Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The principal alkaloid of ipecac, from the ground roots of Uragoga (or Cephaelis) ipecacuanha or U. acuminata, of the Rubiaceae. It is used as an amebicide in many different preparations and may cause serious cardiac, hepatic, or renal damage and violent diarrhea and vomiting. Emetine inhibits protein synthesis in EUKARYOTIC CELLS but not PROKARYOTIC CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.
Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces pactum used as an antineoplastic agent. It is also used as a tool in biochemistry because it inhibits certain steps in protein synthesis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Used as a support for ion-exchange chromatography.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An organothiophosphate insecticide.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.

Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL serve an anti-inflammatory function in endothelial cells through inhibition of NF-kappaB. (1/5972)

To maintain the integrity of the vascular barrier, endothelial cells (EC) are resistant to cell death. The molecular basis of this resistance may be explained by the function of antiapoptotic genes such as bcl family members. Overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL protects EC from tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated apoptosis. In addition, Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL inhibits activation of NF-kappaB and thus upregulation of proinflammatory genes. Bcl-2-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB in EC occurs upstream of IkappaBalpha degradation without affecting p65-mediated transactivation. Overexpression of bcl genes in EC does not affect other transcription factors. Using deletion mutants of Bcl-2, the NF-kappaB inhibitory function of Bcl-2 was mapped to bcl homology domains BH2 and BH4, whereas all BH domains were required for the antiapoptotic function. These data suggest that Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL belong to a cytoprotective response that counteracts proapoptotic and proinflammatory insults and restores the physiological anti-inflammatory phenotype to the EC. By inhibiting NF-kappaB without sensitizing the cells (as with IkappaBalpha) to TNF-mediated apoptosis, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are prime candidates for genetic engineering of EC in pathological conditions where EC loss and unfettered activation are undesirable.  (+info)

NMD3 encodes an essential cytoplasmic protein required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (2/5972)

A mutation in NMD3 was found to be lethal in the absence of XRN1, which encodes the major cytoplasmic exoribonuclease responsible for mRNA turnover. Molecular genetic analysis of NMD3 revealed that it is an essential gene required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits. Cells bearing a temperature-sensitive allele of NMD3 had decreased levels of 60S subunits at the nonpermissive temperature which resulted in the formation of half-mer polysomes. Pulse-chase analysis of rRNA biogenesis indicated that 25S rRNA was made and processed with kinetics similar to wild-type kinetics. However, the mature RNA was rapidly degraded, with a half-life of 4 min. Nmd3p fractionated as a cytoplasmic protein and sedimented in the position of free 60S subunits in sucrose gradients. These results suggest that Nmd3p is a cytoplasmic factor required for a late cytoplasmic assembly step of the 60S subunit but is not a ribosomal protein. Putative orthologs of Nmd3p exist in Drosophila, in nematodes, and in archaebacteria but not in eubacteria. The Nmd3 protein sequence does not contain readily recognizable motifs of known function. However, these proteins all have an amino-terminal domain containing four repeats of Cx2C, reminiscent of zinc-binding proteins, implicated in nucleic acid binding or protein oligomerization.  (+info)

delta-Aminolevulinate synthetases in the liver cytosol fraction and mitochondria of mice treated with allylisopropylacetamide and 3,5-dicarbethoxyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine. (3/5972)

Hepatic delta-aminolevulinate (ALA) synthetase was induced in mice by the administration of allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) and 3,5-dicarbethoxy-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC). In both cases, a significant amount of ALA synthetase accumulated in the liver cytosol fraction as well as in the mitochondria. The apparent molecular weight of the cytosol ALA synthetase was estimated to be 320,000 by gel filtration, but when the cytosol ALA synthetase was subjected to sucrose density gradient centrifugation, it showed a molecular weight of 110,000. In the mitochondria, there were two different sizes of ALA synthetase with molecular weights of 150,000 and 110,000, respectively; the larger enzyme was predominant in DDC-treated mice, whereas in AIA-treated mice and normal mice the enzyme existed mostly in the smaller form. When hemin was injected into mice pretreated with DDC, the molecular size of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase changed from 150,000 to 110,000. The half-life of ALA synthetase in the liver cytosol fraction was about 30 min in both the AIA-treated and DDC-treated mice. The half-life of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase in AIA-treated mice and normal mice was about 60 min, but in DDC-treated mice the half-life was as long as 150 min. The data suggest that the cytosol ALA synthetase of mouse liver is a protein complex with properties very similar to those of the cytosol ALA synthetase of rat liver, which has been shown to be composed of the enzyme active protein and two catalytically inactive binding proteins, and that ALA synthetase may be transferred from the liver cytosol fraction to the mitochondria with a size of about 150,000 daltons, followed by its conversion to enzyme with a molecular weight of 110,000 within the mitochondria. The process of intramitochondrial enzyme degradation seems to be affected in DDC-treated animals.  (+info)

Microvessels from Alzheimer's disease brains kill neurons in vitro. (4/5972)

Understanding the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is of widespread interest because it is an increasingly prevalent disorder that is progressive, fatal, and currently untreatable. The dementia of Alzheimer's disease is caused by neuronal cell death. We demonstrate for the first time that blood vessels isolated from the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients can directly kill neurons in vitro. Either direct co-culture of Alzheimer's disease microvessels with neurons or incubation of cultured neurons with conditioned medium from microvessels results in neuronal cell death. In contrast, vessels from elderly nondemented donors are significantly (P<0.001) less lethal and brain vessels from younger donors are not neurotoxic. Neuronal killing by either direct co-culture with Alzheimer's disease microvessels or conditioned medium is dose- and time-dependent. Neuronal death can occur by either apoptotic or necrotic mechanisms. The microvessel factor is neurospecific, killing primary cortical neurons, cerebellar granule neurons, and differentiated PC-12 cells, but not non-neuronal cell types or undifferentiated PC-12 cells. Appearance of the neurotoxic factor is decreased by blocking microvessel protein synthesis with cycloheximide. The neurotoxic factor is soluble and likely a protein, because its activity is heat labile and trypsin sensitive. These findings implicate a novel mechanism of vascular-mediated neuronal cell death in Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

Expression of thrombospondin-1 in ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. (5/5972)

Thrombospondin-1 is an extracellular matrix protein that inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. This study was performed to investigate the role of thrombospondin-1 in ischemic retinal neovascularization. In a murine model of retinal neovascularization, thrombospondin-1 mRNA was increased from postnatal day 13 (P13), with a threefold peak response observed on P15, corresponding to the time of development of retinal neovascularization. Prominent expression of thrombospondin-1 was observed in neovascular cells, specifically, cells adjacent to the area of nonperfusion. It has been suggested that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a major role in ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization of this model, so we studied the effects of VEGF on thrombospondin-1 expression. In bovine retinal microcapillary endothelial cells, VEGF induced a biphasic response of thrombospondin-1 expression; VEGF decreased thrombospondin-1 mRNA 0.41-fold after 4 hours, whereas it increased, with a threefold peak response, after 24 hours. VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation was completely inhibited by exogenous thrombospondin-1 and increased by 37.5% with anti-thrombospondin-1 antibody. The present findings suggest that, in the ischemic retina, retinal neovascular cells increase thrombospondin-1 expression, and VEGF may stimulate endogenous thrombospondin-1 induction, which inhibits endothelial cell growth. VEGF-mediated thrombospondin-1 induction in ischemia-induced angiogenesis may be a negative feedback mechanism.  (+info)

5'-Nucleotidase activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages. II. Cellular distribution and effects of endocytosis. (6/5972)

The diazonium salt of sulfanilic acid (DASA) can inactivate about 80% of the total 5'-nucleotidase of viable macrophages. The remaining 20% can be inactivated if the cells are first lysed in detergent, and presumably represents an intracellular pool of 5'-nucleotidase. The bulk of this pool may represent cytoplasmic vesicles derived from plasma membrane by endocytosis. This internal compartment is expanded up to threefold immediately after the cells have ingested a large latex load. This is consistent with previous observations on the internalization of 5'-nucleotidase in latex phagosomes. In latex-filled cells this intracellular pool of enzyme is inactivated over a few hours, and the cells then slowly increase their enzyme activity to nearly normal levels. However, 24 h after latex ingestion the metabolism of 5'-nucleotidase in these recovered cells is abnormal, as the rate of enzyme degradation is about twice the normal rate, and the DASA-insensitive enzyme pool in these cells is strikingly diminished. This may reflect effects of the accumulated indigestible particles on the fate of incoming pinocytic vesicles or on newly synthesized plasma membrane precursor. Another endocytic stimulus, concanavalin A, also reduces the total cell 5'-nucleotidase activity. This effect, which is time and temperature dependent, can be prevented by the competitive sugar alpha-methyl mannose. The concanavalin A inhibition can be reversed in the absence of new protein synthesis or in cells cultivated in serum-free conditions. It is not known whether the effect of concanavalin A on 5'-nucleotidase depends upon the interiorizaiton of plasma membrane or is strictly associated with events at the cell surface.  (+info)

CFTR channel insertion to the apical surface in rat duodenal villus epithelial cells is upregulated by VIP in vivo. (7/5972)

cAMP activated insertion of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels from endosomes to the apical plasma membrane has been hypothesized to regulate surface expression and CFTR function although the physiologic relevance of this remains unclear. We previously identified a subpopulation of small intestinal villus epithelial cells or CFTR high expressor (CHE) cells possessing very high levels of apical membrane CFTR in association with a prominent subapical vesicular pool of CFTR. We have examined the subcellular redistribution of CFTR in duodenal CHE cells in vivo in response to the cAMP activated secretagogue vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Using anti-CFTR antibodies against the C terminus of rodent CFTR and indirect immunofluorescence, we show by quantitative confocal microscopy that CFTR rapidly redistributes from the cytoplasm to the apical surface upon cAMP stimulation by VIP and returns to the cytoplasm upon removal of VIP stimulation of intracellular cAMP levels. Using ultrastructural and confocal immunofluorescence examination in the presence or absence of cycloheximide, we also show that redistribution was not dependent on new protein synthesis, changes in endocytosis, or rearrangement of the apical cytoskeleton. These observations suggest that physiologic cAMP activated apical membrane insertion and recycling of CFTR channels in normal CFTR expressing epithelia contributes to the in vivo regulation of CFTR mediated anion transport.  (+info)

Expression of atrC - encoding a novel member of the ATP binding cassette transporter family in Aspergillus nidulans - is sensitive to cycloheximide. (8/5972)

A new member of the ABC superfamily of transmembrane proteins in Aspergillus nidulans has been cloned and characterized. The topology of conserved motifs subgroups AtrC in the P-glycoprotein cluster of ABC permeases, the members of this subfamily, are known to participate in multidrug resistance (MDR) in diverse organisms. Alignment results display significant amino acid similarity to AfuMDR1 and AflMDR1 from Aspergillus fumigatus and flavus, respectively. Northern analysis reveals that atrC mRNA levels are 10-fold increased in response to cycloheximide. Evidence for the existence of eight additional hitherto unpublished ABC transporter proteins in A. nidulans is provided.  (+info)

Studies were performed to investigate whether electrically-induced long-term depression (LTD) within rat hippocampal slices in vitro shares any common cellular features with LTD in the intact animal, with particular emphasis being placed on mechanisms required for its late maintenance. Our initial studies have led to the development of stimulation protocols which are able to reliably produce different forms of LTD. Depending on the induction protocol applied, we are able to demonstrate a transient protein synthesis-independent early-LTD with a duration of up to 3-4 h, together with a de novo protein synthesis-dependent late-LTD lasting for at least 8 h. Furthermore, we are able to show input-specific LTD within the CA1 region, with expression shown only by those synapses specifically stimulated by a low-frequency protocol. These studies are important pre-requisites to investigate mechanisms of synaptic tagging and late-associativity during LTD ...
Expression of the HTLV receptor was strictly dependent on de novo protein synthesis. It has been shown that prior to T-lymphocyte proliferation, there is a 7- to 10-fold increase in protein synthesis and a 30- to 40-fold augmentation in mRNA synthesis.33This pre-proliferation characteristic appears to be a particularity of T lymphocytes and is not observed in other cell types. The required pre-proliferation burst in mRNA/protein synthesis likely results from the extremely low metabolic rate of resting G0T lymphocytes, which make up the vast majority of the circulating T-lymphocyte pool. Thus, it is intriguing to speculate that it is this low metabolic rate that accounts for the fact that T lymphocytes are the first and only cell type, identified to date, which do not constitutively express the HTLV receptor. Notably, Wodarz and Bangham have recently used a mathematical model to suggest that the rate of evolution of HTLV-1 is limited by the restricted availability of activated uninfected T ...
Medrano, E E. and Pardee, A B., Prevalent deficiency in tumor cells of cycloheximide-induced cycle arrest. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 3388 ...
Export Data And Price Of Cycloheximide , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services is the place where you can find the recent and updated Trade intelligence report of Cycloheximide Export Data. Whole information is based on updated Export shipment data of Indian Customs. All the compilation is done on the basis of All India ports data and has been done on daily basis. This helps you to get all India Cycloheximide Export data. You can find previous two days Cycloheximide Export data on Eximpulse Services. Cycloheximide Export data can be useful in different kind of analysis such as: Export price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. Some Sample Shipment records for Cycloheximide Export Data of India are mentioned above. Further for Free sample and pricing of detailed reports contact on [email protected] Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not have names of Indian companies and Foreign Companies.. ...
We have investigated the effect of chemotherapeutic and DNA damaging agents on binding of the tumor suppressor phosphoprotein p53 to its consensus DNA sequence. Activation of p53-DNA binding was seen for treatment with radiation, hydrogen peroxide, actinomycin D, Adriamycin, etoposide, camptothecin, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin C, and cisplatin. These results showed that DNA strand breaks were sufficient to lead to increased levels of p53. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide blocks the increase in p53 following DNA damage. The increase in p53 activation in camptothecin treated cells may result, at least in part, from an increased half-life of the protein and consequent increases in intracellular protein concentration.. ...
Weigh out the appropriate amount of cycloheximide and add it to the appropriate amount of DMSO to get a 50mg/ml solution. Use the Botstein labs balance as it is much more accurate than ours. It seems to make the most sense to aim for about 100mg (but if it is slightly over or under that is fine) and then put this in a 2ml eppendorf or similar tube (you can use a 15ml conical if you are going to make a larger volume) and add the appropriate amount of DMSO to this based on what you weighed out. Cycloheximide is bad for you (see below) so be careful with it! ...
Fuhr, J E.; Overton, M; and Leisy, M, Protective effect of cycloheximide upon protein synthesis by l5178y cells exposed to hyperthermia. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 2356 ...
Learn more about cycloheximide. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Process of gene expression entails plasmid DNA or mRNA delivery to specific cells and is a technique routinely utilized in labs to study a gene of interest or a signaling pathway. Gene expression usually allows transient protein production, but in some cases stable integration into a genome and continuous protein production over time is required.
Reference: Polikarpova L.I., Effect of protein synthesis inhibitors on the hormonal induction of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases in the liver of sexually mature male rats, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1974, vol: 20(2), 215-217 ...
Fertilization of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs results in resumption of meiosis and a decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities; the decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity precedes the decrease in MAP kinase activity. Cycloheximide treatment of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs also results in resumption of meiosis but bypasses the fertilization-induced Ca2+ transient. However, it is not known if cycloheximide treatment results in the same temporal changes in cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that are intimately associated with resumption of meiosis. We report that cycloheximide-treated mouse eggs manifest similar temporal changes in the decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that occur following fertilization, although cortical granule exocytosis is not stimulated. The decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity, however, does not seem to be required for the decrease in MAP kinase activity, since the decrease in MAP kinase activity ...
Fig. 5. Identification of Pax3 binding sites on Pax3 promoters in vitro (A) Pax3, but not Zic1 alone, can trigger synthesis of the endogenous Pax3 transcript (primers in 3UTR, not amplifying the inducible form) either in absence of the translation inhibitor cycloheximide (induction is 5-fold compared to uninjected animal caps) or in the presence of cycloheximide (induction is 31-fold, compared to cycloheximide-treated uninjected animal caps). Endogenous pax3 expression level in a stage 11 whole embryo is set at a relative value of 1 unit. After co-injection of Pax3 and Zic1, endogenous pax3 was activated as an immediate-early target as well (77-fold compared to uninjected animal caps; and, in presence of cycloheximide, 16-fold when compared to cycloheximide-treated uninjected animal caps). (B) Location of the ECR containing Pax3 putative binding site in the genomic sequence upstream of the Pax3 TSS. (C) Pax3 binds specifically to the motif identified in the pax3 promoter ECR: an electrophoretic ...
In DG cultures exposed to 10 mM NaCN for 45 min, ≈90% of neurons (identified by immunoreactivity against NeuN, a neuronal marker) died 24 h after hypoxia, because they stained with propidium iodide. Survival of GFAP-immunoreactive glia was not affected (data not shown). Combining the same cyanide treatment with glucose deprivation (ischemia) had very similar effects on the neurons. By EM, many hypoxic neurons showed early swelling of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, in the presence of an intact nucleus (Fig. 1B), and evolved later toward necrosis with severe cytoplasmic swelling and membrane rupture (Fig. 1C). This finding was in sharp contrast to staurosporine-treated apoptotic neurons, which displayed nuclear breakdown into large, round masses of chromatin (Fig. 1D). Hypoxic necrosis evolved rapidly: we observed a progressive loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential Δψ within a few minutes of cyanide application (Fig. 2 A-D). This Δψ decay was always synchronous with release ...
Gonadotrophin-releasing activity of oxytocin has previously been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. This study investigated whether oxytocin is also able to induce LH accumulation in pituitary cells. Following trypsin digestion and mechanical dispersion, pituitary cells from female rats were incubated with oxytocin (100 nmol/l) for 24 h. LH release stimulated by oxytocin increased (P , 0·001) progressively during the incubation indicating a different secretory pattern from the more rapid but less sustained secretion stimulated by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. Oxytocin also enhanced (P , 0·01) total LH accumulation in the incubation system (released plus cell contents) which was apparent after 7-11 h of stimulation. The release of LH stimulated by oxytocin was reduced by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (10 μmol/l). However, cycloheximide did not completely block oxytocin-stimulated LH release; there remained some LH release above that seen in non-stimulated controls (P , ...
Treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) or silencing of the core component of the NMD machinery, Upf-1 (also known as Rent1), are widely used to determine if transcripts are subject to NMD (Montfort et al., 2006). CHX is an indirect NMD inhibitor since NMD activation is posttranscriptional, but translation-dependent, and ribosomal association is required during the pioneer round of translation. Upf-1 silencing is believed to produce direct suppression of NMD. The RNA helicase, Upf-1, is a central effector of NMD that links the translation-termination event to the assembly of a surveillance complex. Upf2 and Upf3 are believed to recruit and activate Upf1 on NMD substrates (Lykke-Andersen et al., 2000). Although the discrimination of PTCs from normal termination codons and the molecular links that trigger NMD are still unclear, it is well established that the core components of the NMD machinery are the conserved proteins, Upf-1, Upf-2 and Upf-3. PTC-containing mRNAs ...
When cultivated on substrates that prevent cell adhesion (the polymer polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate, bovine serum albumin, and Teflon), human endothelial cells (EC) rapidly lost viability with a half-life of approximately 10 h. Dying EC showed the morphological and biochemical characteristics of apoptosis. The apoptotic process of suspended EC was delayed by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. To obtain information as to the mechanism involved in the apoptosis of suspended EC, we investigated whether adhesion to matrix proteins or integrin occupancy in EC retaining a round shape may affect EC suicide. EC bound to low coating concentration of either fibronectin or vitronectin, retaining a round shape and failing to organize actin microfilaments, underwent to rapid cell death; by contrast, cells on high substrate concentrations became flattened, showed actin microfilament organization, and retained viability. Addition of saturating amounts of soluble vitronectin to suspended round-shaped ...
Cycloheximide is an antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. Cycloheximide acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A) Western blot demonstrating cycloheximide effects of Wnt-3A mediated accumulation of β-catenin. NCCIT cells were stimulated for 4 hours with CCM (C) or Wnt-3
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TNFα, the founding member of the TNF-superfamily, mediates both necroptotic and apoptotic cell death (Walczak, 2011; Micheau and Tschopp, 2003; Andrew, 2004; Wang et al., 2008; Kroemer et al., 2007; Degterev and Yuan, 2008, He et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2009). Although many investigations have been conducted over the last few years the detailed mechanisms of these death signaling pathways are still not completely known. This particularly concerns our understanding about where ROS are produced intracellularly, how ROS and LMP are mechanistically linked and how both processes contribute to TNFα-induced apoptosis (Boya and Kroemer, 2008; Shen and Pervaiz, 2006; Zdolsek et al., 1993; Brunk et al., 1995). Our study here bridges these missing gaps. We identified that TNFα/CHX-induced LMP is not an apoptosis initiating, but amplifying process downstream of MOMP, and it is triggered by mitochondrial ROS generated as the result of a caspase-3-mediated cleavage of the p75 NDUFS1 subunit of complex I. ...
We have created a new sister database to the main Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb) - SynPharm, a database of drug-responsive protein sequences. Each sequence in SynPharm is derived from a GtoPdb interaction. In each case we have identified the continuous protein sequence within the receptor chain that facilitates that interaction, and provided structural, visual, spatial…
A single hyperthermic exposure can render cells transiently resistant to subsequent high temperature stresses. Treatment of rat embryonic fibroblasts with cycloheximide for 6 h after a 20-min interval at 45 degrees C inhibits protein synthesis, including heat shock protein (hsp) synthesis, and results in an accumulation of hsp 70 mRNA, but has no effect on subsequent survival responses to 45 degrees C hyperthermia. hsp 70 mRNA levels decreased within 1 h after removal of cycloheximide but then appeared to stabilize during the next 2 h (3 h after drug removal and 9 h after heat shock). hsp 70 mRNA accumulation could be further increased by a second heat shock at 45 degrees C for 20 min 6 h after the first hyperthermic exposure in cycloheximide-treated cells. Both normal protein and hsp synthesis appeared increased during the 6-h interval after hyperthermia in cultures which received two exposures to 45 degrees C for 20 min compared with those which received only one treatment. No increased hsp ...
106. Abstract Protoplasts of Boergesenia forbesii (Hanvey) were treated with inhibitors of protein synthesis in order to investigate their effects on cellulose synthesis. Cellulose synthesis was reversibly inhibited by 10 M cycloheximide as assayed by fluorescence microscopy of Tinopal binding to cellulose. Freeze fracture and image analysis of cycloheximide-treated cells indicated a reduction in the number of intramembrane particles; however, the terminal synthesizing complexes remained at all times. Treatment with 10 M actinomycin D, when applied during the first hour of protoplast formation, irreversibly inhibits cellulose synthesis and terminal complex formation. De novo protein synthesis is required for cell wall regeneration by protoplasts. The data suggest that the structural subunits visualized in the terminal complex do not undergo signifi-cant turnover, but that there may exist an essential proteinaceous component of cellulose synthesis which must be continually renewed ...
Cycloheximide is a eukaryote protein synthesis inhibitor, produced by the bacterium Streptomyces griseus. Cycloheximide exerts its effect by interfering with the translocation step in protein synthesis (movement of two tRNA molecules and mRNA in relation to the ribosome), thus blocking translational elongation. Cycloheximide is widely used in biomedical research to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells studied in vitro (i.e. outside of organisms). It is inexpensive and works rapidly. Its effects are rapidly reversed by simply removing it from the culture medium.[1] Due to significant toxic side effects, including DNA damage, teratogenesis, and other reproductive effects (including birth defects and toxicity to sperm[2]), cycloheximide is generally used only in in vitro research applications, and is not suitable for human use as a therapeutic compound. Although it has been used as a fungicide in agricultural applications, this application is now decreasing as the health risks have become ...
Memory can be divided according to different temporal phases: acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval. The consolidation phase is divided into molecular consolidation (range of hours after acquisition) and system consolidation (range of weeks and months after acquisition) (Dudai, 2004). Molecular consolidation is thought to be a protein synthesis-dependent process (Alberini, 2008; Costa-Mattioli et al., 2009). The clear effect of protein synthesis inhibitors on long-term memory was studied extensively mainly in the context of late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP) (Abraham and Williams, 2008). Similar molecular mechanisms were proposed for maintenance of long-term synaptic modifications and learning processes (Davis and Squire, 1984; Costa-Mattioli et al., 2009). However, long-term memory is not supported only by modulation of synaptic strength; modifications in intrinsic neuronal properties also subserve learning-related behavioral changes (Saar and Barkai, 2003; Zhang and Linden, 2003; ...
Summary Treatment of measles virus-infected cells with cycloheximide results in a three-fold increase of 3H-uridine incorporation into the 12 to 36S mRNA species and in the inhibition of genomic 50S RNA synthesis. Consistent with these observations was the finding of a build-up of polyribosomes but an absence of nucleocapsids in the infected cells. These results suggest that measles virus RNA replication, but not transcription, is dependent upon active protein synthesis.
This conclusion was supported by studies of IκBα protein turnover in the DLBCL cell lines. Because IκBα transcription is itself positively regulated by NF-κB activity (37, 38), the steady-state level of IκBα protein does not necessarily reflect the rate of phosphorylation by IKK and subsequent degradation. Indeed, full-length IκBα protein is found at comparable levels in our untreated cell lines (Fig. 3 A). However, when ABC DLBCL cell lines were treated with cycloheximide (CHX) to block new protein synthesis, the level of IκBα declined rapidly through phosphorylation and degradation (Fig. 3 A). By contrast, the IκBα level in SUDHL-6 was significantly more stable upon CHX treatment unless the cells were also stimulated by BCR cross-linking or by PMA and ionomycin treatment (Fig. 3 A). Lactacystin, a drug that inhibits degradation of ubiquitinated IκBα by proteasomes, prevented the CHX-induced loss of IκBα in resting ABC DLBCL cell lines and in stimulated SUDHL-6 cells (Fig. 3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purified glucocorticoid receptors bind selectively in vitro to a cloned DNA fragment that mediates a delayed secondary response to glucocorticoids in vivo. AU - Hess, Patrick. AU - Meenakshi, T.. AU - Chan, Guy Chiu Kai. AU - Carlstedt-Duke, Jan. AU - Gustafsson, Jan Åke. AU - Payvar, Farhang. PY - 1990/4. Y1 - 1990/4. N2 - We have identified and characterized a 206-base-pair region downstream from rat α2u-globulin promoter that specifically mediates a delayed secondary response to glucocorticoids. Unlike positive primary glucocorticoid response elements (GREs), this regulatory element, termed delayed sGRE, dictates an inductive process preceded by a time lag of several hours and blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Reminiscent of GREs and negative GREs (nGREs), a delayed sGRE confers hormonal regulation upon a linked heterologous promoter from a downstream position with respect to transcription start site and, remarkably, also interacts selectively with ...
SR9243 is a potent and selective LXR inverse agonist. SR9243 kills cancer cells by inhibiting lipid production and the Warburg effect. SR9243 induces cell death in multiple types of cancer and does not cause the side effects that have derailed previous attempts to target these processes. In cancer cells, SR9243 significantly inhibited the Warburg effect and lipogenesis by reducing glycolytic and lipogenic gene expression. SR9243 induced apoptosis in tumors without inducing weight loss, hepatotoxicity, or inflammation. Malignant cells exhibit aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) and become dependent on de novo lipogenesis, which sustains rapid proliferation and resistance to cellular stress.
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Cerebellar granule cells are susceptible to the excitotoxin glutamate, which acts at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, as well as the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), the active cytotoxic metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Paradoxically, preincubation of cultured cerebellar granule cells with low concentrations of NMDA or glutamate markedly antagonizes the neurotoxicity resulting from subsequent exposure to toxic concentrations of either MPP+ or glutamate. The neuroprotective effects of NMDA and glutamate against MPP+ toxicity are observed at agonist concentrations as low as 1 microM, are blocked by specific NMDA receptor antagonists, and require at least 30 min to develop fully. Moreover, NMDA receptor-mediated neuroprotection is prevented by the RNA synthesis inhibitor actinomycin D or the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Thus, in cerebellar granule cells activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate can result in either ...
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Rasch et al. recently published an article describing antimicrobial properties of cycloheximide derivatives with adamantyl moieties against Legionella pneumophila. Ten different cycloheximide derivatives were synthesized in this study, and five were found to inhibit L. pneumophila growth at a concentration of 30 uM or 40 uM. Interestingly, several other clinically significant Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens were not susceptible to these derivatives which suggests a very narrow spectrum of activity which may be limited specifically to L. pneumophila ...
SABONNER; Plus de 88 millions dutilisateurs sur POF se réunissent pour se connecter, flirter, et partager avec chacun, ce qui donne plus de 10 millions de.The page you are looking for is no longer available: Comparative Study of Propranolol hydrochloride Release from Matrix Tablets with Kollidon®SR or Hydroxy Propyl.Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION;. ATC code(s) propranolol and other combinations [ATC Code].mechanism(s). Materials and. oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate synthesis inhibitors on the extract effects were evaluated. Propranolol and N.Il sagit de choix des ouvrages, choix des genres, choix des textes, choix dauteurs en fonction du contexte socioculturel et politique de lapprenant.Propranolol Tablets Ip 40 Mg, Propranolol Generic And Trade Name. over the counter propranolol, propranolol urine drug test.. Titre du document / Document title Synthesis and chromatographic separation of the glucuronides of (R)- and ...
Bioprocess intensification can be achieved through high cell density perfusion cell culture with continuous protein capture integration. Protein passage and cell retention are commonly accomplished using tangential flow filtration systems consisting of microporous membranes. Significant challenges, including low efficiency and decaying product sieving over time, are commonly observed in these cell retention devices. Here, we demonstrate that a macroporous membrane overcomes the product sieving challenges when comparing to several other membrane chemistries and pore sizes within the microporous range. Learn More. ...
The mechanism of protein synthesis on 70S ribosomes includes the following stages: 1. The transcription: The process of protein synthesis is started by the uncoiling of strands of DNA molecule. One strand of DNA molecule acts as a template for the formation of mRNA. The mRNA is formed according to the triplet codes of DNA […]. ...
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
Figure 5. A, HEC1A cells transfected with LacZ or p85α WT or E160* were treated with cycloheximide (CHX; left) for indicated duration or with MG132 (center) for 24 hours. Cells were then harvested for WB. PTEN levels were normalized to β-actin by densitometry (below). *, P , 0.05. Right, HEC1A cells were transfected with LacZ or WT or E160* in the absence or presence of ubiquitin (Ub) for 72 hours. Whole-cell lysates were collected for IP with anti-PTEN and then subjected to WB with anti-ubiquitin. PTEN protein levels were normalized prior to IP by using proportionally different amounts of lysates. B, left, HEC1A cells were transfected with LacZ or WT or its mutants for 72 hours and were collected for IP with PTEN and WB with anti-p85α. HEC1A cells were co-transfected with WT or increasing amount of E160*. Cell lysates were collected for IP (center) or WB (right top). Right bottom, transfected HEC1A cells were treated with CHX for the indicated time points and harvested for WB. C, cells were ...
This antibiotic originating from the Gram+ actinomycete Streptomyces venezulenza has about the same type of activity as cycloheximide, but than with an ...
The prolactin receptor (PRLR) mediates the diverse effects of prolactin, which in the mammary gland include the development of lobuloalveolar structures and increased tumor cell proliferation. Treatment of mammary carcinoma cells with the differentiating agent sodium butyrate (NaB) is known to reduce PRLR binding activity and PRLR gene expression, however the mechanism which mediates these changes is unknown, prompting this investigation. Using MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, assay of the rate of PRLR gene transcription by the nuclear run-on technique indicated that 3 mM NaB reduced PRLR gene transcription by 50% after 3 h of treatment and that this effect was maintained for at least 24 h. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide failed to abrogate this effect, which indicated that NaB did not require continuing protein synthesis to reduce the rate of PRLR transcription. Measurement of PRLR mRNA stability, using Northern blot analysis at various times after the inhibition of transcription with
Two lipid synthesis inhibitors compounds (spiromesifen SPM and spirotetramat SPT) were used against the second instar larvae of cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis under laboratory condition. Toxicity of both compounds was tested. Effect of these insecticides on total lipid also was determined. The obtained results showed that both compounds were moderately toxic against the second instar larvae of S. littoralis. The mortality percentages caused by the field rate of spiromesifen and spirotetramat were 51.7 and 60.0%, respectively. The lethal concentrations for 50% of tested insect population (LC50) were 170.1 and 42.2 ppm, respectively. The total lipid content was determined in treated larvae and compared with the untreated. The percentage of total lipid in spiromesifen- and spirotetramat-treated larvae was 2.17 and 2.21%, respectively, compared with 2.42% in untreated larvae. GC/MS also was used in identification of fatty acids composition of S. littoralis larvae. The results cleared that 13 fatty
Mild hyperthermia is known to enhance apoptosis in a range of normal and neoplastic cell populations. Studies of tumours previously shown to respond to heating in this manner might be expected to provide insights not only into the mechanism of hyperthermic cell killing, but also into the apoptotic process in general. In the present study, cell death induced by 43°C heating for 30 min in two human Burkitts lymphoma lines, BM 13674 and WW1, and in murine mastocytoma P‐815 × 2·1 was found to be exclusively apoptotic in type, identification being based on light and electron microscopic appearances and on the presence of internucleosomal cleavage of DNA into fragments that are multiples of 180-200 base pairs, which was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The heat‐induced apoptosis was prevented by the presence of zinc sulphate, an inhibitor of the endonuclease considered to be responsible for the DNA cleavage, but was not suppressed by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. ...
An in vitro ischemia model was established and the effect of the metabolic inhibitors cycloheximide (CHX) and actinomycin D (ActD) on apoptosis in astrocytes under ischemia studied. CHX decreased by 75% the number of cells dying after 6 hr of ischemia compared with control cultures. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) staining of comparable cultures was reduced by 40%. ActD decreased cell death by 60% compared with controls. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was reduced by 38%. The nuclear shrinkage in TUNEL-positive astrocytes in control cultures did not occur in ActD-treated astrocytes, indicating that nuclear shrinkage and DNA fragmentation during apoptosis are two unrelated processes. Expression of bcl-2 (alpha and beta), bax, and Ice in astrocytes under similar ischemic conditions, as measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, indicated that ischemia down-regulated bcl-2 (alpha and beta) and bax. Ice was initially down-regulated from 0 to 4 hr, ...
We used the rat visual cortex as a model system to examine the changes in protein synthesis during experience-induced synaptic plasticity. Dark-rearing rats from birth results in a relatively immature visual cortex that maintains the high de- gree of synaptic plasticity characteristic of the critical period (Kirkwood et al., 1995). Exposure of dark-reared rats to light results in a rapid, robust and coordinated burst of experience- driven synaptic plasticity that can be readily monitored at the biochemical and electrophysiological level (Quinlan et al., 1999). In previous work, we showed that visual experience evokes the polyadenylation of ␣-CaMKII mRNA in visual cortex and the elevation of ␣-CaMKII protein in synaptic fractions from this brain region. Moreover, this increase was a direct result of new synthesis because it was sensitive to the translation inhibitor cycloheximide (Wu et al., 1998). Here we show that the experience-induced increase of ␣-CaMKII pro- tein does not require new ...
Allen C. Rogerson, Richard W. Cheney Jr.; A Physical Model Illustrating Protein Synthesis on the Ribosome. The American Biology Teacher 1 January 1989; 51 (1): 29-31. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/4448834. Download citation file:. ...
Thymidine, a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside, is a DNA synthesis inhibitor that can arrest cell at G1/S boundary, prior to DNA replication. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Despite intensive analysis zero therapies targeted contrary to the oncogenic EGFRvIII can be found in the medical clinic. PTP inhibitors triggered a prominent upsurge in phosphorylation degrees of EGFRvIII on all residues analyzed, including Tyr1045. Oddly enough, hypophosphorylation of the tyrosine continues to be previously reported on several occasions and from the raised stability from the proteins [7, 8]. Certainly, we have not really noticed any degradation from the truncated receptor also in the current presence of cycloheximide to avoid de novo proteins synthesis (Supplementary Amount 2). Statistical evaluation indicated which the change in phosphorylation of specific tyrosines had not been always significant in case there is the wild-type receptor, that will be due to a combined mix of limited awareness of the technique and a comparatively few reproductions (= 3). To check this hypothesis, weve centered on NaOVa, a much less powerful PTP inhibitor of both, and examined its influence on ...
Protein synthesis or translation is the mechanism by which the triplet base sequence of an mRNA guides the linking of a specific sequence of amino acids to form a polypeptide (protein) or ribosomes. Protein synthesis is the process by which biological cells generate new proteins. ...
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When a Walmart Supercenter opened in Winona, Minnesota in 2003, there was definitely a churning among local businesses. Eleven years later, what has been the net effect?
What are the steps involved in protein synthesis when you start with the DNA code in the nucleus and end up with a polypeptide in simple terms please? Find answers now! No. 1 Questions & Answers Place.
The term protein synthesis refers to the making of a protein. This process begins in the nucleus and then continues in the ribosomes. Protein synthesis is comprised of two parts: DNA transcription...
TASHIRO Etsu , HIRONIWA Naoka , KITAGAWA Mitsuhiro , FUTAMURA Yushi , SUZUKI Shin-ichi , NISHIO Maki , IMOTO Masaya J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 60(9), 547-553, 2007-09-25 Ichushi Web References (28) Cited by (4) ...
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It is the core of a variety of drugs, including barbituric acid and cycloheximide, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis. ... Hugh D. Sisler, Malcolm R. Siegel; Cycloheximide and Other Glutarimide Antibiotics; Mechanism of Action pp 283-307 v t e. ...
It is also cycloheximide resistant. C. punctatus can reproduce both in sexual and asexual forms. The teleomorph phase is ...
This species is sensitive to cycloheximide. As this species may be slow to emerge from clinical materials, specimens in which ...
Cycloheximide Mahy, Brian W J (2001). A dictionary of virology (3. ed.). San Diego, Calif. [u.a.]: Academic Press. pp. 2. ISBN ... It can be considered as the acetylated analogue of cycloheximide. It is a potent protein synthesis inhibitor in animal cells ...
... also grows on 0.01% cycloheximide. Cryptococcus adeliensis sp. nov., a xylanase producing ...
... produces acetoxycycloheximide, aciphenol, albanoursin and cycloheximide. List of Streptomyces species LPSN ...
Yagisawa F; Nishida K; Okano Y; Minoda A; Tanaka K; Kuroiwa T (2004). "Isolation of cycloheximide-resistant mutants of ...
... is resistant to the antifungal agent cycloheximide. However the growth of this species is inhibited by ...
Inhibition of eukaryotic translation elongation by cycloheximide and lactimidomycin". Nat Chem Biol. 6 (3): 209-217. doi: ... One toxic inhibitor of eukaryotic translation elongation is the glutarimide antibiotic cycloheximide (CHX), which has been co- ...
March 2010). "Inhibition of eukaryotic translation elongation by cycloheximide and lactimidomycin". Nature Chemical Biology. 6 ...
Alma Joslyn Whiffen-Barksdale (1916-1981), mycologist who discovered cycloheximide. Gary Wolfe (born 1967), professional ...
Adding cycloheximide can inhibit the growth of bacterivores without affecting some bacterial species but it was shown to ... Tremaine, Sarah C. Mills, Aaron L. (1987). "Inadequacy of the Eucaryote Inhibitor Cycloheximide in Studies of Protozoan Grazing ... "Cycloheximide: Aspects of Inhibition of Protein Synthesis in Mammalian Cells". Science. 146 (3650): 1474-1476. Bibcode:1964Sci ...
... (October 25, 1916 - July 5, 1981) was a U.S. mycologist who discovered cycloheximide. She was ... List of mycologists Cycloheximide Achlya bisexualis "Alma Whiffen Barksdale (1916-1981)". Smithsonian Institution Archives. ... While there, she discovered the chemical cycloheximide (trade name Actidione), an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial agent produced ...
It has been shown to adapt to famous antibiotics like cycloheximide, trichodermin and amphotericin B. Cells adapted to ... Shearer G, Jr; Sypherd, PS (March 1988). "Cycloheximide efflux in antibiotic-adapted cells of the fungus Mucor racemosus". ... cycloheximide particularly have been observed to be 40-times more resistant than non-adapted cells to the drug. These adapted ...
This is commonly performed with cycloheximide but other chemicals can be employed. It is also possible to forgo translation ... RNA-ribosome complexes Cycloheximide Nucleases Phenol/Chloroform Reverse transcriptase dNTPs Sequencing method-cDNA library. ... The other elongating regions can be detected by adding antibiotics like cycloheximide that inhibit translocation, ...
"Conservative segregation of parental histones during replication in the presence of cycloheximide". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 76 ...
Abe Fumiyoshi; Hiraki Toshiki (2009). "Mechanistic role of ergosterol in membrane rigidity and cycloheximide resistance in ...
Like many other dermatophytes, M. nanum is tolerant of the antifungal agent cycloheximide. In addition, M. nanum also exhibits ...
Treatment with cycloheximide, a non-specific protein synthesis inhibitor, enhances parthenote development in swine presumably ... "Effects of Cycloheximide on Parthenogenetic Development of Pig Oocytes Activated by Ultrasound Treatment". Journal of ...
1988). "Human adrenodoxin: cloning of three cDNAs and cycloheximide enhancement in JEG-3 cells". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (7): 3240-4 ...
Finally, it was also shown that this delay occurred even with short pulses of cycloheximide, confirming that an unstable ... It was later shown that treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide delayed Start in yeast, indicating that ... "Inhibition of DNA synthesis in synchronized Chinese hamster cells treated in G1 with cycloheximide". Experimental Cell Research ...
Baliga BS, Pronczuk AW, Munro HN (August 1969). "Mechanism of cycloheximide inhibition of protein synthesis in a cell-free ... Obrig TG, Culp WJ, McKeehan WL, Hardesty B (January 1971). "The mechanism by which cycloheximide and related glutarimide ...
... rubrum cultures can be isolated on both cycloheximide-containing media and cycloheximide-free media. The latter are ... In primary outgrowth on Sabouraud dextrose agar with cycloheximide and antibacterials, contaminating organisms may cause ...
CLS growth is essentially unaffected by antibiotic treatment with chloramphenicol, as well as by cycloheximide. After 5 days of ...
Unlike in the case of dimorphic pathogenic fungi, growth of C. bertholletiae is inhibited by cycloheximide. As a member of the ...
T. asteroides grows in a range of media including in the presence of the antifungal agent, cycloheximide. Colonies of T. ...
MC916-C4, a cycloheximide-producing strain, by Umezawa et al. Subsequent testing has shown its capabilities as an anticancer ...
Cycloheximide Anisomycin Archived January 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine from Sigma Aldrich Grollman, Arthur P. (1967). " ...
This species required thiamine for proper growth, and its growth is slowed by small amounts of cycloheximide. C. consortionis ...
The fungus has been selectively isolated using high temperature incubation (at 40 °C) on media containing cycloheximide. ...
"Cycloheximide - The Antimicrobial Index Knowledgebase - TOKU-E". antibiotics.toku-e.com.. *^ "Cycloheximide-Naramycin A; ... Cycloheximide is a eukaryote protein synthesis inhibitor, produced by the bacterium Streptomyces griseus. Cycloheximide exerts ... it responds to cycloheximide, so, it should be cultured in a medium free of cycloheximide. ... Cycloheximide is widely used in biomedical research to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells studied in vitro (i.e. ...
... is a piperidones (CHEBI:48589) cycloheximide (CHEBI:27641) is a secondary alcohol (CHEBI:35681) ... cycloheximide (CHEBI:27641) is a cyclic ketone (CHEBI:3992) cycloheximide (CHEBI:27641) is a dicarboximide (CHEBI:35356) ... cycloheximide (CHEBI:27641) has functional parent piperidine-2,6-dione (CHEBI:5435) cycloheximide (CHEBI:27641) has role ... cycloheximide (CHEBI:27641) has role protein synthesis inhibitor (CHEBI:48001) cycloheximide (CHEBI:27641) is a antibiotic ...
cycloheximide synonyms, cycloheximide pronunciation, cycloheximide translation, English dictionary definition of cycloheximide ... Cycloheximide - definition of cycloheximide by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/cycloheximide ... cycloheximide. Also found in: Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. cy·clo·hex·i·mide. (sī′klō-hĕk′sə-mīd′, -mĭd). n.. A ... cycloheximide. (ˌsaɪkləʊˈhɛksəˌmaɪd) n. a toxic antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis, used as a fungicide in agriculture ...
Cycloheximide from microbial, ≥94% (TLC); CAS Number: 66-81-9; EC Number: 200-636-0; Synonyms: Actidione,3-[2-(3,5-Dimethyl-2- ... In yeast strains, cycloheximide has been used as a protein synthesis inhibitor in the cycloheximide chase experiment. ... Cycloheximide (CHX) is an antibiotic produced by S. griseus. Its main biological activity is translation inhibition in ...
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Weigh out the appropriate amount of cycloheximide and add it to the appropriate amount of DMSO to get a 50mg/ml solution. Use ... Cycloheximide (MP Biomedicals, Cat #100183). *DMSO (Fluka 41639, Ultra for molecular biology; stored in the Flammables cabinet) ... Cycloheximide is bad for you (see below) so be careful with it! ... Megan N McClean: Cycloheximide is BAD for you. Check out the ... Each person in the lab makes up their own stock of cycloheximide and keeps it in their own -20°C box. ...
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Reduction of Rat Liver Microsomal Ribonuclease by Cycloheximide Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The results indicate that the short onset of microsomal RNase reduction produced by cycloheximide may be due to a more rapid ... Reduction of Rat Liver Microsomal Ribonuclease by Cycloheximide. ROBERT T. LOUIS-FERDINAND ... Reduction of Rat Liver Microsomal Ribonuclease by Cycloheximide. ROBERT T. LOUIS-FERDINAND ...
Inhibition of brain protein synthesis by cycloheximide does not affect formation of long-term memory in honeybees after ... No significant reduction in the probability of the conditioned response in cycloheximide-treated bees was found when compared ... Inhibition of brain protein synthesis by cycloheximide does not affect formation of long-term memory in honeybees after ... Inhibition of brain protein synthesis by cycloheximide does not affect formation of long-term memory in honeybees after ...
Cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis at the translation level, has a very strong antimitotic activity upon the ... A propos dun effet paradoxal de la cycloheximide sur lœuf dArtemia salina ... A propos dun effet paradoxal de la cycloheximide sur lœuf dArtemia salina ... A propos dun effet paradoxal de la cycloheximide sur lœuf dArtemia salina ...
Download Free Full-Text of an article GENETIC IDENTIFICATION OF CYCLOHEXIMIDE-RESISTANT YEASTS ISOLATED FROM TRADITIONAL DAIRY ... The common method to detect LAB is to culture the products on media containing cycloheximide (CHX) to prevent yeast growth by ... Keyword(s): TRADITIONAL DAIRY PRODUCTS, CYCLOHEXIMIDE-RESISTANT YEASTS, GENETIC IDENTIFICATION, KLUYVEROMYCES MARXIANUS. ...
... and cycloheximide-treated cultures demonstrated that the cultures treated with cycloheximide did not have an increased content ... Effect of Cycloheximide on RNA Metabolism Early in Productive Infection with Adenovirus 2. Elizabeth A. Craig, Heschel J. ... The presence of cycloheximide during the early phase of adenovirus 2 replication causes an increase in the virus-specific ... For both classes, RNA from cultures treated with cycloheximide hybridized 5- to 10-fold more than RNA from control-infected ...
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Cycloheximide prevents the de novo polypeptide synthesis required to recover from acetylene inhibition in Nitrosopumilus ... However, cycloheximide (CHX), a widely used eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor, but not bacteria-specific protein synthesis ...
Effects of cycloheximide on gene expression changes in DPCs induced by oleuropein treatment.DPCs were allowed to attach ... pone.0129578.g008: Effects of cycloheximide on gene expression changes in DPCs induced by oleuropein treatment.DPCs were ... pone.0129578.g008: Effects of cycloheximide on gene expression changes in DPCs induced by oleuropein treatment.DPCs were ... was blocked by cycloheximide (Fig 7). The expressions of Wnt target genes, such as LEF1 and Cyc-D1, and several growth factors ...
hsp 70 mRNA levels decreased within 1 h after removal of cycloheximide but then appeared to stabilize during the next 2 h (3 h ... Effects of cycloheximide on thermotolerance expression, heat shock protein synthesis, and heat shock protein mRNA accumulation ... Effects of cycloheximide on thermotolerance expression, heat shock protein synthesis, and heat shock protein mRNA accumulation ... Effects of cycloheximide on thermotolerance expression, heat shock protein synthesis, and heat shock protein mRNA accumulation ...
A dicarboximide that is 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine-2,6-dione in which one of the hydrogens attached to the carbon bearing the hydroxy group is replaced by a 3,5-dimethyl-2-oxocyclohexyl group. It is an antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces griseus ...
We report that cycloheximide-treated mouse eggs manifest similar temporal changes in the decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase ... Cycloheximide treatment of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs also results in resumption of meiosis but bypasses the ... However, it is not known if cycloheximide treatment results in the same temporal changes in cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase ... Cycloheximide-induced activation of mouse eggs: effects on cdc2/cyclin B and MAP kinase activities ...
... sterile-filtered solution of Cycloheximide (Cat. No. 239763) in DMSO. An antifungal antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis ... InSolution™ Cycloheximide, CAS 66-81-9, is a 100 mg/ml, sterile-filtered solution of Cycloheximide (Cat. No. 239763) in DMSO. ... InSolution™ Cycloheximide, CAS 66-81-9, is a 100 mg/ml, sterile-filtered solution of Cycloheximide (Cat. No. 239763) in DMSO. ... More,, InSolution™ Cycloheximide, CAS 66-81-9, is a 100 mg/ml, sterile-filtered solution of Cycloheximide (Cat. No. 239763) in ...
Zawilska, JB, Rosiak, J, Vivien-Roels, B, Skene, DJ, Pevet, P and Nowak, JZ (2000) Effects of cycloheximide and aminophylline ... Effects of cycloheximide and aminophylline on 5-methoxytryptophol and melatonin contents in the chick pineal gland ...
Cycloheximide chase. For cycloheximide chase, cells were incubated for 4-5 h in the presence of cycloheximide (50 μg/ml, Sigma- ... We further validated these results with a cycloheximide (CHX) chase assay (Fig. S1c). Under treatment with the protein ...
Learn more about cycloheximide. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make ... Description: Cycloheximide is a glutarimide antibiotic derived from a microbial source. Cycloheximide is an antibiotic which is ... Description: CYCLOHEXIMIDE, also known as hizarocin, is used in biomedical research. It inhibits protein synthesis in ... Description: Cycloheximide, Purity: 90%, CAS Number 66-81-9, Formula: C15H23NO4, Synonyms: 3-[2-(3,5-Dimethyl-2-oxocyclohexyl)- ...
Cycloheximide is used as an antimycotic and has shown activity against many yeasts, molds, and fungi. ...
Cycloheximide acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis. ... Cycloheximide is an antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. ... Cycloheximide is an antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. Cycloheximide ... Cycloheximide is a colorless crystals. Used as a fungicide and as a anticancer drug. ...
Cycloheximide chase analysis. To determine GPX4 protein stability, UMRC6 cells were cultured in media with or without cystine ... In addition, cycloheximide chase analysis showed that cystine starvation did not decrease GPX4 protein half-life (Supplementary ... Sucrose solutions were prepared in polysome buffer (10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, 100 mM KCl, 5 mM MgCl2 and 100 mg/ml cycloheximide). A ... for 24 h. Then, cycloheximide (50 μg/ml) were added to media and cells were collected at different time points on ice. Protein ...
  • The presence of cycloheximide during the early phase of adenovirus 2 replication causes an increase in the virus-specific content of newly synthesized mRNA. (asm.org)
  • Oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography was used to purify the portion of cytoplasmic RNA containing poly(A). The poly(A)-containing RNA from cultures labeled in the presence of cycloheximide hybridized to viral DNA 32% as compared to 2.2% for RNA from control cultures. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, the increased hybridization of cytoplasmic RNA synthesized in the presence of cycloheximide is caused either by reduced transcription of the cellular genome or by greatly increased instability of cellular heterogeneous nuclear RNA. (asm.org)
  • Effects of cycloheximide on gene expression changes in DPCs induced by oleuropein treatment.DPCs were allowed to attach overnight and then treated (60 min) with cycloheximide (10 μg/ml) and thereafter switched to medium with or without oleuroepin (20 μM) in the presence of cycloheximide (10 μg/ml) for 24 h. mRNA expression levels of LEF1, Cyc-D1, IGF-1, HGF, VEGF, and KGF were measured by RT-PCR. (nih.gov)
  • B) Northern analysis demonstrating that MSX2 induction by Wnt-3A is abolished in the presence of cycloheximide. (nih.gov)
  • As expected, BMP-4 mediated induction of MSX2 is not affected by cycloheximide which contrasts with the inhibition of Wnt-3A mediated induction of MSX2 in the presence of cycloheximide. (nih.gov)
  • The exposure of HeLa cells to interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) in the presence of cycloheximide (CHX) leads to the release of active tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), eliciting cytocidal effect on these cells. (edu.pl)
  • Cycloheximide is widely used for selection of cycloheximide-resistant strains of yeast and fungi, for inhibition of eukaryotic contaminants in bacterial microbiology, for controlled inhibition of protein synthesis in cell culture and for detection of short-lived proteins, and for apoptosis induction or facilitation of apoptosis induction by death receptors. (carlroth.com)
  • In the present studies, we have evaluated internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and apoptosis within the pancreas and the effects of inhibiting protein synthesis by cycloheximide (CHX) on these phenomena as well as on the severity of pancreatitis. (elsevier.com)
  • In summary, our data suggest that apoptosis plays an important role in the development of delayed infarction , and inhibition of apoptosis with cycloheximide significantly reduces the ensuing cerebral infarction in a newborn rat pup model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia . (bvsalud.org)
  • The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide was injected via the median ocellus directly into the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide blocks induction by Wnt, consistent with a requirement for newly synthesized beta-catenin protein prior to target gene activation. (nih.gov)
  • The protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide was used to study the development of the events leading to pupal ecdysis in Manduca. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Anti-apoptotic actions of cycloheximide: Blockade of programmed cell death or induction of programmed cell life? (elsevier.com)
  • Cycloheximide is a eukaryote protein synthesis inhibitor , produced by the bacterium Streptomyces griseus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloheximide exerts its effect by interfering with the translocation step in protein synthesis (movement of two tRNA molecules and mRNA in relation to the ribosome ), thus blocking translational elongation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloheximide is widely used in biomedical research to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells studied in vitro ( i.e. outside of organisms). (wikipedia.org)
  • In yeast strains, cycloheximide has been used as a protein synthesis inhibitor in the cycloheximide chase experiment. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis at the 'translation' level, has a very strong antimitotic activity upon the egg of Artemia salina , during segmentation. (biologists.org)
  • The synthesis of this factor could be extremely sensitive to cycloheximide action. (biologists.org)
  • The common method to detect LAB is to culture the products on media containing cycloheximide (CHX) to prevent yeast growth by interfering with protein synthesis. (sid.ir)
  • However, cycloheximide (CHX), a widely used eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor, but not bacteria-specific protein synthesis inhibitors (kanamycin and gentamycin), inhibited the recovery of NH3-oxidizing activity in N. maritimus. (ovid.com)
  • Effects of cycloheximide on thermotolerance expression, heat shock protein synthesis, and heat shock protein mRNA accumulation in rat fibroblasts. (asm.org)
  • Treatment of rat embryonic fibroblasts with cycloheximide for 6 h after a 20-min interval at 45 degrees C inhibits protein synthesis, including heat shock protein (hsp) synthesis, and results in an accumulation of hsp 70 mRNA, but has no effect on subsequent survival responses to 45 degrees C hyperthermia. (asm.org)
  • No increased hsp synthesis was observed in cultures treated with cycloheximide, even though hsp 70 mRNA levels appeared elevated. (asm.org)
  • Cycloheximide acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Treatment of measles virus-infected cells with cycloheximide results in a three-fold increase of 3 H-uridine incorporation into the 12 to 36S mRNA species and in the inhibition of genomic 50S RNA synthesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These data indicate that the cAMP-induced synthesis of the steroidogenic machinery is not wholly dependent on cycloheximide-sensitive protein mediators. (elsevier.com)
  • Correlated changes in energy and protein metabolism were investigated by determining the rates of oxygen consumption at various levels of P CO 2 , of intra- and extracellular pH, and after inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide. (biologists.org)
  • Low concentrations of cycloheximide completely blocked the synthesis of B protein but did not inhibit the synthesis of viral structural proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • Protective effect of cycloheximide upon protein synthesis by l5178y ce" by J E. Fuhr, M Overton et al. (jax.org)
  • Protective effect of cycloheximide upon protein synthesis by l5178y cells exposed to hyperthermia. (jax.org)
  • however, the inhibition of PA synthesis by cycloheximide does not prevent the morphological changes or the increased tight junctional permeability, suggesting that PA is not involved in these early TPA-induced events. (nih.gov)
  • It is the core of a variety of drugs, including barbituric acid and cycloheximide, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybridization-inhibition experiments between RNAs from control- and cycloheximide-treated cultures demonstrated that the cultures treated with cycloheximide did not have an increased content of viral RNA or a new class of viral RNA sequences. (asm.org)
  • Cycloheximide is a naturally occurring fungicide produced by the bacterium Streptomyces griseus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloheximide (CHX) is an antibiotic produced by S. griseus . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cycloheximide is an antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Translation is halted via the addition of cycloheximide, and the DNA/RNA in the cell is then nuclease treated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Addition of cycloheximide or puromycin to such cultures substantially reduced basal levels and markedly attenuated the cAMP-induced accumulation of cytochrome P450scc mRNA, but augmented the accumulation of adrenodoxin and fos mRNAs in additive and multiplicative fashions, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the addition of cycloheximide in Optisol-GS media in decreasing the growth of the main Candida spp. (yeast-infection-help.com)
  • The translational elongation freezing properties of cycloheximide are also used for ribosome profiling / translational profiling. (wikipedia.org)
  • recently published an article describing antimicrobial properties of cycloheximide derivatives with adamantyl moieties against Legionella pneumophila . (toku-e.com)
  • 9 , 10 Cycloheximide is efficient for mutagenic strains resistant to multiple drugs, 11 and also has the advantage of having a low cost. (yeast-infection-help.com)
  • Cycloheximide is a highly effective antibiotic with activity against mold, yeast, and phytopathogenic fungi, with lower activity against bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Afterward, 1 mL of the suspension was added to a liquid medium with yeast extract (1%), peptone (4%), glucose (6%), calcium carbonate (1%), 100 mg/L of cycloheximide and 150 mg/L of penicillin at a pH 6.6. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although most eukaryotic cells are sensitive to the 80S ribosome inhibitor cycloheximide (CYH), naturally occurring CYH resistance is widespread amongst yeast species. (diva-portal.org)
  • An inhibitor of mRNA translation, cycloheximide, reduced RNA degradation by hepatic microsomal ribonuclease in a dose-related manner. (aspetjournals.org)
  • hsp 70 mRNA levels decreased within 1 h after removal of cycloheximide but then appeared to stabilize during the next 2 h (3 h after drug removal and 9 h after heat shock). (asm.org)
  • hsp 70 mRNA accumulation could be further increased by a second heat shock at 45 degrees C for 20 min 6 h after the first hyperthermic exposure in cycloheximide-treated cells. (asm.org)
  • Cycloheximide (CH) was added to infected cultures to accumulate early viral mRNA relative to host cell mRNA. (ias.ac.in)
  • Nutrient agar with cycloheximide (0.5 mg/ml to suppress fungal growth) [8] and Martin's Rose Bengal agar medium strips were used for the isolation of bacteria and fungi, respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ten different cycloheximide derivatives were synthesized in this study, and five were found to inhibit L. pneumophila growth at a concentration of 30 uM or 40 uM. (toku-e.com)
  • In addition to presenting a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action, cycloheximide is widely used as a preservative agent in culture media to inhibit fungi and bacteria. (yeast-infection-help.com)
  • Applied Microbiology, 1970, Vol 20 No. 3, p513-514 "Cycloheximide - The Antimicrobial Index Knowledgebase - TOKU-E". antibiotics.toku-e.com. (wikipedia.org)
  • seaweed) penicillin + streptomycin Mytilus edulis (mollusk) penicillin + streptomycin + chloramphenicol Tetraselmis maculata (phytoplankton) + Tween-80 cycloheximide Crassostrea virginica (mollusk) penicillin + streptomycin Euterpina acutifrons, Temora turbinata, Oncaea sp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plasmodia of Physarura polycephalum were exposed to 137cs gamma radiation or certain chemical compounds (chloramphenicol, cycloheximide, and ethidium bromide) and the mitochondria and other organelles of the plasmodia were observed for any ultrastructural changes. (niu.edu)
  • When exposure to radiation was combined with either ethidium bromide, chloramphenicol, or cycloheximide no additional ultra- structural changes were observed. (niu.edu)
  • Mann, NS 1980, ' Enterokinase induced changes in pancreatic protein content: Effect of intraductal azacytidine and cycloheximide ', Gastroenterology , vol. 78, no. 5 II, pp. 1216. (elsevier.com)
  • Duda, E 1975, ' Effect of cycloheximide on viral precursor protein B in Sindbis virus infected BHK cells ', Medical biology , vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 368-371. (elsevier.com)
  • Effect of cycloheximide on cell division & macromolecular systhesis in root-tip cells of Vicia faba L. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study was done to determine the neuroprotective effect of cycloheximide on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury . (bvsalud.org)
  • Morton, DB & Truman, JW 1995, ' Effect of cycloheximide on eclosion hormone sensitivity and the developmental appearance of the eclosion hormone and cGMP regulated phosphoproteins in the CNS of the tobacco hornworm, manduca sexta ', Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction , vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 773-786. (elsevier.com)
  • Treating cells with cycloheximide in a time-course experiment followed by Western blotting of the cell lysates for the protein of interest can show differences in protein half-life. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCCIT cells were stimulated for 4 hours with CCM (C) or Wnt-3A CM (Wnt) in the presence (20 microgram/ml) or absence (0) of cycloheximide. (nih.gov)
  • Cycloheximide and MG115 Treatment of Cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells were seeded at 2 × 10 6 cells/ml in their respective culture medium containing 75 μg/ml of cycloheximide or 10 μ m MG115. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells were harvested at different time points after cycloheximide treatment and pelleted by centrifugation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and verrucarin A cause rapid and almost quantitative breakdown of polyribosomes in H-HeLa cells, a process which is inhibited by anisomycin, cycloheximide, or trichodermin. (mendeley.com)
  • Prevalent deficiency in tumor cells of cycloheximide-induced cycle arrest. (jax.org)
  • The following represents susceptibility data for a few commonly targeted fungi: Candida albicans: 12.5 μg/ml Mycosphaerella graminicola: 47.2 μg/ml - 85.4 μg/ml Saccharomyces cerevisiae: 0.05 μg/ml - 1.6 μg/ml Neoscytalidium dimidiatum is an Athlete's foot like infection resistant to most antifungals but is rather sensitive to cycloheximide, so, it should be cultured in a medium free of cycloheximide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloheximide has been used to isolate dermatophytes and inhibit the growth of fungi in brewing test media. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this article is to provide an insight into the share of dermatophytes, yeasts and non-der-matophyte molds as potential pathogens in OM, grown on Sabouraud agar without cycloheximide , as well as the prevalence of positive and negative results of DME, and grown isolates, according to patient sex and age. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Weigh out the appropriate amount of cycloheximide and add it to the appropriate amount of DMSO to get a 50mg/ml solution. (openwetware.org)
  • For both classes, RNA from cultures treated with cycloheximide hybridized 5- to 10-fold more than RNA from control-infected cultures. (asm.org)
  • Cycloheximide has also been used for its antifungal properties to make isolation of bacteria from mixed samples easier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloheximide is an antibiotic with significant antifungal properties. (yeast-infection-help.com)
  • The decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity, however, does not seem to be required for the decrease in MAP kinase activity, since the decrease in MAP kinase activity still occurs in cycloheximide-treated eggs that are also incubated in the presence of nocodazole, which inhibits cyclin B degradation and hence the decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase. (biologists.org)
  • Cycloheximide reduced infarct volume when given up to 6 h after ischemia. (wustl.edu)
  • In permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, cycloheximide was ineffective even when given prior to ischemia onset. (wustl.edu)
  • This is diluted to 100μg/mL to inhibit translation (though you should check this concentration does what you think it does whenever you develop a new protocol using cycloheximide). (openwetware.org)
  • CYCLOHEXIMIDE , also known as hizarocin, is used in biomedical research. (vwr.com)
  • Cycloheximide treatment provides the ability to observe the half-life of a protein without confounding contributions from transcription or translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloheximide treatment of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs also results in resumption of meiosis but bypasses the fertilization-induced Ca2+ transient. (biologists.org)
  • However, it is not known if cycloheximide treatment results in the same temporal changes in cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that are intimately associated with resumption of meiosis. (biologists.org)
  • Cycloheximide treatment (250 ug/ml) of plasmodia produced invaginations of mitochondrial membranes and some circularization of cristae. (niu.edu)
  • To investigate how GAP43 expression (GAP43-ir) correlates with MFS, we assessed the intensity (densitometry) and extension (width) of GAP43-ir in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (IML) of rats subject to status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine (Pilo), previously injected or not with cycloheximide (CHX), which has been shown to inhibit MFS. (elsevier.com)
  • Longo, B , Vezzani, A & Mello, LE 2005, ' Growth-associated protein 43 expression in hippocampal molecular layer of chronic epileptic rats treated with cycloheximide ', Epilepsia , vol. 46, no. (elsevier.com)
  • The measurement of half-life of the protein was done using the cycloheximide chase assay based on the method described earlier [37]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These effects are resistant to cycloheximide but are inhibited by a dominant-negative ISRE-binding protein, indicating that vIRF acts together with a cellular cofactor at the PRF element to directly transactivate MYC . (pnas.org)
  • The results indicate that the short onset of microsomal RNase reduction produced by cycloheximide may be due to a more rapid turnover of this enzyme in comparison with other microsomal proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cycloheximide inhibits binding of Aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosomes, Peptidyltransferase, detachment of deacylated tRNA, and translocation of Aminoacyl-tRNA, resulting in cell growth arrest and apoptotic cell death. (carlroth.com)
  • Purpose: Mitomycin C (MMC) and cycloheximide (CHX) are known for their apoptotic and antitumor activity. (ac.rs)
  • Anti-apoptotic actions of cycloheximide: Blockade of programmed cell death or induction of programmed cell life? (elsevier.com)