk portfolio ...
Li Lu , S. P. Liu , L. W. Liu , F. Zhou , H. F. Yang , H. Li , Z. Jin , A. Z. Jin , J. Miao , W. J. Kong , J. H. Fang , C. Z. Gu , Y. X. Weng , Q. K. Xue , S. Wang , L.-M. Peng , B. Jiang , Q. S. Zheng ...
Miao, L. and Song, Z. and Jin, L. et al. (2010) ARF antagonizes the ability of Miz-1 to inhibit p53-mediated transactivation. Oncogene, 29 (5). pp. 711-722. ISSN 0950-9232. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20100301-102009616 ...
Profesionální stimulant v pohotovostní tekuté formě k okamžitému použití bez potřeby šejkru či jiných pomůcek. Stejná a možná ještě lepší stimulace
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"The conversion of carbohydrate derivatives into functionalized cyclohexanes and cyclopentanes". Chem. Rev. 93 (8): 2779-2831. ...
Building from this, several electrocyclic ring openings of β-alkoxy cyclopentanes have been reported. These are typically ...
Acetal 1 has been used in this context, and provides cyclopentanes with the acetal functionality exo to the newly formed ring ...
Silicate esters Ionic fluids Multiply alkylated cyclopentanes (MAC) PTFE: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is typically used as a ...
The Wolff rearrangement is capable of contracting cyclohexanones to cyclopentanes, but is infrequently used to do so, because ...
7-Dehydrocholesterol is the precursor of cholecalciferol.[8] Within the epidermal layer of skin, 7-dehydrocholesterol undergoes an electrocyclic reaction as a result of UVB light at wavelengths between 290 and 315 nm, with peak synthesis occurring between 295 and 300 nm.[32] This results in the opening of the vitamin precursor B-ring through a conrotatory pathway making previtamin D3 (pre-cholecalciferol).[33] In a process which is independent of UV light, the pre-cholecalciferol then undergoes a [1,7] antarafacial sigmatropic rearrangement [34] and therein finally isomerizes to form vitamin D3. The active UVB wavelengths are present in sunlight, and sufficient amounts of cholecalciferol can be produced with moderate exposure of the skin, depending on the strength of the sun.[32] Time of day, season, and altitude affect the strength of the sun, and pollution, cloud cover or glass all reduce the amount of UVB exposure. Exposure of face, arms and legs, averaging 5-30 minutes twice per week, may be ...
Cyclopentanes. *Hallucinogen stubs. Hidden categories: *ECHA InfoCard ID from Wikidata. *Articles without EBI source ...
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Cyclopentanes. Hidden categories: *All articles with unsourced statements. *Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017 ...
Cyclopentanes. *Erectile dysfunction drugs. *Ketones. *Prostaglandins. *Secondary alcohols. *World Health Organization ...
SUBSTITUTED CYCLOPENTANES OR CYCLOPENTANONES FOR THE TREATMENT OF OCULAR HYPERTENSIVE CONDITIONS. WO2007149829A2. 2007-12-27. ...
EN) 1,2-SUBSTITUTED CYCLOPENTANES AS OREXIN RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS. (FR) CYCLOPENTANES SUBSTITUÉS EN 1,2 UTILISÉS COMME ... 1. (WO2015124932) 1,2-SUBSTITUTED CYCLOPENTANES AS OREXIN RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS PCT Biblio. Data. Description. Claims. National ...
You can make 1621 words from cyclopentanes in our Scrabble US and Canada dictionary.. *13 letters words from cyclopentanes ...
Sparteine-Mediated Asymmetric Intramolecular Carbolithiation of Alkenes: Synthesis of Enantiopure Cyclopentanes with Three ...
Page contains details about multiply-alkylated cyclopentanes/APTES-graphene oxide film on silicon wafer . It has composition ...
Polycyclic organic compounds, Antiemetics, Cyclopentanes, Bicyclic compounds Categories. ‹ All Categories. ‹ All Polycyclic ...
Polycyclic organic compounds, Food Additives, Cyclic compounds, Cyclopentanes Categories. ‹ All Categories. ‹ All Polycyclic ...
"The conversion of carbohydrate derivatives into functionalized cyclohexanes and cyclopentanes". Chem. Rev. 93 (8): 2779-2831. ...
Cyclopentanes / analysis* * Cyclopentanes / metabolism* * Oxylipins / analysis* * Oxylipins / metabolism* * Plant Roots / ...
Cyclopentanes / pharmacology* * Golgi Apparatus / drug effects* * Golgi Apparatus / ultrastructure * Microscopy, Electron * ...
Building from this, several electrocyclic ring openings of β-alkoxy cyclopentanes have been reported. These are typically ...
perfluoro methyl cyclopentanes, C6F12 perfluoro dimethyl cyclobutanes, C6F12 ...
perfluoro methyl cyclopentanes, C6F12 perfluoro dimethyl cyclobutanes, C6F12 ...
Shape descriptors used in 3D QSAR studies naturally take into account chirality; however, for flexible and structurally diverse molecules such studies require extensive conformational searching and alignment. QSAR modeling studies of two datasets of fragrance compounds with complex stereochemistry using simple alignment-free chirality sensitive descriptors developed in our laboratories are presented. In the first investigation, 44 alpha-campholenic derivatives with sandalwood odor were represented as derivatives of several common structural templates with substituents numbered according to their relative spatial positions in the molecules. Both molecular and substituent descriptors were used as independent variables in MLR calculations, and the best model was characterized by the training set q2 of 0.79 and external test set r2 of 0.95. In the second study, several types of chirality descriptors were employed in combinatorial QSAR modeling of 98 ambergris fragrance compounds. Among 28 possible ...
0 (Amino Acids); 0 (Culture Media); 0 (Cyclopentanes); 0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Sesquiterpenes); 0 (Volatile Organic Compounds); ...
Cyclopentanes / chemistry, metabolism. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Kinetics. Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Sequence ... 0/Acetic Acids; 0/Arabidopsis Proteins; 0/Cyclopentanes; 0/Oxylipins; 0/RNA, Messenger; 0/Recombinant Proteins; 1211-29-6/ ...
Cyclopentanes · Kinetics · Lymphocyte Activation · Lymphocytes · Rats · Sodium · Stimulation, Chemical ...
... cyclopentanes in very good yields through a combination of enamine-type catalysis with an indium-catalyzed activation of ...
PFPE (perflouropolyether) and MAC (multiply alkylated cyclopentanes), I hear. They have really low vapor pressure (so they ...
C. G. Venier and E. W. Casserly, "Multiply-alkylated cyclopentanes (MACs). A new class of synthesized hydrocarbon fluids," ... "Anti-wear andfriction-reduction mechanism of Sn and Fe nanoparticles as additives of multialkylated cyclopentanes under vacuum ...
Cyclopentanes (Cyclopentane) 7. Cobalt 8. Benzene (Benzole) 9. Alkynes (Acetylenes) 10. Alkanes ...
THERAPEUTIC SUBSTITUTED CYCLOPENTANES. Disclosed herein are compounds having formula (I) wherein a dashed line represents the ...
Therapeutic substituted cyclopentanes. Disclosed herein are compounds having formula (I) wherein a dashed line represents the ...
Unlike other carbon rings, such as cyclohexanes and cyclopentanes, bicyclobutanes are rarely found in nature. This could be due ...
An efficient procedure for the preparation of (1S,3R)- and (1S,3S)-1-amino-3-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopentanes. ...
Expression of plant defence genes in bacterized melon plants in response to powdery mildew. Plants were bacterized and inoculated with P. fusca as described in
Cyclopentanes/metabolism. *HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics/metabolism. *Mutation. *Oxylipins/metabolism. *Phenotype ...
Highly stereoselective synthesis of cyclopentanes bearing four stereocentres by a rhodium carbene-initiated domino sequence * ... Rights & permissionsfor article Highly stereoselective synthesis of cyclopentanes bearing four stereocentres by a rhodium ...
Crane, G.; Boord, C.E.; Henne, A.L., The Preparation of Cyclopentenes and Cyclopentanes I., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1945, 67, 1237 ...
1,2-substituted cyclopentanes as orexin receptor antagonists. The present invention provides compounds of formula (I) and ...
  • They included synthetic hydrocarbons, esters, silicones, multiply alkylated cyclopentanes (MAC) and fluorinated materials, including perfluorinated ethers and the fluorosilicones. (astm.org)
  • Unlike other carbon rings, such as cyclohexanes and cyclopentanes, bicyclobutanes are rarely found in nature. (eurekalert.org)
  • Design and Synthesis of a Novel Series of 1,2-Disubstituted Cyclopentanes as Small, Potent Potentiators of 2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propanoic Acid (AMPA) Receptors. (alfa.com)
  • A procedure has been developed for the concise, stereoselective synthesis of (Z)-5-bromo-4-aryl-pent-3-en-1-ynes through Sc(OTf) 3 catalyzed dehydration reactions of allenic bromohydrins. (ncue.edu.tw)
  • Song Z H, Liang Y M, Fan M J, Zhou F, Liu W M. Lithium-based ionic liquids as novel lubricant additives for multiply alkylated cyclopentanes (MACs). (springer.com)
  • InCl 3 and (Cy)( i -Pr)NH efficiently promote the carbocyclization reaction of α-disubstituted aldehydes to give functionalized cyclopentanes in very good yields through a combination of enamine-type catalysis with an indium-catalyzed activation of alkynes. (organic-chemistry.org)