An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic of the phenylalkynoic acid series. It has been shown to reduce bone resorption in periodontal disease by inhibiting CARBONIC ANHYDRASE.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC
An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
A dual inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. It exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The drug also enhances pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and has a protective effect after myocardial ischemia.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active NSAID analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.
A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES. The receptor may also signal through the activation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GQ and the subsequently activates TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. Additional evidence has shown that the receptor can act through a calcium-dependent signaling pathway.
Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS, NON-STEROIDAL) similar in mode of action to INDOMETHACIN.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent used for analgesia for postoperative pain and inhibits cyclooxygenase activity.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI and subsequently inhibits ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
A subclass of eicosanoid receptors that have specificity for THROMBOXANE A2 and PROSTAGLANDIN H2.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that occur in the CYTOSOL.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is less effective than equal doses of ASPIRIN in relieving pain and reducing fever. However, individuals who are hypersensitive to ASPIRIN may tolerate sodium salicylate. In general, this salicylate produces the same adverse reactions as ASPIRIN, but there is less occult gastrointestinal bleeding. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p120)
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.
A class of cyclic prostaglandins that contain the 6,9-epoxy bond. Endogenous members of this family are biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A drug that has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Following reports of adverse reactions including reports of carcinogenicity in animal studies it was withdrawn from the market worldwide. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p21)
A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
Paracrine substances produced by the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM with VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation (VASODILATION) activities. Several factors have been identified, including NITRIC OXIDE and PROSTACYCLIN.
Cell surface receptors for EPOPROSTENOL. They are coupled to HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A salicylate derivative and anti-inflammatory analgesic with actions and side effects similar to those of ASPIRIN.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)

Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. (1/6133)

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

Down-regulation of oxytocin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin F synthase expression by interferon-tau in bovine endometrial cells. (2/6133)

Oxytocin (OT) is responsible for the episodic release of luteolytic prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha from the uterus in ruminants. The attenuation of OT-stimulated uterine PGF2alpha secretion by interferon-tau (IFN-tau) is essential for prevention of luteolysis during pregnancy in cows. To better understand the mechanisms involved, the effect of recombinant bovine IFN-tau (rbIFN-tau) on OT-induced PG production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGF synthase (PGFS) expression in cultured endometrial epithelial cells was investigated. Cells were obtained from cows at Days 1-3 of the estrous cycle and cultured to confluence in RPMI medium supplemented with 5% steroid-free fetal calf serum. The cells were then incubated in the presence or absence of either 100 ng/ml OT or OT+100 ng/ml rbIFN-tau for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. OT significantly increased PGF2alpha and PGE2 secretion at all time points (p < 0.01), while rbIFN-tau inhibited the OT-induced PG production and reduced OT receptor binding in a time-dependent manner. OT increased the steady-state level of COX-2 mRNA, measured by Northern blot, which was maximal at 3 h (9-fold increase) and then decreased with time (p < 0.01). OT also caused an increase in COX-2 protein, which peaked at 12 h (11-fold increase), as measured by Western blot. Addition of rbIFN-tau suppressed the induction of COX-2 mRNA (89%, p < 0.01) and COX-2 protein (50%, p < 0.01) by OT. OT also increased PGFS mRNA, and this stimulation was attenuated by rbIFN-tau (p < 0.01). To ensure that the decrease in COX-2 was not solely due to down-regulation of the OT receptor, cells were stimulated with a phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PMA) in the presence and absence of rbIFN-tau. The results showed that rbIFN-tau also decreased PMA-stimulated PG production and COX-2 protein. It can be concluded that rbIFN-tau inhibition of OT-stimulated PG production is due to down-regulation of OT receptor, COX-2, and PGFS.  (+info)

Mechanisms of prostaglandin E2 release by intact cells expressing cyclooxygenase-2: evidence for a 'two-component' model. (3/6133)

Prostaglandin (PG) release in cells expressing constitutive cyclooxygenase-1 is known to be regulated by liberation of arachidonic acid by phospholipase A2 followed by metabolism by cyclooxygenase. However, the relative contribution of phospholipase A2 to the release of PGs in cells expressing cyclooxygenase-2 is not clear. We addressed this question by using radioimmunoassay to measure PGE2 release by human cells (A549) induced to express cyclooxygenase-2 (measured by Western blot analysis) by interleukin-1beta. Cells were either unstimulated or stimulated with agents known to activate phospholipase A2 (bradykinin, Des-Arg10-kallidin, or the calcium ionophore A23187) or treated with exogenous arachidonic acid. When cells were treated to express cyclooxygenase-2, the levels of PGE2 released over 15 min were undetectable; however, in the same cells stimulated with bradykinin, A23187, or arachidonic acid, large amounts of prostanoid were produced. Using selective inhibitors/antagonists, we found that the effects of bradykinin were mediated by B2 receptor activation and that prostanoid release was due to cyclooxygenase-2, and not cyclooxygenase-1, activity. In addition, we show that the release of PGE2 stimulated by either bradykinin, A23187, or arachidonic acid was inhibited by the phospholipase A2 inhibitor arachidonate trifluoromethyl ketone. Hence, we have demonstrated that PGE2 is released by two components: induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and supply of substrate, probably via activation of phospholipase A2. This is illustrated in A549 cells by a clear synergy between the cytokine interleukin-1beta and the kinin bradykinin.  (+info)

Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 induced by lipopolysaccharide and peroxisomal proliferators. (4/6133)

Primary cultures of fetal hepatocytes expressed cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) upon stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or peroxisomal proliferators. This enzyme was active and a good correlation between the mRNA levels, the amount of protein, and the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 was observed. However, when cells were incubated in the presence of indomethacin or the COX-2-specific inhibitor NS398, the amount of COX-2 protein increased 5-fold after activation with LPS and 2-fold after treatment with clofibrate. This up-regulation of COX-2 was not observed at the mRNA level. The mechanism of protein accumulation might involve either a direct stabilization of the enzyme by the inhibitors or the absence of prostaglandins involved in the regulation of its turnover. Among the prostaglandins assayed, only 15-deoxy-Prostaglandin J2 exerted a statistically significant decrease in the COX-2 levels in cells stimulated with LPS or LPS plus NS398. The accumulation of COX-2 in the presence of inhibitors was also observed in peritoneal macrophages treated under identical conditions. These results indicate that COX-2 protein accumulates after enzyme inhibition, and because removal of the inhibitors restored the enzyme activity, suppression of treatment with reversible COX-2 inhibitors may cause a transient overproduction of prostaglandins.  (+info)

Characterization of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ketorolac and its enantiomers in the rat. (5/6133)

The marked analgesic efficacy of ketorolac in humans, relative to other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), has lead to speculation as to whether additional non-NSAID mechanism(s) contribute to its analgesic actions. To evaluate this possibility, we characterized (R,S)-ketorolac's pharmacological properties in vivo and in vitro using the nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors [indomethacin (INDO) and diclofenac sodium (DS)] as well as the selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, as references. The potency of racemic (R,S)-ketorolac was similar in tests of acetic acid-induced writhing, carrageenan-induced paw hyperalgesia, and carrageenan-induced edema formation in rats; ID50 values = 0.24, 0. 29, and 0.08 mg/kg, respectively. (R,S)-ketorolac's actions were stereospecific, with (S)-ketorolac possessing the biological activity of the racemate in the above tests. The analgesic potencies for (R,S)-, (S)-, and (R)-ketorolac, INDO, and DS were highly correlated with their anti-inflammatory potencies, suggesting a common mechanism. (R,S)-ketorolac was significantly more potent than INDO or DS in vivo. Neither difference in relative potency of COX inhibition for (R,S)-ketorolac over INDO and DS nor activity of (S)-ketorolac at a number of other enzymes, channels, or receptors could account for the differences in observed potency. The distribution coefficient for (R,S)-ketorolac was approximately 30-fold less than for DS or INDO, indicating that (R,S)-ketorolac is much less lipophilic than these NSAIDs. Therefore, the physicochemical and pharmacokinetics properties of (R,S)-ketorolac may optimize the concentrations of (S)-ketorolac at its biological target(s), resulting in greater efficacy and potency in vivo.  (+info)

Oxidative bioactivation of the lactol prodrug of a lactone cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. (6/6133)

The lactol derivative of a lactone cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (DFU) was evaluated in vivo and in vitro for its potential suitability as a prodrug. DFU-lactol was found to be 10 to 20 times more soluble than DFU in a variety of aqueous vehicles. After administration of DFU-lactol at 20 mg kg-1 p.o. in rats, a Cmax of 7.5 microM DFU was reached in the plasma. After oral administration, the ED50s of DFU-lactol in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and lipopolysaccharide-induced pyresis assays in rats are comparable with the ED50s observed when dosing with DFU. Incubations of DFU-lactol with rat and human hepatocytes demonstrated that the oxidation of DFU-lactol can be mediated by liver enzymes and that a competing pathway is direct glucuronidation of the DFU-lactol hydroxyl group. Assays with subcellular fractions from rat liver indicated that most of the oxidation of DFU-lactol occurs in the cytosolic fraction and requires NAD(P)+. Human liver cytosol can also support the oxidation of DFU-lactol to DFU when NAD(P)+ is added to the incubations. Fractionation of human liver cytosolic proteins showed that at least three enzymes are capable of efficiently effecting the oxidation of DFU-lactol to DFU. Incubations with commercially available dehydrogenases suggest that alcohol and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are involved in this oxidative process. These data together suggest that lactols may represent useful prodrugs for lactone-containing drugs.  (+info)

Arachidonic acid in platelet microparticles up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostaglandin formation via a protein kinase C/mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. (7/6133)

Activation of platelets results in shedding of membrane microparticles (MP) with potentially bioactive properties. Platelet MP modulate platelet, monocyte, and vascular endothelial cell function, both by direct effects of MP arachidonic acid (AA) and by its metabolism to bioactive prostanoids. We have previously reported that platelet MP induce expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and prostacyclin production in monocytes and endothelial cells. To elucidate further the molecular mechanisms that underlie MP-induced up-regulation of COX-2 expression, we investigated the response of a human monocytoid (U-937) cell line to platelet MP stimulation. In U-937 cells, MP-induced COX-2 expression and eicosanoid formation is prevented by pharmacological inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), PI 3-kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 kinase. Treatment with the PI 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 also blocked MP-induced p42/p44 MAPK, p38, and JNK1 phosphorylation. Conversely, platelet MP stimulation of U-937 cells results in direct activation of PKC, p42/p44 MAPK, p38 kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) as well as activation of the transcription factors c-Jun and Elk-1. However, MP failed to activate the cAMP response element. Activation of U-937 cells by MP induces translocation of classical (PKCbeta), novel (PKCdelta) and atypical (PKCzeta and PKClambda) isozymes of PKC from the cytosol to the membrane, with concomitant activation of downstream MAPK. While MP-induced activation of p42/p44 MAPK and p38 kinase is transient, a sustained activation of JNK1 was observed. Although PKC activation is required for MP-induced p42/p44 MAPK, activation of the stress kinases p38 and JNK1 was PKC-independent. The fatty acid fraction of the MP accounted for these effects, which were mimicked by MP AA. Rather than acting directly via nuclear receptors, MP AA activates COX-2-dependent prostaglandin production by a PKC/p42/p44 MAPK/p38 kinase-sensitive pathway in which PI 3-kinase plays a significant role. MP AA also stimulates transcriptional activation of COX-2 as well as c-Jun and Elk-1.  (+info)

Coordinate regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and TGF-beta1 in replication error-positive colon cancer and azoxymethane-induced rat colonic tumors. (8/6133)

Evidence is accumulating which indicates that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. We evaluated the expression of COX-2 in replication error-positive (RER) colon cancers, colon cancers metastatic to liver and azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rat colonic tumors. Immunohistochemistry showed that COX-2 was low to undetectable in normal human mucosa, but abundant in the RER adenocarcinomas we examined. COX-2 immunoreactivity in metastatic colon cancers was less abundant, but clearly detectable. In the colon of AOM-treated rats, COX-2 protein was not detectable in normal mucosa, but present in most of the epithelial cells comprising the tumors. The TGF-beta1 staining pattern in these human and rat tumors was similar to that observed for COX-2. The role of TGF-beta in RER adenocarcinomas is complex because of the increased mutation rate of TGF-beta type II receptors. Northern analysis showed abundant TGF-beta1 mRNA in AOM-induced tumors, but not in paired mucosa. TGF-beta1 induced the expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). Chronic TGF-beta1 treatment caused a TGF-beta-dependent overexpression of COX-2 in rat intestinal epithelial cells (RIE-1). TGF-beta1 may regulate COX-2 expression during the colonic adenoma to carcinoma sequence.  (+info)

Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), also known as cyclooxygenase, is the key enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, and acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase. There are two isozymes of PTGS: a constitutive PTGS1 and an inducible PTGS2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. This gene encodes the inducible isozyme. It is regulated by specific stimulatory events, suggesting that it is responsible for the prostanoid biosynthesis involved in inflammation and mitogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Store-operated Ca2+ Entry Facilitates the Lipopolysaccharide-induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Gastric Cancer Cells. AU - Wong, Jhen Hong. AU - Ho, Kuo Hao. AU - Nam, Sean. AU - Hsu, Wen Li. AU - Lin, Chia Hsien. AU - Chang, Che Mai. AU - Wang, Jaw Yuan. AU - Chang, Wei Chiao. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Helicobacter pylori has been identified as one of the major causes of chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and H. pylori LPS might play an exclusively important role in activating inflammatory pathways in monocytes and macrophages. To study the role of LPS in the underlying mechanism of inflammatory responses, we established an in vitro model using the human AGS gastric cancer cell line. We found that LPS mediates inflammation through setting off a cascade of events: activation of the store-operated calcium (SOC) channel, initiation of ...
PTGS2 (COX-2) is unexpressed under normal conditions in most cells, but elevated levels are found during inflammation. PTGS1 (COX-1) is constitutively expressed in many tissues and is the predominant form in gastric mucosa and in the kidneys. Inhibition of PTGS1 (COX-1) reduces the basal production of cytoprotective PGE2 and PGI2 in the stomach, which may contribute to gastric ulceration. Since PTGS2 (COX-2) is generally expressed only in cells where prostaglandins are upregulated (e.g., during inflammation), drug-candidates that selectively inhibit PTGS2 (COX-2) were suspected to show fewer side-effects[25] but proved to substantially increase risk for cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. Two different mechanisms may explain contradictory effects. Low-dose aspirin protects against heart attacks and strokes by blocking PTGS1 (COX-1) from forming a prostaglandin called thromboxane A2. It sticks platelets together and promotes clotting; inhibiting this helps prevent heart ...
The size of the PCR products from cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 are 524 and 583 base pairs, respectively. The specificity of the PCR reaction for cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) was confirmed by digestion of PCR products by sequence-specific restriction enzymes (cyclooxygenase-1: Sac I and Sma I; cyclooxygenase-2: Pst I and Nco I). For quantitation of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA levels, the Escherichia coli plasmid pT2M containing specific internal standards for cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 was constructed by internal deletion of sequences: The truncated fragments (320 base pairs) from cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 PCR products were incorporated into the E. coli cloning plasmid pBSII SK(+)(Stratagene, La Jolla, CA) at the EcoR I and Kpn I restriction sites and multiplied as plasmids in an E. coli strain Dh5 alpha. Plasmid solutions were adjusted to 1 x 104molecules/micro liter after double digestion by ...
Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme that is responsible for formation of important biological mediators called prostanoids, including prostaglandins, prostacyclin and thromboxane. Pharmacological inhibition of COX can provide relief from the symptoms of inflammation and pain. Drugs, like Aspirin, that inhibit cyclooxygenase activity have been available to the public for about 100 years. Two cyclooxygenase isoforms have been identified and are referred to as COX-1 and COX-2. Under many circumstances the COX-1 enzyme is produced constitutively (i.e., gastric mucosa) whereas COX-2 is inducible (i.e., sites of inflammation). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, exert their effects through inhibition of COX. The main COX inhibitors are the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).. ...
We investigated the effects of Th2 cell-associated cytokines, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13, on prostaglandin (PG) production by human peripheral blood monocytes (HPBM) in terms of four parameters: PGE2 synthesis; cyclooxygenase activity; protein; and mRNA of two cyclooxygenase isozymes (cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2). LPS-stimulated PGE2 synthesis and cyclooxygenase activity were suppressed by IL-4, IL-10, or IL-13. Furthermore, the LPS-dependent increase of cyclooxygenase activity in HPBM was attributable to cyclooxygenase-2 because it was inhibited by NS-398 (a cyclooxygenase-2-specific inhibitor). Western and Northern blot analyses revealed that the LPS-induced increases in cyclooxygenase-2 protein and mRNA were attenuated by the addition of IL-4, IL-10, or IL-13. In contrast, cyclooxygenase-1 protein and mRNA were hardly detected in monocytes that were incubated with or without LPS in the presence or absence of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13. These results suggest that the reduction of LPS-induced ...
PTGS2 is the inducible isozyme of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, also known as cyclooxygenase. It has been linked to numerous conditions, especially involving inflammation or cancer. Also known as COX2. [PMID 17479405] Haplotypes A-1195G-765T8473 and A-1195C-765T8473 variants of COX-2 were associated with 1.3X increased risk of breast cancer in a Chinese population [PMID 16361272] Relative to individuals with a PTGS2 Ex10 +837 TT genotype, those carrying the C allele (TC or CC genotype) had a 1.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer in a Chinese population [PMID 12920574] In a group of Pima Indians, individuals with the variant PTGS2 rs20417 CC genotype had a 30% higher Type 2 diabetes prevalence compared with subjects with the GG genotype ...
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common autosomal recessive diseases among Caucasians caused by a mutation in the CFTR gene. However, the clinical outcome of CF pulmonary disease varies remarkably even in patients with the same CFTR genotype. This has led to a search for genetic modifiers located outside the CFTR gene. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of functional variants in prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase genes (COX1 and COX2) on the severity of lung disease in CF patients. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time when analysis of COX1 and COX2 as potential CF modifiers is provided. The study included 94 CF patients homozygous for F508del mutation of CFTR. To compare their clinical condition, several parameters were recorded, e.g. a unique clinical score: disease severity status (DSS). To analyse the effect of non-CFTR genetic polymorphisms on the clinical course of CF patients, the whole coding region of COX1 and selected COX2 polymorphisms were analysed. ...
The cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms COX-1 and COX-2 convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandin (PG) precursors and are a limiting step in PG production. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) treatment of type II A549 cells increases PGE2 synthesis via transcription- and translation-dependent induction of COX-2. …
COX1 / Cyclooxygenase 1兔单克隆抗体[EPR5866](ab109025)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用并得到2个独立的用户反馈。
Cyclooxygenase is the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane from arachidonic acid. There are two isozymes of cyclooxygenase; constitutive cyclooxygenase-1 and...
Cyclooxygenase is an enzyme that produces signals that can lead to pain and inflammation. Medications that inhibit cyclooxygenase...
购买我们的人COX1 / Cyclooxygenase 1肽。ab22901可作为ab2338的封闭肽并经过Blocking实验验证。Abcam提供免费的实验方案,操作技巧及专业的支持。中国80%以上现货。
Rabbit polyclonal COX2 / Cyclooxygenase 2 antibody. Validated in WB, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 63 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 5 review(s). Immunogen corresponding…
高い抗原親和性、特異性と安定した品質を兼ね備えたアブカムのウサギ・モノクローナル抗体 RabMAb® ab62331 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: WB,Flow Cyt,ICC/IF
ptgs2, cox-2, cox2, gripghs, hcox-2, pgg/hs, pghs-2, phs-2; prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase); K11987 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 [EC:] ...
Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase that exerts many of the pleiotropic effects of oxidative metabolism. Due to local hypoxia and hypertonicity, the renal medulla is subject to extreme oxidative stress. Here, we set out to investigate the role of Sirt1 in the kidney. Our initial analysis indicated that it was abundantly expressed in mouse renal medullary interstitial cells in vivo. Knocking down Sirt1 expression in primary mouse renal medullary interstitial cells substantially reduced cellular resistance to oxidative stress, while pharmacologic Sirt1 activation using either resveratrol or SRT2183 improved cell survival in response to oxidative stress. The unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of kidney injury induced markedly more renal apoptosis and fibrosis in Sirt1+/¨C mice than in wild-type controls, while pharmacologic Sirt1 activation substantially attenuated apoptosis and fibrosis in wild-type mice. Moreover, Sirt1 deficiency attenuated oxidative stress¨Cinduced COX2 ...
Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), also known as prostaglandin G/H synthase 1, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 or prostaglandin H2 synthase 1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGS1 gene. In humans it is one of two cyclooxygenases. Cyclooxygenase (COX) is the central enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway to prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. This protein was purified more than 20 years ago and cloned in 1988. There are two isozymes of COX encoded by distinct gene products: a constitutive COX-1 (this enzyme) and an inducible COX-2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. The expression of these two transcripts is differentially regulated by relevant cytokines and growth factors. This gene encodes COX-1, which regulates angiogenesis in endothelial cells. COX-1 is also involved in cell signaling and maintaining tissue homeostasis. A splice variant of COX-1 termed COX-3 was identified in the CNS of dogs, but does not result in a functional protein in humans. ...
Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes) that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin, from arachidonic acid. A member of the animal-type heme peroxidase family, it is also known as prostaglandin G/H synthase. The specific reaction catalyzed is the conversion from arachidonic acid to Prostaglandin H2, via a short-living Prostaglandin G2 intermediate ...
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which include over-the-counter pharmaceuticals such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin, rank among the most widely used pharmaceuticals worldwide. Their chief mechanism of action is inhibition of two forms of cyclo-oxygenase (COX), namely COX-1 and COX-2 (1). Also known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), COX is responsible for the production of downstream mediators of pain and inflammation, such as thromboxane and prostaglandins. Due to their suppression of prostaglandins, which exert protective roles in the gastrointestinal tract, one of the most frequent adverse effects of NSAIDs is irritation of the gastric mucosa.. Thus, newer generation selective COX-2 drugs, known as the coxibs, were introduced in the 1990s to mitigate the risk of peptic ulceration that results from COX-1 suppression. By 2004, coxibs had dominated the prescription drug market for NSAIDs, with worldwide sales of approximately $10 billion (2). Their development was ...
Ibuprofen is a well-established non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, inhibiting the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. One of the key features defining the ibuprofen structure is the doubly intermolecular O-H⋯O [[double bond, length as m-dash]] C hydrogen bond in cyclic dimers as know from carboxylic acids a...
Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a bifunctional enzyme exhibiting coupled peroxidase and dioxygenase activities.1,2 Human COX-1 and COX-2 are two structurally homologous hemoproteins responsible for the biosynthesis of prostaglandin H2 from arachidonic acid (AA).1-3 They have been found to play great roles in certain diseases, including cancer,4 and nervous system5 and apoptosis-related diseases.6 COX-1 is constitutively expressed in a variety of cells,7 whereas COX-2 is induced by various inflammatory and proliferative stimuli. COX enzymes are important drug targets for the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Over the past decades, COX-2 inhibitors have widely been used as anti-inflammatory medicine, although they usually elicit potential cardiotoxic side effects. Hence, many efforts have been made in recent years to eliminate or reduce such kinds of adverse effects.6,8,9 Crystal structure studies10,11 reveal that COX-2 has a larger substrate binding pocket than COX-1 (Fig. S1†), providing the ...
Coincident with the FDA approval of refecoxib and celecoxib, FitzGerald et al reported that these drugs suppress the formation of prostacyclin (PGI2), leaving the production of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) unaltered.30 PGI2 is a key COX product in the endothelium that inhibits platelet aggregation, causes vasodilatation, and prevents proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.31 Evidence was also provided that PGI2 production in vivo was COX-2 dependent, possibly through COX-2 induction in endothelial cells by shear stress.31 In contrast to PGI2, the COX-1-derived prostanoid TXA2, causes platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, and vascular proliferation.31 FitzGerald et al speculated that suppression of COX-2-dependent formation of PGI2 by the COX-2 inhibitors left TXA2 generation unopposed, promoting vasoconstriction, thrombosis, and atherogenesis.32 A number of publications began to surface suggesting that the COX-2 inhibitors might be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. ...
The role of NSAIDs in the prevention of colorectal cancer is mediated through various mechanisms including the inhibition of COX-2 and the induction of apoptosis through COX-2 independent pathways (26). Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that ASA partially suppresses the MSI-H phenotype of human colon cancer cell lines through an apoptotic mechanism that appeared to be COX independent (22). In vitro ASA has been shown to arrest colon cancer cells at the G1/S checkpoint and induce apoptosis through activation of ATM, p21, and BAX (27). Among NSAIDS, ASA is still a preferred choice for chemoprevention in average-risk individuals. This is not only because of its shown chemopreventive efficacy but also because of its unique potential in cardiovascular protection (3, 4).. In this study, we investigated the chemopreventive potential of ASA and NO-ASA using a newly developed mouse model of LS/HNPCC. LS/HNPCC mice treated with ASA at 400 mg/kg had an increased median survival time compared ...
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-dependent prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis exacerbates occlusive and aneurysmal vascular disease by inducing macrophage proteinase and...
Sevigny M.B., Li C.F., Alas M., Hughes-Fulford M.. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the prostanoid biosynthesis pathway, converting arachidonic acid into prostaglandin H(2). COX-2 exists as 72 and 74kDa glycoforms, the latter resulting from an additional oligosaccharide chain at residue Asn(580). In this study, Asn(580) was mutated to determine the biological significance of this variable glycosylation. COS-1 cells transfected with the mutant gene were unable to express the 74kDa glycoform and were found to accumulate more COX-2 protein and have five times greater COX-2 activity than cells expressing both glycoforms. Thus, COX-2 turnover appears to depend upon glycosylation of the 72kDa glycoform.. FEBS Lett. 580:6533-6536(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] ...
It is generally accepted that ovarian cancer is associated with local elevation of gonadotropins (FSH and LH), with repeated ovulation and accompanying expression of inducible cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)....
We investigated the mechanisms by which inhibitors of prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 (PGHS-2; known colloquially as COX-2) increase… Expand ...
Boster Bio Anti-COX2/Cyclooxygenase 2/PTGS2 Antibody Picoband™ catalog # A00084. Tested in WB applications. This antibody reacts with Human, Mouse, Rat. Supplied as 100μg/vial in Lyophilized form antibody.
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal COX2 / Cyclooxygenase 2 antibody [EPR18376-119] validated for WB, IP, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse. Immunogen…
So the problem has to do with the fact that sometimes our understanding of how the body does what it does is incomplete, and when we isolate a chemical or split a natural chemical down to only part of its molecule, it ends up turning off one bad function of the body but unwittingly turning off some beneficial functions, too. For instance, aspirin inhibits cyclooxygenase, the bodys natural chemical that normally mediates the synthesis of natural chemicals that enable platelets to activate and stick together and form a clot when blood vessel damage occurs so you dont bleed out... some people are inappropriately prone to clotting and need to tone that natural process down a bit, so they take aspirin. Well, unfortunately cyclooxygenase also mediates processes that cause your stomach to protect its lining against its own acid... so inhibiting cyclooxygenase will stop platelets of clot-prone people from clotting inappropriately, but at the same time it has the potential to also cause you to get a ...
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) induces hypophagia, which can be reduced by cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors. Earlier studies with COX knockout (COXko) mice suggested that COX2 was more important for hypophagia than COX1. However, behavioral responses occur long before COX2 is induced. Hypophagia was assessed in mice by measuring the intake of sweetened milk in a brief period. The intake was reduced within 30 min after intraperitoneal injection of IL-1β and was depressed for about 2 h. When milk intake was measured 30 to 40 min after IL-1β, COX1ko mice showed an attenuated response, whereas COX2ko mice responded more like wild-type animals. By contrast, 90 to 120 min after IL-1β COX1ko mice responded normally, whereas COX2ko mice showed only small responses. The COX2-selective inhibitor, celecoxib, failed to alter the response to IL-1β 30 min after administration, but low doses antagonized the effects of IL-1β at 90 to 120 min. The COX1-selective inhibitor, SC560, attenuated both the early and late ...
Celecoxibe hampered EMD-induced mitosis and proliferation, which, in association with EMD-increased COX-2 expression, indicates that COX-2 may be involved in the proliferative response of HPLF cells to EMD.
Drug Discovery, Drugs, Inflammation, Pain, Therapeutic, Community, Homo, Inhibition, Mechanics, Cyclooxygenase, Cyclooxygenase-1, Literature, Pathologies
Several studies suggest that cyclooxygenase-2 contributes to the delayed progression of ischemic brain damage. In this study we examined whether the highly selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor DFU reduces neuronal damage when administered several hours after 5 min of transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. The extent of ischemic injury was assessed behaviorally by measuring the increases in locomotor activity and by histopathological evaluation of the extent of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cell injury 7 days after ischemia. DFU treatment (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced hippocampal neuronal damage even if the treatment is delayed until 12 h after ischemia. These results suggest that selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may be a valuable therapeutic strategy for ischemic brain injury. ...
Cholangiocyte cytokines stimulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) to produce nitric oxide (NO), a known DNA mutagen linked to malignant transformation (5, 13). The generation of NO is also important for bile duct development because it induces Notch1 expression (14, 15). The four Notch genes identified in mammals (Notch 1-4) are expressed in a wide variety of cells and play a significant role in cellular differentiation. The activation of Notch by cell-to-cell interaction causes a transcriptional silencing effect that inhibits differentiation in some cells but not in others (16-18). While the Notch pathway is known to be associated with pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats and humans (19), this same pathway may also have a role in cholangiocarcinogenesis via NOS2.. Cyclooxygenase-2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, PTGS2) is also implicated in the initiation of malignant cholangiocytes (20). PTGS2 is up-regulated in murine and rat models of biliary adenocarcinoma, while the antisense ...
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme that drives inflammation and is the therapeutic target for widely used nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, COX-2 is also constitutively expressed, in the absence of overt inflammation, with a specific tissue distribution that includes the kidney, gastrointestinal tract, brain, and thymus. Constitutive COX-2 expression is therapeutically important because NSAIDs cause cardiovascular and renal side effects in otherwise healthy individuals. These side effects are now of major concern globally. However, the pathways driving constitutive COX-2 expression remain poorly understood. Here we show that in the kidney and other sites, constitutive COX-2 expression is a sterile response, independent of commensal microorganisms and not associated with activity of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. Instead, COX-2 expression in the kidney but not other regions colocalized with nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription ...
Background Giardia lamblia trophozoites colonize in the upper small intestine resulting in diarrhea and various clinical manifestations, including abdominal pain, anorexia, and signs of malabsorption. A decrease in the level of trace elements might occur because of this absorption deficiency resulting from giardiasis. Experimentally, the excretory secretory product of G. lamblia trophozoites increased the level of reactive oxygen species in mice enterocytes. The levels of bilirubin, uric acid, and albumin are often used as major nonenzymatic oxidative biomarkers. Objective This study was designed to determine the effect of therapy by metronidazole (MTZ) and artemether (ART) on trophozoite and cyst forms in experimentally Giardia spp.-infected hamsters and to reveal the changes in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and chromium (Cr) serum levels pretreatment and post-treatment. Another objective was to evaluate the impact of this therapy on serum levels of bilirubin, uric acid, and albumin ...
We have recently reported that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-deficiency affects brain upstream and downstream enzymes in the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic pathway to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as enzyme activity, protein and mRNA levels of the reciprocal isozyme, COX-1. To gain a better insight into the specific roles of COX isoforms and characterize the interactions between upstream and downstream enzymes in brain AA cascade, we examined the expression and activity of COX-2 and phospholipase A2 enzymes (cPLA2 and sPLA2), as well as the expression of terminal prostaglandin E synthases (cPGES, mPGES-1, and − 2) in wild type and COX-1-/- mice. We found that brain PGE2 concentration was significantly increased, whereas thromboxane B2 (TXB2) concentration was decreased in COX-1-/- mice. There was a compensatory up-regulation of COX-2, accompanied by the activation of the NF-κB pathway, and also an increase in the upstream cPLA2 and sPLA2 enzymes. The mechanism of NF-κB activation in the ...
Thank you for sharing this Cancer Research article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
Learn more about prostaglandin-e2. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased expression of cyclooxygenase 2 frequently occurs in human lung cancers, specifically in adenocarcinomas.. AU - Kozaki, Kenichi. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Article. VL - 58. SP - 3761. EP - 3764. JO - Cancer Research. JF - Cancer Research. IS - 17. ER - ...
This invention is in the field of antiinflammatory pharmaceutical agents and specifically relates to compounds, compositions and methods for treating disorders mediated by cyclooxygenase-2 or 5-lipoxygenase, such as inflammation. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I wherein A, Y, R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5 are as defined in the specification.
COX-1抑制劑篩選K548 | COX活性測定試劑盒 | COX-2抑制劑篩選試劑盒 | 環氧合酶2(COX-2)ELISA試劑盒 | PTGS2 / COX-2(人類)ELISA試劑 COX-1抑制劑篩選試劑盒 | 貨號K548 Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) Inhibitor
TY - JOUR. T1 - The risk for myocardial infarction with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors.. AU - Shinmura, Ken. AU - Bolli, Roberto. PY - 2005/10/18. Y1 - 2005/10/18. UR - UR - U2 - 10.7326/0003-4819-143-8-200510180-00022. DO - 10.7326/0003-4819-143-8-200510180-00022. M3 - Comment/debate. C2 - 16230737. AN - SCOPUS:26944470838. VL - 143. SP - 617; author reply 617-618. JO - Annals of Internal Medicine. JF - Annals of Internal Medicine. SN - 0003-4819. IS - 8. ER - ...
Liu, X., Wong, P.T.-H., Lee, T.L. (2006). Cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition shortens the duration of diazepam-induced loss of righting reflex in mice. Anesthesia and Analgesia 102 (1) : 135-140. [email protected] Repository. ...
Ibuprofen has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic action due to inhibition of biosynthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase.
Eicosanoids exert their cellular action through specific G-protein coupled receptors. Prostanoids are the products of cyclooxygenases action on C-20…
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-COX-2 Antibody. Validated: WB, Simple Western, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. 100% Guaranteed.
... is a constituency represented in the Jatiya Sangsad (National Parliament) of Bangladesh since 2014 by Asheq Ullah ... "Cox's Bazar-2". The Daily Star. Retrieved 31 December 2018. "Constituency Maps of Bangladesh" (PDF). Bangladesh Election ... Chittagong and Cox's Bazar. Asheq Ullah Rafiq was elected unopposed in the 2014 general election after opposition parties ... Cox's Bazar District, All stub articles, Bangladesh geography stubs). ...
... cyclooxygenase. Prostaglandins whose synthesis involves the cyclooxygenase-I enzyme, or COX-1, are responsible for maintenance ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the competitive inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX), the enzyme which ... 170-fold more potent in inhibiting COX-1 than COX-2. Studies of meloxicam 7.5 mg per day for 23 days find a level of gastric ... Some COX-2 inhibitors are used in a single dose to treat pain after surgery. In this role Etoricoxib appears as good as, if not ...
Cyclooxygenases have two main isoforms that are called COX-1 and COX-2 (as well as a COX-3). COX-1 is responsible for the ... COX enzyme proved to be difficult to purify and was not sequenced until 1988. In 1991 the existence of the COX-2 enzyme was ... The side-chain of Leu384, at the top of the receptor channel, is oriented into the active site of COX-1, but, in COX-2, it is ... The same laboratory showed that this gene truly expressed a novel COX enzyme. The two enzymes were renamed COX-1, referring to ...
The Cox-Klemin TW-2 was a 1920s American biplane training aircraft built by the Cox-Klemin Aircraft Corporation. It was powered ... "Cox-Klemin TW-2". Andrade, John. U.S. Military Aircraft Designations and Serials since 1909. Midland Counties Publications, ... Cox-Klemin aircraft, Biplanes, Single-engined tractor aircraft, All stub articles, 1920s aircraft stubs). ... The CK-2 was a biplane with single-bay biplane that utilized a Fokker scheme of N-shaped interplane struts and metal cabane. ...
Cox obtained a Rising Star nomination in round 12 of the season, after he collected 23 disposals and kicked a goal. Cox is ... Cox debuted in the opening round of the 2020 AFL season, in Essendon's 1 point loss to Hawthorn. On debut, Cox collected 9 ... Cox supported the Western Bulldogs in his youth. He cited his favourite player from Essendon to watch as Alwyn Davey. Cox ... "Nikolas Cox". Aussie Rules Draft Central. Retrieved 27 March 2021. "Pick No.8: Nikolas Cox". 9 December 2020 ...
While batting, Cox came in sixth in Jamaica's first innings, making 18 runs before being caught by Percy Cox (unrelated) off ... Cox died in Kingston in October 1945, aged 67. Miscellaneous matches played by George Cox (2) - CricketArchive. Retrieved 21 ... George Cox as umpire in first-class matches (4) - CricketArchive. Retrieved 21 December 2014. George Cox - CricketArchive. ... Cox was captain of Jamaica in the last of a series of four matches between Jamaica and Trinidad, all of which were won by ...
... [1999] 2 NZLR 15; (1999) 6 NZBLC 102,666; (1998) 8 TCLR 516 is a cited case in New Zealand regarding ... Cox and Coxon appealed, claiming that expectation losses under contract could not be awarded under the Fair Trading Act, and ... Prior to purchasing the property, the real estate agents Cox and Coxon Ltd misrepresented the 1994 pear sales as being $12,000 ...
Cox was born in Brooklyn, New York to parents of British descent. Growing up in Long Island, New York, she attended Trinity ... Shana Amanda Cox (born January 22, 1985) is an American-born track and field athlete, who competes internationally for Great ... "Shana Cox". Olympics at Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on April 18, 2020. IAAF Relays ... Shana Cox at World Athletics v t e (Webarchive template wayback links, Articles with short description, Short description is ...
After some time, Tony Cox married Melinda Kendall. After a legal battle, Cox was awarded custody of Kyoko. However, in 1971 Cox ... Cox, Appellant, v. Yoko Ono Cox., 457 F.2d 1190 (3rd Cir. 1972), Docket Number: 71-2090 Anthony Cox at IMDb (Use mdy dates from ... Anthony D. Cox (born 1936) is an American film producer and art promoter. He is a former husband of Yoko Ono. Cox met Yoko Ono ... "Anthony D. Cox v. Yoko Ono Cox, 457 F.2d 1190 -". CourtListener. Retrieved January 21, 2022. "The ...
"Chandler Cox, 2015 Fullback". Rivals. Retrieved September 9, 2020. Inabinett, Mark (November 20, 2019). "Will Chandler Cox get ... Cox was waived by the Dolphins. Cox's father Tom played in the NFL for a part of the 1987 season. His older brother Dakota also ... Cox was selected by the Miami Dolphins in the seventh round (233rd overall) of the 2019 NFL Draft. He made the opening roster ... Chandler Duke Cox (born July 29, 1996) is an American football fullback who is a free agent. He played college football at ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Joel Cox. Joel Cox at IMDb "Joel Cox". Archived from the original on 2013-01-25. ... Cox has been quoted as saying that, over their 30-year partnership, Eastwood has re-cut only a single scene that Cox put ... Cox worked on two more of Richards' films, March or Die (1977 - as assistant editor) and Death Valley (1982). Cox has had a ... Gary D. Roach, who worked as Cox's assistant from the mid-1990s, became Cox's co-editor on Eastwood's films with Letters from ...
Cox attended Christ's College, Cambridge, before he entered HM Civil Service in 1941. He served in the Foreign Office before ... "Sir Robert Cox", The Times (London), 2 July 1981, p. 14. Gale CS236947682. "Sir Robert Cox", The Daily Telegraph, 2 July 1981, ... Sir William Robert Cox, KCB (2 January 1922 - 27 June 1981) was a British civil servant. ...
List of Guyanese representative cricketers "Newman Cox". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 19 November 2020. Newman Cox at ESPNcricinfo ... Newman Cox (13 March 1867 - 2 January 1938) was a Guyanese cricketer. He played in seven first-class matches for British Guiana ...
John Cox, rector of Risby, near Bury, and great-granddaughter of Dr Richard Cox, bishop of Ely. She died on 29 April 1743. The ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cox Macro. Courtney, William Prideaux (1893). "Macro, Cox" . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). ... Cox Macro was educated at Bury grammar school by the Rev. Edward Leeds. He matriculated at Jesus College, Cambridge, but ... Cox Macro (1686 - 2 February 1767) was an Anglican priest, and antiquarian. He accumulated a lerge collection of antiquities at ...
... also hosted the RI Sports Awards every June in Providence. Cox Sports had also teamed up with Eric Scott Latek of ... Cox Sports was a regional sports network that served the United States New England region until 2012. Cox Sports New England ... Cox Sports provided an extensive look at high school sports, broadcasting over 40 high school games annually. In addition, Cox ... Cox and WJAR launched Ocean State Networks (OSN). As a result, Cox Sports was taken off the air and all of its programming was ...
The Wil-Cox Bridge, named for highway commissioners W.E. Wilkinson of Charlotte and Elwood Cox of High Point, is one of only ... "Wil-Cox Bridge repairs under way". Salisbury Post. 2011-03-01. Retrieved 2011-03-01. "Repairs to Wil-Cox bridge progressing". ... Media related to Wil-Cox Bridge at Wikimedia Commons North Carolina Department of Transportation Photos of Wil-Cox Bridge work ... "North Carolina US 29: The Piedmont's Highway - Wil-Cox Bridge". Retrieved 2010-03-12. Dunn, Nash (2013-09-05). "Wil-Cox Bridge ...
On June 11, 2020 it was announced that Cox would be returning to Facebook as their Chief Product Officer. Cox married a fellow ... Cox was born in Atlanta, Georgia, and raised in Winnetka, Illinois. He is the youngest of three children. He attended New Trier ... Cox, who dropped out of a Stanford University graduate degree program to work with Zuckerberg when the company had just 15 ... Christopher Cox (born September 2, 1982) is a software engineer and business leader. He is the Chief Product Officer (CPO) at ...
... at The Virginia Elections and State Elected Officials Database Project, 1776-2007 Edwin P. Cox at Find a Grave v t ... Edwin Piper Cox (May 2, 1870 - March 11, 1938) was a Virginia politician. He represented Richmond in the Virginia House of ...
For the duration of the 2018 FIFA World Cup, Cox wrote for The Independent newspaper.[needs update] Cox featured regularly on ... "Vox in the Box: Michael Cox". 27 February 2015. "Interview: Michael Cox, Zonal Marking". " ... Cox created a podcast called The Mixer with Marcus Speller which coincided with the release of the book and over a few episodes ... Michael Cox (born 1988) is a British journalist and author who provides football analysis for the UK branch of The Athletic. He ...
In 1925 Cox was appointed attorney-general of the Bahamas. During a debate in the Legislative Council in 1926 Cox argued in ... In June 1946 Cox received a knighthood. In November 1951 Herbert Charles Fahie Cox, K.C., Chief Justice, Northern Rhodesia was ... In 1942 Cox made a major attempt to revise the culture associated with Dane guns, or locally made firearms. He presented a bill ... Herbert Charles Fahie Cox was the second son of the Hon. Charles Thomas Fox, Government Secretary. He was born in 1893 in ...
Cox currently has 8 cats.[citation needed] Cox studied with Brian Ferneyhough at the University of California, San Diego, and ... "Frank Cox and Brian Ferneyhough". Tempo, new series, no. 194 (Italian issue) (October): 37-38. Franklin Cox page on Wright ... Cox The New Cello, Vol 1 - American Composers. Centaur Records 2994 (2010), Franklin Cox, cello. Works by Carter, Ben Johnston ... Solo cello part written for Franklin Cox By Franklin Cox: "Expressive Substance in Eight Etudes for Cello Sollo", in Substance ...
Cox is an ECB Level 4 Coach and Mentor to coaches across the ECB Coach Development Programme. Cox was the first ever ECB Level ... Richard M. Cox at ESPNcricinfo Richard M. Cox at CricketArchive (subscription required) (Articles with short description, Short ... Other than that its not widely known that Cox is an avid pianist and follower of Football and Badminton. Richard Cox - ... In all Cox has toured with MCC on 10 occasions captaining in Canada and the USA whilst for 15 years he has Chaired and sat on ...
... in her studio. The theme of womanhood was prominent in her work, including in the sign of her studio. In 1932, Cox ... Cox is considered a pioneer of contemporary Irish pottery. Christina Mary Kathleen Cox was born in Wo-Sung, China, on 2 July ... She was the eldest daughter of Dr R. H. Cox who was from Dundalk. Dr Cox was the port health officer at Shanghai, who was also ... The money from these prizes allowed Cox to travel to Paris in 1929. Cox exhibited in 1924 at the Tailteann exhibitions, and in ...
... (72°12′S 101°2′W / 72.200°S 101.033°W / -72.200; -101.033Coordinates: 72°12′S 101°2′W / 72.200°S 101.033°W ... Jordan Nunatak stands between Cox and Rochray Glacier. List of glaciers in the Antarctic Glaciology Thurston Island - Jones ... This article incorporates public domain material from "Cox Glacier". Geographic Names Information System. United States ... Cox, a helicopter pilot aboard USS Burton Island, who made exploratory flights to Thurston Island in February 1960. ...
In 1911 Cox was transferred to the unattached officer list. In September 1914, Cox was appointed to command the AIF's 6th Light ... While the British regulars had doubts about Cox's competence in 1899, by the end of the war in 1902 Cox had earned considerable ... In May Cox went to England on sick leave. He rejoined his brigade on 26 August 1916 on the Suez Canal front, where they now ... Charles Frederick Cox was born on 2 May 1863 at Pennant Hills, New South Wales. He was a grandson of William Cox. He was ...
Cox, Rónadh; Jahn, Kalle; Watkins, Oona; Peter, Cox (2018). "Extraordinary boulder transport by storm waves (west of Ireland, ... Scholia has a profile for Rónadh Cox (Q57416878). Rónadh Cox (born 1962) is an Irish geologist who is the Edward Brust ... Whilst a doctoral student in California, Cox met her husband, Mark Brandriss. Rónadh Cox. OCLC 4780031689. silicon (17 July ... Cox is from Ireland. She says she became interested in geology as a teenager, because her geography teacher "delighted in the ...
... is the third and most recently discovered cyclooxygenase (COX) isozyme, the others being COX-1 and COX-2. The COX-3 ... with no role for COX-1 or a COX-1 gene product (e.g., COX-3). Finally, the sites of COX-3 expression do not appear to fit in ... with the difference that COX-3 retains an intron that is not retained in COX-1. The other two cyclooxygenase isozymes are known ... In addition, the COX-1/COX-2 model did not explain the properties of paracetamol (acetaminophen): although its antipyretic ( ...
Cox often talks about her during his music performances. As an actor, Cox made his debut in the 1972 film, Deliverance. In one ... That same year, Cox appeared in the Paul Verhoeven film RoboCop as corporate arch-villain Dick Jones. In 1986, Cox played the ... In 1997, Cox portrayed the fictional President of the United States Jack Neil in the movie Murder at 1600. Cox also portrayed ... Cox played Gideon Claybourne on season 6 of Nashville in 2018. Despite having a successful acting career, Cox said that music ...
... he is still notable for being employed under Cox. Cox fielded Chevrolet vehicles in the 1955 season but switched to Ford ... Cox provided a vehicle for now-retired NASCAR Grand National series driver Roy Bentley in four races that would take place in ... Marion "Preacher" Cox (October 2, 1920 - October 13, 1996) was a NASCAR Grand National Series car owner. He would serve more ... Due to his religious beliefs, Cox never allowed his vehicles to race on a Sunday (keeping him out of most of the Grand National ...
Cox is perhaps best known for swimming 2 hour 6 minutes in the Bering Strait on 7 August 1987, from the island of Little ... Cox was in the water for 25 min, swimming 1.22 miles (1.96 km). Her book about the experience, Swimming to Antarctica, was ... Cox, Lynne (2017-08-04). "Opinion , I swam from the U.S. to the Soviet Union. Then the world changed". Washington Post. ISSN ... Lynne Cox (born 2 January 1957) is an American long-distance open-water swimmer, writer and speaker. She is best known for ...
He studied mathematics at St John's College, Cambridge, where his contemporaries included David Cox and Denis Sargan. After ... Retrieved 2 July 2012. (Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Pages using cite ODNB with id parameter, ...
Graham Cox, 81, British judge. Tom Currigan, 94, American politician, Mayor of Denver (1963-1968). Carl Neumann Degler, 93, ... "Obituary: Sheriff Principal Graham Cox QC, MA, LLB". Former Denver Mayor Tom Currigan dies at 94 Stanford Pulitzer Prize- ... Hroar Elvenes er død (in Norwegian) Claudia Emerson, Pulitzer-winning poet, dies at 57 2-Faced Cat, Frank And Louie, Dies At 15 ... 2 February 2015. Anatole Beck In Memoriam Observer newspaper photographer Jane Bown dies aged 89 "Pedro Brescia Cafferata ...
In September 1991, Cox Target Media, Inc. purchased Valpak and by 1997, Valpak was mailing out 11 billion coupons a year. In ... In January 2017, Platinum Equity acquired Valpak along with from Cox Target Media, Inc. Valpak prints, packages and ... Glover, Charles E. (1998). Journey Through Our Years: The Story of Cox Enterprises, Inc. Atlanta, Georgia, USA: LONGSTREET. pp ... Retrieved 2 November 2013. Tofel, Kevin C. "Samsung continues to usurp Android, adds 14 new Samsung Wallet partners". Gigaom. ...
Cox, Eileen J.; Sims, Patricia A.; Williams, David M. (November 2006). "Robert Ross, MA, FLS (14 August 1912-24 May 2005)". ... 21 (2): 479-488. doi:10.1080/0269249X.2006.9705687. International Plant Names Index. R.Ross. Times Obituary (subscription ...
Andreeva, Nellie (May 14, 2016). "Legal Drama 'Doubt' Co-Starring Laverne Cox Picked Up To Series By CBS, Breaks New Ground For ... Andreeva, Nellie (August 2, 2017). "'The Middle' To End With Season 9 On ABC; Star Patricia Heaton Tweets It Will Be "The Most ... Maglio, Tony (August 2, 2017). "'Hooten and the Lady': We're 'Not Planning to Go Forward With a Season 2,' CW Boss Says". ... 2 Broke Girls-Canceled on May 12, 2017, after six seasons. Criminal Minds: Beyond Borders-Canceled on May 14, 2017, after two ...
S. H. Cox. Debate at the Lane seminary, Cincinnati. Speech of James A. Thome, of Kentucky, delivered at the annual meeting of ... Samuel H. Cox, against the American colonization society. Boston: Garrison and Knapp. 1834. p. 2. Bradley, James (1834). " ... In response to the second question, the Reverend Samuel H. Cox, who had served as an agent for the Colonization Society, ... "Weld is here & we are glad," wrote Professor Biggs on July 2.: 54 The self-assembling at Lane of men from very diverse places, ...
Paterson's Practical Statutes). Horace Cox. Windsor House, Bream's Buildings, London. 1892. Pages 15 to 101. "Obiter Dicta" ( ... 18 Cox CC 561; 18 Magistrates' Cases 149; [1897] 2 QB 297; (1897) 66 LJQBNS 601; (1897) 77 Law Times Reports 1. See further ... Short Titles Act The citation of this Act by this short title was authorised by section 2 of this Act. Due to the repeal of ... HL Deb vol 1, cols 413, 1463 and 1464 and 1760, vol 2, cols 265, 456 and 608, vol 4, col 339 and 485, HC Deb vol 2, col 1303, ...
Cox Media Group. June 11, 2021. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. Retrieved July 2, 2021. Hayes, John (August 15, ... Retrieved July 2, 2021. Delano, Jon (July 16, 2021). "Marlin Woods To File Papers To Run For Mayor Of Pittsburgh, Giving City ... Davidson, Tom (March 2, 2021). "Candidate's old tweets touting Trump spur more turmoil among Democrats in Pittsburgh mayoral ... The 2021 Pittsburgh mayoral election took place on November 2, 2021. The primary election was held on May 18, 2021. The ...
Writers used the story to kill-off Leo's partner Britney Barnes (Montana Cox) following the destruction of the bar. In their ... 2-8 April 2022. p. 30. Ellis, Sarah (26 June - 2 July 2021). "Flamingo feud!". Inside Soap. No. 26. p. 49. Kilkelly, Daniel (8 ... 2. p. 43. Ellis, Sarah (18-24 January 2020). "Roxy & Shane's shock smooch!". Inside Soap. No. 3. pp. 28-29. Penwill, Alice (1-7 ... Kilkelly, Daniel (2 June 2019). "Neighbours' Terese Willis infuriates Paul and Roxy with the truth about Vance". Digital Spy. ...
2010 Cox, Michael, editor, The Concise Oxford Chronology of English Literature, Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-19-860634 ... January 2 - Edward Chicken (born 1698), English Geordie poet and teacher February 4 - Robert Blair (born 1699), Scottish member ...
Cox, Nicholas; Pantazis, Dimitrios A.; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang (2013). "Biological Water Oxidation". Accounts of ... 2: 73-78. doi:10.1002/wcms.81. S2CID 62137389. Neese, Frank (2009). "Prediction of molecular properties and molecular ...
The revolt in Acadiana, however, was sufficient to drop Louisiana to Cox' fourth-best state behind Georgia as well as South ... Cox. Harding carried fourteen of the Acadian parishes, and in the two most sugar-dependent, Assumption and Lafourche, he ... Cox suffering a record 26.17 point landslide defeat and carrying only 41 counties outside antebellum slave states and Oklahoma ... The 1920 United States presidential election in Louisiana took place on November 2, 1920 as part of the 1920 United States ...
Cox, Gordon (March 2, 2017). "Tribeca Film Festival Unveils 2017 Feature Film Slate (FULL LIST)". Variety. Retrieved April 7, ... Template film date with 2 release dates, IMDb ID same as Wikidata, American drama films, American mystery films, American ...
Cox, Ryan Bundy, and 18-year-old Victoria Sharp, were still in the rear seat of the truck at the time. They were subsequently ... Shawna Cox, a passenger in Finicum's truck, recorded cell phone video of Finicum shouting to police that he intended to ignore ... Travis Cox called his refuge occupation 'hasty decision by an arrogant and ignorant young man', Oregon Live, Maxine Bernstein, ... The most minor of the offenders, Blomgren, Flores, Stanek, Kjar, and Travis Cox all agreed to pay $3,000 each. As of the end of ...
Arachidonic acid Cyclooxygenase Cyclooxygenase 1 NSAID Discovery and development of COX-2 selective inhibitors COX-2 selective ... PTGS1 (COX-1) and PTGS2 (COX-2) are bifunctional enzymes that carry out two consecutive chemical reactions in spatially ... Each monomer of the enzyme has a peroxidase and a PTGS (COX) active site. The PTGS (COX) enzymes catalyze the conversion of ... The tertiary and quaternary structures of PTGS1 (COX-1) and PTGS2 (COX-2) enzymes are almost identical. Each subunit has three ...
... and also 18-year-old welfare recipient Nial Ruth Cox of North Carolina, were prominent cases of involuntary sterilization. Jet ... 8 (2): 261-272. doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2010.01.002. ISSN 1570-677X. PMID 20188639. Hinton, Alex. "Opinion , 70 Years Ago Black ... 2 (3): 68. ISSN 0148-7736. Price, Gregory N.; Darity, William A. (2010-07-01). "The economics of race and eugenic sterilization ... 1 (2): 47-52. doi:10.1080/00064246.1969.11430663. JSTOR 41202828. Kumeh, Titania (October 12, 2010). "Conspiracy Watch: Is ...
Hommon, Robert J.; Stauder, Catherine; Cox, David W.; Ching, Francis K.W. (September 1975), Preliminary Report on Archeological ... On 2 June 1816 Kaumualiʻi agreed to return the cargo that remained and pay restitution in sandalwood for any items that could ...
Cox, Zack (August 9, 2015). "Red Sox Notes: Henry Owens Earns First Win For Sox; Koji Uehara Sent Home". NESN. Retrieved ... He promoted to the Salem Red Sox of the Class A-Advanced Carolina League on April 2. On July 17, he struck out a season-high ... He was promoted to the Pawtucket Red Sox of the Class AAA International League on August 2, 2014. He was a mid-season and post- ... Retrieved August 2, 2015. "Boston Red Sox at New York Yankees Box Score, August 4, 2015". Baseball Reference. Retrieved ...
Kiss the Bride is a 2007 American romantic comedy film directed by C. Jay Cox and starring Tori Spelling, Philipp Karner and ... Template film date with 2 release dates, IMDb ID same as Wikidata, Rotten Tomatoes template using name parameter, 2007 LGBT- ...
136-141 Vardey 1988, p. 249 Jackson 1977, p. 111 Stuttard 1995, p. 144 Cox, Barry (2006). "Ashtead Village Heritage Trail" (PDF ... In the final year of the war, two V-1 flying bombs landed in the village and a V-2 rocket landed to the south of Ashtead Park ... 5 (1): 2-11. Retrieved 23 May 2021. Lowther, A.W.G. (1955). "Ashtead and its history IX: The early Stuart Period" (PDF). ... Ormiston, Sam (2 October 2021). "The stunning nature reserve inside the M25 with 500 acres of the most beautiful woodland you ...
... cox). Sir Alexander William Shaw, founding member and also founder of Limerick Golf Club & Lahinch Golf Club Sir Thomas Myles, ... 1927 the club annexed the Senior Eight Championship of Ireland at Cork regatta when they defeated neighbours Athlunkard by 1/2 ...
Virgil Cox House is a historic home located at Galax, Virginia. It was built about 1913, and is a large 2+1⁄2-story frame ... Virgil Cox House" (PDF). Virginia Department of Historic Resources. and Accompanying four photos v t e (Articles using NRISref ...
Cox, or at least two of them). Christie also makes mention of the case in Elephants Can Remember and in The Clocks, where ... Cox (whom Bravo had threatened to sack), murder by Florence, and murder by a disaffected groom whom Bravo had discharged from ... Their housekeeper Mrs Cox reportedly told police that when they were alone together, Charles had admitted using the tartar ... The graphic novel From Hell by Alan Moore and Eddie Campbell briefly features both Charles and Florence Bravo in Chapter 2. One ...
General Manager Bobby Cox said that "Bruce is not going to retire. We're not going to release him. We'll put him on the 21-day ... Today I felt great, no problems." Sutter started the season with a 2-0 record and a 4.34 ERA in 16 games. He was placed on the ... Though he finished the season with a combined 2-7 record, he recorded a 1.38 ERA in 65 innings. He returned to Midland in 1975 ... On September 8, 1977, Sutter struck out all three batters on nine total pitches in the ninth inning of a 10-inning 3-2 win over ...
Cox, Jim (2008). This Day in Network Radio: A Daily Calendar of Births, Debuts, Cancellations and Other Events in Broadcasting ... Sara Cox, British broadcast presenter December 24 - Ryan Seacrest, American radio host January 12 - Helen Claire, American ... ISBN 978-0-7864-2834-2. P. 54. "Mrs. F.B. Warrick Dies; Once Radio, Stage Actress". Palladium-Item. Indiana, Richmond. July 16 ... February 19 - BRMB (now 96.4 BRMB) begins broadcasting to the Birmingham area April 2 - Piccadilly Radio (now Hits Radio ...
Cox, Philip G.; Rinderknecht, Andrés; Blanco, R. Ernesto (2015). "Predicting bite force and cranial biomechanics in the largest ... In Cox, P. G.; Hautier, H. (eds.). Evolution of the Rodents: Advances in Phylogeny, Functional Morphology and Development. pp. ... American archeologist Phillip Cox, Rinderknecht, and Blanco used finite element analysis to estimate the absolute maximum ... 45 (2): 157-163. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2011.00265.x. Bene, S.; Nagy, B.; Kiss, B.; Polgár, J. P.; Szabó, F. (2007). " ...
Cox returned to the dugout as manager in the middle of the 1990 season, replacing Russ Nixon. The Braves would finish the year ... Cox was fired after the 1981 season and replaced with Joe Torre, under whose leadership the Braves attained their first ... The Braves were once again skippered by Bobby Cox, in his 25th and final season managing the team. The Braves started the 2010 ... After the series-clinching victory for the Giants in Game 4, Bobby Cox was given a standing ovation by the fans, also by ...
Simoneit, Bernd R.T.; Grimalt, J.O.; Wang, T.G.; Cox, R.E.; Hatcher, P.G.; Nissenbaum, A. (January 1986). "Cyclic terpenoids of ... Simoneit, Bernd R.T.; Grimalt, J.O.; Wang, T.G.; Cox, R.E.; Hatcher, P.G.; Nissenbaum, A. (January 1986). "Cyclic terpenoids of ... 26 (1-2): 105-115. doi:10.1016/s0146-6380(96)00133-7. ISSN 0146-6380. Diefendorf, Aaron F.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Wing, Scott ... Loss of the 5-Me group and further dehydrogenation form the aromatic 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroretene molecule. Final aromatization ...
... and Pearson-Cox to 1916.[citation needed] Assembly line mass production by Henry Ford dramatically reduced the cost of owning a ... The engine was particularly robust and the 2, 3" diameter x 4" stroke pistons employed piston style valves instead of 'D' ... Charles Keen and his steamliners, The Steam Automobile, Vol 7 No 2, Summer 1965, p20 Plymouth steam car ... History of Early American Automobile Industry 1891-1929 Chapter 2 retrieved 3 July 2015 ...
With Cox being retained as the second-choice 'keeper, Barrett left the club in October 1895. On quitting football, Barrett ... Following a 4-1 defeat at Luton Town, he was dropped in favour of Walter Cox for two FA Cup matches before Herbert Williamson ... lost 2-0). In October 1894, St. Mary's made their debut in the inaugural Southern League season, with Barrett in goal in the 3- ...
Unlike cox-1, cox-2 is active only at the site of inflammation, not in the stomach. ... Cyclooxygenase-2: Cyclooxygenase-2, an enzyme that acts to speed up the production of certain chemical messengers, called ... When cox-2 activity is blocked, inflammation is reduced. ...
Inhibition of COX-1 may contribute to NSAID GI toxicity. At therapeutic concentrations, COX-1 isoenzyme is not inhibited; thus ... Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. Class Summary. Although increased cost can be a negative factor, COX-2 inhibitors may be ... Inhibits primarily COX-2, which is considered an inducible isoenzyme (ie, induced during pain and inflammatory stimuli). ... COX-2 inhibitors and many traditional NSAIDs may increase the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular endpoints. ...
Inhibition of COX-1 may contribute to NSAID GI toxicity, but at therapeutic concentrations, COX-1 isoenzyme is not inhibited ... Fenoprofen decreases the formation of prostaglandin precursors by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and 2 enzymes. It may also ... Cyclo-oxygenase 2 Inhibitors. Class Summary. COX-2 inhibitors are used to control pain and inflammation, especially in cases of ... Cox JS. The fate of the acromioclavicular joint in athletic injuries. Am J Sports Med. 1981 Jan-Feb. 9(1):50-3. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
Cox & Kings (Australia) Pty. Ltd. has bought entire stakes in the two companies through a share purchase deal with First Choice ... MUMBAI -- Tour and travel operator Cox & Kings (India) Ltd. said Wednesday its Australian unit has bought MyPlanet Australia ... Cox & Kings Indias Australia Unit Buys 2 Companies. .css-mosdo-Dek-Dek{margin:0px;color:var(--secondary-text-color);font-size: ...
... Clin Exp Allergy. 1998 Sep;28(9):1050-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2222.1998.00311.x. ...
COX-2 inhibitors should not be prescribed to patients with active gastroduodenal disease. Where there is a clear need for an ... Where strongly indicated, COX-2 inhibitors may be prescribed to patients with a past history of gastroduodenal disease, and ... The COX-2 inhibitors exert their therapeutic effect by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins involved in inflammation. At ... These studies1-3 indicate that COX-2 inhibitors do carry an increased risk of gastroduodenal ulcer complications but this is ...
Laverne Cox Sunday 31st July 2016, Teen Choice Awards (2 Pictures) ... More Laverne Cox Slides. *. Varietys Power Of Women Luncheon. *. Laverne Cox To Reveal Her Wax Double Restyled As Dr. Frank-N- ... Next Laverne Cox Slideshow: Laverne Cox out and about in NYC - New York City New York United States - Wednesday 29th June 2016 ... Laverne Cox wears a stylish jumpsuit to the Teen Choice Awards held at The Forum, Inglewood, California, United States - Sunday ...
COX-2 inhibitors are also prime candidates for preventing cancer or its recurrence. Gary J. Kelloff, chief of the ... lists the requirements for a molecular target such as the COX-2 enzyme: It must be highly expressed in precancer or cancer ... "COX-2 is an ideal target," he says. The COX-2 inhibitors shot to pharmaceutical fame in December 1998, when the Food and Drug ... COX-2 Inhibitors Tackle Cancer. Image: Courtesy of Hibiki Kawamata, Smith College A drug developers dream, rationally designed ...
COX-2 inhibitori. Celekoksib • Derakoksib‡ • Etorikoksib • Firokoksib‡ • Lumirakoksib† • Parekoksib • Rofekoksib† • Valdekoksib ... COX-2 gen miša je klonirao UCLA naučnik dr. Harvi Herčman.[1] Enzim je otkrio 1988. Danijel Simons.[2] On je odmah uvideo ... COX-2 selektivni inhibitor je forma steroidnog antiinflamatornog leka (NSAID) koji direktno deluju na COX-2, enzim koji je ... Malhotra S, Shafiq N, Pandhi P (2004). „COX-2 Inhibitors: A CLASS Act or Just VIGORously Promoted". MedGenMed 6 (1): 6. PMC ...
Two persons are killed in a reported gunfight between Rapid Action Battalion and a drug dealer group in Coxs Bazar. ... After the firing stopped, RAB found two bullet-hit persons on the spot and took them to Coxs Bazar Zilla Sadar Hospital where ... One of them has been identified as Md Masum, 35, son of Md Anu Pradhan of Pashchim Baharchara in Coxs Bazar, while the ... The bodies of the deceased have been kept at the hospital for autopsy, Farid Uddin Khandakar, officer-in-charge of Coxs Bazar ...
Cyclooxygenase-independent actions of cyclooxygenase inhibitors. FASEB J. 15:2057-2072. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ... Several groups made observations (9-12) that predicted the discovery of a second COX enzyme (13-15). Unlike COX-1, which ... Discordant dose-response relationships for inhibition of platelet COX-1 (A) and vascular COX-2 (B). Derived from data reported ... The spectrum of selectivity for COX inhibition. (A) The relative affinities of tNSAIDs and coxibs (open circles) for COX-1 and ...
... about Cox-2 Inhibitors and the controversy surrounding these popular drugs which are often prescribed to pain patients. ... Two COX forms, COX-1 and COX-2, were uncovered. COX-1 enzymes are normally found in most tissues and protect the stomach lining ... In 1971, pharmacologist John Vane showed that aspirin stops the action of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase, or COX. COX plays a ... History of COX-2 inhibitors vs traditional NSAIDs. Aspirin was discovered in 1897 by chemist Felix Hoffman and introduced by ...
Cyclooxygenase-2: potential role in regulation of drug efflux and multidrug resistance phenotype. Sorokin A... ... Anti-cancer potency of cyclooxygenase. inhibitors is established, but the mechanism of Cox-2-dependent potentiation of tumor ... Cyclooxygenase-2: potential role in regulation of drug efflux and multidrug resistance phenotype.. Sorokin A.. Department of ... Cyclooxygenase-2: potential role in regulation of drug efflux and. multidrug. , resistance phenotype.. ,. , Sorokin A.. ,. , ...
Cox, First Colonial remain 1-2 in Hampton Roads field hockey. By Sian Wilkerson ...
Cox-2 Inhibitors and Cancer. As a person who has an arthritic condition I can tell you that when the cox-2 inhibitors first ... Then came the news that the cox-2 drugs caused coronary issues and doctors were warned to use them with great caution. At my ... When coupled with cox-2 inhibitors the morphine not only provided better analgesic effects (better pain control), but also ... Personally, I will ask my doctor to add cox-2 inhibitors to my drug regime to control pain and hopefully decrease tumor load. ...
Pine bark inhibits Cox-1 and Cox-2 enzymes, reducing inflammation. ... Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of French maritime pine bark extract ( ... The purpose of the present study was to determine a possible inhibition of the enzymatic activity of COX-1 and COX-2 by serum ... Pine bark inhibits Cox-1 and Cox-2 enzymes, reducing inflammation. - GreenMedInfo Summary ...
... the COX 2 covers pharmaceuticals in the nature of anti-inflammatory analgesics ... COX 2 is a trademark of G. D. Searle & Co.. Filed in May 14 (1998), ... Justia Trademarks Categories Pharmaceuticals COX 2 - Trademark Details. COX 2 - Trademark Details. Status: 606 - Abandoned - No ...
As for Cox, he needs all the help he can get. He trailed Newsom, 55 percent to 31 percent, in a survey released last week by ... Allen mocked Cox as a "beta male" and said the San Diego-area businessman "copied me on every major policy initiative," ... Cox accepted the endorsement - via Twitter - saying, "Travis was a great competitor that cares about the millions of ... While Allen was an also-ran during the campaign, he has a strong social media following that could help Cox appeal to ...
Coxs Discat Plus has incorporated chondroitin sulfate since the 1960s. ... 2022 Cox Technic. F/D Enterprise LLC. All Rights Reserved.. Doctors , Patients , About Us , Disclaimer , Copyright , Privacy , ... Cox shares that "I have formulated and used Discat Plus since 1966 prompted by reading the work of Cole, Ghosh and Taylor in ...
The Case of Cox-2 Inhibitors by Craig L. Garthwaite. Published in volume 4, issue 3, pages 116-37 of American Economic Journal ... This study estimates the labor supply effects of Cox-2 inhibitors, a widely prescribed class of pharmaceuticals used for the ... The Economic Benefits of Pharmaceutical Innovations: The Case of Cox-2 Inhibitors. * Craig L. Garthwaite ... The Economic Benefits of Pharmaceutical Innovations: The Case of Cox-2 Inhibitors ...
Grushko (BBC-1 1994, Brian Cox, Eve Matheson). In this three part crime thriller Brian Cox stars as General Grushko the tough- ... Brian Cox. * TV4 years ago Beryl Markham: A Shadow on the Sun (ITV 1988, Stefanie Powers, Claire Bloom). Based on the memoir ... Out (ITV Crime, Tom Bell, Brian Cox). Crime drama serial Out sees Frank Ross (Tom Bell) coming out of prison after serving 8 ... Cloning Of Joanna May, The (ITV 1992, Patricia Hodge, Brian Cox). The superb Fay Weldon has always been a woman of visionary ...
... which exhibits its anticancer activity mainly by inhibition of both cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). Since COX-2 participates ... prop-2-ynyl)-2-acetoxybenzoate]dicobalthexacarbonyl (Co-ASS) is an auspicious lead, ... which exhibits its anticancer activity mainly by inhibition of both cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). Since COX-2 participates ... Fluorination as tool to improve bioanalytical sensitivity and COX-2-selective antitumor activity of cobalt alkyne complexes† ...
Push those buttons, Bobby! Bobby Cox personnel moves - 2-for-2 (unless you count allowing Rick Ankiel to hit) ... Bobby Cox personnel moves - 2-for-2 (unless you count allowing Rick Ankiel to hit) ... Braves-Giants NLDS Game One: Bobby Cox Personnel Move Number 2 * Braves-Giants NLDS Game One: How Many Third Strikes Have ... Share All sharing options for: Braves-Giants NLDS Game One: Bobby Cox Personnel Move Number 2 ...
The Emerging Role of COX-2, 15-LOX and PPARγ in Metabolic Diseases and Cancer: An Introduction to Novel Multi-target Directed ... Cyclooxygenase-2 in adipose tissue macrophages limits adipose tissue dysfunction in obese mice ... Targeted inhibition of CD74 attenuates adipose COX-2-MIF-mediated M1 macrophage polarization and retards obesity-related ... The Dualistic Effect of COX-2-Mediated Signaling in Obesity and Insulin Resistance ...
Arthur Cox. Victoria House. Gloucester Street. Belfast. BT1 4LS. T: +44 28 9023 0007. F: +44 28 9023 3464. E: [email protected] ... Arthur Cox. One Rockefeller Plaza. 15th Floor. New York NY 10020. USA ... Class 2. Firms that are not systemically important but that hold a particular level of own funds will be classified as Class ... We also hosted a webinar (IFD/IFR - 2 months to go….) on 29 April 2021 - you can access the recording here. ...
Its been about a decade since the promise of COX-2 inhibitors-drugs that relieve arthritis pain and inflammation without the ... Study sheds light on side effects of COX-2 drugs. ... produced by the cyclooxygenase enzymes-COX-1 and COX-2-that ... Study sheds light on side effects of COX-2 drugs Posted by William Snyder on Monday, February 22, 2016 in Around the Medical ... In a study in mice, the Vanderbilt researchers found that when the COX-2 enzyme in macrophages was blocked, and thus prevented ...
Cyclooxygenase inhibitors represented extremely promising novel anti-inflammatory drugs until one of them, rofecoxib (Vioxx), ... An Ion Channel Hypothesis to Explain Divergent Cardiovascular Safety of Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors: The Answer to a Hotly ... An Ion Channel Hypothesis to Explain Divergent Cardiovascular Safety of Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors: The Answer to a Hotly ... An Ion Channel Hypothesis to Explain Divergent Cardiovascular Safety of Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors: The Answer to a Hotly ...
Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition Inhibits c-Met Kinase Activity and Wnt Activity in Colon Cancer Jurriaan B. Tuynman; Jurriaan B. ... Because COX-2 has a crucial role in the carcinogenesis and progression of CRC, exploration of its mechanisms can lead to new ... Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, has been shown to posses the highest anticarcinogenic capacity of NSAIDs and coxibs. ... Selective COX-2 inhibition alters the kinase activity profile. Each dot represents the amount ofphosphorylation of a specific ...
Häckel S, Häne S, Eglauf J, Ma J, Li Z, Pfannkuche JJ, Peroglio M, Hoppe S, Benneker LM, Lang GM, Alini M, Grad S. Can the COX- ... Häckel S, Häne S, Eglauf J, Ma J, Li Z, Pfannkuche JJ, Peroglio M, Hoppe S, Benneker LM, Lang GM, Alini M, Grad S. Can the COX- ... Häckel S, Häne S, Ma J, Li Z, Pfannkuche J, Peroglio M, Hoppe S, Benneker L, Lang G, Südkamp N, Grad S. Could the COX-2 ... Häckel S, Häne S, Eglauf J, Ma J, Pfannkuche J, Hoppe S, Albers C, Grad S. Die modulierende Wirkung des Cyclooxygenase-2 ...
  • Although increased cost can be a negative factor, COX-2 inhibitors may be more effective in reducing the incidence of costly and potentially fatal GI bleeding than traditional NSAIDs. (
  • COX-2 inhibitors and many traditional NSAIDs may increase the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular endpoints. (
  • COX-2 inhibitors are used to control pain and inflammation, especially in cases of contraindication to conventional anti-inflammatories. (
  • Ongoing analysis of cost avoidance of GI bleeds will further define the populations that will find COX-2 inhibitors the most beneficial. (
  • Can Patients Stomach COX-2 Inhibitors? (
  • Adverse reaction reports and epidemiological studies suggest that cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors cause gastroduodenal ulceration and subsequent complications. (
  • Case reports suggest that COX-2 inhibitors, like NSAIAs, may exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease and cause intestinal strictures. (
  • As with NSAIAs, COX-2 inhibitors should be withdrawn in patients with significant gastrointestinal symptoms, pending investigation. (
  • The COX-2 inhibitors exert their therapeutic effect by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins involved in inflammation. (
  • It is therefore expected that COX-2 inhibitors will have reduced gastroduodenal toxicity compared with conventional NSAIAs. (
  • These studies 1 - 3 indicate that COX-2 inhibitors do carry an increased risk of gastroduodenal ulcer complications but this is less than with conventional NSAIAs. (
  • Since a number of case-control studies 4 have indicated an approximately 4-fold increase in risk of gastroduodenal ulcer complications with conventional NSAIAs compared with no NSAIA use, it can be assumed from the above studies 1 - 3 that the increase in risk with the COX-2 inhibitors is approximately 2-fold. (
  • It is likely that this observation in part reflects preferential prescribing of COX-2 inhibitors to at-risk patients. (
  • It is not known what degree of risk reduction is achieved when switching high-risk patients from NSAIAs to COX-2 inhibitors. (
  • Image: Courtesy of Hibiki Kawamata, Smith College A drug developer's dream, rationally designed to quell inflammation, COX-2 inhibitors are also prime candidates for preventing cancer or its recurrence. (
  • The COX-2 inhibitors shot to pharmaceutical fame in December 1998, when the Food and Drug Administration approved Celebrex (celecoxib) to treat osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • At what care level are cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors prescribed? (
  • Inhibitors selective for prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 (PGHS-2) (known colloquially as COX-2) were designed to minimize gastrointestinal complications of traditional NSAIDs - adverse effects attributed to suppression of COX-1-derived PGE 2 and prostacyclin (PGI 2 ). (
  • Evidence from 2 randomized controlled-outcome trials (RCTs) of 2 structurally distinct selective inhibitors of COX-2 supports this hypothesis. (
  • NSAIDs, which include both traditional NSAIDs (tNSAIDs) and selective inhibitors of COX-2 and which are among the most commonly used drugs ( 5 ), relieve pain and inflammation by suppressing the COX function of PGHS and the consequent formation of PGE 2 ( 6 ) and prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) ( 7 ), but perhaps also of other prostanoids. (
  • Coxibs is the abbreviation for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. (
  • Thus was born a new line of pain management drugs called selective COX-2 inhibitors. (
  • These favorable findings led to a dramatic rise in the prescribing rates of COX-2 inhibitors. (
  • Controversy surrounding Cox-2 inhibitors continued to escalate. (
  • While the therapeutic strength of COX-2 inhibitors lies in their ability to reduce stomach complications, their adverse reactions cannot be overlooked. (
  • It is easy to forget two important points about COX-2 inhibitors vs. traditional NSAIDs: they both have the same effectiveness, and they both can cause side effects related to blood pressure, liver, and kidney problems. (
  • Anti-cancer potency of cyclooxygenase inhibitors is established, but the mechanism of Cox-2-dependent potentiation of tumor growth is a subject of intense discussion. (
  • The use of Cox-2 inhibitors to decrease function of MDR1 may enhance accumulation of chemotherapy agents and decrease resistance of tumors to chemotherapeutic drugs. (
  • As a person who has an arthritic condition I can tell you that when the cox-2 inhibitors first came on the market I thought they were a magical gift. (
  • At my last visit with my rheumatologist directed me to cut back by half my consumption of cox-2 inhibitors. (
  • However, the vale of the cox-2 inhibitors seem to be ever increasing. (
  • According to a recent online article published October 30, 207 in the British Journal of cancer, there might be a new use for the cox-2 inhibitors, in the treatment of cancer. (
  • When coupled with cox-2 inhibitors the morphine not only provided better analgesic effects (better pain control), but also decreased the morbidity rate as welll as decreasing tumor growth rate. (
  • Personally, I will ask my doctor to add cox-2 inhibitors to my drug regime to control pain and hopefully decrease tumor load. (
  • This study estimates the labor supply effects of Cox-2 inhibitors, a widely prescribed class of pharmaceuticals used for the treatment of chronic pain and inflammation and primarily marketed under the brand names Vioxx, Celebrex, and Bextra. (
  • It's been about a decade since the promise of COX-2 inhibitors-drugs that relieve arthritis pain and inflammation without the gastrointestinal side effects of other painkillers-was tempered by the realization that they could cause heart problems in some patients. (
  • An Ion Channel Hypothesis to Explain Divergent Cardiovascular Safety of Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors: The Answer to a Hotly Debated Puzzle? (
  • COX-2 inhibitors exhibit important anticarcinogenic potential against CRC, but the molecular mechanism underlying this effect and the relation with RTK signaling remain the subject of intense research effort. (
  • Häckel S, Häne S, Eglauf J, Ma J, Pfannkuche J, Hoppe S, Albers C, Grad S. Die modulierende Wirkung des Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors Celecoxib auf diskogenen Schmerz - eine in vitro Studie mit humanen Annulus fibrosus Zellen. (
  • Curcumin & Bee Propolis are alternative COX-2 inhibitors. (
  • COX-2 inhibitors are a type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis . (
  • COX-2 inhibitors work by blocking the action of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase-2, which produced prostaglandins. (
  • On the basis of epidemiological data showing an increased gastrointestinal risk of paracetamol at high doses or when co-administered with classic cyclooxygenase inhibitors, paracetamol's long-term gastrointestinal impact should be investigated in randomised trials. (
  • In view of the current debate concerning the safety of cyclooxygenase inhibitors, these findings raise several questions with respect to hitherto underestimated cyclooxygenase-dependent side-effects of paracetamol, which has long been regarded as a safe alternative to traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and latterly also to selective COX-2 inhibitors. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Comparative gastrointestinal toxicity of selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. (
  • Shafiq N, Malhotra S, Pandhi P, Nada R. Comparative gastrointestinal toxicity of selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. (
  • Cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors were developed with the hope that they will cause fewer gastrointestinal adverse effects. (
  • Ability of selective as well as nonselective COX inhibitors to alter ischemia-reperfusion induced damage of gastric mucosa and hapten-induced colitis in rats has been compared. (
  • This paradoxic ulcer and colitis aggravating effect of selective COX-2 inhibitors may be explained by suppression of protective prostaglandins generated as a consequence of COX-2 induction in inflammatory states. (
  • Based on previous studies in our laboratory which indicated that silica affects signal transduction pathways upstream of Cox-2, particularly those associated with MAP Kinase pathways, further studies were conducted using specific inhibitors. (
  • Using the highest (1,000 microg/ml silica dose, the inhibitors SB 203580 (a p38 MAP Kinase Inhibitor), PD 98059 (a MEK1 Inhibitor for ERK), UO126 (an ERK inhibitor), Calpain Inhibitor I (an NFkB Inhibitor), and Cannabinol (a CREB/ATF:1 Inhibitor) were tested for their effects on Cox-2 expression. (
  • Such flames were fanned by two high-profile events last year: Eliot Spitzer's lawsuit against GlaxoSmithKline ( GSK ) for allegedly suppressing data linking antidepressants to suicide risk in children (which later prompted initiatives to disclose clinical trial results) and the recent scare over the safety of COX-2 inhibitors, a class of pain-killers, following the withdrawal by Merck of one of these called Vioxx. (
  • During tumor-associated angiogenesis, the balance of angiogenesis stimulators and inhibitors is tipped in favor of angiogenesis by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 gene expression [ 2 ]. (
  • Non-selective NSAIDS and selective COX-2 inhibitors appear to carry similar risks [ 5 ]. (
  • Inhibition of COX-1 may contribute to NSAID GI toxicity. (
  • Inhibition of COX-1 may contribute to NSAID GI toxicity, but at therapeutic concentrations, COX-1 isoenzyme is not inhibited and thus, GI toxicity may be decreased. (
  • The clinical information is biologically plausible, as it is compatible with evidence that inhibition of COX-2-derived PGI 2 removes a protective constraint on thrombogenesis, hypertension, and atherogenesis in vivo. (
  • Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol). (
  • The purpose of the present study was to determine a possible inhibition of the enzymatic activity of COX-1 and COX-2 by serum samples of human volunteers after intake of French maritime pine bark extract. (
  • The cobalt alkyne complex [(prop-2-ynyl)-2-acetoxybenzoate]dicobalthexacarbonyl (Co-ASS) is an auspicious lead, which exhibits its anticancer activity mainly by inhibition of both cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). (
  • Since COX-2 participates in carcinogenesis, a selective inhibition of that isoenzyme is aimed. (
  • To study if fluorination increases the COX-2/COX-1 inhibition ratio of the lead, substitution was respectively performed in the positions 3, 4, 5, and 6 of the aromatic moiety. (
  • Therefore, the rapid effects of COX-2 inhibition in CRC on the complement of all cellular kinases were investigated using a kinase substrate peptide array, Western blotting, transfection, small interfering RNA assays, and CRC cell lines. (
  • Recent studies have described a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2)-dependent tonic inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenesis and expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). (
  • Paracetamol and cyclooxygenase inhibition: is there a cause for concern? (
  • Two recent studies have also demonstrated a preferential cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibition by paracetamol under different clinically relevant conditions. (
  • This review attempts to relate data on paracetamol's inhibitory action on peripheral cyclooxygenase enzymes to the published literature on its anti-inflammatory action and its hitherto underestimated side-effects elicited by cyclooxygenase inhibition. (
  • As a result, a pronounced COX-2 inhibition by paracetamol is expected to occur in the endothelium, possibly explaining its cardiovascular risk in epidemiological studies. (
  • Finally, paracetamol's fast elimination and consequently short-lived COX-2 inhibition, which requires repetitive dosing, should be definitely considered to avoid overdosage leading to hepatotoxicity. (
  • 2 This concept is based on early work by Flower and Vane 3 who showed that prostaglandin production in the brain is 10 times more sensitive to inhibition by paracetamol than that in the spleen. (
  • 4 Attempts to explain the pharmacological action of paracetamol as inhibition of a central cyclooxygenase isoform, derived from the same gene as COX-1 and referred to as cyclooxygenase 3, 5 have meanwhile been rejected. (
  • In the present review attempts have been undertaken to relate the data on the cyclooxygenase inhibitory potency of paracetamol to the published literature on its anti-inflammatory action and, more importantly, side-effects possibly related to inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. (
  • As I discussed in an earlier post , existing knowledge suggests that the antiplatelet effect of low-dose aspirin via inhibition of the COX-1 pathway may play a role in lowering the risk for many different cancers. (
  • The result of NSAID-induced COX inhibition is decreased production of prostaglandins, which leads to decreased pain and inflammation. (
  • Dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase synergistically suppresses primary tumor growth and metastasis. (
  • COX-2 selective NSAIDs (non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) were developed to maintain analgesia efficacy while minimizing the side effects associated with COX-1 inhibition. (
  • COX inhibition can lead to decreased sodium excretion and increased sodium retention. (
  • Here are the SMU Cox application deadlines for the 2021-2022 admissions cycle. (
  • Journal of thoracic disease 2022 3 14 (2): 381-395. (
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 , an enzyme that acts to speed up the production of certain chemical messengers, called prostaglandins that play a key role in in promoting inflammation . (
  • 2, an inducible isoform of enzyme, responsible for generation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid, is constitutively expressed in a number of cancer cells. (
  • Prostaglandins are molecules produced by the cyclooxygenase enzymes-COX-1 and COX-2-that play a role in inflammation, among other wide-ranging effects. (
  • In a study in mice, the Vanderbilt researchers found that when the COX-2 enzyme in macrophages was blocked, and thus prevented from making prostaglandins, hypertension and edema got worse. (
  • Cyclooxygenase (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme involved in production of prostaglandins in inflammatory processes. (
  • Given its role in synthesizing prostaglandins, COX-2 is therefore of interest in studying immune response regulation. (
  • The major effect of all NSAIDs is to decrease the synthesis of prostaglandins by reversibly inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX), an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from the precursor, arachidonic acid. (
  • Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) has been proposed to generate prostaglandins that maintain organ function, protect the integrity of the gastric mucosa, and generate platelet-derived thromboxane responsible for platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. (
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced during the inflammatory response and produces prostaglandins that mediate pain and inflammation. (
  • They act by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), which promotes the release of prostaglandins, prostacyclins and thromboxanes, and activates phagocytes, which, in turn, promote the release of proinflammatory cytokines in response to tissue trauma. (
  • COX-2 responds to tissue trauma and produces prostaglandins involved in the inflammatory response and pain mediation 5 . (
  • Inside it, arachidonic acid is converted into prostaglandins by cyclooxygenase by adding two oxygen molecules. (
  • Cyclooxygenase enzymes, which regulate the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, are abundantly present in the kidneys and play an important role in renal hemostasis, renin release, renal tubular salt and water reabsorption. (
  • Fenoprofen decreases the formation of prostaglandin precursors by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and 2 enzymes. (
  • commonly known as COX) enzymes, lipoxygenases, and epoxygenases to form a mesmerizing array of biologically active products. (
  • The COX enzymes are bisfunctional proteins, possessing both COX and hydroperoxidase (HOX) activities, catalyzing the biotransformation of AA into the PG endoperoxide intermediates PGG 2 and PGH 2 . (
  • COX-1 enzymes are normally found in most tissues and protect the stomach lining. (
  • In contrast, COX-2 enzymes become active when the body senses pain and responds by promoting inflammation. (
  • Pine bark inhibits Cox-1 and Cox-2 enzymes, reducing inflammation. (
  • With exception of 6F-Co-ASS, the complexes strongly reduced the PGE 2 synthesis in HT-29 cells and all complexes inhibited COX-2 more effectively than COX-1 in an assay at isolated enzymes. (
  • Although it is commonly stated that paracetamol acts centrally, recent data imply an inhibitory effect on the activity of peripheral prostaglandin-synthesising cyclooxygenase enzymes. (
  • In this context paracetamol has been suggested to inhibit both isoforms in tissues with low levels of peroxide by reducing the higher oxidation state of cyclooxygenase enzymes. (
  • Instead, several data published during the past few years suggest a tissue-dependent inhibitory effect of paracetamol on the activity of both central and peripheral cyclooxygenase enzymes. (
  • COX-2 has a sulfonamide chain and is primarily dependent on cytochrome P450 enzymes (hepatic enzymes) for metabolism. (
  • Here we evaluated whether the blood concentrations of PGE (2) and the gene transcription profiles of enzymes involved in its synthesis ( cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E synthase ) could be used as markers of predisposition and/or presence of puerperal uterine infections . (
  • The resulting alterations in the kinome profile revealed that celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, impairs phosphorylation of substrates for the RTKs c-Met and insulin-like growth factor receptor, resulting in decreased downstream signaling. (
  • In pain-management of LBP, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and specific cyclooxygenase-2 blocker, like celecoxib, are often prescribed for an oral use and have many side effects. (
  • Treating Discogenic Pain by Reducing Dorsal Root Ganglion Cell Sensitization using the COX-2 Inhibitor Celecoxib - An in vitro Study with Inflammatory Cytokine Treated Annulus Fibrosus Cells. (
  • Currently, the only COX-2 inhibitor available in the United States is celecoxib (Celebrex). (
  • Classic, older NSAIDs (eg, ibuprofen) inhibit COX-1 more than COX-2, whereas the newer class of NSAIDs (eg, celecoxib) inhibit COX-2 predominantly, decreasing gastrointestinal adverse effects. (
  • Celecoxib (Celebrex®) COX-2 selective NSAID is blocked from the channel of access for COX-1, but gains entry at COX-2 site, and thereby inhibits the active site for pain prostaglandin creation. (
  • Gastrointestinal adverse effects account for about 30% of the COX-2 inhibitor reactions reported to the Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring (CARM). (
  • All except two patients had at least one risk factor, other than use of a COX-2 inhibitor, for gastroduodenal ulceration. (
  • When deciding whether to use a COX-2 inhibitor, also consider whether more cautious prescribing of a conventional NSAIA would instead be appropriate. (
  • COX-2 selektivni inhibitor je forma steroidnog antiinflamatornog leka (NSAID) koji direktno deluju na COX-2 , enzim koji je odgovoran za inflamaciju i bol . (
  • National Trends in Cox-2 inhibitor use since market release: non-selective diffusion of a selectively cost-effective innovation Archives of Internal Medicine. (
  • They used DFU (a selective COX-2 inhibitor). (
  • COX-2 inhibitor reduces inflammation and increases testosterone in a dose dependant manner. (
  • For more than three decades it was commonly stated that paracetamol acts centrally and is at best a weak inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis by cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). (
  • We found that the potency of low-dose aspirin in inhibiting COX-2 in the tumor cells is as great or greater than its potency as an inhibitor of COX-1 in the platelet," said Pierre Massion, MD , professor of medicine and cancer biology in the Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine at Vanderbilt. (
  • It acts as an inhibitor of the COX-2 enzyme which is responsible for pain and inflammation. (
  • Will the promise of the COX-II selective NSAIDs come to fruition? (
  • Traditional NSAIDs, like aspirin, block both COX forms. (
  • In the 1990's, NSAIDs that specifically inhibited COX-2 were introduced in the market to minimize gastrointestinal adverse effects associated with common NSAIDs. (
  • Inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain by decreasing enzyme COX activity, which results in prostaglandin synthesis. (
  • The mechanism of action of these agents is not known, but they may inhibit cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis. (
  • This agent inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain by decreasing the activity of cyclooxygenase, which results in a decrease of prostaglandin synthesis. (
  • Diclofenac inhibits prostaglandin synthesis by decreasing the activity of the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which in turn decreases the formation of prostaglandin precursors. (
  • Sulindac decreases the activity of cyclooxygenase and in turn inhibits prostaglandin synthesis. (
  • Their mechanism of action is not known, but they may inhibit cyclo-oxygenase (COX) activity and prostaglandin synthesis. (
  • Inhibits primarily COX-2, which is considered an inducible isoenzyme (ie, induced during pain and inflammatory stimuli). (
  • In the 1990s, we cloned the inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and the first S1P receptor. (
  • Nonacidic NSAID that is rapidly metabolized after absorption, becoming a major active metabolite that inhibits the COX enzyme (thereby inhibiting pain and inflammation). (
  • Primarily inhibits COX-2. (
  • This is in contrast to salicylates (eg, aspirin), which irreversibly bind to COX and inhibit production for the entire life of the cell, or acetaminophen, which inhibits COX centrally. (
  • COX-2 selektivnost ne umanjuje druge nepoželjne efekte NSAID lekova (pogotovu povišeni rizik od bubrežne insuficijencije ), a rezultati nekih istraživanja ukazuju i na povišeni rizik od srčanog udara , tromboze i moždanog udara kao posledica relativnog povišenja nivoa tromboksana . (
  • Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite ( FBE ) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). (
  • When cox-2 activity is blocked, inflammation is reduced. (
  • Unlike cox-1 , cox-2 is active only at the site of inflammation, not in the stomach . (
  • Unlike COX-1, which appeared to be expressed constitutively in most tissues, COX-2 was subject to rapid induction by inflammatory cytokines and mitogens and was speculated to account largely if not exclusively for PG formation in inflammation and cancer. (
  • COX-2 = inflammation. (
  • Back in the nineties the work was furthered to show the presence of an enzyme (dubbed Cox-2) which lies behind this inflammation, and certain cancers such as colorectal cancer. (
  • In 1971, pharmacologist John Vane showed that aspirin stops the action of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase, or COX. (
  • Structure of COX-2 inactivated by aspirin. (
  • However, new data presented by a team of researchers at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine suggest that low-dose aspirin may do more than just hit the COX-1 pathway: It may also inhibit COX-2 and lower the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). (
  • Massion and colleagues found that the doses of aspirin needed to inhibit COX-2-mediated PGE2 production was up to 12 times lower than the dose needed to exert its COX-1-mediated antiplatelet effects, when tested in three lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. (
  • So, Massion and his team speculate that the antiplatelet and COX-2 inhibitory activities of low-dose aspirin may act in concert to lower the risk for cancer metastasis and mortality. (
  • c) Bioactive natural compounds like curcumin, garlic, ginger, resveratrol and also aspirin can reduce the COX-2 effect. (
  • COX-1 "predominates in vascular smooth muscle and collecting ducts, whereas COX2 predominates in the macula densa and nearby cells in the cortical thick ascending limb" [ 2 ]. (
  • Furthermore, the effects of AnoSpray on the expression of the inflammatory cytokines regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES) and VEGF, as well as on cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX)‑2, were investigated using western blot analysis. (
  • Furthermore, the results suggested that AnoSpray suppressed the expression of the inflammatory cytokines RANTES and VEGF, and also the expression of COX‑2. (
  • The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two COX-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on pain control after open flap debridement. (
  • We suggest that this PGE (2) producing cells might arrive to the uterine lumen, contributing to the local PGE (2) concentrations and mediating the inflammatory response. (
  • ii) Stress hormones such as Cortisol can negatively influence the Cox-2 inflammatory pathway, a known precursor to certain cancers and illnesses like arthritis. (
  • Our work defined how the COX-2 pathway regulated angiogenesis, cancer and inflammatory disease. (
  • By acting as a scavenger of e.g. nitric oxide and by inhibiting COX-2, a pro-inflammatory substance, curcumin may exert its anti-inflammatory activity. (
  • Direct inhibitory effects of plant extracts or components upon cyclooxygenase (COX) activity have been repeatedly reported, but the question remained whether sufficiently high in vivo concentrations of bioactive compounds could be achieved in humans. (
  • The SMU Cox School of Business asks the following essay questions within the 2018-2019 application for the full-time, two-year MBA program. (
  • COX-1 is expressed in all tissues. (
  • At least two COX isoforms have been identified: COX-1 is predominantly constitutive and expressed in different tissues, such as the stomach, intestine, kidneys and platelets. (
  • Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2), also called prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), is normally an integral enzyme involved with cancer advancement and development and plays a significant function in the modulation of apoptosis, angiogenesis, immune system response, and tumor invasion [8]C[9]. (
  • COX-2 is induced by a wide variety of stimuli and was initially identified as immediate-early growth response gene. (
  • Preclinical research implies that taxanes may stimulate the appearance of COX-2 gene and reduce the efficiency of anti-cancer and describe, at least partially, the toxicity of the medications [16]. (
  • Several useful one nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which have been discovered in the COX-2 gene may donate to different gene appearance or enzyme actions [18]C[19]. (
  • A recently available research implies that COX-2 gene polymorphism may be a. (
  • Blood COX-2 and PGES gene transcription during the peripartum period of dairy cows with normal puerperium or with uterine infection. (
  • Roles of Cyclooxygenase-2 gene -765G? (
  • The -765C allele of the cyclooxygenase-2 gene as a potential risk factor of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis. (
  • Here, these findings are discussed in light of the role of KCNQ K + channels in control of excitability in general, the "lipid imbalance theory" of cyclooxygenase-2 risks, and the potential for novel therapeutic modalities for cardiovascular disease focused on ion channels in vascular smooth muscle. (
  • Studies on the compounds formed showed that not only are gels formed, but the D -peptide conjugates of naproxen showed better selectivity towards COX-2 (the therapeutic target) compared to COX-1 (a source of side effects) than naproxen alone or an L -peptide conjugate. (
  • There is now increasing evidence that a constitutive expression of COX-2 plays a role in development and progression of malignant epithelial tumors. (
  • Summary This investigation for the first time suggested that polymorphism in COX-2 rs689466 may be a potent bio-marker in predicting severe hematologic toxicity in NSCLC individuals after platinum-based chemotherapy. (
  • Two isoforms of cyclooxygenase have been identified. (
  • 2 Data from the Arthritis Research Campaign show that up to 550 000 people in the UK have severe knee osteoarthritis and two million people visited their general practitioner in the past year because of osteoarthritis. (
  • In this study, we investigated the expression of CD24, COX-2, and p53 in EOC, and their relationships to clinical prognosis. (
  • Elevated COX-2 appearance is also connected with even more intense tumor behavior and poorer prognosis in NSCLC sufferers [15]. (
  • Elevated levels of the proteins Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthase have been observed in lung cancer in a number of in vitro and in vivo studies. (
  • Few studies have examined the link between silica exposure and the expression of Cox-2 and PGE2 synthase, however. (
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of silica on Cox-2 and PGE2 synthase expression in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. (
  • In addition, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression contributes to tumor growth and invasion. (
  • Objective and Background Overexpression of COX-2 is proved to contribute to tumor promotion and carcinogenesis through stimulating cell proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing the invasiveness of malignancy cells. (
  • Additionally, overexpression of COX-2 mRNA relates to ionizing rays (IR) induced pulmonary irritation and Crenolanib cell signaling inhibiting the IR-induced COX-2 appearance could be useful against radiation-induced regular tissue damage [17]. (
  • Intro Lung cancer is Crenolanib cell signaling the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world and NSCLC comprises the most common form of it [1]C[2]. (
  • Finally, the expression of COX-2 and PGE2 in lung adenocarcinoma cells shot up more than eightfold in the presence of activated platelets. (
  • Effects of the lung carcinogen silica on cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 expression in RAW 264.7 cells. (
  • Cyclooxygenase-2: potential role in regulation of drug efflux and multidrug resistance phenotype. (
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 regulation of the age-related decline in testosterone biosynthesis. (
  • However, the concept of simply tipping a "balance" between COX-2-derived PGI 2 and COX-1-derived platelet thromboxane is misplaced. (
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and HER2 and determine their correlation with clinicopathologic parameters in surgically resected histologically diagnosed cases of colorectal cancer. (
  • CONCLUSION: This study detects a high COX-2 and low HER2 expression in colorectal cancer using immunohistochemistry,suggesting a possible role for COX-2 in CRC pathogenesis.This report should trigger further investigations of both markers vis-à-vis the management of CRC in our environment. (
  • Targeted therapy against receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, has been shown to improve survival in patients with CRC ( 1, 2 ). (
  • Hemorrhoids represent the most common anorectal disorder and arise due to engorgement of vascular cushions in the lower rectum/anus ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • COX-2 is also expressed in kidneys and vascular endothelium. (
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) are the main factors promoting angiogenesis [ 7 , 8 ]. (
  • Silica treatment induced Cox-2 and PGE2 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • The results of this study indicate that silica exposure induces both Cox-2 and PGE2 expression and that silica -induced Cox-2 expression is partially dependent on p38 MAP Kinase. (
  • Patterson, meanwhile, earned a dominating 9-2 win over Tyler Cox of Wyoming. (
  • In studies, COX-2 positivity retained independent roles in predicting a poor chance of response to treatment. (
  • Nearly two months after he finished a distant fourth in the California gubernatorial primary, Assemblyman Travis Allen endorsed his fellow Republican John Cox for governor. (
  • Today, I'm officially endorsing Republican nominee JOHN COX and announcing the TAKE BACK CALIFORNIA Tour to Organize CA Conservatives. (
  • John Cox is rarely thought of as a "concept director", creating productions that transform an opera into a time, place and context unimagined by the composer and librettist in order to put make some point, or perhaps only for shock and awe. (
  • Below: John Cox, resized image of a photograph for Askonas Holt. (
  • San Francisco Opera also has performed John Cox productions of Richard Strauss' "Arabella" (1980) and "Capriccio" (1990) as vehicles for Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, and Strauss' "Ariadne auf Naxos" (2002) for Deborah Voigt. (
  • Here we focus on the discussion of potential link between Cox-2 expression and development of multidrug resistance phenotype. (
  • Our observation, that enforced expression of Cox-2 causes enhancement in MDR1 expression and functional activity suggests the existence of causal link between Cox-2 activity and MDR1 expression. (
  • The expression of RANTES and COX‑2 in human hemorrhoid specimens was also analyzed to corroborate the in vitro findings. (
  • Expression of CD24 correlated with the nuclear expression of p53, but not with the expression of COX-2. (
  • As a positive control for Cox-2 expression, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered for 12 hours to a 6th treatment group at 10 microg/ml. (
  • Only SB 203580 attenuated Cox-2 protein expression. (
  • In a bid to gain some insight into the molecular characteristics of CRC in our environment, we set out to investigate the expression of COX-2 and HER-2 among Nigerian subjects. (
  • METHODS: Fifty-three paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of colorectal resections and corresponding patient information were retrieved from the archives of the Anatomic and Molecular Pathology Department of Lagos University Teaching Hospital.A 4-micron slide section was obtained from each specimen and immunohistochemistry for COX-2 and HER-2 expression was performed. (
  • There was no significant correlation between COX-2 expression and age, gender, tumour location, tumour size, depth of invasion or lymph node status.However, COX-2 expression revealed a significant correlation with tumour grade (p= 0.013). (
  • The highest dose silica -treated group induced Cox-2 to a greater degree, than did the LPS positive control. (
  • ABL-N administration induced apoptosis of PC3 cells in a dose-dependent manner, along with the enhanced activity of caspases and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. (
  • The complexes 3/4/5F-Co-ASS and to a much lower extent also 6F-Co-ASS showed cytotoxic, antimetabolic, and apoptotic effects in COX-1/2-positive HT-29 and MDA-MB-231 cells and remarkably less activity in the COX-1/2-negative MCF-7 cell line. (