A gonadal stimulant and inducer of ovulation. It is used in the treatment of infertility and amenorrhea, but is thought to be less effective than CLOMIPHENE.
A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.
The 17-alpha isomer of TESTOSTERONE, derived from PREGNENOLONE via the delta5-steroid pathway, and via 5-androstene-3-beta,17-alpha-diol. Epitestosterone acts as an antiandrogen in various target tissues. The ratio between testosterone/epitestosterone is used to monitor anabolic drug abuse.
Agents that improve the ability to carry out activities such as athletics, mental endurance, work, and resistance to stress. The substances can include PRESCRIPTION DRUGS; DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS; phytochemicals; and ILLICIT DRUGS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
BENZOIC ACID amides.
An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.
Translation products of a fusion gene derived from CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION of C-ABL GENES to the genetic locus of the breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22. Several different variants of the bcr-abl fusion proteins occur depending upon the precise location of the chromosomal breakpoint. These variants can be associated with distinct subtypes of leukemias such as PRECURSOR CELL LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE; and NEUTROPHILIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
A form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma manifested by generalized exfoliative ERYTHRODERMA; PRURITUS; peripheral lymphadenopathy, and abnormal hyperchromatic mononuclear (cerebriform) cells in the skin, LYMPH NODES, and peripheral blood (Sezary cells).
The downward displacement of the cuspal or pointed end of the trileaflet AORTIC VALVE causing misalignment of the cusps. Severe valve distortion can cause leakage and allow the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to aortic regurgitation.
The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
Games in which players use a racquet to hit a ball or similar type object.
Functional competence of specific organs or body systems of the FETUS in utero.
Abnormally infrequent menstruation.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Absence of menstruation.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
Acquisition, organization, and preparation of library materials for use, including selection, weeding, cataloging, classification, and preservation.
Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.
Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Ordered compilations of item descriptions and sufficient information to afford access to them.

Fluorine-substituted cyclofenil derivatives as estrogen receptor ligands: synthesis and structure-affinity relationship study of potential positron emission tomography agents for imaging estrogen receptors in breast cancer. (1/10)

In a search for estrogen receptor (ER) ligands to be radiolabeled with fluorine-18 for imaging of ER-positive breast tumors with positron emission tomography (PET), we investigated cyclofenil analogues substituted at the C3 or C4 position of the cyclohexyl group. McMurry coupling of 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone with various ketones produced key cyclofenil intermediates, from which C3 and C4 substituents containing alkyl and various oxygen or fluorine-substituted alkyl groups were elaborated. Binding assays to both ERalpha and ERbeta revealed that the C3 site is more tolerant of steric bulk and polar groups than the C4 site, consistent with a computational model of the ERalpha ligand binding pocket. Fluorine substitution is tolerated very well at some sites, giving some compounds having affinities comparable to or higher than that of estradiol. These fluoro and fluoroalkyl cyclofenils merit further consideration as fluorine-18 labeled ER ligands for PET imaging of ERs in breast tumors.  (+info)

Effects of cyclofenil diphenol, an agent which disrupts Golgi structure, on proteoglycan synthesis in chondrocytes. (2/10)

1. Cyclofenil diphenol (F6060), a weak non-steroidal oestrogen, was shown previously to inhibit [35S]proteoglycan synthesis [Mason, Lineham, Phillipson & Black (1984) Biochem. J. 223, 401-412] and to induce fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus into small vesicles [Lancaster, Fryer, Griffiths & Mason (1989) J. Cell Sci. 92, 271-280] in cultures of Swarm chondrosarcoma chondrocytes. Two structurally related compounds, F6204 and F6091, show a similar concentration-related effect, with complete inhibition of [35S]proteoglycan synthesis at 90 micrograms/ml. The apparent [3H]protein synthesis is only approx. 40% inhibited with [3H]lysine as precursor. Stilboestrol, clomiphene and tamoxiphen are also potent inhibitors of [35S]proteoglycan synthesis. 2. Syntheses of chondroitin 4-[35S]sulphate and chondroitin 6-[35S]sulphate, which are Golgi-mediated events, are inhibited 40-68% and 3-48% respectively by concentrations of cyclofenil between 50 and 70 micrograms/ml. [3H]Hyaluronan synthesis, which occurs by a different mechanism at the plasma membrane, is inhibited by 47-66%. These results suggest that cyclofenil may act via more than one inhibitory mechanism. Cyclofenil diphenol inhibits polymerization of chondroitin sulphate on to p-nitrophenyl beta-xyloside even when the chondrocytes are loaded with the initiator prior to treatment. 3. Cyclofenil diphenol interferes with the cellular uptake of amino acids via the system A carrier, as shown by inhibition of uptake of methylaminoisobutyric acid, a specific substrate for this system. The drug had no effect on the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose by the cells. 4. Cyclofenil diphenol (90 micrograms/ml) caused a decrease in the pool size of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine and UDP-hexoses, but this was insufficient to account for the accompanying profound inhibition of [35S]proteoglycan synthesis. Entry of [3H]glucosamine into the cell and into the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool did not appear to be affected. 5. Cyclofenil diphenol inhibited the substitution of 3H-labelled proteoglycan core protein with chondroitin sulphate chains. Core protein was identified in treated cultures on the basis of immunoprecipitation with an antiserum against the hyaluronate-binding region and distinguished from precipitated proteoglycan on SDS/PAGE.  (+info)

Synthesis and biodistribution of fluorine-18-labeled fluorocyclofenils for imaging the estrogen receptor. (3/10)

C4-[18F]Fluorocyclofenil ([18F]FCF, 6) and C3-[18F]fluoroethylcyclofenil ([18F]FECF, 9), two high-affinity nonsteroidal estrogens, were prepared and investigated as potential agents for imaging estrogen receptors (ERs) in breast tumors. Both of these compounds could be prepared conveniently from alkyl methanesulfonate precursors (5,8) by fluoride displacement reactions, and they were obtained in high radiochemical purity and radiochemical yields, with effective specific activities sufficient for in vivo biodistribution studies. While the biodistribution of [18F]FCF (6) in immature female rats showed no selective target tissue uptake, the biodistribution of [18F]FECF (9) showed selective uptake by the uterus, but this uptake could not be blocked by excess estradiol. The poor in vivo biodistribution of these otherwise high-affinity ligands arouses curiosity, and together with recent results on the biodistribution of other nonsteroidal ligands suggests that factors other than receptor binding affinity are important for in vivo imaging of estrogen target tissues and ER-positive breast tumors.  (+info)

Nonclassical SNAPFL analogue as a Cy5 resonance energy transfer partner. (4/10)

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Monitoring a coordinated exchange process in a four-component biological interaction system: development of a time-resolved terbium-based one-donor/three-acceptor multicolor FRET system. (5/10)

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Characterization of the pharmacophore properties of novel selective estrogen receptor downregulators (SERDs). (6/10)

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Ultrastructural changes accompany inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis in chondrocytes by Cyclofenil diphenol. (7/10)

Cyclofenil diphenol, a weak non-steroidal oestrogen, profoundly inhibits [35S]proteoglycan synthesis in cultures of Swarm chondrosarcoma chondrocytes under conditions in which protein synthesis is only marginally reduced. In the present experiments it was shown that after a 40-min treatment with Cyclofenil diphenol (90 micrograms ml-1) most of the normally abundant Golgi stacks in these cells disappeared and after 60 min they were absent. After 2-3 h treatment the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were grossly distended and transformed into large ribosome-studded vesicles containing flocculent and filamentous material. These changes were dependent on the concentration of Cyclofenil and were fully reversible within 21 h of withdrawing the drug. The ultrastructural changes differed in some aspects if protein synthesis was blocked with cycloheximide for 15 min or 180 min before and during treatment with Cyclofenil. The Golgi disappeared but the ER cisternae, though distended, formed a continuous network and swollen ribosome-studded vesicles did not develop. However, non-membrane-bounded structures containing lipid droplets and material of low electron density developed in the cytoplasm under these conditions. The ultrastructural changes induced by Cyclofenil differ from those induced by monensin and diethylcarbamazine, suggesting that the drug acts at a different point in the secretory pathway for macromolecules.  (+info)

Selective inhibition of proteoglycan and hyaluronate synthesis in chondrocyte cultures by cyclofenil diphenol, a non-steroidal weak oestrogen. (8/10)

Cyclofenil diphenol, a weak non-steroidal oestrogen, binds to albumin. In the presence of concentrations of albumin just sufficient to keep cyclofenil diphenol in solution, the compound inhibited the synthesis of [35S]proteoglycans, [3H]glycoproteins, [3H]hyaluronate and [3H]proteins in primary cultures of chondrocytes from the Swarm rat chondrosarcoma in a dose-dependent manner. When excess albumin was present, conditions were found (90 micrograms of cyclofenil diphenol and 4 mg of albumin per ml of culture medium) which completely inhibited [35S]proteoglycan and [3H]hyaluronate synthesis but had little effect on [3H]protein or [3H]glycoprotein synthesis. The time of onset of inhibition of [35S]proteoglycan synthesis by cyclofenil diphenol was very rapid (t1/2 less than 25 min) and incompatible with an action mediated through suppression of proteoglycan core protein synthesis. Cyclofenil diphenol inhibited the synthesis of [35S]chondroitin sulphate chains onto p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside in the cultures. Cyclofenil diphenol had little effect on the secretion from chondrocytes of [35S]proteoglycans synthesized immediately prior to treatment. Chondrocyte cultures treated with cyclofenil diphenol recovered their biosynthetic activities almost completely within 3 h of removing the compound from the culture medium. Cyclofenil diphenol had a similar inhibitory action on the synthesis of [35S]proteoglycans in secondary cultures of human dermal fibroblasts from both normal subjects and patients with systemic sclerosis. It is proposed that cyclofenil diphenol inhibits the synthesis of [35S]proteoglycans by interfering with the formation of the glycosaminoglycan side chains of these molecules in the Golgi apparatus of cells. The action may be due to disturbance of Golgi membrane organization by the compound.  (+info)

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bodybuilding, steroids, gym, professional bodybuilders, IFBB, Syntherol, Synthetek, KAOTIK, Syntheselen, Synthergine, Synthetine, SynthePURE, Synthelamin, SyntheBLEND, SyntheCREATINE, SyntheL-Glutamine, SyntheBURN, SyntheBLOCKplus, SyntheDEXTRIN, Synthelator, Phil Hernon, Andrei Cadariu, Justin Rys, Sports, Strength Sports, Bodybuilding, Supplements, Anabolic Steroids, Aldactazide, Estandron, Pesomax, Aldactone, Exoboline, Phenformin, Anabolicum Vister, Finaject, Primobolan, Anadrol, Finajet, Acetate, Anadur, Finaplix, Buccal, Anapolon, Depot, Anavar, Glucophage, Primotest, Andriol, Growth Hormone, Proviron, Androderm, Halotestin, Quinolone, AndroGel, HCG, Ralgrow, Androstanolone, HGH, Revalor, Androxon, IGF-1, Aqueous, Implus, Sostanon, Bolasterone, Spectriol, Boldenone Undecylenate, Lasix, Sten, Catapres, Laurabolin, Stenox, Cheque Drops, L-dopa, Thyroxine, Sustanon, Clenbuterol, Masteron, Synovex, Clomid, Maxibolin, Synthanol, Cyclofenil, Maxigan, Teslac, Cynomel, Megagrisevit, Teslax, Cytadren,
Mouse skin tumor-initiating activity of 5-, 7-, and 12-methyl- and fluorine-substituted benz[a]anthracenes. - A W Wood, W Levin, R L Chang, A H Conney, T J Slaga, R F OMalley, M S Newman, D R Buhler, D M Jerina
a four-component mixture was extracted. In the mixture was R-phenol, RCOOH, RNH2 and R-(C=O)-R in solution with ether and aqueous NaHCO3. RCOO-NA+ was separated out on the water layer. Aq. NaOH was added to the ether layer and R-benzene-O-Na+ was separated out in the water layer. Then aq. HCl was added to the ether layer and R-NH2+Cl- was separtated out in the water layer, leaving F-(C=O)-R in the ether layer ...
The four-component rotation vector specifies the direction of the rotation axis in the first three components and the angle of rotation (in radians) in the fourth. The default rotation is the zero vector, specifying no rotation. Rotation is applied relative to the nodes ...
A two-step sequence involving an Ugi four-component reaction (Ugi-4CR) and a palladium-catalyzed intramol. amidation of aryl iodide has been developed for rapid access to functionalized oxindoles, e.g., I. Microwave heating was used to accelerate and to improve the efficiency of the intramol. Buchwald-Hartwig reaction. [on SciFinder (R)]. Keywords: Amidation (Buchwald-Hartwig ; intramol.; prepn. of oxindoles via Ugi four-component reaction of amine with iodobenzaldehyde ; carboxylic acid and isonitrile followed by copper-catalyzed Ullmann or microwave-assisted Buchwald-Hartwig amidation); Addition reaction (Ugi; prepn. of oxindoles via Ugi four-component reaction of amine with iodobenzaldehyde ; carboxylic acid and isonitrile followed by copper-catalyzed Ullmann or microwave-assisted Buchwald-Hartwig amidation); Coupling reaction catalysts (Ullmann; prepn. of oxindoles via Ugi four-component reaction of amine with iodobenzaldehyde ; carboxylic acid and isonitrile followed by copper-catalyzed ...
UDP-GlcNAc (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine) and UDP-GlcA (UDP-glucuronic acid) were oxidized by periodate in the ribose ring and utilized as inhibitors for hyaluronate synthase in membrane fractions from the B6 cell line and in cell cultures of B6 cells and human fibrosarcoma HT 1080. Inhibition was irreversible and concentration-dependent and could be prevented in the case of periodate-oxidized UDP-GlcNAc by UDP-GlcNAc. Periodate-oxidized UDP-GlcNAc was shown to block chain elongation of hyaluronate. Introduction of periodate-oxidized UDP-GlcA into B6 cells by hypo-osmotic lysis of pinocytotic vesicles decreased hyaluronate synthesis by direct inhibition of the synthase. In HT 1080 cells the synthesis of hyaluronate, chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate was inhibited simultaneously. ...
Four-component Mannich reactions subsequently followed by an intramolecular oxo-Michael addition were developed to efficiently produce chiral cyclic acetals with high diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity.
Etodolac cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered solely if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids. The pharmacological activity of etodolac in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.. Hepatic Effects. Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including etodolac. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including ...
In addition, sideffects of full hepatic reactions, opposing buy discount aciclovir [kodey. I was started on a Micardis [ultimatedriversmeet. Dermatologicdermatologic cheap flixotide online [durismudforums.
Playing dice with Mo-V-Te-Nb oxide a promising catalyst for alkane oxidation with a structure obscured by the fractional distribution of V or Mo atoms on many sites. In their Communication on page 12854 ff., P. Sautet et al. present an efficient DFT approach that allows fast comparison of the energies of up to 8008 configurations of this complex oxide. The calculations predict the statistical V atom distribution found experimentally, when the dice are loaded and the V/Mo distribution is far from being equiprobable. ...
A competent and highly discriminating one-pot method for the synthesis of biologically active novel spiro-indenoquinoxaline pyrrolizines accumulating three pharmocophoric cores, heterocyclic quinoline scaffold, pyrrolizines and indeno-quinoxaline, in a single molecular framework by means of a four-component reactio
The Peapod Music & Arts Academy is a four-component (Music, Theatre Arts, Film and Dance) program for teens (age 13-19). Join the campaign and make a difference.
where T denotes the matrix transpose. This rule is different from the above rule. It corresponds to the dual representation of the standard representation. However, for the Lorentz group the dual of any representation is equivalent to the original representation. Thus the objects with covariant indices are four-vectors as well. For an example of a well-behaved four-component object in special relativity that is not a four-vector, see bispinor. It is similarly defined, the difference being that the transformation rule under Lorentz transformations is given by a representation other than the standard representation. In this case, the rule reads X′ = Π(Λ)X, where Π(Λ) is a 4×4 matrix other than Λ. Similar remarks apply to objects with fewer or more components that are well-behaved under Lorentz transformations. These include scalars, spinors, tensors and spinor-tensors. The article considers four-vectors in the context of special relativity. Although the concept of four-vectors also extends ...
On March 28, 2002, the consumer advocacy group Public Citizen petitioned the FDA for the removal of Arava. The petition states that … from when it was first marketed in late September 1998 through September 2001, Arava has been associated with at least 130 severe hepatic reactions including 56 hospitalizations and 22 deaths, two of whom were patients in their twenties.. Public Citizens analysis of available Arava data … found not only many cases of severe drug-induced hepatotoxicity, but also large numbers of lymphomas as well as other hematologic, gastrointestinal, and skin reactions serious enough to cause hospitalizations and deaths, and a large number of cases of drug-induced hypertension.. Public Citizens petition followed the February 2001 European Agency for the Evaluation of Medical Products warning issued to doctors and patients citing nine liver failure deaths in Arava patients. Two months following, Arava manufacturer Aventis Pharmaceuticals issued a warning letter to ...
I think Ive worked out an accurate outline of Hyb And Seq from the companys video, James Hadfields nice blog summary, the tweets I collected and chatting with Dale Yuzuki, and it involves a Wallenda-esque four-component hybridization. DNA is hybridized to capture probes on the flowcell. Probes are then hybridized to the captured material. Each probe has a region designed to bind a specific target (I think; little fuzzy here but it seems required), a region which will bind the bases to interrogated plus a tail which effectively expands the sequence in the target-seeking region. A series of labeled probes are used to read out this tail. In other words, a position in the unlabeled probe is represented by one of four sequences in the tail, corresponding to the base at that position in the probe. The labeled probes are designed so that hybridization, imaging and removal are very fast. After fully interrogating the unlabeled probe, these are removed and a new set of probes washed in ...
Why Good People Sometimes Do Bad Things The noted moral psychologist James Rest developed a Four-Component Model of Moral Development that identifies four essential characteristics of moral behavior. If we examine the model, we can see why good people sometimes do bad things. Im talking about people who would otherwise...
United States Patent O 3,524,799 ANODIZING ALUMINUM Kenneth Howard Dale, Henrico County, Va., assignor to Reynolds Metals Company, Richmond, Va., a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Application July 10, 1967, Ser. No. 652,020, whichis a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 559,389, June 22, 1966, which in turn is a continuationiu-part of application Ser. No. 306,999, Sept. 6, 1963. Divided and this application June 13, 1969, Ser. No. Int. Cl. C23b 9/02 US. Cl. 20458 9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The invention described and claimed herein concerning anodizing in a four-component bath containing a water soluble alkali salt of a titanic acid complex of a hydroxy aliphatic carboxylic acid containing 2-8 carbon atoms was made in the performance of work under a NASA contract and is subject to the provisions of Section 305 of the National Aeronautic and Space Act of 1958, Public Law 85-568 (72 Stat. 435; 42 U.S.C. 2457). Ownership of that invention and this patent is retained by ...
Fluorine substituted 4-thiazolidinone 5 bearing 1,2,4-triazinone obtained from the condensation of 3-Amino-6(2-aminophenyl)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one (2) with an aromatic aldehyde followed by cycloaddition with mercaptoacetic acid afforded the thiazolidinone (4), and treatment with ethyl trifluoroacetate. Structure of the products has been deduced from their correct elemental analysis and spectral measurements. The antifungal activity of the new fluorinated target also has been evaluated.
Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including diclofenac potassium tablets. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Based on this experience, in patients on chronic treatment with diclofenac potassium tablets, periodic monitoring of transaminases is recommended (see PRECAUTIONS, Laboratory Tests). Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 2% to 4% of patients, including marked elevations (eight or more times the upper limit of normal) in about 1% of patients in clinical trials with diclofenac. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported ...
Pharmaceutical manufacturers significantly modified the prescribing information for four NMEs as a result of a number of safety issues identified by the FDA after the introduction of these agents to the market. Incidents of severe hepatitis and liver failure in patients taking bromfenac for more than one month resulted in revision of labeling to include a box warning regarding severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice, potentially fatal fulminant hepatitis and liver failure. Bromfenac is indicated only for the short-term (10 days or less) management of acute pain and is not indicated for long-term use.. In December of 1997, the FDA alerted health care providers to a serious safety issue associated with the use of low-molecular-weight heparins or heparinoids, including ardeparin. When these agents are used concurrently with spinal or epidural anesthesia or in cases of spinal puncture, bleeding or hematomas may occur within the spinal column. Permanent paralysis may result if the increased ...
Getting a flu vaccine used to be easy. You asked for a flu vaccine and you got one! Now there are many forms and preparations: Three-component (trivalent) formulations, four-component (quadrivalent) formulations, high dose preparations, injectable regular-length needle, intradermal short needle, standard preparation, egg-free preparation, nasal preparation….there are many ways to get a flu immunization! However, regardless of the preparation or method of delivery, the bottom line is the same: Everyone 6 months and older should get a flu vaccination every year.
The sacroiliac is a common source of back pain. Despite its role in spine-related problems, few patients are familiar with the SI joint.
Nonsteroidal is a term which is used to describe a compound that is not a steroid. It is used in the term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to distinguish them from corticosteroids as a class of anti-inflammatory agents. Nonsteroidal is also used to describe drugs acting on steroid receptors that are not steroid derivatives. Examples include the following: Estrogens: benzestrol, bifluranol, estrobin (DBE), diethylstilbestrol (stilbestrol), dienestrol, erteberel, fosfestrol, hexestrol (dihydroxystilbestrol), methallenestril, methestrol, methestrol dipropionate, paroxypropione, prinaberel, and triphenylethylene, as well as many xenoestrogens SERMs: acolbifene, afimoxifene, arzoxifene, bazedoxifene, broparestrol, chlorotrianisene, clomifene, clomifenoxide, cyclofenil, droloxifene, enclomifene, endoxifen, ethamoxytriphetol, fispemifene, idoxifene, lasofoxifene, levormeloxifene, miproxifene, nafoxidine, nitromifene, ormeloxifene, ospemifene, panomifene, pipendoxifene, raloxifene, ...
Three-component (NPZ), four-component (NPZD), and five-component (NNPZD) nitrogen-based ecosystem models are compared. The fixed points of the zerodimensional systems, with no spatial variation except light attenuation by water, are determined. A linear-stability analysis shows that unstable steady solutions exist for all three models. Time-periodic solutions are found in these regions. It is shown that the choice of the values of the parameters in the zooplankton equation is critical in determining steady state concentrations. One-dimensional model studies allowing variation with depth, self-shading by phytoplankton, and vertical diffusion show that the differences among the models increase when the available light is influenced by the presence of phytoplankton. With vertical diffusion, periodic solutions, such as those in the zero-dimensional case, are not found. Finally, a set of one-dimensional depthintegrated models, with variability in time and across-shore coordinate, are formulated. ...
BACKGROUND: A fixed-dose combination therapy (polypill strategy) has been proposed as an approach to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease, especially in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). The PolyIran study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of a four-component polypill including aspirin, atorvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, and either enalapril or valsartan for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The PolyIran study was a two-group, pragmatic, cluster-randomised trial nested within the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), a cohort study with 50â 045 participants aged 40-75 years from the Golestan province in Iran. Clusters (villages) were randomly allocated (1:1) to either a package of non-pharmacological preventive interventions alone (minimal care group) or together with a once-daily polypill tablet (polypill group). Randomisation was stratified by three districts (Gonbad, Aq-Qala, and Kalaleh), with the village as the unit of ...
PowdAir Plus Dry Powder InhalerVideo Length: 2:30H&T Presspart in partnership with Hovione Technology is pleased to announce the launch of PowdAir Plus dry powder inhaler for the respiratory drug delivery market. PowdAir Plus is a patented capsule-based DPI, ideal for these markets because of its advanced simplicity, ease of use and affordability. Neat and compact, its novel all-plastic, four-component design minimises manufacturing assembly and production costs, while improving the devices resilience to frequent use. ...
An efficient and rapid protocol for the synthesis of 2-amino-3-cyanopyridines by the cyclocondensation reaction of aromatic aldehydes, methyl ketones, malononitrile and ammonium acetate catalyzed by SnO2/SiO2 nanocomposite material at refluxed condition in ethanol was investigated. Nanocomposite (SnO2/SiO2) catalytic material has been synthesized by using the sol-gel method. The prepared catalytic materials were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmer-Teller (BET) surface area, and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD). Advantages of the present method include a simple work-up procedure, high yields of the products, low toxicity and easy recovery and reusability of the catalytic materials.. Keywords: SnO2/SiO2, sol-gel, nanocomposite, 2-amino-3-cyanopyridines, heterogeneous catalyst. ...
H2 receptor antagonists are widely used for the treatment of peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease. In addition they are commonly prescribed to hospitalized patients for stress ulcer prevention. In general they are very well tolerated drugs and have very few side effects. They can rarely cause adverse hepatic effects which are mostly asymptomatic [11]. While there has been some data regarding possible idiosyncratic reactions to cimetidine and ranitidine leading to acute liver failure, no such association has been reported to date with famotidine. In a case-control study done by Garcia et al [6], rare adverse hepatic reactions were seen with the use of ranitidine, cimetidine and omeprazole but not with famotidine. Studies done by Ohnishi [7] and Luyendyk et al [12] have also shown famotidine to be safe with regards to hepatotoxicity.. To our knowledge there have been four cases reported where famotidine was responsible for hepatic failure [8-10]. In the above mentioned four cases, ...
0043] Suitable polymers include polysaccharides, poly(alkylene oxides), polyarylates, for example those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,216,115, block co-polymers of poly(alkylene oxides) with polycarbonates and polyarylates, for example those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,658,995, polycarbonates and polyarylates, for example those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,670,602, free acid polycarbonates and polyarylates, for example those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,120,491, polyamide carbonates and polyester amides of hydroxy acids, for example those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,284,862, polymers of L-tyrosine derived diphenol compounds, including polythiocarbonates and polyethers, for example those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. RE37,795, strictly alternating poly(alkylene oxide) ethers, for example those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,602,497, polymers listed on the United States FDA EAFUS list, including polyacrylamide, polyacrylamide resin, modified poly(acrylic acid-co-hypophosphite), sodium salt ...
In this paper, we developed a new method using 4-bromoacetophenone as the starting material, with tosylhydrazide and two arylboronic acids using Barluenga and Suzuki couplings in a four-component one-pot reaction to afford the target product 4-benzyl-1,1′-biphenyls. This system that we have developed enables the use of easily accessible starting materials and can be employed on a wide variety of substrates with good functional group tolerance. In particular, this protocol can be applied to the synthesis of 4-(1-([1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl)ethyl)pyridine derivatives, a class of potential analogs of CPY17 inhibitors of prostate cancer.
The mechanism of DNA polymerase beta-catalyzed nucleotidyl transfer consists of chemical steps involving primer 3 OH deprotonation, nucleophilic attack, and pyrophosphate leaving-group elimination, preceded by dNTP binding which induces a large-amplitude conformational change for Watson-Crick nascent base pairs. The nature of the rate-limiting step and active site structural differences between correct and incorrect base-paired transition states remain obstacles to understanding DNA replication fidelity. Using analogs of dGTP where the beta-gamma bridging oxygen is replaced with fluorine-substituted methylene groups the contribution of leaving-group elimination to the overall catalytic rate is examined. The analysis is then expanded substantially to include a broad range of halogen substituents with disparate steric and electronic properties. Evaluation of linear free energy relationships for incorporation of dGTP analogs opposite either template base C or T reveals a strong correlation of ...
We validated whole body composition estimates from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) against estimates from a four-component model to determine whether accuracy is affected by gender, race, athletic status, or musculoskeletal development in young adults. Measurements of body density by hydrost …
Clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant, and all other anti-estrogenic substances are banned. Myostatin inhibitors are banned. ...
McMurry reaction between CHone and p,p′-dihydroxybenzophenone, and subsequent acetylation gives Cyclofenil. Eddine, Ali Nasser ...
"Novel Selective Estrogen Receptor Ligand Conjugates Incorporating Endoxifen-Combretastatin and Cyclofenil-Combretastatin Hybrid ...
Diphenyl-2-pyridylmethane Cyclofenil Wexner SD, Beck DE, Baron TH, Fanelli RD, Hyman N, Shen B, Wasco KE (June 2006). "A ...
... cyclofenil, and fulvestrant Adrafinil Amfepramone (diethylproprion) Amiphenazole Amphetamine Amphetaminil Armodafinil ...
... cyclofenil, raloxifene, toremifene, lasofoxifene, ospemifene, bazedoxifene Antiestrogens (ER antagonists) Examples: fulvestrant ...
... cyclofenil MeSH D02.755.239.493 - dinitrocresols MeSH D02.755.239.611 - formocresols MeSH D02.755.239.900 - tritolyl phosphates ...
... cyclofenil, droloxifene, enclomifene, endoxifen, ethamoxytriphetol, fispemifene, idoxifene, lasofoxifene, levormeloxifene, ...
... cyclofenil (Sexovid), lasofoxifene (Fablyn), ormeloxifene (Centron, Novex, Novex-DS, Sevista), ospemifene (Osphena; ...
Cyclocort cyclofenil (INN) cycloguanil embonate (INN) Cyclogyl Cyclomen. Redirects to Danazol. cyclomenol (INN) cyclomethycaine ...
... combinations G03GB01 Cyclofenil G03GB02 Clomifene G03GB03 Epimestrol G03HA01 Cyproterone G03HB01 Cyproterone and estrogen ...
... is the English generic name of the drug and its INN, USAN, and BAN. Cyclofenil has been marketed under a variety of ... Cyclofenil has been available in the form of 100, 200, and 400 mg oral tablets. Cyclofenil has been used by male athletes to ... The elimination half-life of cyclofenil after a single 200 mg dose is 18 to 29 hours. Cyclofenil is a nonsteroidal SERM and is ... In men, cyclofenil can increase testosterone levels due its progonadotropic effects. In terms of distribution, cyclofenil acts ...
Notes: Values are mean ± SD or range. ER RBA = Relative binding affinity to estrogen receptors of rat uterine cytosol. Uterine weight = Percentage change in uterine wet weight of ovariectomized rats after 72 hours with continuous administration of 1 μg/hour via subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps. LH levels = Luteinizing hormone levels relative to baseline of ovariectomized rats after 24 to 72 hours of continuous administration via subcutaneous implant. Footnotes: a = Synthetic (i.e., not endogenous). b = Atypical uterotrophic effect which plateaus within 48 hours (estradiol's uterotrophy continues linearly up to 72 hours). Sources: See template ...
InChI=1S/C29H31NO4/c1-20-26-14-11-24(32)19-27(26)34-29(28(20)21-5-9-23(31)10-6-21)22-7-12-25(13-8-22)33-18-17-30-15-3-2-4-16-30/h5-14,19,29,31-32H,2-4,15-18H2,1H3/t29-/m0/ ...
Rubio-Póo C, Mandoki JJ, Mendoza-Patiño N, Lemini C, de la Peña A, Cruz F, Zavala E, Silva G, Garcia-Mondragón J, Fernández JM (1985). "The anticoagulant effect of prolame, N-(3-hydroxy-1,3,5(10)estratrien-17 beta-yl)-3-hydroxypropylamine, a novel amino-estrogen". Steroids. 45 (2): 159-70. PMID 3841425 ...
... , also known as α,α-di(p-ethoxyphenyl)-β-phenylbromoethylene and commonly abbreviated as DBE, is a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen of the triphenylethylene group that was never marketed.[1][2] Chlorotrianisene, and subsequently clomifene and tamoxifen, were derived from it.[1][2] Estrobin, similarly to other triphenylethylenes, is very lipophilic and hence very long-lasting in its duration of action.[1][2] Similarly to chlorotrianisene, estrobin behaves a prodrug to a much more potent estrogen in the body.[2] ...
The Women's Health Initiative trials were conducted between 1991 and 2006 and were the first large, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of HRT in healthy women.[52] Their results were both positive and negative, suggesting that during the time of hormone therapy itself, there are increases in invasive breast cancer, stroke and lung clots. Other risks include increased endometrial cancer, gallbladder disease, and urinary incontinence, while benefits include decreased hip fractures, decreased incidence of diabetes, and improvement of vasomotor symptoms. There also is an increased risk of dementia with HRT in women over 65, though when given earlier it appears to be neuroprotective. After the cessation of HRT, the WHI continued observe its participants, and found that most of these risks and benefits dissipated, though some elevation in breast cancer risk did persist.[24] Other studies have also suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer.[43] The arm of the WHI receiving combined ...
... has been investigated for use as a radiation countermeasure. Its value as a radiation countermeasure is based mainly on its stimulation of production of white blood cells and platelets.[6] Its potential use as a radiation countermeasure was developed by the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) and subsequently studied by AFRRI and Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals under the proposed brand name Neumune for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome.[6][7] The clinical trials with rhesus monkeys were successful. According to the Hollis-Eden report, only 12.5% of the 40 Neumune-treated animals died versus 32.5% in the placebo group.[8] Hollis-Eden had applied for a contract from the U.S. Government under the BioShield Request for Proposals (RFP) for radiation countermeasures. After being encouraged for 2.5 years that Neumune was in the competitive range, on March 9, 2007, the RFP was canceled by HHS. According to HHS, "the product was no longer in the competitive ...
Due to its weak androgenic activity, norethisterone can produce androgenic side effects such as acne, hirsutism, and voice changes of slight severity in some women at high dosages (e.g., 10 to 40 mg/day).[8] This is notably not the case with combined oral contraceptives that contain norethisterone and EE, however.[9] Such formulations contain low dosages of norethisterone (0.35 to 1 mg/day)[9] in combination with estrogen and are actually associated with improvement in acne symptoms.[25][26] In accordance, they are in fact approved by the FDA for the treatment of acne in women in the United States.[25][26] The improvement in acne symptoms is believed to be due to a 2- to 3-fold increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels and a consequent decrease in free testosterone levels caused by EE, which results in an overall decrease in androgenic signaling in the body.[27] The sebaceous glands are highly androgen-sensitive and their size and activity are potential markers of androgenic ...
The classical estrogen receptors first characterized in 1958[6] are water-soluble proteins located in the interior of cells that are activated by estrogenenic hormones such as estradiol and several of its metabolites such as estrone or estriol. These proteins belong to the nuclear hormone receptor class of transcription factors that regulate gene transcription. Since it takes time for genes to be transcribed into RNA and translated into protein, the effects of estrogens binding to these classical estrogen receptors is delayed. However, estrogens are also known to have effects that are too fast to be caused by regulation of gene transcription.[7] In 2005, it was discovered that a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, GPR30 also binds with high affinity to estradiol and is responsible in part for the rapid non-genomic actions of estradiol. Based on its ability to bind estradiol, GPR30 was renamed as G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Unlike the other members of the GPCR ...
... (INN) (brand names Colpotrofin, Colpotrophine, Delipoderm), also known as estradiol 3-propyl 17β-methyl diether, is a synthetic steroidal estrogen which is used topically in a 1% cream formulation.[1][2][3][4] It is the 3-propyl and 17β-methyl diether of estradiol.[5] The drug is described as a tropic agent and antiseborrheic.[1] It has not been found to be effective in the treatment of androgenic alopecia or other conditions of cutaneous androgenization.[6][7] ...
InChI=1S/C21H24O9/c1-28-16-5-4-11(8-15(16)24)2-3-12-6-13(23)9-14(7-12)29-21-20(27)19(26)18(25)17(10-22)30-21/h2-9,17-27H,10H2,1H3/b3-2+/t17-,18-,19+,20-,21-/m1/s1 ...
... is produced in quantities that are notable only during pregnancy.[3] Levels of estriol increase 1,000-fold during pregnancy,[8] whereas levels of estradiol and estrone increase 100-fold,[12] and estriol accounts for 90% of the estrogens in the urine of pregnant women.[5] At term, the daily production of estriol by the placenta is 35 to 45 mg,[12] and levels in the maternal circulation are 8 to 13 ng/dL.[3] The placenta produces pregnenolone and progesterone from circulating cholesterol.[4] Pregnenolone is taken up by the fetal adrenal glands and converted into dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is then sulfated by steroid sulfotransferase into dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S).[citation needed] DHEA-S is hydroxylated by high CYP3A7 expression and activity into 16α-hydroxy-DHEA-S (16α-OH-DHEA-S) in the fetal liver and to a limited extent in the fetal adrenal glands.[3][18] 16α-OH-DHEA-S is then taken up by the placenta.[3] Due to high expression of steroid sulfatase in the ...
Levels of estradiol in premenopausal women are highly variable throughout the menstrual cycle and reference ranges widely vary from source to source.[59] Estradiol levels are minimal and according to most laboratories range from 20 to 80 pg/mL during the early to mid follicular phase (or the first week of the menstrual cycle, also known as menses).[60][61] Levels of estradiol gradually increase during this time and through the mid to late follicular phase (or the second week of the menstrual cycle) until the pre-ovulatory phase.[59][60] At the time of pre-ovulation (a period of about 24 to 48 hours), estradiol levels briefly surge and reach their highest concentrations of any other time during the menstrual cycle.[59] Circulating levels are typically between 130 and 200 pg/mL at this time, but in some women may be as high as 300 to 400 pg/mL, and the upper limit of the reference range of some laboratories are even greater (for instance, 750 pg/mL).[59][60][62][63][64] Following ovulation (or ...
Human exposure to methoxychlor occurs via air, soil, and water,[7] primarily in people who work with the substance or who are exposed to air, soil, or water that has been contaminated. It is unknown how quickly and efficiently the substance is absorbed by humans who have been exposed to contaminated air or via skin contact.[7] In animal models, high doses can lead to neurotoxicity.[7] Some methoxychlor's metabolites have estrogenic effects in adult and developing animals before and after birth.[7] One studied metabolite is 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) which shows reproductive toxicity in an animal model by reducing testosterone biosynthesis.[8][9] Such effects adversely affect both the male and female reproductive systems. It is expected that this "could occur in humans" but has not been proven.[7] While one study has linked methoxychlor to the development of leukemia in humans, most studies in animals and humans have been negative, thus the EPA has determined that it is ...
... is a potent agonist of the AR. It has an affinity (Kd) of 0.25 to 0.5 nM for the human AR, which is about 2- to 3-fold higher than that of testosterone (Kd = 0.4 to 1.0 nM)[39] and the dissociation rate of androstanolone from the AR is also about 5-fold slower than that of testosterone.[40] The EC50 of androstanolone for activation of the AR is 0.13 nM, which is about 5-fold stronger than that of testosterone (EC50 = 0.66 nM).[41] In bioassays, androstanolone has been found to be 2.5- to 10-fold more potent than testosterone.[39] Unlike testosterone and various other AAS, androstanolone cannot be aromatized, and for this reason, poses no risk of estrogenic side effects like gynecomastia at any dosage.[42] In addition, androstanolone cannot be metabolized by 5α-reductase (as it is already 5α-reduced), and for this reason, is not potentiated in so-called "androgenic" tissues like the skin, hair follicles, and prostate gland, thereby improving its ratio of anabolic to androgenic ...
... s include selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) like tamoxifen, clomifene, and raloxifene, the ER silent antagonist and selective estrogen receptor degrader (SERD) fulvestrant,[4][5] aromatase inhibitors (AIs) like anastrozole, and antigonadotropins including androgens/anabolic steroids, progestogens, and GnRH analogues. Although aromatase inhibitors and antigonadotropins can be considered antiestrogens by some definitions, they are often treated as distinct classes.[6] Aromatase inhibitors and antigonadotropins reduce the production of estrogen, while the term "antiestrogen" is often reserved for agents reducing the response to estrogen.[7] ...
... is known to bind to two steroid hormone carrier proteins: sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which binds androgens and estrogens; and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), which binds progesterone and cortisol.[5][6] Binding of danazol to SHBG is considered to be more important clinically.[6] By occupying SHBG and CBG, danazol increases the ratio of free to plasma protein-bound testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol.[5][6] The table to the right shows the difference in testosterone levels in premenopausal women treated with danazol.[6] As can be seen, the percentage of free testosterone is tripled in women being treated with danazol.[6][34] The ability of danazol to increase free testosterone levels suggests that a portion of its weak androgenic effects are mediated indirectly by facilitating the activity of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone through the displacement of them from SHBG.[6][34] In addition to binding to and occupying SHBG however, danazol also decreases ...
PEP produces minimal undesirable effects on coagulation factors and is thought to increase the risk of blood clots little or not at all.[28][29] This is in spite of the fact that estradiol levels can reach high concentrations of as much as 700 pg/mL with high-dose (320 mg/month) PEP therapy.[30] It is also in contrast to oral synthetic estrogens such as diethylstilbestrol and ethinylestradiol, which produce marked increases in coagulation factors and high rates of blood clots at the high doses used to achieve castrate levels of testosterone in prostate cancer.[28][29][6] The difference between the two types of therapies is due to the bioidentical and parenteral nature of PEP and its minimal influence on liver protein synthesis.[28][29][6] PEP might actually reduce the risk of blood clots, due to decreases in levels of certain procoagulatory proteins.[28][29] Although PEP does not increase the hepatic production or levels of procoagulatory factors, it has been found to significantly decrease ...
... (also ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel) is a combined birth control pill made up of ethinylestradiol, an estrogen and levonorgestrel a progestin.[2] It is used for birth control, symptoms of menstruation, endometriosis, and as emergency contraception.[1][2] It is taken by mouth.[1] Side effects can include nausea, headache, blood clots, breast pain, depression, and liver problems.[2] Use is not recommended during pregnancy, the initial three weeks after childbirth, and in those at high risk of blood clots.[2] However, it may be started immediately after a miscarriage or abortion.[3] Smoking while using combined birth control pills is not recommended.[1] It works by stopping ovulation, making the mucus at the opening to the cervix thick, and making the uterus not suitable for implantation.[1] Ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel has been approved for medical use in the United States at least since 1982.[1] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential ...
Cyclofenil is the English generic name of the drug and its INN, USAN, and BAN. Cyclofenil has been marketed under a variety of ... Cyclofenil has been available in the form of 100, 200, and 400 mg oral tablets. Cyclofenil has been used by male athletes to ... The elimination half-life of cyclofenil after a single 200 mg dose is 18 to 29 hours. Cyclofenil is a nonsteroidal SERM and is ... In men, cyclofenil can increase testosterone levels due its progonadotropic effects. In terms of distribution, cyclofenil acts ...
Crystal Structure of the ER-alpha Ligand-binding Domain in Complex with the Cyclofenil Derivative 4,4-[(4-ethylcyclohexylidene ... Crystal Structure of the ER-alpha Ligand-binding Domain in Complex with the Cyclofenil Derivative 4,4-[(4-ethylcyclohexylidene ...
Crystal Structure of the ER-alpha Ligand-binding Domain in Complex with the Cyclofenil Derivative 4,4-{[(3R)-3- ... Crystal Structure of the ER-alpha Ligand-binding Domain in Complex with the Cyclofenil Derivative 4,4-{[(3R)-3- ...
Fluorine-substituted cyclofenil derivatives as estrogen receptor ligands: Synthesis and structure-affinity relationship study ... T1 - Fluorine-substituted cyclofenil derivatives as estrogen receptor ligands. T2 - Synthesis and structure-affinity ... Fluorine-substituted cyclofenil derivatives as estrogen receptor ligands: Synthesis and structure-affinity relationship study ... Fluorine-substituted cyclofenil derivatives as estrogen receptor ligands : Synthesis and structure-affinity relationship study ...
Cyclofenil also inhibited the replication of Zika virus. A time-of-addition assay suggested that cyclofenil may interfere with ... Cyclofenil also inhibited the replication of Zika virus. A time-of-addition assay suggested that cyclofenil may interfere with ... Cyclofenil also inhibited the replication of Zika virus. A time-of-addition assay suggested that cyclofenil may interfere with ... Cyclofenil also inhibited the replication of Zika virus. A time-of-addition assay suggested that cyclofenil may interfere with ...
An estrogen antagonist, cyclofenil, has anti-dengue-virus activity. Daiki Tohma, Shigeru Tajima, Fumihiro Kato, Hirotaka Sato, ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of An estrogen antagonist, cyclofenil, has anti-dengue-virus activity. Together ...
Keywords: Cyclofenil Board Subjects: Testis ,Rats Citation: Abdel Hamid Ragab , Effect of the non-hormonal fertility inducing ... Effect of the non-hormonal fertility inducing drug cyclofenil on the testes of albino rats Ragab Abdel Hamid; Egypt. Med. J. ... The effects of the administration of cyclofenil in low and high doses for short and long durations as well as its withdrawal on ... The results showed that low and high doses of cyclofenil for short duration caused stimulation of spermatogenesis, which was ...
Tennessee Titans: Owner: Amy Adams Strunk. Strunk herself hasnt personally offered a statement, but before the protest policy was put on hold, WKRN reported that head coach Mike Vrabel said that if Titans players decide to stay inside during the national anthem they have Strunks full support. He said, "I told them this morning they had the entire organizations and Miss Amys support to make a decision when that time came." No Titans player has taken a knee and the team has not addressed how it will respond should a player decide to protest on the field.. AFC West. Kansas City Chiefs. Owner: Clark Hunt. Last year, before a game with the Cowboys in November Clark Hunt said, "When it rolled around last year, it really wasnt a big deal for us, and weve tried to stay with that this year. Obviously weve had some guys who have sat or knelt during some of the games this year, but weve continued to work with them and communicate with them that we prefer for them to stand. But at the end of the ...
Clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant, and all other anti-estrogenic substances are banned. Myostatin inhibitors are banned. ...
F-18 radiolabeled cyclofenil analogues were investigated for imaging of ER-positive breast tumors with PET [32, 33]. C3 site of ... J. W. Seo, J. S. Comninos, D. Y. Chi, D. W. Kim, K. E. Carlson, and J. A. Katzenellenbogen, "Fluorine-substituted cyclofenil ... cyclofenil analogues is more tolerant of steric bulk and polar groups than the C4 site according to the binding affinity to ...
CYCLOFENIL. -. -. * *. * * * *. *. -. CYTADREN. * *. * *. *. * * * * *. * * * *. -. CYTOMEL. -. -. * * * *. -. * * * *. -. ...
Cyclofenil Neogonadil Bruco H.C.G Neo-Hombreol Testosterone Propionate Neo-Tiroimade Cytomel ...
This updated edition in the long standing series provides the latest information on many individual drugs, including the most complete coverage of their adverse reactions and interactions.
Cyclofenil. Epimestrol. Lasofoxifene. Mepitiostane. Nafoxidine. Ormeloxifene. Raloxifene. Tamoxifen. Toremifene. Fulvestrant. ...
Synthesis of new carbon-11 labeled cyclofenil derivatives for PET imaging of breast cancer estrogen receptors.. Gao M; Wang M; ...
Cyclofenil for Raynauds phenomenon in progressive systemic sclerosis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The ...
Cyclofenil. - Epimestrol. - Lasofoxifene. - Mepitiostane. - Nafoxidine. - Ormeloxifene. - Raloxifene. - Tamoxifen. - Toremifene ...
Cyclofenil 12 mths 2003, HSG 2004. IVF 6/04 BFN OHSS, duff eggs, so ICSI 9/04 BFN ICSI 1/05 BFP 22/2/05! DS born 11/05 - no ...
Cyclofenil. Insulins and insulin-mimetics. Exemestane. Toremifene. Fulvestrant. Meldonium. Formestane. Trimetazidine. ...
3. Other anti-estrogenic substances including, but not limited to: clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant. 4. Agents modifying ...
Novel Selective Estrogen Receptor Ligand Conjugates Incorporating Endoxifen-Combretastatin and Cyclofenil-Combretastatin Hybrid ...
Novel Selective Estrogen Receptor Ligand Conjugates Incorporating Endoxifen-Combretastatin and Cyclofenil-Combretastatin Hybrid ...
cyclofenil) / (S4) / (). *cyclopentamine) / (S6) / (). *cyclopenthiazide) / (S5) / (). *cyclothiazid) / (S5) / (). *. ...
This of treatment is counter not the test of clomid and cyclofenil. ... This of treatment is counter not the test of clomid and cyclofenil. ...
c.) Other anti-estrogenic substances including such as clomiphene, cyclofenil and fulvestrant.. d.) Any agent that modifies ...
Aktuelle API Auditberichte • GMP-Audits der Herstelung pharmazeutischer Ausgangs- und Wirkstoffe nach ICH Q7 / EU GMP Guide Part II • Diapharm
Cyclofenil. ???? Ciglitazone. ?? Heptabarb Heptamal. ???? Cyheptamide. ??? Cinflumide. ???? Cicloheximide. ???? Ciclacillin. ...
2016 Global and Chinese Cyclofenil Industry Market Research Report. Prof Research Nov, 2016 $2,800 ...
  • Cyclofenil is a nonsteroidal SERM and is closely related structurally to triphenylethylene SERMs like clomifene and tamoxifen. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are drugs similar to clomiphene that can be taken instead, including tamoxifen and cyclofenil. (essentialparent.com)
  • HCG is not the perfect hormone to combat Testosterone suppression, and it is used most often in conjunction with estrogen antagonists such as Clomiphene , Tamoxifen or Cyclofenil. (1steroids.net)
  • This of course is also the function of Clomid and cyclofenil. (bodybuilding.net)
  • The action is similar to Clomid and cyclofenil. (steroizi.ro)
  • This is very similar to the function of Clomid® and cyclofenil. (anabolic.org)
  • This of breast is gyno not the effectiveness restroom of clomid and cyclofenil. (irtto.com)
  • Abdel Hamid Ragab , Effect of the non-hormonal fertility inducing drug cyclofenil on the testes of albino rats, Egypt. (who.int)
  • The effects of the administration of cyclofenil in low and high doses for short and long durations as well as its withdrawal on the testes of 48 albino rats were studied in paraffin and fresh frozen sections. (who.int)
  • Cyclofenil is a SERM, or a mixed agonist and antagonist of the estrogen receptors (ERs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Katzenellenbogen, John A. / Fluorine-substituted cyclofenil derivatives as estrogen receptor ligands : Synthesis and structure-affinity relationship study of potential positron emission tomography agents for imaging estrogen receptors in breast cancer . (elsevier.com)
  • Similar to the hormone cyclofenil the associated activation of the estrogen receptors is rather low. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Other SERMs also inhibited DENV replication in mammalian cells, but cyclofenil showed the weakest cytotoxicity among these SERMs. (elsevier.com)
  • Cyclofenil was first introduced for medical use in 1970 under the brand name Ondogyne in France. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dat is gyno reduce nolvadex curriculum premenopausal steroid cycle example forum course medication tincidunt en nasal hydrocortisone doeleinden gebruikt kunnen worden. (irtto.com)
  • Cyclofenil is associated with a relatively high incidence of hepatotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A time-of-addition assay suggested that cyclofenil may interfere with two stages of the DENV life cycle: the translation-RNA synthesis and assembly-maturation stages. (elsevier.com)
  • Novel Selective Estrogen Receptor Ligand Conjugates Incorporating Endoxifen-Combretastatin and Cyclofenil-Combretastatin Hybrid Scaffolds: Synthesis and Biochemical Evaluation. (tcd.ie)
  • It is used for the synthesis of raw material for drugs such as cyclofenil, in treating Raynaud's phenomenon in people with scleroderma [ 2 ], and tramadol hydrochloride, that is used for the relief of moderate or severe pain [ 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • In a search for estrogen receptor (ER) ligands to be radiolabeled with fluorine-18 for imaging of ER-positive breast tumors with positron emission tomography (PET), we investigated cyclofenil analogues substituted at the C3 or C4 position of the cyclohexyl group. (elsevier.com)
  • Cyclofenil has been used by male athletes to increase testosterone levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • In men, cyclofenil can increase testosterone levels due its progonadotropic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The administration of testosterone-stimulating sub-stances such as HCG, Clornifen citrate or Cyclofenil could be indi-cated since the endogenous testosterone production is considerably reduced by Testosterone heptylate. (steroid.com)
  • The elimination half-life of cyclofenil after a single 200 mg dose is 18 to 29 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results showed that low and high doses of cyclofenil for short duration caused stimulation of spermatogenesis, which was more marked in the low dose. (who.int)
  • Cyclofenil, which is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and has been used clinically as an ovulation-inducing drug, showed an inhibitory effect on DENV replication in mammalian cells but not in mosquito cells. (elsevier.com)
  • https://www.drugs.com/international/cyclofenil.html G. Seyffart (6 December 2012). (wikipedia.org)
  • In electron microscopy analysis, many aggregated particles were detected in DENV-infected cells in the presence of cyclofenil, supporting the possibility that cyclofenil impedes the process of assembly and maturation of DENV. (elsevier.com)
  • When given for long duration, cyclofenil inhibited the process of spermatogenesis. (who.int)
  • Cyclofenil is used to treat menstrual disturbances and anovulatory infertility caused by insufficiency of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclofenil is the English generic name of the drug and its INN, USAN, and BAN. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclofenil has been available in the form of 100, 200, and 400 mg oral tablets. (wikipedia.org)