A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Dextrins are a group of partially degraded and digestible starches, formed through the hydrolysis of starch by heat, acids, or enzymes, consisting of shorter chain polymers of D-glucose units linked mainly by α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds.
A phenothiazine derivative that is used as an antipruritic.
Complex compounds in which a dumbbell shaped molecule is encircled by a macrocycle. They are named after rota (wheel) and axis (axle). Notation with a prefix is used to indicate the number of interlocked components. They have potential use in NANOTECHNOLOGY. Rotaxanes have been made with CYCLODEXTRINS and CYCLIC ETHERS.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A family of gram-positive, saprophytic bacteria occurring in soil and aquatic environments.
A measure of relative protection provided by SUNSCREENING AGENTS against burns due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from a light source.
The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
An inhibitor of ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASES that retards the digestion and absorption of DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES in the SMALL INTESTINE.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Glycoside Hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds, resulting in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and oligosaccharides into simpler sugars.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.

Thermus aquaticus ATCC 33923 amylomaltase gene cloning and expression and enzyme characterization: production of cycloamylose. (1/768)

The amylomaltase gene of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus ATCC 33923 was cloned and sequenced. The open reading frame of this gene consisted of 1,503 nucleotides and encoded a polypeptide that was 500 amino acids long and had a calculated molecular mass of 57,221 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of the amylomaltase exhibited a high level of homology with the amino acid sequence of potato disproportionating enzyme (D-enzyme) (41%) but a low level of homology with the amino acid sequence of the Escherichia coli amylomaltase (19%). The amylomaltase gene was overexpressed in E. coli, and the enzyme was purified. This enzyme exhibited maximum activity at 75 degrees C in a 10-min reaction with maltotriose and was stable at temperatures up to 85 degrees C. When the enzyme acted on amylose, it catalyzed an intramolecular transglycosylation (cyclization) reaction which produced cyclic alpha-1,4-glucan (cycloamylose), like potato D-enzyme. The yield of cycloamylose produced from synthetic amylose with an average molecular mass of 110 kDa was 84%. However, the minimum degree of polymerization (DP) of the cycloamylose produced by T. aquaticus enzyme was 22, whereas the minimum DP of the cycloamylose produced by potato D-enzyme was 17. The T. aquaticus enzyme also catalyzed intermolecular transglycosylation of maltooligosaccharides. A detailed analysis of the activity of T. aquaticus ATCC 33923 amylomaltase with maltooligosaccharides indicated that the catalytic properties of this enzyme differ from those of E. coli amylomaltase and the plant D-enzyme.  (+info)

Opposite behavior of two isozymes when refolding in the presence of non-ionic detergents. (2/768)

GroEL has a greater affinity for the mitochondrial isozyme (mAAT) of aspartate aminotransferase than for its cytosolic counterpart (cAAT) (Mattingly JR Jr, Iriarte A, Martinez-Carrion M, 1995, J Biol Chem 270:1138-1148), two proteins that share a high degree of sequence similarity and an almost identical spatial structure. The effect of detergents on the refolding of these large, dimeric isozymes parallels this difference in behavior. The presence of non-ionic detergents such as Triton X-100 or lubrol at concentrations above their critical micelle concentration (CMC) interferes with reactivation of mAAT unfolded in guanidinium chloride but increases the yield of cAAT refolding at low temperatures. The inhibitory effect of detergents on the reactivation of mAAT decreases progressively as the addition of detergents is delayed after starting the refolding reaction. The rate of disappearance of the species with affinity for binding detergents coincides with the slowest of the two rate-limiting steps detected in the refolding pathway of mAAT. Limited proteolysis studies indicate that the overall structure of the detergent-bound mAAT resembles that of the protein in a complex with GroEL. The mAAT folding intermediates trapped in the presence of detergents can resume reactivation either upon dilution of the detergent below its CMC or by adding beta-cyclodextrin. Thus, isolation of otherwise transient productive folding intermediates for further characterization is possible through the use of detergents.  (+info)

Antilithiasic effect of beta-cyclodextrin in LPN hamster: comparison with cholestyramine. (3/768)

Beta-Cyclodextrin (BCD), a cyclic oligosaccharide that binds cholesterol and bile acids in vitro, has been previously shown to be an effective plasma cholesterol lowering agent in hamsters and domestic pigs. This study examined the effects of BCD as compared with cholestyramine on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in the LPN hamster model model for cholesterol gallstones. The incidence of cholesterol gallstones was 65% in LPN hamsters fed the lithogenic diet, but decreased linearly with increasing amounts of BCD in the diet to be nil at a dose of 10% BCD. In gallbladder bile, cholesterol, phospholipid and chenodeoxycholate concentrations, hydrophobic and lithogenic indices were all significantly decreased by 10% BCD. Increases in bile acid synthesis (+110%), sterol 27-hydroxylase activity (+106%), and biliary cholate secretion (+140%) were also observed, whereas the biliary secretion of chenodeoxycholate decreased (-43%). The fecal output of chenodeoxycholate and cholate (plus derivatives) was increased by +147 and +64%, respectively, suggesting that BCD reduced the chenodeoxycholate intestinal absorption preferentially. Dietary cholestyramine decreased biliary bile acid concentration and secretion, but dramatically increased the fecal excretion of chenodeoxycholate and cholate plus their derivatives (+328 and +1940%, respectively). In contrast to BCD, the resin increased the lithogenic index in bile, induced black gallstones in 34% of hamsters, and stimulated markedly the activities of HMG-CoA reductase (+670%), sterol 27-hydroxylase (+310%), and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (+390%). Thus, beta-cyclodextrin (BCD) prevented cholesterol gallstone formation by decreasing specifically the reabsorption of chenodeoxycholate, stimulating its biosynthesis and favoring its fecal elimination. BCD had a milder effect on lipid metabolism than cholestyramine and does not predispose animals to black gallstones as cholestyramine does in this animal model.  (+info)

Extraction of cholesterol with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin perturbs formation of clathrin-coated endocytic vesicles. (4/768)

The importance of cholesterol for endocytosis has been investigated in HEp-2 and other cell lines by using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) to selectively extract cholesterol from the plasma membrane. MbetaCD treatment strongly inhibited endocytosis of transferrin and EGF, whereas endocytosis of ricin was less affected. The inhibition of transferrin endocytosis was completely reversible. On removal of MbetaCD it was restored by continued incubation of the cells even in serum-free medium. The recovery in serum-free medium was inhibited by addition of lovastatin, which prevents cholesterol synthesis, but endocytosis recovered when a water-soluble form of cholesterol was added together with lovastatin. Electron microscopical studies of MbetaCD-treated HEp-2 cells revealed that typical invaginated caveolae were no longer present. Moreover, the invagination of clathrin-coated pits was strongly inhibited, resulting in accumulation of shallow coated pits. Quantitative immunogold labeling showed that transferrin receptors were concentrated in coated pits to the same degree (approximately sevenfold) after MbetaCD treatment as in control cells. Our results therefore indicate that although clathrin-independent (and caveolae-independent) endocytosis still operates after removal of cholesterol, cholesterol is essential for the formation of clathrin-coated endocytic vesicles.  (+info)

V-Amylose at atomic resolution: X-ray structure of a cycloamylose with 26 glucose residues (cyclomaltohexaicosaose). (5/768)

The amylose fraction of starch occurs in double-helical A- and B-amyloses and the single-helical V-amylose. The latter contains a channel-like central cavity that is able to include molecules, "iodine's blue" being the best-known representative. Molecular models of these amylose forms have been deduced by solid state 13C cross-polarization/magic angle spinning NMR and by x-ray fiber and electron diffraction combined with computer-aided modeling. They remain uncertain, however, as no structure at atomic resolution is available. We report here the crystal structure of a hydrated cycloamylose containing 26 glucose residues (cyclomaltohexaicosaose, CA26), which has been determined by real/reciprocal space recycling starting from randomly positioned atoms or from an oriented diglucose fragment. This structure provides conclusive evidence for the structure of V-amylose, as the macrocycle of CA26 is folded into two short left-handed V-amylose helices in antiparallel arrangement and related by twofold rotational pseudosymmetry. In the V-helices, all glucose residues are in syn orientation, forming systematic interglucose O(3)n...O(2)(n+l) and O(6)n...O(2)(n+6)/O(3)(n+6) hydrogen bonds; the central cavities of the V-helices are filled by disordered water molecules. The folding of the CA26 macrocycle is characterized by typical "band-flips" in which diametrically opposed glucose residues are in anti rather than in the common syn orientation, this conformation being stabilized by interglucose three-center hydrogen bonds with O(3)n as donor and O(5)(n+l), O(6)(n+l) as acceptors. The structure of CA26 permitted construction of an idealized V-amylose helix, and the band-flip motif explains why V-amylose crystallizes readily and may be packed tightly in seeds.  (+info)

Cell cholesterol efflux: integration of old and new observations provides new insights. (6/768)

Numerous studies using a variety of cell/acceptor combinations have demonstrated differences in cholesterol efflux among cells. These studies also show that different acceptors, ranging from simple molecules like cyclodextrins to serum, stimulate efflux through a variety of mechanisms. By combining early observations with data derived from recent studies, it is now possible to formulate a model for cell cholesterol efflux which proposes that an array of different mechanisms, including aqueous diffusion, lipid-free apolipoprotein membrane microsolubilization, and SR-BI-mediated cholesterol exchange contribute to cholesterol flux. In this model the relative importance of each mechanism would be determined both by the cell type and the nature of the extracellular cholesterol acceptor.  (+info)

Cellular cholesterol regulates expression of the macrophage type B scavenger receptor, CD36. (7/768)

CD36, the macrophage type B scavenger receptor, binds and internalizes oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL), and may potentially play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. We reported that the native and modified low density lipoproteins increased CD36 mRNA and protein ( J. Biol. Chem. 272: 21654-21659). In this study, we investigated the effect of alterations of cellular cholesterol content on macrophage expression of CD36. Depletion of cholesterol by treatment with beta-cyclodextrins (beta-cyclodextrin [beta-CD] and methylated beta-cyclodextrin [MebetaCD]) significantly decreased CD36 mRNA and 125I-labeled OxLDL binding. Conversely, loading macrophages with cholesterol or cholesteryl ester (acetate) with MebetaCD:cholesterol complexes increased CD36 mRNA, 125I-labeled OxLDL binding, and CD36 surface expression as determined by fluorescence activated cell sorting. Thus, CD36 expression paralleled cellular cholesterol levels after removal of cholesterol with beta-cyclodextrins or addition of cholesterol with MebetaCD:cholesterol complexes. Neither cholesterol depletion nor loading altered expression of type A scavenger receptor mRNA. Kinetics studies showed that changes in CD36 mRNA occurred after changes of cellular cholesterol. Neither beta-cyclodextrins nor MebetaCD:cholesterol altered CD36 mRNA half-life in the presence of actinomycin D, suggesting that alterations in CD36 expression by cholesterol occur at the transcriptional level. These experiments demonstrate that CD36 expression is enhanced by cholesterol and down-regulated by cholesterol efflux, and imply that macrophage expression of CD36 and foam cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions may be perpetuated by a cycle in which lipids drive expression of CD36 in a self-regulatory manner.  (+info)

Critical role for cholesterol in Lyn-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of FcepsilonRI and their association with detergent-resistant membranes. (8/768)

Tyrosine phosphorylation of the high affinity immunoglobulin (Ig)E receptor (FcepsilonRI) by the Src family kinase Lyn is the first known biochemical step that occurs during activation of mast cells and basophils after cross-linking of FcepsilonRI by antigen. The hypothesis that specialized regions in the plasma membrane, enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol, facilitate the coupling of Lyn and FcepsilonRI was tested by investigating functional and structural effects of cholesterol depletion on Lyn/FcepsilonRI interactions. We find that cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin substantially reduces stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of FcepsilonRI and other proteins while enhancing more downstream events that lead to stimulated exocytosis. In parallel to its inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation, cholesterol depletion disrupts the interactions of aggregated FcepsilonRI and Lyn on intact cells and also disrupts those interactions with detergent-resistant membranes that are isolated by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation of lysed cells. Importantly, cholesterol repletion restores receptor phosphorylation together with the structural interactions. These results provide strong evidence that membrane structure, maintained by cholesterol, plays a critical role in the initiation of FcepsilonRI signaling.  (+info)

Cyclodextrins are cyclic, oligosaccharide structures made up of 6-8 glucose units joined together in a ring by alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds. They have a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic central cavity, which makes them useful for forming inclusion complexes with various hydrophobic guest molecules. This property allows cyclodextrins to improve the solubility, stability, and bioavailability of drugs, and they are used in pharmaceutical formulations as excipients. Additionally, cyclodextrins have applications in food, cosmetic, and chemical industries.

Alpha-cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides made up of 6 glucose units joined together in a ring structure through alpha-(1,4) glycosidic bonds. They have a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic central cavity, which makes them useful for forming inclusion complexes with various hydrophobic molecules, including drugs, steroids, and fatty acids. This property can enhance the solubility, stability, and bioavailability of these compounds in pharmaceutical applications. Alpha-cyclodextrins are produced from starch by enzymatic conversion using cyclodextrin glucanotransferase.

Beta-cyclodextrins are cyclic, oligosaccharide structures made up of 6-8 glucose units linked by α-1,4 glycosidic bonds. They have a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic central cavity, making them useful for forming inclusion complexes with various hydrophobic molecules in aqueous solutions. This property is exploited in pharmaceutical applications to improve drug solubility, stability, and bioavailability. Additionally, beta-cyclodextrins can be chemically modified to enhance their properties and expand their uses.

Gamma-cyclodextrins (γ-CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides composed of seven α-D-glucopyranose units joined by α-1,4 glycosidic bonds. They have a cone-like structure with a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic central cavity that can form inclusion complexes with various hydrophobic molecules, making them useful as drug delivery agents or in the removal of toxic substances from the body.

Compared to other cyclodextrins such as α-CDs and β-CDs, γ-CDs have a larger cavity size and can form more stable complexes with larger guest molecules. However, they are less commonly used due to their lower water solubility and higher production cost.

It is important to note that the medical use of cyclodextrins, including γ-CDs, may require approval from regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for specific indications and formulations.

Dextrins are a group of carbohydrates that are produced by the hydrolysis of starches. They are made up of shorter chains of glucose molecules than the original starch, and their molecular weight and physical properties can vary depending on the degree of hydrolysis. Dextrins are often used in food products as thickeners, stabilizers, and texturizers, and they also have applications in industry as adhesives and binders. In a medical context, dextrins may be used as a source of calories for patients who have difficulty digesting other types of carbohydrates.

Trimeprazine is an antihistamine medication with sedative and anti-emetic properties. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. Trimeprazine is used to treat various conditions such as allergies, motion sickness, and anxiety. It may also be used for its sedative effects to help manage pain or sleep disturbances.

The medical definition of Trimeprazine can be stated as:

A piperidine phenothiazine derivative with antihistamine, sedative, and anti-emetic properties. Trimeprazine is used in the management of various conditions such as allergies, motion sickness, and anxiety. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. Its sedative effects may also be utilized for its calming effect or to aid sleep.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "rotaxanes" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Rotaxanes are actually a concept from the field of chemistry, specifically supramolecular chemistry. They refer to mechanically interlocked molecules, consisting of a dumbbell-shaped component with two large rings that thread onto the ends of the dumbbell and cannot come off, much like a macrocycle around an axle.

While rotaxanes have potential applications in various fields, including nanotechnology and materials science, they are not directly related to medical definitions or human health. If you have any questions about medical terminologies or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion here. Starch is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a nutritional and biochemical concept. Here's a brief explanation:

Starch is a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of energy storage in plants. It is made up of long chains of glucose molecules and can be found in various foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Amylase, an enzyme present in our saliva and digestive system, helps break down starch into simpler sugars during the digestion process so that our bodies can absorb them for energy.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any other questions or need further information on a medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

Micromonosporaceae is a family of actinobacteria that are gram-positive, aerobic, and have high guanine-cytosine content in their DNA. These bacteria are typically found in soil and aquatic environments. They are known for producing a wide range of bioactive compounds with potential applications in medicine, agriculture, and industry. The cells of Micromonosporaceae are usually rod-shaped and may form branching filaments or remain as single cells. Some members of this family can form spores, which are often resistant to heat, drying, and chemicals.

It's worth noting that the medical significance of Micromonosporaceae is not well established, but some species have been found to produce antibiotics and other bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic applications. For example, the genus Micromonospora includes several species that are known to produce various antibiotics, such as micromonosporin, xanthomycin, and gentamicin C1A. However, further research is needed to fully understand the medical relevance of this family of bacteria.

Sun Protection Factor (SPF) is a measure of how well a sunscreen product protects the skin from ultraviolet B (UVB) rays, which are the primary cause of sunburn and skin damage leading to skin cancer. The number associated with an SPF rating indicates how long it would take for UVB rays to redden protected skin compared to unprotected skin. For example, if you use a sunscreen with an SPF of 30, it would take 30 times longer for your skin to burn than it would without any protection.

It is important to note that even though higher SPF values offer more protection against UVB rays, no sunscreen can block 100% of the sun's harmful rays. Additionally, most sunscreens do not provide adequate protection against ultraviolet A (UVA) rays, which also contribute to skin aging and skin cancer risk. Therefore, it is recommended to use broad-spectrum sunscreens with an SPF of at least 30 and reapply them every two hours or immediately after swimming or sweating heavily.

Optical rotation, also known as optical activity, is a property of certain substances to rotate the plane of polarization of linearly polarized light as it passes through the substance. This ability arises from the presence of optically active molecules, most commonly chiral molecules, which have a non-superimposable mirror image.

The angle and direction of rotation (either clockwise or counterclockwise) are specific to each optically active substance and can be used as a characteristic identification property. The measurement of optical rotation is an important tool in the determination of the enantiomeric purity of chiral compounds, such as drugs and natural products, in chemistry and pharmacology.

The optical rotation of a substance can be influenced by factors such as temperature, concentration, wavelength of light, and solvent used. The magnitude of the optical rotation is often reported as the specific rotation, which is the optical rotation per unit length (usually expressed in degrees) and per unit concentration (often given in grams per deciliter or g/dL).

Alpha-amylases are a type of enzyme that breaks down complex carbohydrates, such as starch and glycogen, into simpler sugars like maltose, maltotriose, and glucose. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds in these complex carbohydrates, making them more easily digestible.

Alpha-amylases are produced by various organisms, including humans, animals, plants, and microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. In humans, alpha-amylases are primarily produced by the salivary glands and pancreas, and they play an essential role in the digestion of dietary carbohydrates.

Deficiency or malfunction of alpha-amylases can lead to various medical conditions, such as diabetes, kidney disease, and genetic disorders like congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency. On the other hand, excessive production of alpha-amylases can contribute to dental caries and other oral health issues.

Myristates are fatty acid molecules that contain fourteen carbon atoms and are therefore referred to as myristic acid in its pure form. They are commonly found in various natural sources, including coconut oil, palm kernel oil, and butterfat. Myristates can be esterified with glycerol to form triglycerides, which are the main constituents of fat in animals and plants.

In a medical context, myristates may be relevant in the study of lipid metabolism, membrane biology, and drug delivery systems. For instance, myristoylation is a post-translational modification where myristic acid is covalently attached to proteins, which can affect their function, localization, and stability. However, it's important to note that direct medical applications or implications of myristates may require further research and context.

Glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase, also known as amyloglucosidase or glucoamylase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-glycosidic bonds in starch and other oligo- and polysaccharides, breaking them down into individual glucose molecules. This enzyme specifically acts on the alpha (1->4) linkages found in amylose and amylopectin, two major components of starch. It is widely used in various industrial applications, including the production of high fructose corn syrup, alcoholic beverages, and as a digestive aid in some medical supplements.

Drug stability refers to the ability of a pharmaceutical drug product to maintain its physical, chemical, and biological properties during storage and use, under specified conditions. A stable drug product retains its desired quality, purity, strength, and performance throughout its shelf life. Factors that can affect drug stability include temperature, humidity, light exposure, and container compatibility. Maintaining drug stability is crucial to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications for patients.

Acarbose is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. It is used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acarbose works by slowing down the digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine, which helps to prevent spikes in blood sugar levels after meals.

By blocking the enzyme alpha-glucosidase, acarbose prevents the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, such as glucose, in the small intestine. This results in a slower and more gradual absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, which helps to prevent postprandial hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels after meals).

Acarbose is typically taken orally three times a day, before meals containing carbohydrates. Common side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea. It is important to note that acarbose should be used in conjunction with a healthy diet and regular exercise to effectively manage blood sugar levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Glucosyltransferases (GTs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a glucose molecule from an activated donor to an acceptor molecule, resulting in the formation of a glycosidic bond. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, cell wall synthesis, and protein glycosylation. In some cases, GTs can also contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by facilitating the attachment of bacteria to host tissues through the formation of glucans, which are polymers of glucose molecules.

GTs can be classified into several families based on their sequence similarities and catalytic mechanisms. The donor substrates for GTs are typically activated sugars such as UDP-glucose, TDP-glucose, or GDP-glucose, which serve as the source of the glucose moiety that is transferred to the acceptor molecule. The acceptor can be a wide range of molecules, including other sugars, proteins, lipids, or small molecules.

In the context of human health and disease, GTs have been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, inflammation, and microbial infections. For example, some GTs can modify proteins on the surface of cancer cells, leading to increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Additionally, GTs can contribute to bacterial resistance to antibiotics by modifying the structure of bacterial cell walls or by producing biofilms that protect bacteria from host immune responses and antimicrobial agents.

Overall, Glucosyltransferases are essential enzymes involved in various biological processes, and their dysregulation has been associated with several human diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of GTs is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these enzymes and treat related pathological conditions.

A drug carrier, also known as a drug delivery system or vector, is a vehicle that transports a pharmaceutical compound to a specific site in the body. The main purpose of using drug carriers is to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs by enhancing their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and targeted delivery, while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Drug carriers can be made up of various materials, including natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, inorganic nanoparticles, or even cells and viruses. They can encapsulate, adsorb, or conjugate drugs through different mechanisms, such as physical entrapment, electrostatic interaction, or covalent bonding.

Some common types of drug carriers include:

1. Liposomes: spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
2. Polymeric nanoparticles: tiny particles made of biodegradable polymers that can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their accumulation in target tissues.
3. Dendrimers: highly branched macromolecules with a well-defined structure and size that can carry multiple drug molecules and facilitate their release.
4. Micelles: self-assembled structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers that can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in water.
5. Inorganic nanoparticles: such as gold, silver, or iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be functionalized with drugs and targeting ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
6. Cell-based carriers: living cells, such as red blood cells, stem cells, or immune cells, that can be loaded with drugs and used to deliver them to specific sites in the body.
7. Viral vectors: modified viruses that can infect cells and introduce genetic material encoding therapeutic proteins or RNA interference molecules.

The choice of drug carrier depends on various factors, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the route of administration, the target site, and the desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Therefore, selecting an appropriate drug carrier is crucial for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects.

Glycoside hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds found in various substrates such as polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and glycoproteins. These enzymes break down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars by cleaving the glycosidic linkages that connect monosaccharide units.

Glycoside hydrolases are classified based on their mechanism of action and the type of glycosidic bond they hydrolyze. The classification system is maintained by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). Each enzyme in this class is assigned a unique Enzyme Commission (EC) number, which reflects its specificity towards the substrate and the type of reaction it catalyzes.

These enzymes have various applications in different industries, including food processing, biofuel production, pulp and paper manufacturing, and biomedical research. In medicine, glycoside hydrolases are used to diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions, such as carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, a rare inherited disorder affecting the structure of glycoproteins.

In the context of medical terminology, "solutions" refers to a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, in which one substance (the solute) is uniformly distributed within another substance (the solvent). The solvent is typically the greater component of the solution and is capable of dissolving the solute.

Solutions can be classified based on the physical state of the solvent and solute. For instance, a solution in which both the solvent and solute are liquids is called a liquid solution or simply a solution. A solid solution is one where the solvent is a solid and the solute is either a gas, liquid, or solid. Similarly, a gas solution refers to a mixture where the solvent is a gas and the solute can be a gas, liquid, or solid.

In medical applications, solutions are often used as vehicles for administering medications, such as intravenous (IV) fluids, oral rehydration solutions, eye drops, and topical creams or ointments. The composition of these solutions is carefully controlled to ensure the appropriate concentration and delivery of the active ingredients.

Drug compounding is the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a customized medication to meet the specific needs of an individual patient. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as when a patient has an allergy to a certain ingredient in a mass-produced medication, or when a patient requires a different dosage or formulation than what is available commercially.

Compounding requires specialized training and equipment, and compounding pharmacists must follow strict guidelines to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they produce. Compounded medications are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but the FDA does regulate the ingredients used in compounding and has oversight over the practices of compounding pharmacies.

It's important to note that while compounding can provide benefits for some patients, it also carries risks, such as the potential for contamination or incorrect dosing. Patients should only receive compounded medications from reputable pharmacies that follow proper compounding standards and procedures.

Hydrophobic interactions: These are the interactions that occur between non-polar molecules or groups of atoms in an aqueous environment, leading to their association or aggregation. The term "hydrophobic" means "water-fearing" and describes the tendency of non-polar substances to repel water. When non-polar molecules or groups are placed in water, they tend to clump together to minimize contact with the polar water molecules. These interactions are primarily driven by the entropy increase of the system as a whole, rather than energy minimization. Hydrophobic interactions play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as protein folding, membrane formation, and molecular self-assembly.

Hydrophilic interactions: These are the interactions that occur between polar molecules or groups of atoms and water molecules. The term "hydrophilic" means "water-loving" and describes the attraction of polar substances to water. When polar molecules or groups are placed in water, they can form hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water molecules, which helps solvate them. Hydrophilic interactions contribute to the stability and functionality of various biological systems, such as protein structure, ion transport across membranes, and enzyme catalysis.

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermoanalytical technique used to measure the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and a reference as a function of temperature. It is commonly used to study phase transitions, such as melting, crystallization, and glass transition, as well as chemical reactions, in a wide range of materials, including polymers, pharmaceuticals, and biological samples.

In DSC, the sample and reference are placed in separate pans and heated at a constant rate. The heat flow required to maintain this heating rate is continuously measured for both the sample and the reference. As the temperature of the sample changes during a phase transition or chemical reaction, the heat flow required to maintain the same heating rate will change relative to the reference. This allows for the measurement of the enthalpy change (ΔH) associated with the transition or reaction.

Differential scanning calorimetry is a powerful tool in materials science and research as it can provide information about the thermal behavior, stability, and composition of materials. It can also be used to study the kinetics of reactions and phase transitions, making it useful for optimizing processing conditions and developing new materials.

Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) Mass Spectrometry is a technique used for determining the mass of ions in a sample. In FAB-MS, the sample is mixed with a matrix material and then bombarded with a beam of fast atoms, usually xenon or cesium. This bombardment leads to the formation of ions from the sample which can then be detected and measured using a mass analyzer. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the sample molecules. FAB-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of large, thermally labile, or polar molecules that may not ionize well by other methods.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

'Bacillus' is a genus of rod-shaped, gram-positive bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Many species of Bacillus are capable of forming endospores, which are highly resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals, allowing them to survive for long periods in harsh environments. The most well-known species of Bacillus is B. anthracis, which causes anthrax in animals and humans. Other species of Bacillus have industrial or agricultural importance, such as B. subtilis, which is used in the production of enzymes and antibiotics.

Gamma spectrometry is a type of spectrometry used to identify and measure the energy and intensity of gamma rays emitted by radioactive materials. It utilizes a device called a gamma spectrometer, which typically consists of a scintillation detector or semiconductor detector, coupled with electronic circuitry that records and analyzes the energy of each detected gamma ray.

Gamma rays are a form of ionizing radiation, characterized by their high energy and short wavelength. When they interact with matter, such as the detector in a gamma spectrometer, they can cause the ejection of electrons from atoms or molecules, leading to the creation of charged particles that can be detected and measured.

In gamma spectrometry, the energy of each detected gamma ray is used to identify the radioactive isotope that emitted it, based on the characteristic energy levels associated with different isotopes. The intensity of the gamma rays can also be measured, providing information about the quantity or activity of the radioactive material present.

Gamma spectrometry has a wide range of applications in fields such as nuclear medicine, radiation protection, environmental monitoring, and nuclear non-proliferation.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

The chemical industry is a broad term that refers to the companies and organizations involved in the production or transformation of raw materials or intermediates into various chemical products. These products can be used for a wide range of applications, including manufacturing, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and consumer goods. The chemical industry includes businesses that produce basic chemicals, such as petrochemicals, agrochemicals, polymers, and industrial gases, as well as those that manufacture specialty chemicals, such as dyestuffs, flavors, fragrances, and advanced materials. Additionally, the chemical industry encompasses companies that provide services related to the research, development, testing, and distribution of chemical products.

Dietary fiber, also known as roughage, is the indigestible portion of plant foods that makes up the structural framework of the plants we eat. It is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, lignins, and waxes. Dietary fiber can be classified into two categories: soluble and insoluble.

Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material in the gut, which can help slow down digestion, increase feelings of fullness, and lower cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oats, barley, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts.

Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and passes through the gut intact, helping to add bulk to stools and promote regular bowel movements. Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as whole grains, bran, seeds, and the skins of fruits and vegetables.

Dietary fiber has numerous health benefits, including promoting healthy digestion, preventing constipation, reducing the risk of heart disease, controlling blood sugar levels, and aiding in weight management. The recommended daily intake of dietary fiber is 25-38 grams per day for adults, depending on age and gender.

GRN 000155, alpha-cyclodextrin;GRAS Notice No. GRN 000074, beta-cyclodextrin;GRAS Notice No. GRN 000046, gamma-cyclodextrin ... cyclodextrin: 6 glucose subunits β (beta)-cyclodextrin: 7 glucose subunits γ (gamma)-cyclodextrin: 8 glucose subunits The ... Both β-cyclodextrin and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) remove cholesterol from cultured cells. The methylated form MβCD was found ... Cyclodextrins were also shown to enhance mucosal penetration of drugs. β-cyclodextrins are used to produce stationary phase ...
... such as 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPbCD), randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (RAMEB), and β-cyclodextrin sulfobutyl ether ... β-Cyclodextrin is the most used natural cyclodextrin in marketed medicines. The reason for this lies in the ease of its ... The exterior surface of cyclodextrins is somewhat hydrophilic whereas the interior core is hydrophobic. β-Cyclodextrin exists ... β-Cyclodextrin sometimes abbreviated as β-CD, is a heptasaccharide derived from glucose. The α- (alpha), β- (beta), and γ- ( ...
... (alpha-cyclodextrin), sometimes abbreviated as α-CD, is a hexasaccharide derived from glucose. It is related to ... All cyclodextrins are white, water-soluble solids with minimal toxicity. Cyclodextrins tend to bind other molecules in their ... Then cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is added for enzymatic conversion. CGTases produce diverse cyclodextrins. The ... β-Cyclodextrin Gatiatulin, Askar (2022), "Determination of Melting Parameters of Cyclodextrins Using Fast Scanning Calorimetry ...
... is well soluble in water and dimethyl sulfoxide, poorly soluble in methanol. γ-Cyclodextrins has the largest ... For this reason, γ-cyclodextrin is most commonly used as a complexing agent. γ-Cyclodextrin is widely used in medicine, ... The exterior surface of cyclodextrins is somewhat hydrophilic whereas the interior core is hydrophobic. γ-Cyclodextrin exists ... To increase solubility, hydroxypropylated γ-cyclodextrin derivative (HPγCD) is obtained by treating the natural cyclodextrin ...
... alpha-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, alpha-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, beta-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, beta- ... cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, gamma-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, cyclomaltodextrin ... "Rational design of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans strain 251 to increase alpha-cyclodextrin ... The coupling reaction can be easily described as the reverse process of cyclization: the enzyme cleaves a cyclodextrin to ...
... cyclodextrin". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 105 (5): 1390-91. doi:10.1021/ja00343a063. Clarke, Tom (June 18, 2002 ...
in the presence of cyclodextrins". Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 11 (7): 398-404. doi:10.1016/0141-0229(89)90133-6. Sandow J ...
in the presence of cyclodextrins". Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 11 (7): 398-404. doi:10.1016/0141-0229(89)90133-6. "Dea ...
He also showed that cyclodextrin can be used to investigate catalysis of organic reactions within the scope of host-guest ... Bender, Myron L; Kobiyama, M. (1978). Cyclodextrin Chemistry. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3540085775. Northwestern ... and also cyclodextrin chemistry; The series of Myron L. Bender & Muriel S. Bender Distinguished Summer Lectures in Organic ...
The likely smallest thiolated nanocarriers for drug delivery are thiolated cyclodextrins that were introduced by him in 2015 ... Grassiri, B; Knoll, P; Fabiano, A; Piras, AM; Zambito, Y; Bernkop-Schnürch, A (2022). "Thiolated Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin: ... Asim, MH; Ijaz, M; Rösch, AC; Bernkop-Schnürch, A (2020). "Thiolated cyclodextrins: New perspectives for old excipients". ... Assim, HM; Ijaz, M; Rösch, AC; Bernkop-Schnürch, A (2020). "Thiolated cyclodextrins: New perspectives for old excipients". ...
α-cyclodextrins comprise six glucopyranose units, β- cyclodextrins comprise seven, and γ comprise eight. Cyclodextrins are ... To synthesize cyclodextrins, enzymatic action occurs on hydrolyzed starch. Cyclodextrin nanosponges are made of a three ... Trotta, Francesco (2011), "Cyclodextrin Nanosponges and their Applications", Cyclodextrins in Pharmaceutics, Cosmetics, and ... β-cyclodextrins are used due to low cost and medium-sized pores allowing for a broad range of guest molecules to be collected. ...
... dimethylformamide or dimethyl sulfoxide is able to interrupt the hydrogen bonding between cyclodextrins in the cyclodextrin- ... Cyclodextrins have been extensively studied as host molecules (ring) in polyrotaxanes. The poly(ethylene glycol)s can assemble ... Every two ethyleneoxy repeat units in poly(ethylene glycol)s can thread in one α-cyclodextrin. The models confirm that the ... This is because the hydrogen bonding between the cyclodextrins. As the hydrogen bonding is destroyed by dimethyl sulfoxide or ...
The use of cyclodextrin as a sprayable odor absorber was patented by Procter & Gamble. The products include additional ... "Chemical Functional Definitions - Cyclodextrin". Procter & Gamble. 2005. Archived from the original on November 10, 2012. *P&G ... The active ingredient in several Febreze products is hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD). The molecule traps and binds ... Uncomplexed cyclodextrin solutions for odor control on inanimate surfaces. US Pat. No. 5,714,137. Filed 1994; assigned 1998. ...
By combining ferrocene dimer with β-cyclodextrin dimer, a redox-control supramolecular polymers system has been proposed as a ... Akira Harada was one of the firstwhorecognize the importance of combining polymers and cyclodextrins. Feihe Huang showed an ... cyclodextrins/adamantane derivatives, and pillar arene/imidazolium derivatives [30-33]. When the monomers are "heteroditopic", ... "Self-assembled supramolecular hydrogels formed by biodegradable PEO-PHB-PEO triblock copolymers and alpha-cyclodextrin for ...
A few exceptions exist, such as certain cyclodextrins. For condensed phases (solids and liquids), the pressure dependence of ... Salvatore Filippone, Frank Heimanna and André Rassat (2002). "A highly water-soluble 2+1 b-cyclodextrin-fullerene conjugate". ...
Cyclodextrin The cyclical dextrins are known as cyclodextrins. They are formed by enzymatic degradation of starch by certain ... bacteria, for example, Paenibacillus macerans (Bacillus macerans). Cyclodextrins have toroidal structures formed by 6-8 glucose ...
The cyclodextrins can absorb an estimated 60 percent of their own weight in alcohol. A US patent was registered for the process ... Le, V. N.; Leterme, P.; Gayot, A.; Flament, M. P. (2006). "Aerosolization potential of cyclodextrins-influence of the operating ... Nebulizer: Alcohol powder produced through molecular encapsulation with cyclodextrin can be used with a nebulizer though this ... alcohol can be absorbed in cyclodextrins, a synthetic carbohydrate derivative. In this way, encapsuled in small capsules, the ...
Here she proposed the use of the chiral additives sulphated-β-cyclodextrin, heparin and quinine in capillary electrophoresis. ... Stalcup, Apryll M.; Gahm, Kyung H. (1996). "Application of Sulfated Cyclodextrins to Chiral Separations by Capillary Zone ... Cyclodextrins: A Versatile Tool in Separation Science". ChemInform. 32 (2): no. doi:10.1002/chin.200102265. ISSN 0931-7597. ...
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides of six, seven, or eight glucose units designated as α, β, and γ cyclodextrins ... α-Cyclodextrin holds small aromatic molecules, whereas β-cyclodextrin incorporates both naphthyl groups and substituted phenyl ... Daniel Armstrong is considered the pioneer of micelle and cyclodextrin-based separations. Cyclodextrins are covalently attached ... In cyclodextrin the glucose units are α-(1,4)- connected. The shape of CD looks like a shortened cone (see the sketch). The ...
Clathrate Clathrochelate Cryptophane Cyclodextrin Alberto, R.; Ortner, K.; Wheatley, N.; Schibli, R.; Schubiger, A. P. (2001 ...
Harada, A.; Li, J.; Kamachi, M. (1992). "The molecular necklace: a rotaxane containing many threaded α-cyclodextrins". Nature. ...
Other substituted β-cyclodextrins have since been reported, including thiol-modified cyclodextrins, an anion-selective ... Chui, J. K. W.; Fyles, T. M. (May 2010). "Apparent fractal distribution of open durations in cyclodextrin-based ion channels". ... The first synthetic ion channel was constructed by partial substitution on the primary rim of β-cyclodextrin. ... Structure-activity relationships for a large suite of cyclodextrin "half-channels" prepared by "click"-chemistry has been ...
Classical examples include the crown ethers, calixarenes, porphyrins, and cyclodextrins. Macrocycles describe a large, mature ...
No covalent bonds are present between the cyclodextrins and the curcuminoids so they are easily released from the complex by ... Degradation rate is depended on pH of the solution and how much protection the cyclodextrins provide the curcuminoids. The ... Cyclodextrin complexation: solubility, chemical and photochemical stabilit". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 244 (1-2 ... The stability differs between size and characterization of the cyclodextrins that are used. Dissolution of demethoxycurcumin, ...
"2-Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin Treatment Does Not Induce Atherosclerotic Lesion Regression in Western-Type Diet-Fed ... "Cyclodextrin promotes atherosclerosis regression via macrophage reprogramming". Science Translational Medicine. 8 (333): ... aspirin supplement mouse studies indicated that subcutaneous administration of oligosaccharide 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin ( ...
The sugar, cyclodextrin, removed cholesterol that had built up in the arteries of mice fed a high-fat diet. Aging is the most ... "Cyclodextrin promotes atherosclerosis regression via macrophage reprogramming". Science Translational Medicine. 8 (333): ...
Cyclodextrins are well established hosts for the formation of inclusion compounds.[1][2][3] Illustrative is the case of ... Cyclodextrin also forms inclusion compounds with fragrances. As a result, the fragrance molecules have a reduced vapor pressure ... Yu Liu; Rui-Qin Zhong; Heng-Yi Zhang; Hai-Bin Song (2010). "A unique tetramer of 4:5 -cyclodextrin-ferrocene in the solid state ... L. (2005). "Fragrance-release Property of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Compounds and their Application in Aromatherapy". Journal of ...
It uses cyclodextrins, a chromophore, and a number of metal salts. This can either be seen directly or connected to an infrared ...
Chemically they are similar to the much smaller cyclodextrins, which are typically composed of 6, 7 or 8 glucose units. ... While the structures of cyclodextrins are planar circles, the structure of cycloamyloses with 10 to 14 glucose units were ... "Structures of the Common Cyclodextrins and Their Larger AnaloguesBeyond the Doughnut". Chemical Reviews. 98 (5): 1787-1802. doi ...
Bilensoy, Erem (2011). Cyclodextrins in Pharmaceutics, Cosmetics, and Biomedicine : Current and Future Industrial Applications ...
GRN 000155, alpha-cyclodextrin;GRAS Notice No. GRN 000074, beta-cyclodextrin;GRAS Notice No. GRN 000046, gamma-cyclodextrin ... cyclodextrin: 6 glucose subunits β (beta)-cyclodextrin: 7 glucose subunits γ (gamma)-cyclodextrin: 8 glucose subunits The ... Both β-cyclodextrin and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) remove cholesterol from cultured cells. The methylated form MβCD was found ... Cyclodextrins were also shown to enhance mucosal penetration of drugs. β-cyclodextrins are used to produce stationary phase ...
... and HP-beta-cyclodextrins. Thus, MD simulation with MM-PBSA method may be fit to ,i,in silico,/i, screen for cyclodextrin ... cyclodextrins, but not for alpha cyclodextrin. Binding free energies from the MD simulation for ,i,β,/i,-, ,i,γ,/i ... However, current cyclodextrin formulation development strongly depends on trial-and-error in the laboratory, which is time- ... The enthalpies of QM simulation for ,i,β,/i,-, ,i,γ,/i,-, and HP-,i,β,/i,-cyclodextrins were −17.22 ...
A clinical trial to evaluate a drug candidate called cyclodextrin as a possible treatment for Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC ... selected NPC cyclodextrin as one of its initial pilot projects to repurpose cyclodextrin from its conventional use as an ... The NPC cyclodextrin project was made possible by a collaborative approach that also included - in addition to NCATS, NICHD, ... The goal of the Phase I clinical trial is to determine a safe dose of cyclodextrin that will support an expanded Phase II trial ...
... which explores the exciting realm of cyclodextrins in biopharma applications through a series of educative sessions. Register ... KLEPTOSE® hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin is of high interest due to its high potential as a biologics stabilizer and other ... It focuses on cyclodextrins uses in protein formulations (monoclonal antibodies), gene therapy, vaccines, and other biotech ... This free webinar series explores the present and future applications of cyclodextrins in biopharma through a series of ...
X-ray analysis of the product showed lead(IV) complexed by three cyclodextrin dianions isotypic to the tin(IV)-cyclodextrin ... X-ray analysis of the product showed lead(IV) complexed by three cyclodextrin dianions isotypic to the tin(IV)-cyclodextrin ... cyclodextrins, metal-complexes, tin(IV), lead(IV), aqueous solution. Subjects:. 500 Natural sciences and mathematics , 540 ... Cyclodextrin-Komplexe hochgeladener Metall-Kationen The use of carbohydrates as ligands in coordination chemistry is an ...
β-Cyclodextrin can act as an efficient inhibitor of the photosensitized dimerization of thymine by para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA ... Maria Nowakowska, Mirosław Grebosz, Mirosława Smoluch, and Wiktor Tatara "Inhibiting Effect of β-Cyclodextrin on Thymine ... This can be explained by considering the formation of an inclusion complex between PABA and β-cyclodextrin. ... Inhibiting Effect of β-Cyclodextrin on Thymine Dimerization Photosensitized by para-Aminobenzoic Acid. ...
Additional Graphics: Cyclodextrins © Copyright PD Dr. S. Immel. ... the smaller cyclodextrins 2 and 1 are closed, yet contain a ... Small-Ring Cyclodextrins: their Geometries and Hydrophobic Topographies. Stefan Immel, Jürgen Brickmann, and Frieder W . ... A detailed force-field-based evaluation of the molecular geometries of small-ring cyclodextrins 1 - 3 with three, four, and ... The resulting minimum-energy structures reveal that the progressive strain imposed by diminution of the cyclodextrin macrocycle ...
SKU: 4-00195 Category: Cyclodextrins Tag: A Cas No. : [120366-24-7] Mol Formula : C36H60-nO20+3nSnNan Properties 2 : DS ,10Unit ... Be the first to review "a-Cyclodextrin sulfate" Cancel reply. Your rating *. Rate…. Perfect. Good. Average. Not that bad. Very ...
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4 linkages in cyclodextrins. The associative polymers have a comb-like structure with pendant hydrophobic groups randomly ... We examine a new approach to reversibly modulate hydrophobic interactions in associative polymers using cyclodextrins (CD) and ... using cyclodextrins (CD) and enzymes that cause scission of the α-1, 4 linkages in cyclodextrins. The associative polymers. ... cyclodextrin. and enzyme. S. Mahammad, A. Abdala, G. W. Roberts and S. A. Khan, Soft Matter, 2010, 6, 4237 DOI: 10.1039/ ...
... cyclodextrin basis (HPLC); CAS No.: 17465-86-0; Synonyms: Cavamax(R) W8; gamma-Cyclodextrin; Cyclomaltooctaose; ... gamma-Cyclodextrin produced by Wacker Chemie AG, Burghausen, Germany, ,=90.0% ... γ-Cyclodextrin can be used as a precursor for the synthesis of: *Octakis-(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-carboxymethyl)-γ-cyclodextrin ... Gamma-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) is a cyclic α-1,4-glucan linked oligosaccharide that is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical ...
Reaction of oxiranes with cyclodextrins under high-energy ball-milling conditions ... Trotta, F. Cyclodextrin Nanosponges and Their Applications. In Cyclodextrins in Pharmaceutics, Cosmetics, and Biomedicine; ... Trotta, F. Cyclodextrin Nanosponges and Their Applications. In Cyclodextrins in Pharmaceutics, Cosmetics, and Biomedicine; ... Řezanka, M. Synthesis of Cyclodextrin Derivatives. Cyclodextrin Fundamentals. In Reactivity and Analysis; Fourmentin, S.; Crini ...
The binding of 9-anthracenemethanol and N-cyclohexylmaleimide to cyclodextrins was the key to the catalysis. Cyclodextrins act ... An MM and QM Study of Biomimetic Catalysis of Diels-Adler Reactions Using Cyclodextrins. Wei Chen, Lipeng Sun, Zhiye Tang, Chia ... This computational work sheds light on the mechanism of the catalytic reaction by cyclodextrins and introduces new perspectives ... Hydrogen bonds (Hbonds) between N-cyclohexylmaleimide and the hydroxyl groups of cyclodextrins were suggested to play an ...
Several functionalized β-cyclodextrins have been shown to exhibit conformational isomerism. The analysis of the conformational ... Part 1. Evidence for insertion of one of the rim substituents into the cyclodextrin cavity in organic solvents L. Jullien, J. ... Several functionalized β-cyclodextrins have been shown to exhibit conformational isomerism. The analysis of the conformational ... Part 1. Evidence for insertion of one of the rim substituents into the cyclodextrin cavity in organic solvents ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF ASPARAGINE 233-REPLACED CYCLODEXTRIN GLUCANOTRANSFERASE FROM ALKALOPHILIC BACILLUS SP. 1011 DETERMINED AT ... While the wild-type CGTase from the same bacterium produces a mixture of mainly alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins, ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF ASPARAGINE 233-REPLACED CYCLODEXTRIN GLUCANOTRANSFERASE FROM ALKALOPHILIC BACILLUS SP. 1011 DETERMINED AT ... Crystal structure of asparagine 233-replaced cyclodextrin glucanotransferase from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. 1011 determined at ...
Comparative interaction studies of quercetin with 2-hydroxyl-propyl-β-cyclodextrin (2HP-β-CD) and 2,6-methylated cyclodextrin ( ... In the present study, we examine whether its formulation with two cyclodextrins (CDs) may enhance its pharmacological profile. ... Using T1 relaxation experiments and 2D DOSY it was illustrated that both cyclodextrin vehicles can host quercetin. Quantum ... Comparative Interaction Studies of Quercetin with 2-Hydroxyl-propyl-β-cyclodextrin and 2,6-Methylated-β-cyclodextrin by ...
Parietin cyclodextrin-inclusion complex as an effective formulation for bacterial photoinactivation : Multidrug resistance in ... New mixed-mode methacrylate-based polymeric monoliths prepared via complexation with cyclodextrins employed as stationary ...
Forbes "Denny" Porter, FDA, HPBCD, intracerebroventricular cyclodextrin, intrathecal cyclodextrin, intravenous cyclodextrin, ... You are here: Home / Archives for intravenous cyclodextrin. National Institues of Health Announces Cyclodextrin Clincial Trial ... Tags: 2-Hydroxypropyl-beta-Cyclodextrin, Cholesterol, Cyclodextrin, Dr. Caroline Hastings, Dr. ... Since sharing our intravenous (IV) and intrathecal (IT) cyclodextrin treatment protocols with NPC families and doctors in the U ...
Cyclodextrin, Cyclodextrin Delivery, Cyclodextrin Facts, Cyclodextrin History, Cyclodextrin Overview, drug delivery system, ... Cyclodextrins Can Reduce Side Effects of Cancer Drug Treatments. May 11, 2009 by Daddy Filed under Cyclodextrin ... Research studies in both humans and animals have shown that cyclodextrins and their derivatives can be used to improve the drug ... Tags: anti viral drugs, beta-cyclodextrin, can cer drugs and treatments, Cholesterol Drugs, ...
Behavior of α-, β-, and γ-Cyclodextrins and Their Derivatives on an in Vitro Model of Blood-Brain Barrier. V. Monnaert, S. ... Behavior of α-, β-, and γ-Cyclodextrins and Their Derivatives on an in Vitro Model of Blood-Brain Barrier. V. Monnaert, S. ... Behavior of α-, β-, and γ-Cyclodextrins and Their Derivatives on an in Vitro Model of Blood-Brain Barrier. V. Monnaert, S. ... Behavior of α-, β-, and γ-Cyclodextrins and Their Derivatives on an in Vitro Model of Blood-Brain Barrier ...
... of aminoglutethimide enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary electrophoresis using methylated-beta-cyclodextrin ... Enantiomeric purity determination of tamsulosin by capillary electrophoresis using cyclodextrins and a polyacrylamide-coated ... Separation of cefoperazone enantiomers using beta-cyclodextrin as chiral additive by capillary zone electrophoresis. ... Enantiomeric separation of synthetic 2,3-dihydroxy-3-phenylpropionate compounds by beta-cyclodextrin-modified capillary ...
β-Cyclodextrin-Mediated Regioselective Hydrolysis of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[2,4-bis(pivaloyloxy)phenyl]-21H,23H -porphine. In: ... β-Cyclodextrin-Mediated Regioselective Hydrolysis of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[2,4-bis(pivaloyloxy)phenyl]-21H,23H -porphine. ... UV, 1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy of the inclusion complex 9 of 2,6-O-dimethyl-ß-cyclodextrin (12) and 5 indicate a ... ß-cyclodextrin (10), providing a new entry to tetraphenylporphyrin derivatives with differently substituted Ph groups in the ...
cyclodextrin; amino acids; inclusion complexes; complexes of amino acids with rare-earth elements.. Abstract. The binary ... It was revealed that during formation of the ternary system, the amino acid enters the cyclodextrin cavity and is preserved by ... It was assumed that the spatial structure of the ternary system includes metal, amino acid, and β - cyclodextrin, where the ion ... Supramolecular Compounds of β-cyclodextrins as a Material for the Pharmaceutical Industry. Authors ...
Chloramphenicol 2 , Cyclodextrins , Aquaplex® Complexes , APIs , Cyclodex
Anchoring of Monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin onto Cotton Fabrics and Use of its Inclusion Ability to Impart Durable ... Good retention of antimicrobial activity is due to the cavities that are present in the cyclodextrin moieties which are used to ... Glycidyl methacrylate/monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin mixture (GMA/MCT-β-CD) is grafted onto cotton fabric by an irradiation ... Anchoring of Monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin onto Cotton Fabrics and Use of its Inclusion Ability to Impart Durable ...
Influence of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin on the biodegradation of C-14-phenanthrene and C-14-hexadecane in soil ... the microcosms were amended with aqueous solutions of cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) at a range of concentrations (0-40 mM). ... Influence of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin on the biodegradation of C-14-phenanthrene and C-14-hexadecane in soil. ... found that the HP-beta-CD extraction was able to predict mineralisation in soils which had not been amended with cyclodextrin; ...
Cholesterol-depletion in human blood-derived neutrophils by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin leads to the formation of neutrophil ... Cholesterol-depletion in human blood-derived neutrophils by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin leads to the formation of neutrophil ...
... the necessary residence time of the cyclodextrin solution in the air stripper approaches that of cyclodextrin-free water. ... Two different cyclodextrin varieties were investigated and it was shown that their presence in solution results in a ... it was demonstrated that it is possible to reuse the cyclodextrin solution. Depending on the air flow rate, ... Cyclodextrins are non-toxic, sugar-based substances that form complexes with many contaminants. ...
... by cyclodextrins (CDs) has been studied in aqueous solution by isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance ... Face-Fusion of Icosahedral Boron Hydride Increases Affinity to γ-Cyclodextrin: closo,closo-[B21H18]− as an Anion with Very Low ... The supramolecular recognition of closo,closo-[B21H18]− by cyclodextrins (CDs) has been studied in aqueous solution by ... ion is a new example of a superchaotropic anion that forms a stable host-guest complex with cyclodextrins in aqueous solution. ...
An efficient synthesis of cyclodextrin-based carbohydrate cluster compounds. David A. Fulton*, J. Fraser Stoddart. * ... Fulton, D. A., & Stoddart, J. F. (2000). An efficient synthesis of cyclodextrin-based carbohydrate cluster compounds. Organic ... Fulton, DA & Stoddart, JF 2000, An efficient synthesis of cyclodextrin-based carbohydrate cluster compounds, Organic Letters ... An efficient synthesis of cyclodextrin-based carbohydrate cluster compounds. / Fulton, David A.; Stoddart, J. Fraser. In: ...
  • Typical cyclodextrins contain a number of glucose monomers ranging from six to eight units in a ring, creating a cone shape: α (alpha)-cyclodextrin: 6 glucose subunits β (beta)-cyclodextrin: 7 glucose subunits γ (gamma)-cyclodextrin: 8 glucose subunits The largest well-characterized cyclodextrin contains 32 1,4-anhydroglucopyranoside units. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to these observations, the threefold amount of beta-cyclodextrin with hexahydroxidostannate(IV) showed a single signal, whose chemical shift indicates a new, hexacoordinate, tin-containing species. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The results from the structural analysis were consistent with the spectroscopic results and show a supramolecular assembly with threefold rotational symmetry that consists of three components: three beta-cyclodextrin dianions, three tetrahedral tetraaqualithium cations and the tetravalent metal center. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Surprisingly, beta-cyclodextrin could avoid decomposition and formed single crystals. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Over the past three years, many Niemann Pick Type C families as well as physicians treating NPC patients worldwide have contacted Dr. Caroline Hastings and I regarding Addi and Cassi's treatments with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. (addiandcassi.com)
  • A capillary electrophoretic method for the separation of the aminoglutethimide (AGT) enantiomers using methylated-beta-cyclodextrin (M-beta-CD) as chiral selector is described. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, subcutaneous injections of beta-cyclodextrin polymer (βCDP) significantly inhibited plaque growth compared to monomeric hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) at the same dose (1 g/kg). (pharmaexcipients.com)
  • MD simulation indicated that ibuprofen could form the stable complexes with β -, γ -, and HP- β -cyclodextrins, but not for alpha cyclodextrin. (hindawi.com)
  • While the wild-type CGTase from the same bacterium produces a mixture of mainly alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins, catalyzing the conversion of starch into cyclic or linear alpha-1,4-linked glucopyranosyl chains, site-directed mutation of histidine-233 to asparagine changed the nature of the enzyme such that it no longer produced alpha-cyclodextrin. (rcsb.org)
  • What is Alpha-Cyclodextrin? (lovetofeel.com)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin is a naturally occurring sugar derived from starch molecules. (lovetofeel.com)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin has a variety of uses, including in pharmaceuticals, food and beverages, and as a dietary supplement. (lovetofeel.com)
  • Where is Alpha-Cyclodextrin Generally Used? (lovetofeel.com)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin is used in a variety of applications. (lovetofeel.com)
  • In the food and beverage industry, Alpha-Cyclodextrin is commonly used as an emulsifier, thickener, and stabilizer. (lovetofeel.com)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin is increasingly used as a dietary supplement to promote improved digestion and gut health. (lovetofeel.com)
  • Where is Alpha-Cyclodextrin Found? (lovetofeel.com)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin can be found in a number of food items. (lovetofeel.com)
  • What Are The Health Benefits Of Alpha-Cyclodextrin? (lovetofeel.com)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin is created from the breakdown of starch molecules, specifically from potatoes. (lovetofeel.com)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin is a naturally occurring sugar, meaning it is not artificially created or derived. (lovetofeel.com)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin has a wide range of uses, from pharmaceuticals to food and beverages. (lovetofeel.com)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin can help to improve digestion and maintain a healthy gut microbiome. (lovetofeel.com)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin is generally considered to be safe for consumption. (lovetofeel.com)
  • However, it is important to talk to a healthcare professional before taking any dietary supplement, as Alpha-Cyclodextrin may interact with certain medications. (lovetofeel.com)
  • Additionally, it is important to note that Alpha-Cyclodextrin is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment. (lovetofeel.com)
  • The method uses sulfated alpha-cyclodextrin in the presence of Mg +2 , which forms complexes with apoB containing lipoproteins, and polyethylene glycol-coupled cholesteryl esterase and cholesterol oxidase for the HDL-cholesterol measurement. (cdc.gov)
  • Water-soluble cyclodextrin thioethers derivatives for the transportation of hydrophobic drugs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The analysis of the conformational behaviour of several derivatives strongly suggests that a slow exchange occurs between C 7 and C 1 conformers, the C 1 probably involving insertion of one of the primary rim substituents in the cyclodextrin cavity. (rsc.org)
  • Research studies in both humans and animals have shown that cyclodextrins and their derivatives can be used to improve the drug delivery system for almost any type of drug formulation from anti-cancer drugs to anti-viral drugs. (addiandcassi.com)
  • The four peripheral ester moieties of the title compound 5 are regioselectively hydrolyzed under mild conditions in the presence of ß-cyclodextrin (10), providing a new entry to tetraphenylporphyrin derivatives with differently substituted Ph groups in the meso-positions. (unige.ch)
  • As a leading provider in custom cyclodextrin synthesis, CD BioGlyco has accumulated many years of successful experience in the custom synthesis of a wide range of cyclodextrins and cyclodextrin derivatives. (bioglyco.com)
  • CD BioGlyco has vast experience in the production of cyclodextrin and cyclodextrin derivatives through various process routes, supported by sensitive analytical tools to characterize the products. (bioglyco.com)
  • The inclusion compounds of cyclodextrins with hydrophobic molecules are able to penetrate body tissues, these can be used to release biologically active compounds under specific conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • CGTases produce mixtures of cyclodextrins, thus the product of the conversion results in a mixture of the three main types of cyclic molecules, in ratios that are strictly dependent on the enzyme used: each CGTase has its own characteristic α:β:γ synthesis ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purification of the three types of cyclodextrins takes advantage of the different water solubility of the molecules: β-CD which is poorly water-soluble (18.5 mg/L or 16.3 mM at 25 °C) can be easily retrieved through crystallization while the more soluble α- and γ-CDs (145 and 232 g/L respectively) are usually purified by means of expensive and time consuming chromatography techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results from all three modeling approaches showed similar ranking between ibuprofen and four cyclodextrin molecules as the experimental data. (hindawi.com)
  • The product of the conversion results is commonly a mixture of three main types of cyclodextrins and the purification of different cyclodextrins takes advantage of the different water solubility of the molecules. (bioglyco.com)
  • The chemical methods mainly involve the introduction of new functional groups to the cyclodextrin molecules through chemical reactions such as etherification, esterification, oxidation, etc . (bioglyco.com)
  • Cyclodextrins (CDs) are well-known carriers for encapsulating hydrophobic molecules, while among cannabinoids , cannabidiol (CBD) has attracted considerable attention due to its therapeutic capability. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pseudopolyrotaxanes or inclusion complexes are supramolecular assemblies formed by a polymer chain, which is threaded by several cyclodextrin (CD) molecules. (lu.se)
  • With a hydrophobic interior and hydrophilic exterior, cyclodextrins form complexes with hydrophobic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the exterior is sufficiently hydrophilic to impart cyclodextrins (or their complexes) water solubility. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, ibuprofen and cyclodextrin complexes have been studied using different experimental techniques [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These findings may be helpful to develop other cyclodextrin-metal complexes with metals which show catalytic activity. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Cyclodextrins are non-toxic, sugar-based substances that form complexes with many contaminants. (uri.edu)
  • Herein, we present the synthesis, characterisation, physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of two novel bioconjugates of ß-cyclodextrin bearing the deferiprone moiety either on the upper rim (1) or on the lower rim (2) of the cyclodextrin and their iron(III) complexes. (figshare.com)
  • The complex formation drives the conversion of starch towards the synthesis of the precipitated cyclodextrin, thus enriching its content in the final mixture of products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fulton, DA & Stoddart, JF 2000, ' An efficient synthesis of cyclodextrin-based carbohydrate cluster compounds ', Organic Letters , vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 1113-1116. (northwestern.edu)
  • Equipped with professional technicians and advanced experimental platforms, CD BioGlyco offers clients high-quality custom cyclodextrin synthesis service in a short time with competitive pricing. (bioglyco.com)
  • Custom synthesis of cyclodextrins and cyclodextrin polymers. (bioglyco.com)
  • Cyclodextrin polymers: Structure, synthesis, and use as drug carriers. (bioglyco.com)
  • 3. Rather, MY, Ara KZG, Nordberg Karlsson E, Adlercreutz P. ( 2015 ) Characterization of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases (CGTases) and their application for synthesis of alkyl glycosides with oligomeric head group. (lu.se)
  • Cyclodextrins are produced from starch by enzymatic conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclodextrins are composed of 5 or more α-D-glucopyranoside units linked 1->4, as in amylose (a fragment of starch). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclodextrins are prepared by enzymatic treatment of starch. (wikipedia.org)
  • A detailed force-field-based evaluation of the molecular geometries of small-ring cyclodextrins 1 - 3 with three, four, and five α(1→4)-linked glucose residues and the starch-derived α-cyclodextrin ( 4 ) was performed by using molecular mechanics and high-temperature annealing. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • Cyclodextrins are prepared by treating starch with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) and α- amylase. (bioglyco.com)
  • Commonly cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is employed along with α-amylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. Ara KZG, Lundemo P, Fridjonsson OH, Hreggvidsson GO, Adlercreutz P, Nordberg Karlsson E. ( 2015 ) A CGtase with high coupling activity using γ-cyclodextrin from a novel strain clustering under the genus Carboxydocella . (lu.se)
  • They are the main ingredient in Febreze which claims that the β-cyclodextrins "trap" odor-causing compounds, thereby reducing the odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclodextrins are naturally occurring compounds composed of a large ring of glucose subunits. (bioglyco.com)
  • As an alternative a "complexing agent" can be added during the enzymatic conversion step: such agents (usually organic solvents like toluene, acetone or ethanol) form a complex with the desired cyclodextrin which subsequently precipitates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, only the cyclopentaoside 3 exhibits a hydrophobic central cavity similar to that of α-CD ( 4 ), the smaller cyclodextrins 2 and 1 are closed, yet contain a hydrophobic indentation for potential binding. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • Cyclodextrins act as a container to hold the two reactants in the cavity, pre-organizes them for the reactions, and thus reduces the entropy penalty to the activation free energy. (biorxiv.org)
  • Moreover, calculations confirm NOE experiments consistent with the fact that the cyclodextrins 10 and 12 approach the Ph groups of the porphyrin with the small opening of the cavity (primary face). (unige.ch)
  • coordination with Eu3 + is due to the carboxyl group (COO-), which is outside the cyclodextrin cavity. (atlantis-press.com)
  • The aim of this research was to compare three modeling approaches (Docking, molecular dynamics (MD), and quantum mechanics (QM)) for cyclodextrin/drug complexation. (hindawi.com)
  • Docking results from AutoDock Vina program showed that the scoring of complexation capability between ibuprofen and cyclodextrins is alpha ( α ), gamma ( γ ), beta ( β ), and HP-beta-cyclodextrins, which indicated similar ranking with the results from phase, solubility diagram experiments. (hindawi.com)
  • From the search of Web of Science, there are over 700 research papers about theoretical calculations on cyclodextrins complexation with various drugs until 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • There are also a few theoretical research papers on the complexation of ibuprofen and cyclodextrins [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 5. Rather, MY, Nordberg Karlsson E, Adlercreutz P. ( 2015 ) Complexation of alkyl glycosides with α-cyclodextrin can have drastically different effects on their conversion by glycoside hydrolases. (lu.se)
  • Octakis-(2,3-di- O -methyl-6- O -carboxymethyl)-γ-cyclodextrin sodium salt (ODMCM). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cyclodextrins are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides, consisting of a macrocyclic ring of glucose subunits joined by α-1,4 glycosidic bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, current cyclodextrin formulation development strongly depends on trial-and-error in the laboratory, which is time-consuming and high cost. (hindawi.com)
  • However, current cyclodextrin formulation development mainly depends on trial-and-error by formulation scientists in the laboratory, which is time-consuming and high cost. (hindawi.com)
  • β-cyclodextrins are used to produce stationary phase media for HPLC separations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Providing analytical services to characterize products of cyclodextrin. (bioglyco.com)
  • Cyclodextrins are also used to produce alcohol powder by encapsulating ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wistar rats were divided into non-diabetic groups: Control, Ethanol, Resveratrol, Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, Resveratrol-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and diabetic groups with the same treatments. (ufrgs.br)
  • β-Cyclodextrin can act as an efficient inhibitor of the photosensitized dimerization of thymine by para -aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in aqueous solution. (bioone.org)
  • Energetic and thermodynamical aspects of the cyclodextrins-cannabidiol complex in aqueous solution: a molecular-dynamics study. (bvsalud.org)
  • We examine a new approach to reversibly modulate hydrophobic interactions in associative polymers using cyclodextrins (CD) and enzymes that cause scission of the α-1, 4 linkages in cyclodextrins. (rsc.org)
  • The cyclodextrin confers solubility and stability to these drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclodextrins (CDs) are natural pharmaceutical ingredients for the solubility-enhancement of poorly soluble drugs for over half century. (hindawi.com)
  • The complex of cyclodextrin increases the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of the drug, which is useful for the delivery of the medical agent to a biological system. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Two different cyclodextrin varieties were investigated and it was shown that their presence in solution results in a significant increase of the apparent solubility of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). (uri.edu)
  • Mouse studies indicated that subcutaneous administration of oligosaccharide 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2HPβCD) can solubilize cholesterol, removing it from the atheromatous plaque that causes atherosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we showed that cyclodextrin polymer (CDP) with a diameter of ~ 10 nm exhibits outstanding pharmacokinetics and plaque targeting efficacy compared to a monomeric CD. (pharmaexcipients.com)
  • X-ray analysis of the product showed lead(IV) complexed by three cyclodextrin dianions isotypic to the tin(IV)-cyclodextrin complex. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • This can be explained by considering the formation of an inclusion complex between PABA and β-cyclodextrin. (bioone.org)
  • In many cases, statistical (random) substitution results in essential changes in the hydrogen bonding systems of the cyclodextrin hydroxy rims, and is especially useful when the crystalline complex formation with the guest is undesirable. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • UV, 1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy of the inclusion complex 9 of 2,6-O-dimethyl-ß-cyclodextrin (12) and 5 indicate a stoichiometry of 2:1 for 10/5. (unige.ch)
  • The effect of confinement on a barrierless ultrafast chemical reaction is investigated through the ultrafast torsional reaction of the dye Auramine O bound in a cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complex. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Cyclodextrins are widely used for the solubilisation of poorly soluble drugs in the formulations. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, MD simulation with MM-PBSA method may be fit to in silico screen for cyclodextrin formulations. (hindawi.com)
  • There are over 35 commercially available pharmaceutical formulations including various natural or chemically modified cyclodextrins [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cyclodextrins are ingredients in more than 30 different approved medicines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycidyl methacrylate/monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin mixture (GMA/MCT-β-CD) is grafted onto cotton fabric by an irradiation technique that uses linear electron beam radiation for initiating the grafting reaction. (emerald.com)
  • This work presents a proof of concept for a green cyclodextrin derivatisation method that uses low-boiling epoxide reagents in a high-energy ball mill (HEBM). (beilstein-journals.org)
  • It could be shown, that the functional groups of the oligosaccharide cyclodextrin are able to assemble into a nanoscaled trimer that provides a mononuclear binding site for high valent metal centers. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Hydrogen bonds (Hbonds) between N-cyclohexylmaleimide and the hydroxyl groups of cyclodextrins were suggested to play an important role in the catalysis.However, our free energy calculations and molecular dynamics simulations showed that these Hbonds are not stable, and quantum mechanics calculations suggested that the reaction is not promoted by these Hbonds. (biorxiv.org)
  • This computational work sheds light on the mechanism of the catalytic reaction by cyclodextrins and introduces new perspectives of supramolecular catalysis. (biorxiv.org)
  • The simplified preparation and purification of low substitution-degree common (2-hydroxy)propylated β- and γ-cyclodextrins (β/γ-CDs) has been realised. (beilstein-journals.org)
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  • Cyclodextrins have multiple functions of improving the bioavailability of the drug and facilitating delivery, eliminating odors, intensifying the enzymatic conversion of lipophilic substrates, reducing aggregation, and enhancing emulsification and moisture resistance. (bioglyco.com)
  • Modification of cyclodextrins by chemical and enzymatic engineering methods. (bioglyco.com)
  • Chemical composition of cyclodextrin consists of D-glucopyranoses, which are linked by alpha 1,4-glycosidic bonds to form the macrocyclic ring conformations. (hindawi.com)
  • The goal of the Phase I clinical trial is to determine a safe dose of cyclodextrin that will support an expanded Phase II trial to begin to evaluate the effectiveness of the drug. (news-medical.net)
  • A clinical trial to evaluate a drug candidate called cyclodextrin as a possible treatment for Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC), a rare and fatal genetic disease, will start today, researchers announced. (news-medical.net)
  • The significance of the structural features of cyclodextrin substituents for the occurrence of conformational isomerism is examined. (rsc.org)
  • Fig.1 Structural scheme and geometric dimensions of cyclodextrins. (bioglyco.com)
  • Cyclodextrins were also shown to enhance mucosal penetration of drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several functionalized β-cyclodextrins have been shown to exhibit conformational isomerism. (rsc.org)
  • Recently, cyclodextrin (CD) has shown the potential for effective treatment of atherosclerotic plaques in mice by solubilizing plaque cholesterol. (pharmaexcipients.com)
  • The biomarker test detects in the blood a modified cholesterol molecule specific to neuronal cells in the brain that would increase as a result of treatment with cyclodextrin. (news-medical.net)
  • Although several types of cyclodextrin(CD)-based aerogels have been reported, they have been used for environmental applications, mostly for wastewater treatment. (cyclodextrinnews.com)
  • Depending on the air flow rate, the necessary residence time of the cyclodextrin solution in the air stripper approaches that of cyclodextrin-free water. (uri.edu)
  • We performed computational research to investigate the mechanism by which cyclodextrins (CDs) catalyze Diels-Alder reactions between 9-anthracenemethanol and N-cyclohexylmaleimide. (biorxiv.org)