Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.alpha-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.gamma-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.DextrinsTrimeprazine: A phenothiazine derivative that is used as an antipruritic.Rotaxanes: Complex compounds in which a dumbbell shaped molecule is encircled by a macrocycle. They are named after rota (wheel) and axis (axle). Notation with a prefix is used to indicate the number of interlocked components. They have potential use in NANOTECHNOLOGY. Rotaxanes have been made with CYCLODEXTRINS and CYCLIC ETHERS.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Micromonosporaceae: A family of gram-positive, saprophytic bacteria occurring in soil and aquatic environments.Sun Protection Factor: A measure of relative protection provided by SUNSCREENING AGENTS against burns due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from a light source.Optical Rotation: The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Myristates: Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Acarbose: An inhibitor of ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASES that retards the digestion and absorption of DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES in the SMALL INTESTINE.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Glycoside HydrolasesSolutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Garbage: Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)Air Filters: Barriers used to separate and remove PARTICULATE MATTER from air.Fomites: Inanimate objects that carry pathogenic microorganisms and thus can serve as the source of infection. Microorganisms typically survive on fomites for minutes or hours. Common fomites include CLOTHING, tissue paper, hairbrushes, and COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Perfume: A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Water SofteningTextilesHospital Auxiliaries: Volunteer organizations whose members perform work for the hospital without compensation.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.AustriaPhysics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Adamantane: A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.Viscoelastic Substances: Substances that display the physical properties of ELASTICITY and VISCOSITY. The dual-nature of these substances causes them to resist applied forces in a time-dependent manner.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.5-Methylcytosine: A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.ThymineCytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Anhydrides: Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.Diet, Mediterranean: A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases: Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Lanthanoid Series Elements: Elements of the lanthanoid series including atomic number 57 (LANTHANUM) through atomic number 71 (LUTETIUM).Metals, Rare Earth: A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.Hydrocarbons, Cyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Lipofuscin: A naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to ceroid. It accumulates in various normal tissues and apparently increases in quantity with age.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Retinoids: A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Niemann-Pick Diseases: A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A: The classic infantile form of Niemann-Pick Disease, caused by mutation in SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE. It is characterized by accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS in the cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM and other cell throughout the body leading to cell death. Clinical signs include JAUNDICE, hepatosplenomegaly, and severe brain damage.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder that is characterized by accumulation of CHOLESTEROL and SPHINGOMYELINS in cells of the VISCERA and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Type C (or C1) and type D are allelic disorders caused by mutation of gene (NPC1) encoding a protein that mediate intracellular cholesterol transport from lysosomes. Clinical signs include hepatosplenomegaly and chronic neurological symptoms. Type D is a variant in people with a Nova Scotia ancestry.CaliforniaPiroxicam: A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.

Thermus aquaticus ATCC 33923 amylomaltase gene cloning and expression and enzyme characterization: production of cycloamylose. (1/768)

The amylomaltase gene of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus ATCC 33923 was cloned and sequenced. The open reading frame of this gene consisted of 1,503 nucleotides and encoded a polypeptide that was 500 amino acids long and had a calculated molecular mass of 57,221 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of the amylomaltase exhibited a high level of homology with the amino acid sequence of potato disproportionating enzyme (D-enzyme) (41%) but a low level of homology with the amino acid sequence of the Escherichia coli amylomaltase (19%). The amylomaltase gene was overexpressed in E. coli, and the enzyme was purified. This enzyme exhibited maximum activity at 75 degrees C in a 10-min reaction with maltotriose and was stable at temperatures up to 85 degrees C. When the enzyme acted on amylose, it catalyzed an intramolecular transglycosylation (cyclization) reaction which produced cyclic alpha-1,4-glucan (cycloamylose), like potato D-enzyme. The yield of cycloamylose produced from synthetic amylose with an average molecular mass of 110 kDa was 84%. However, the minimum degree of polymerization (DP) of the cycloamylose produced by T. aquaticus enzyme was 22, whereas the minimum DP of the cycloamylose produced by potato D-enzyme was 17. The T. aquaticus enzyme also catalyzed intermolecular transglycosylation of maltooligosaccharides. A detailed analysis of the activity of T. aquaticus ATCC 33923 amylomaltase with maltooligosaccharides indicated that the catalytic properties of this enzyme differ from those of E. coli amylomaltase and the plant D-enzyme.  (+info)

Opposite behavior of two isozymes when refolding in the presence of non-ionic detergents. (2/768)

GroEL has a greater affinity for the mitochondrial isozyme (mAAT) of aspartate aminotransferase than for its cytosolic counterpart (cAAT) (Mattingly JR Jr, Iriarte A, Martinez-Carrion M, 1995, J Biol Chem 270:1138-1148), two proteins that share a high degree of sequence similarity and an almost identical spatial structure. The effect of detergents on the refolding of these large, dimeric isozymes parallels this difference in behavior. The presence of non-ionic detergents such as Triton X-100 or lubrol at concentrations above their critical micelle concentration (CMC) interferes with reactivation of mAAT unfolded in guanidinium chloride but increases the yield of cAAT refolding at low temperatures. The inhibitory effect of detergents on the reactivation of mAAT decreases progressively as the addition of detergents is delayed after starting the refolding reaction. The rate of disappearance of the species with affinity for binding detergents coincides with the slowest of the two rate-limiting steps detected in the refolding pathway of mAAT. Limited proteolysis studies indicate that the overall structure of the detergent-bound mAAT resembles that of the protein in a complex with GroEL. The mAAT folding intermediates trapped in the presence of detergents can resume reactivation either upon dilution of the detergent below its CMC or by adding beta-cyclodextrin. Thus, isolation of otherwise transient productive folding intermediates for further characterization is possible through the use of detergents.  (+info)

Antilithiasic effect of beta-cyclodextrin in LPN hamster: comparison with cholestyramine. (3/768)

Beta-Cyclodextrin (BCD), a cyclic oligosaccharide that binds cholesterol and bile acids in vitro, has been previously shown to be an effective plasma cholesterol lowering agent in hamsters and domestic pigs. This study examined the effects of BCD as compared with cholestyramine on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in the LPN hamster model model for cholesterol gallstones. The incidence of cholesterol gallstones was 65% in LPN hamsters fed the lithogenic diet, but decreased linearly with increasing amounts of BCD in the diet to be nil at a dose of 10% BCD. In gallbladder bile, cholesterol, phospholipid and chenodeoxycholate concentrations, hydrophobic and lithogenic indices were all significantly decreased by 10% BCD. Increases in bile acid synthesis (+110%), sterol 27-hydroxylase activity (+106%), and biliary cholate secretion (+140%) were also observed, whereas the biliary secretion of chenodeoxycholate decreased (-43%). The fecal output of chenodeoxycholate and cholate (plus derivatives) was increased by +147 and +64%, respectively, suggesting that BCD reduced the chenodeoxycholate intestinal absorption preferentially. Dietary cholestyramine decreased biliary bile acid concentration and secretion, but dramatically increased the fecal excretion of chenodeoxycholate and cholate plus their derivatives (+328 and +1940%, respectively). In contrast to BCD, the resin increased the lithogenic index in bile, induced black gallstones in 34% of hamsters, and stimulated markedly the activities of HMG-CoA reductase (+670%), sterol 27-hydroxylase (+310%), and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (+390%). Thus, beta-cyclodextrin (BCD) prevented cholesterol gallstone formation by decreasing specifically the reabsorption of chenodeoxycholate, stimulating its biosynthesis and favoring its fecal elimination. BCD had a milder effect on lipid metabolism than cholestyramine and does not predispose animals to black gallstones as cholestyramine does in this animal model.  (+info)

Extraction of cholesterol with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin perturbs formation of clathrin-coated endocytic vesicles. (4/768)

The importance of cholesterol for endocytosis has been investigated in HEp-2 and other cell lines by using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) to selectively extract cholesterol from the plasma membrane. MbetaCD treatment strongly inhibited endocytosis of transferrin and EGF, whereas endocytosis of ricin was less affected. The inhibition of transferrin endocytosis was completely reversible. On removal of MbetaCD it was restored by continued incubation of the cells even in serum-free medium. The recovery in serum-free medium was inhibited by addition of lovastatin, which prevents cholesterol synthesis, but endocytosis recovered when a water-soluble form of cholesterol was added together with lovastatin. Electron microscopical studies of MbetaCD-treated HEp-2 cells revealed that typical invaginated caveolae were no longer present. Moreover, the invagination of clathrin-coated pits was strongly inhibited, resulting in accumulation of shallow coated pits. Quantitative immunogold labeling showed that transferrin receptors were concentrated in coated pits to the same degree (approximately sevenfold) after MbetaCD treatment as in control cells. Our results therefore indicate that although clathrin-independent (and caveolae-independent) endocytosis still operates after removal of cholesterol, cholesterol is essential for the formation of clathrin-coated endocytic vesicles.  (+info)

V-Amylose at atomic resolution: X-ray structure of a cycloamylose with 26 glucose residues (cyclomaltohexaicosaose). (5/768)

The amylose fraction of starch occurs in double-helical A- and B-amyloses and the single-helical V-amylose. The latter contains a channel-like central cavity that is able to include molecules, "iodine's blue" being the best-known representative. Molecular models of these amylose forms have been deduced by solid state 13C cross-polarization/magic angle spinning NMR and by x-ray fiber and electron diffraction combined with computer-aided modeling. They remain uncertain, however, as no structure at atomic resolution is available. We report here the crystal structure of a hydrated cycloamylose containing 26 glucose residues (cyclomaltohexaicosaose, CA26), which has been determined by real/reciprocal space recycling starting from randomly positioned atoms or from an oriented diglucose fragment. This structure provides conclusive evidence for the structure of V-amylose, as the macrocycle of CA26 is folded into two short left-handed V-amylose helices in antiparallel arrangement and related by twofold rotational pseudosymmetry. In the V-helices, all glucose residues are in syn orientation, forming systematic interglucose O(3)n...O(2)(n+l) and O(6)n...O(2)(n+6)/O(3)(n+6) hydrogen bonds; the central cavities of the V-helices are filled by disordered water molecules. The folding of the CA26 macrocycle is characterized by typical "band-flips" in which diametrically opposed glucose residues are in anti rather than in the common syn orientation, this conformation being stabilized by interglucose three-center hydrogen bonds with O(3)n as donor and O(5)(n+l), O(6)(n+l) as acceptors. The structure of CA26 permitted construction of an idealized V-amylose helix, and the band-flip motif explains why V-amylose crystallizes readily and may be packed tightly in seeds.  (+info)

Cell cholesterol efflux: integration of old and new observations provides new insights. (6/768)

Numerous studies using a variety of cell/acceptor combinations have demonstrated differences in cholesterol efflux among cells. These studies also show that different acceptors, ranging from simple molecules like cyclodextrins to serum, stimulate efflux through a variety of mechanisms. By combining early observations with data derived from recent studies, it is now possible to formulate a model for cell cholesterol efflux which proposes that an array of different mechanisms, including aqueous diffusion, lipid-free apolipoprotein membrane microsolubilization, and SR-BI-mediated cholesterol exchange contribute to cholesterol flux. In this model the relative importance of each mechanism would be determined both by the cell type and the nature of the extracellular cholesterol acceptor.  (+info)

Cellular cholesterol regulates expression of the macrophage type B scavenger receptor, CD36. (7/768)

CD36, the macrophage type B scavenger receptor, binds and internalizes oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL), and may potentially play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. We reported that the native and modified low density lipoproteins increased CD36 mRNA and protein ( J. Biol. Chem. 272: 21654-21659). In this study, we investigated the effect of alterations of cellular cholesterol content on macrophage expression of CD36. Depletion of cholesterol by treatment with beta-cyclodextrins (beta-cyclodextrin [beta-CD] and methylated beta-cyclodextrin [MebetaCD]) significantly decreased CD36 mRNA and 125I-labeled OxLDL binding. Conversely, loading macrophages with cholesterol or cholesteryl ester (acetate) with MebetaCD:cholesterol complexes increased CD36 mRNA, 125I-labeled OxLDL binding, and CD36 surface expression as determined by fluorescence activated cell sorting. Thus, CD36 expression paralleled cellular cholesterol levels after removal of cholesterol with beta-cyclodextrins or addition of cholesterol with MebetaCD:cholesterol complexes. Neither cholesterol depletion nor loading altered expression of type A scavenger receptor mRNA. Kinetics studies showed that changes in CD36 mRNA occurred after changes of cellular cholesterol. Neither beta-cyclodextrins nor MebetaCD:cholesterol altered CD36 mRNA half-life in the presence of actinomycin D, suggesting that alterations in CD36 expression by cholesterol occur at the transcriptional level. These experiments demonstrate that CD36 expression is enhanced by cholesterol and down-regulated by cholesterol efflux, and imply that macrophage expression of CD36 and foam cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions may be perpetuated by a cycle in which lipids drive expression of CD36 in a self-regulatory manner.  (+info)

Critical role for cholesterol in Lyn-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of FcepsilonRI and their association with detergent-resistant membranes. (8/768)

Tyrosine phosphorylation of the high affinity immunoglobulin (Ig)E receptor (FcepsilonRI) by the Src family kinase Lyn is the first known biochemical step that occurs during activation of mast cells and basophils after cross-linking of FcepsilonRI by antigen. The hypothesis that specialized regions in the plasma membrane, enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol, facilitate the coupling of Lyn and FcepsilonRI was tested by investigating functional and structural effects of cholesterol depletion on Lyn/FcepsilonRI interactions. We find that cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin substantially reduces stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of FcepsilonRI and other proteins while enhancing more downstream events that lead to stimulated exocytosis. In parallel to its inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation, cholesterol depletion disrupts the interactions of aggregated FcepsilonRI and Lyn on intact cells and also disrupts those interactions with detergent-resistant membranes that are isolated by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation of lysed cells. Importantly, cholesterol repletion restores receptor phosphorylation together with the structural interactions. These results provide strong evidence that membrane structure, maintained by cholesterol, plays a critical role in the initiation of FcepsilonRI signaling.  (+info)

*Cyclodextrin

GRN 000155, alpha-cyclodextrin GRAS Notice No. GRN 000074, beta-cyclodextrin GRAS Notice No. GRN 000046, gamma-cyclodextrin ... cyclodextrin: 6-membered sugar ring molecule β (beta)-cyclodextrin: 7-membered sugar ring molecule γ (gamma)-cyclodextrin: 8- ... α-Cyclodextrin is a soluble dietary fiber used as an ingredient in commercial food products. Cyclodextrins are composed of 5 or ... Both β-cyclodextrin and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) remove cholesterol from cultured cells. The methylated form MβCD was found ...

*Alpha-Cyclodextrin

... (α-dextrin, α-cyclodextrin, α-CD, alphadextrin, alpha cyclodextrin (dietary fiber)) is a polysaccharide of ... The ratio for α-cyclodextrin is actually closer to 1:9 (fiber:fat ratio). Trichard et al. have demonstrated that α-cyclodextrin ... CGTases can synthesize all forms of cyclodextrins, thus for the production of the α-cyclodextrin, one specific enzyme must be ... α-Cyclodextrin has the unique ability among known fibers to bind nine times its own weight in fat. Although many dietary fibers ...

*Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase

Cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase (also Cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase or Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase) or CGTase for ... Rational design of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans strain 251 to increase alpha-cyclodextrin ... The coupling reaction can be easily described as the reverse process of cyclization: the enzyme cleaves a cyclodextrin to ... Disproportionation is very similar to coupling, but the cleaved dextrin is not a cyclodextrin, but a linear oligosaccharide ...

*Steroid

in the presence of cyclodextrins". Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 11 (7): 398-404. doi:10.1016/0141-0229(89)90133-6. Sandow J ...

*Myron L. Bender

Thermodynamic Studies Of Cyclodextrin-Accelerated Cleavage Of Phenyl Esters. Journal of the American Chemical Society 100 (14 ... He also showed that cyclodextrin can be used to investigate catalysis of organic reactions within the scope of host-guest ... Stereochemically Correct Catalytic Site On Cyclodextrin Resulting In A Better Enzyme Model. Journal of the American Chemical ... Ester Hydrolyses Catalyzed By Modified Cyclodextrins. Bioorganic Chemistry 4 (3): 237-249. Iwakura, Y; Uno, K; Toda, F; Onozuka ...

*Cavitand

Examples include cyclodextrins, calixarenes, pillararenes and cucurbiturils. Specific cavitands form the basis of rigid ...

*Polyrotaxane

Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been extensively studied as host molecules (ring) in polyrotaxanes. The poly(ethylene glycol)s can ... For example, a "molecular necklace" assembled by α-cyclodextrins and polyethylene glycol (PEG) is insoluble in water and ... Born, Markus; Ritter, Helmut (August 1991). "Comb-like rotaxane polymers containing non-covalently bound cyclodextrins in the ... Li, Jun (2010-07-22). "Self-assembled supramolecular hydrogels based on polymer-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes for drug ...

*Febreze

The use of a cyclodextrin as a sprayable odor absorber is patented by Procter & Gamble. The products include additional ... The active ingredient in several Febreze products is hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD). The molecule traps and binds ... Uncomplexed cyclodextrin solutions for odor control on inanimate surfaces. US Pat. No. 5,714,137. Filed 1994; assigned 1998. ... Cyclodextrin". Procter&Gamble. 2005. *P&G. (2014). Febreze FAQ (in japanese). Retrieved: http://www.febreze.jp/Faq.aspx?id=4442 ...

*Solubility

A few exceptions exist, such as certain cyclodextrins. For condensed phases (solids and liquids), the pressure dependence of ... Salvatore Filippone, Frank Heimanna and André Rassat (2002). "A highly water-soluble 2+1 b-cyclodextrin-fullerene conjugate". ...

*Dextrin

Cyclodextrin The cyclical dextrins are known as cyclodextrins. They are formed by enzymatic degradation of starch by certain ... bacteria, for example, Paenibacillus macerans (Bacillus macerans). Cyclodextrins have toroidal structures formed by 6-8 glucose ...

*Synthetic ion channels

Other substituted β-cyclodextrins have since been reported, including thiol-modified cyclodextrins, an anion-selective ... Chui, J. K. W.; Fyles, T. M. (May 2010). "Apparent fractal distribution of open durations in cyclodextrin-based ion channels". ... The first synthetic ion channel was constructed by partial substitution on the primary rim of β-cyclodextrin. ... Structure-activity relationships for a large suite of cyclodextrin "half-channels" prepared by "click"-chemistry has been ...

*Oilfield scale inhibition

"From algal polysaccharides to cyclodextrins to stabilize a urease inhibitor". Carbohydrate Polymers. 112: 145-151. doi:10.1016/ ...

*Curcuminoid

No covalent bonds are present between the cyclodextrins and the curcuminoids so they are easily released from the complex by ... The curcuminoids would be in complex with the core of the micelles similar to the complex inside the cyclodextrins. The ... Degradation rate is depended on pH of the solution and how much protection the cyclodextrins provide the curcuminoids. The ... Cyclodextrin complexation: solubility, chemical and photochemical stabilit". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 244 (1-2 ...

*Atheroma

... aspirin supplement cyclodextrin can solubilize cholesterol, removing it from plaques Put simply, take steps to live a healthy, ... "Cyclodextrin promotes atherosclerosis regression via macrophage reprogramming". Science Translational Medicine. 8 (333): ...

*Atherosclerosis

The sugar, cyclodextrin, removed cholesterol that had built up in the arteries of mice fed a high-fat diet. Aging is the most ... Sebastian Zimmer, Alena Grebe, Siril S. Bakke et al., and Eicke Latz (Apr 2016). Cyclodextrin promotes atherosclerosis ...

*Carbon monoxide detector

It uses cyclodextrins, a chromophore, and a number of metal salts. This can either be seen directly or connected to an infrared ...

*Cycloamylose

Chemically they are similar to the much smaller cyclodextrins, which are typically composed of 6, 7 or 8 glucose units. ... While the structures of cyclodextrins are planar circles, the structure of cycloamyloses with 10 to 14 glucose units were ... "Structures of the Common Cyclodextrins and Their Larger AnaloguesBeyond the Doughnut". Chemical Reviews. 98 (5): 1787-1802. doi ...

*Inclusion compound

alpha-Cyclodextrin dimer complexes of dopamine and levodopa derivatives to assess drug delivery to the central nervous system: ... Cyclodextrin also forms inclusion compounds with fragrance molecules.[5] As a result, the fragrance molecules have a reduced ... Inclusion complexes are formed between cyclodextrins and different guest molecules[1][2][3] such as ferrocene.[4] When a ... cyclodextrin-ferrocene in the solid state Yu Liu, Rui-Qin Zhong, Heng-Yi Zhang and Hai-Bin Song Chemical Communications, 2005 ...

*Supramolecular catalysis

developed a catalyst based on a beta-cyclodextrin carrying two imidazole groups. This cyclodextrin catalytic system mimics ... Cyclodextrins have rigid ring structure, hydrophilic surface, and hydrophobic cavity on the inside; therefore, they are capable ... From the early 1970s, cyclodextrins have been extensively studied for its encapsulation properties and used as binding sites in ... Self-assembled molecules have an advantage over crown ether and cyclodextrin in that they can capture significant larger ...

*Decalepis hamiltonii

The active ingredient in the root was synthesized and encapsulated with beta-cyclodextrins. The roots were also subjected to ...

*Mark E. Davis

The cyclodextrin nanoparticles are also being used to encapsulate siRNA. He was the recipient of the Alan T. Waterman Award in ... His group conjugated cyclodextrin to the anti-cancer compound camptothecin to improve the bio-availability and exhibit efficacy ...

*Delafloxacin

... the injection formulation also includes EDTA and sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin. The tablet is made of delafloxacin, citric ...

*Bacillus clarkii

Wu, Dan; Chen, Sheng; Wang, Ning; Chan, Jian; Wu, Jing (27 May 2012). "Gamma-Cyclodextrin Production Using Cyclodextrin ...

*Nabumetone

doi:10.1016/s0731-7085(03)00171-7. Al-Rawashdeh, A F Nathir (2005). "Interactions of Nabumetone with γ-Cyclodextrin Studied by ... The interactions with gamma-cyclodextrin were also studied by fluorescence measurements. Assay methods employed HPLC using UV ...

*Cinazepam

"Bioaccessibility of cinazepam introduced as inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin". Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 32 (10): ...
The solubility of natural cyclodextrins is very poor and initially this prevented cyclodextrins from becoming effective complexing agents. In the late 1960s, it was discovered that chemical substitutions at the 2-, 3-, and 6-hydroxyl sites would greatly increase solubility. The degree of chemical substitution and the nature of the groups used for substitution determine the final maximum concentration of cyclodextrin in an aqueous medium. Most chemically modified cyclodextrins are able to achieve a 50% (w/v) concentration in water.. Cavity size is the major determinant as to which cyclodextrin is used in complexation. "Fit" is critical to achieving good incorporation of cyclodextrins. α-Cyclodextrins have small cavities that are not capable of accepting many molecules. γ-Cyclodextrins have much larger cavities than many molecules to be incorporated, and cyclodextrin hydrophobic charges cannot effectively interact to facilitate complexation. The cavity diameter of β-cyclodextrins has been ...
In vitro studies of α-amylase degradation of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins and 2-hydroxypropyl-β- and -γ-cyclodextrins were investigated spectrophotometrically by measuring the formation of reducing sugars, the reaction products of α-amylase degradation. This was done to evaluate potential degradation and thereby biological conversion of the cyclodextrins if dosed orally, as the intestinal tract contains α-amylase for digestive purposes. The results demonstrated that only γ- and 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrins can be degraded by α-amylase to a relevant extent, that is, γ- and 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrins have different biopharmaceutical behaviours than the other evaluated cyclodextrins. The rate of degradation was affected by the addition of the inclusion complex forming additives flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and benzo[a]pyrene. This effect between the degradation dynamics and the included additives was caused by a correlation between solubility of the additives and the stability of the ...
The aim of present study is to highlight the effects of β-cyclodextrin (BCD) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBCD) and also the effect of their concentrations and methods of inclusion complexation on solubility and antibacterial activity of trimethoprim [TMP] by inclusion complex formation. The inclusion complexes of TMP were prepared by solvent evaporation, spray drying, kneading and physical mixture methods in 1:1 and 1:2 ratios. The inclusion complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dissolution study and antimicrobial activity by disk diffusion method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results proved formation of inclusion complex of TEM with cyclodextrins. XRD showed decrease in crystanality of TEM after complexation with CDs. The results of saturation solubility study and release study prevailed the more increase in solubility of TMP by HPCD than
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactions between cyclodextrins and cell-membrane phospholipids. AU - Szejtli, J.. AU - Cserháti, T.. AU - Szögyi, M.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - The interactions between cyclodextrins (CDs) and selected cell membrane phospholipids, liposomes and human erythrocytes were studied. Non-methylated cyclodextrins did not influence the differential scanning calorimetric behaviour of phospholipids and did not increase the permeability of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidyl-choline liposomes. Dimethyl- and trimethyl- β-CD interacted with the phospholipids but the effect was negligible compared to the effect of valinomycin. Reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography revealed complex formation with dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin, but not with others. The addition of cyclodextrins up to 10-2 mol litre-1 concentration did not modify the active or passive alkali ion transport of human erythrocytes, however, higher concentrations of added β-cyclodextrin especially dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin resulted in ...
Formation of maltosyl cyclodextrins from mixtures of maltose and cyclodextrins by reverse reactions of Flavobacterium isoamylase and Klebsiella pullulanase was experimented and it was found that Klebsilla pullulanase produced 50.4 mg maltosyl alpha-cyclodextrin, 35.0 mg maltosyl beta-cyclodextrin and 55.4 mg maltosyl gamma-cyclodextrin per ml of reaction mixture, whereas Flavobacterium isoamylase did not form maltosyl cyclodextrins. Optimum conditions for formation of maltosyl beta-cyclodextrin by Klebsiella pullulanase were pH 4, 50 degrees C reaction temperature and proportion of substrate 100 mg beta-cyclodextrin/600 mg maltose per ml ...
0083] In some embodiments, the cyclodextrin derivative is present in a pharmaceutical composition or unit dosage form of the present invention in a concentration of about 0.1 mg/mL to about 1000 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL to about 700 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL to about 500 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL to about 250 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL to about 200 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL to about 150 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL to about 100 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL to about 50 mg/mL, about 1 mg/mL to about 1000 mg/mL, about 1 mg/mL to about 700 mg/mL, about 1 mg/mL to about 500 mg/mL, about 1 mg/mL to about 250 mg/mL, about 1 mg/mL to about 200 mg/mL, about 1 mg/mL to about 150 mg/mL, about 1 mg/mL to about 100 mg/mL, about 1 mg/mL to about 50 mg/mL, about 10 mg/mL to about 1000 mg/mL, about 10 mg/mL to about 700 mg/mL, about 10 mg/mL to about 500 mg/mL, about 10 mg/mL to about 250 mg/mL, about 10 mg/mL to about 200 mg/mL, about 10 mg/mL to about 150 mg/mL, about 10 mg/mL to about 100 mg/mL, about 10 mg/mL to about 50 mg/mL, about ...
A stable composition for removing unwanted molecules from a surface comprises low-degree of substitution cyclodextrin derivatives. The compositions are suitable for capturing unwanted molecules from inanimate surfaces, including fabrics, including carpets, and household surfaces such as countertops, dishes, floors, garbage cans, ceilings, walls, carpet padding, air filters, and the like, and from animate surfaces, including skin, hair, and the like. The compositions can further comprise cyclodextrin-compatible and -incompatible materials, and other optional ingredients.
A cyclodextrin-based chiral stationary phase (CD-CSP) is one of the most widely applied CSPs due to its powerful enantioseparation ability. In this study, a facile method was developed to prepare a CD-CSP via carboxyl methyl β-cyclodextrin (CD-COOH) and diazo-resin (DR). Monodisperse silica particles were sy
en] PURPOSE: Ro 28-2653 (RO) is a synthetic inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which is potentially effective against bronchial remodeling. Given that this molecule has very poor aqueous solubility, different cyclodextrins (CDs) have been tested to increase its solubility. The aim of this study was to prepare and to characterize inclusion complexes between RO and CDs, in order to develop nebulizable solutions. METHODS: The complex formation was investigated by phase solubility studies. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling studies were carried out to elucidate the structure of the inclusion complex between RO and dimethyl-beta-CD (DIMEB). Nebulizable solutions of RO were developed with CDs and a stability study was performed over 9 months. RESULTS: The phase solubility studies showed that beta-CD and its derivatives form a 1:2 complex with RO, whereas gamma-CD includes RO with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a weak stability constant. T-ROESY spectra showed that DIMEB is able to ...
Cyclodextrins (sometimes called cycloamyloses) are a family of compounds made up of sugar molecules bound together in a ring (cyclic oligosaccharides). Cyclodextrins are produced from starch by enzymatic conversion. They are used in food, pharmaceutical, drug delivery, and chemical industries, as well as agriculture and environmental engineering. α-Cyclodextrin is a soluble dietary fiber used as an ingredient in commercial food products. Cyclodextrins are composed of 5 or more α-D-glucopyranoside units linked 1->4, as in amylose (a fragment of starch). The largest cyclodextrin contains 32 1,4-anhydroglucopyranoside units, while as a poorly characterized mixture, at least 150-membered cyclic oligosaccharides are also known. Typical cyclodextrins contain a number of glucose monomers ranging from six to eight units in a ring, creating a cone shape: α (alpha)-cyclodextrin: 6-membered sugar ring molecule β (beta)-cyclodextrin: 7-membered sugar ring molecule γ (gamma)-cyclodextrin: 8-membered ...
This study reports the formation of solid vanillin/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (vanillin/CD ICs) with the aim to enhance the thermal stability and sustained release of vanillin by inclusion complexation. The solid vanillin/CD ICs with three types of CDs (α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD) were prepared using the freeze-drying method; in addition, a coprecipitation method was also used in the case of γ-CD. The presence of vanillin in CD ICs was confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR studies. Moreover, (1)H NMR study elucidated that the complexation stoichiometry for both vanillin/β-CD IC and vanillin/γ-CD IC was a 1:1 molar ratio, whereas it was 0.625:1 for vanillin/α-CD IC. XRD studies have shown channel-type arrangement for CD molecules, and no diffraction peak for free vanillin was observed for vanillin/β-CD IC and vanillin/γ-CD IC, indicating that complete inclusion complexation was successfully achieved for these CD ICs. In the case of vanillin/α-CD IC, the sample was mostly amorphous and some uncomplexed
1A47: Engineering of cyclodextrin product specificity and pH optima of the thermostable cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1.
1A47: Engineering of cyclodextrin product specificity and pH optima of the thermostable cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1.
0131]Pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention comprise a therapeutically effective amount of iron from one or more iron-containing compounds, and/or one or more compounds or agents selected from the group consisting of vitamin supplements, erythropoietin stimulating agents, erythropoietin, pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, transdermal permeabilizing agents, and cyclodextrins. As used herein and in the claims, the term "cyclodextrin" refers to any of a family of cyclic oligosaccharides. Cyclodextrins, also sometimes called cycloamyloses, are composed of, but are not necessarily limited to, five or more D-glucopyranoside units, connected by α-(1,4) glycosidic linkages, as in amylose. Cyclodextrins having as many as 32 1,4-glucopyranoside units have been well characterized. Cyclic oligosaccharides as large as 150 units have been identified. Typically, cyclodextrins contain, but are not necessarily limited to, six to eight glucopyranoside units in a ring, commonly termed ...
We report the effect of native cyclodextrins (alpha, beta, and gamma) and selected derivatives in modulating the self-assembly of the nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene cholesteryl ether (ChEO(10)) and its mixtures with triethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12EO3), which form wormlike micelles. Cyclodextrins (CDs) generally induce micellar breakup through a host-guest interaction with surfactants; instead, we show that a constructive effect, leading to gel formation, is obtained with specific CDs and that the widely invoked host-guest interaction may not be the only key to the association. When added to wormlike micelles of ChEO(10) and C12EO3, native beta-CD, 2-hydroxyethyl-beta-CD (HEBCD), and a sulfated sodium salt of beta-CD (SULFBCD) induce a substantial increase of the viscoelasticity, while methylated CDs rupture the micelles, leading to a loss of the viscosity, and the other CDs studied (native alpha- and gamma- and hydroxypropylated CDs) show a weak interaction. Most remarkably, the ...
Branched cyclodextrins are produced by the pyrolysis of cyclodextrins. The temperature range is 135 C. to 220 C. using equipment suitable for making British gum and other starch dextrins.
where [P]0 denotes the initial concentration of IBU and [CD]0 denotes that of CDs. F and F0 are the fluorescence intensities of IBU in the presence and absence of CDs, respectively. K is a formation constant, k is the instrument constant and Q is the fluorescence quantum yield of the inclusion complex. If the curve of 1/(F-F0) versus 1/[CD]0 exhibits good linearity, it implies that inclusion complexes with a stoichiometry of 1:1 are formed. B. Effect of the types of CDs β-CDs have the hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic internal cavity. The inclusion interaction of β-CDs and the guest molecules is affected by the size of the internal cavity and hydrophilic, hydrophobic characters of the host. It is generally believed that dipole-dipole, electrostatic, van der Walls forces, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction, and the release of distortion energy of CD ring upon guest binding cooperatively govern the stability of an inclusion complex. The effect of HP-β-CD concentration on the ...
The preparation and characterization of a supramolecular host-guest inclusion complex between a fluorescent indolizinyl-pyridinium salt and β-cyclodextrin is reported. The formation of the inclusion complex was investigated by ESI-MS experiments, transmission electron microscopy, Jobs plot investigations an
Equilibrium constants and standard enthalpies have been measured calorimetrically for the formation of complexes of α-and β-cyclodextrins with substituted phenols in aqueous solutions at 298.15 K. The study includes variation of the size and shape of the phenol, the size and degree of methylation of the cyclodextrin, and the effects of pH and ionic strength. Substituent effects were measured for p-chloro-, p-bromo-, p-methyl-, p-hydroxy-, p-nitro- and m-nitrophenols. The effects of ionization were studied with m- and p-nitrophenolate ions. The effects of methyl substitutions of β-cyclodextrin were investigated with nitrophenol and nitrophenolate ions complexing with heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin. All of the effects studied show a substantial amount of entropic-enthalpic compensation, such that free energy effects are relatively small in comparison to enthalpic and/or entropie effects, but there was no simple relationship between the
The interactions of trimethoprim, sulphadiazine and sulphamethoxazole with natural (alpha-, beta-, gamma-) and amorphous (RAMEB) or crystalline (DIMEB) methylated beta-cyclodextrins were investigated both in aqueous solution (using phase-solubility analysis) and in the solid state (using DSC supported by X-ray analysis). In particular, DSC studies enabled determination of the relative degree of crystallinity of each drug in its physical and ground mixtures with the different cyclodextrins on the basis of the variation of its heat of fusion in comparison with that of the pure drug. In all cases, the host cavity size was a prevalent factor for the inclusion complexation in liquid state. On the contrary, it had a negligible effect on solid-state interactions in terms of drug amorphization. DIMEB and RAMEB exhibited similar performances in aqueous solution, showing that the presence of methyl-groups improved the complexing and solubilizing properties of beta-cyclodextrin. However, DSC studies ...
Maniruzzaman, Mohammed, Ross, Steven A., Dey, Tumpa, Nair, Arun, Snowden, Martin J. and Douroumis, Dennis (2017) A quality by design (QbD) twin-screw extrusion wet granulation approach for processing water insoluble drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 526 (1-2). pp. 496-505. ISSN 0378-5173 (doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.05.020) Snowden, Martin J. (2016) Colloidal microgels - untapped potential? Journal of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, 7 (4). pp. 1-2. ISSN 2157-7439 (Online) (doi:10.4172/2157-7439.1000e142) Rudrangi, Shashi Ravi Suman, Kaialy, Waseem, Ghori, Muhammad U., Trivedi, Vivek, Alexander, Bruce David and Snowden, Martin J. (2016) Solid-state flurbiprofen and methyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes prepared using a single-step, organic solvent-free supercritical fluid process. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 104. pp. 164-170. ISSN 0939-6411 (doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2016.04.024) Ehiwe, Tracy O., Alexander, Bruce D, Mitchell, John C., Snowden, Martin J. and ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Branching of cyclodextrins with various mono-, di-, and tri-saccharides by Bacillus acidophilus pullulanase.. AU - Madsen, U.. AU - Larsen, Kim Lambertsen. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. KW - Bioteknologi. KW - Bioteknologi. M3 - Article in proceeding. BT - Third Nordic Starch network Symposium. PB - Denmark.. ER - ...
Cyclodextrins: Roquette offers a wide range of betacyclodextrins KLEPTOSE® with different characteristics, solubility, water content, compactibility. | Roquette
From the kinetic investigation of the cleavage of the 4-acetoxybenzoate anion (4-ABA) in the presence of three cyclodextrins (Ì-CD, Ý-CD, and Þ-CD) in basic aqueous solution, the results indicate that 4-ABA binds to Ì-CD fairly weakly while no binding is observed between 4-ABA and Ý-CD or Þ-CD. The effects of the three CDs on the kinetics of the aminolysis of 4-ABA by primary amines have been investigated. Rate constants for the nucleophilic attack by free and CD-bound amine are obtained. For Ì-CD, values of the reactivity ratios for the linear amines are low (,1) implying deceleration of the aminolysis reaction due to binding to the CD. In the case of Ý-CD, the reactivity ratios are slightly larger (,1 for both n -alkyl and branched amines), implying modest catalysis. As for Þ-CD, the values of the reactivity ratios are ,2, which also signifies modest catalysis ...
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The photochem. behavior of alkyldeoxybenzoins $PhCOCHPhCH_2CH_2R$ (R = H, Me, Et, hexyl, decyl) has been investigated in isotropic org. solvents, in aq. cyclodextrin solns., and bound to cyclodextrin in the solid state. Norrish type I and type II reactions occur in these media and the product distribution resulting from these primary processes are dependent on the medium. In org. solvents, type I and type II products are obtained in equal amts. In aq. cyclodextrin soln., type II products are formed in large excess. In the solid state, type II products constitute more than 90% of the product distribution. Ratios of products resulting from elimination and cyclization from the type II 1,4-diradical are also altered by the host cyclodextrin. Conformational and super-cage effects have been invoked to rationalize the dramatic alteration of the photobehavior of alkyldeoxybenzoins by cyclodextrin.. ...
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The effect of cyclodextrin complexation on the solubility and photostability of nerolidol as pure compound and as main constituent of cabreuva essential oil
Paracetamol is a sparingly soluble bitter tasting drug. It is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic. Complexation of drug with different cyclodextrins (?, ? and HP-?-CD) was attempted to improve solubility of Paracetamol. During the drug excipient interaction studies, ?, ? cyclodextrins elicited analytical interference and showed considerable absorbance at ?max (243.5 nm) of Paracetamol while the ones constituting of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) did not show any such interference. Therefore, the present study is concentrated on exploring HP-?-CD as complexing agent. Phase solubility studies showed that complexation of Paracetamol/HP-?-CD at molar ratio 1:1 and showed AL type solubility curve. Complexation was done by various methods like physical mixing, kneading and freeze drying and resulting drug complexes were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermograms obtained showed an endothermic peak for
United This invention relates to complexes, or inclusion compounds, to the preparation of the same, and to edible materials incorporating them. A major problem in the production of convenience foods lies in the difficulty of retaining in the food certain flavors and/or aromas, which, although they may be present in minor amounts, are none the less important. In fact, capturing and preserving for subsequent use the fresh delightful flavors and aromas of fresh edible juices, such as those of freshly picked fruits, leaves and vegetables, is virtually impossible with present-day commercial techniques. Dried leaves, blanched and frozen leaves, dehydrated and frozen fruits and fruit juices, and the like, have been and are used as substitutes, but they fall considerably short of providing the true freshness of the untreated natural material. These flavors and aromas, or notes, which are characteristic of many fresh foods, tend to escape, or undergo change, or be lost in some way, before the food is ...
The synthesis of a new family of cyclodextrin (CD) analogues is described, This family consists of novel cyclic oligosaccharides built from monosaccharides that possess the same relative but opposite absolute (D- and L-) configurations. The alternation of such D- and L-residues-specifically, D- and L-rhamnose or D- and L-mannose-in a macrocyclic structure results in S-n-type symmetry and, consequently, optical inactivity. The synthesis of these cyclic oligosaccharides was achieved by an economical polycondensation/cycloglycosylation approach that relies on an appropriately-derivatized disaccharide monomer and that avoids the time-consuming, and often low-yielding, stepwise growth of long linear oligosaccharide precursors. In the cases reported, the key precursors are the disaccharide monomers 1-RR and 1-MM, which bear both a glycosyl donor (cyanoethylidene function) and a glycosyl acceptor (trityloxy group). These compounds are able to undergo Tr+-catalyzed polycondensation which, under ...
Cardiovascular disease resulting from atherosclerosis is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Inflammation plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis and cholesterol crystals are candidate triggers early in the development of the disease.. Scientists from Bonn in Germany together with scientists from Center of Molecular Inflammation Research (CEMIR) in Trondheim and UiO/OUS Rikshospitalet in Oslo, have in a multi-international collaboration published in Science Translational Medicine that cyclic oligosaccharide 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin dissolve cholesterol crystals and reduces atherosclerotic plaques. This is a promising therapeutic approach for treating atherosclerosis.. Cyclodextrin reprograms the macrophages in an anti-inflammatory manner in addition to increasing cholesterol efflux. The result is prevention of plaque formation and even atherosclerotic plaque regression in mice. Furthermore, biopsies of plaque carotid from humans treated with cyclodextrin showed similar ...
article{0f55d48c-6744-4fed-8c52-9bc57e9a4281, abstract = {The thickening effect of a hydrophobically modified polymer in an aqueous solution is dependent on intermolecular hydrophobic associations, and if the polymer concentration is significantly above the overlap concentration also on chain entanglements. In this investigation we have added different cyclodextrins (CD) in order to decouple hydrophobic polymer-polymer associations via inclusion complex formation with the polymer hydrophobic tails. Both size and hydrophobicity of the cavity of the CD-molecules were found to have an effect on the process. In addition, the influence of chemical structure of the polymer hydrophobic tails was investigated. Either a linear C-14-chain or a more bulky nonylphenol group was used. The viscosity as a function of CD-concentration first decreased strongly, and then attained a constant value. At excess CD the viscosity became virtually the same as in a solution of the unmodified parent polymer, provided that ...
The dielectric properties of alpha and beta cyclodextrin have been investigated in aqueous solutions. Static dielectric constants were measured in water and in mixtures of methyl sulfoxide-water and methanol-water at 25(DEGREES)C. Dielectric constants and losses were measured for water solutions onl.... Full description. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermodynamic study of the discrimination between uridine and thymidine derivatives by hydrophobic, stacking, and intercalating interactions. AU - Rekharsky, M. V.. AU - Nakamura, Asao. AU - Hembury, G. A.. AU - Inoue, Y.. PY - 2001/3. Y1 - 2001/3. N2 - Thermodynamic parameters for the complexation reactions of uridine/thymidine nucleobases and related compounds, with hosts of differing binding modes and properties (natural cyclodextrins, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (1-methlpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin tetrachloride and bis-intercaland macrocycle) have been determined by titration microcalorimetry and/or fluorometry, in an aqueous buffer. For each of these hosts the effect of the 5-methyl group on the binding affinities was investigated. Although the affinities of uridine and thymidine towards cyclodextrins and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin tetrachloride are very similar, the intercalation of these compounds into the bis-intercaland macrocycle has been shown to ...
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Darunavir, a protease inhibitor most widely used in the treatment of HIV infection, was complexed with β-cyclodextrin due to the low solubility in water and its poor bioavailability. This research describes the study the long-term stability of the complex darunavir: β-cyclodextrin which was kept in a climatic chamber for 24 months at 30°C ± 2°C and 75 % UR ± 5 %. The samples were analyzed using LC-MS, 250 mm × 4.6 mm CN Luna column, water + 0.1 % glacial acetic acid: acetonitrile + 0.1 % glacial acetic acid 60:40 (v/v) as mobile phase, flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1, UV detection at 268 nm and ambient room temperature (25°C) before the start of study and thereafter 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. The data obtained associated with the infrared, TG, DSC and X-ray diffraction analysis was sufficient to study the behavior of complex darunavir: β-cyclodextrin. The results of this research indicate that the stability of the complex darunavir: β-cyclodextrin is high under conditions associated of
Publication Details (including relevant citation information): Nociari, M.M., Lehmann, G.L., Perez Bay, A.E., Radu, R.A., Jiang, Z., Goicochea,
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a solid nonaqueous oral dosage form for a new hepatitis C drug, PG301029, which is insoluble and unstable in water. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin...
Protein aggregation is the major challenge encountered during manufacturing, storage and transportation of biopharmaceuticals (1,2). The objective was to evaluate the effect of two ßcyclodextrins derivatives: (KLEPTOSE® HPB hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin, with MS=0.65) and (KLEPTOSE® HP hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin, with MS=0.9) on two biologic drugs (Infliximab and Etanercept) aggregation using high-throughput formulation screening (iFormulate™) and nanoDSF (Differential Scanning Fluorimetry) (3,4). Preliminary results demonstrate that KLEPTOSE® HPB BioPharma hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin and KLEPTOSE® HP BioPharma hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin at high molarity (200 mM) are efficient tools in modulating Infliximab…. ...
This is a report focusing on further development of a synthetic catalyst for hydrolysis of the phosphate ester bonds in RNA. The main goal was to construct a catalyst based on a cyclodextrin ligand suitable for carrying a lanthanide metal with the induced capability to hydrolyse the stable phosphate ester bonds in RNA. This was achieved through a six-step synthesis resulting in a lanthanide-salen-cyclodextrin complex. For simplicity in the product analysis of the reaction, adenosine diribonucleotide (ApA) was used as a model substrate for RNA. The hydrolysis was performed at 20°C and ph7 to mimic physiological conditions in the human body. The results showed indications that it was possible to hydrolysis RNA by this kind of complex.. ...
Fluticasone propionate is a highly potent corticosteroid used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis. It is a very effective drug, but has the inconvenient factor of being insoluble in water. Cyclodextrins were used to improve this limitation because of their ability to form inclusion complexes with guest drug molecules as well as increase the stability and bioavailability of the drugs. A rapid and simple HPLC method was developed to detect and quantify fluticasone propionate in inhalation particles on several matrices. Liquid chromatography with a UV detector at a wavelength of 236 nm, using a C18 column, was employed in this study. Isocratic elution was employed using a mixture of acetonitrile and water (60:40, v/v). The analytical method validation was performed in accordance with ICH guidelines, which included selectivity, range, linearity, accuracy, detection limit, quantitation limit, precision, robustness, and stability of solutions. This method showed to be selective and specific. Acceptable
We have recently described a novel cyclic tetrasaccharide of D-glucose (Cote & Biely, Eur. J. Biochem. 226:641-648, 1994), and would like to know if anyone in the carbohydrate chemistry community has any ideas for using it. We would especially like to collaborate with someone who would like to study its ability to complex small molecules or ions. It has practically no internal cavity, so would probably not form inclusion complexes similar to those of cyclodextrins. We can only provide milligram amounts at this time, and only if your idea is interesting and has scientific merit. Please contact me via e-mail or snail mail. Gregory Cote USDA/ARS/NCAUR 1815 N. University St. Peoria, IL 61604 E-mail: cotegl at ncaur1.ncaur.gov ...
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1cdg: Nucleotide sequence and X-ray structure of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans strain 251 in a maltose-dependent crystal form.
WACKER products are vital for the whole personal-care sector. They perform essential tasks in bathcare products and color cosmetics, skin and hair care, and sunscreens. The range extends from versatile silicones to pyrogenic silicas through to innovative cyclodextrins.. www.wacker.com. ...
Shandong Binzhou Zhiyuan biological Technology Co., LTD (Zhiyuan Bio-tech) is a innovative enterprise that is professional in cyclodextrins and their applications. Supported by Shandong University, Zh
ß-Cyclodextrin, base (BCD) for biochemistry & microbiology datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
BioAssay record AID 54341 submitted by ChEMBL: Sensitivity value towards cyclodextrin conjugated peptide (with pyrene) at 25 degrees Centigrade.
I wonder if we need a place for XMRV specific treatments in the treatment secion. Cyclodextrin is currently being used to treat the twins with...
     Natamycin is an antimycotic with very low water solubility and extremely high photosensitivity, which is used to extend the shelf life of shredded cheese products. The objectives of this research are: (a) to find a new delivery system for natamycin, which increases its aqueous solubility and (b) to increase the chemical stability of natamycin so that it has a prolonged antifungal effect on the surface of the shredded cheese..      Molecular inclusion complexes of natamycin were formed with b-, hydroxypropyl b-, and g-cyclodextrins (CDs) which allowed large increases in aqueous solubility without the use of organic co-solvents or surfactants. The water solubility of natamycin was increased 16-fold, 73-fold, and 152-fold with b-CD, g-CD, and hydroxypropyl b-CD, respectively. The natamycin:CD inclusion complexes resulted in nearly equivalent in vitro antifungal activity as natamycin in its free state. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was utilized to prove the formation of ...
Capillary electrokinetic chromatography is generally recognized as a versatile and robust capillary electromigration technique for the separation of enantiomers. In this mode, one or more chiral selectors are added to the background electrolyte acting as pseudostationary phases. Within the various chiral selectors that have been applied to enantioseparations in capillary electrokinetic chromatography, cyclodextrins are by far the most often used selectors because of their versatility, structural variety and commercial availability. This is reflected in the large number of applications of cyclodextrins to analytical enantioseparations that have been reported between January 2012 and July 2016, the period of time covered by this review. Many of these applications cover aspects of life sciences such as drug analysis, bioanalysis or food analysis. Despite the large number of commercially available cyclodextrins, new derivatives have been developed in order to achieve altered enantioselectivities or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucosylation of sucrose laurate with cyclodextrin glucanotransferase. AU - Okada, Katsuhide. AU - Zhao, Haisuo. AU - Izumi, Minoru. AU - Nakajima, Shuhei. AU - Baba, Naomichi. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Sucrose monolauroyl esters were found to serve as substrates for cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase)-catalyzed transglucosidation reactions, affording new sucrose esters that have an additional 1-3 glucose residues on the pyranose ring of the sucrose moiety in the ester.. AB - Sucrose monolauroyl esters were found to serve as substrates for cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase)-catalyzed transglucosidation reactions, affording new sucrose esters that have an additional 1-3 glucose residues on the pyranose ring of the sucrose moiety in the ester.. KW - CGTase. KW - Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase. KW - Sucrose monolaurate. KW - Surfactant. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33947580881&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
Cyclodextrin-mediated enantioseparation of phenylalanine amide derivatives and amino alcohols by capillary electrophoresis-Role of complexation constants and complex mobilities ...
AIM: Caffeic acid has been described as active against bacteria commonly isolated from wound infections. However, its low stability and poor solubility reduce caffeic acid applicability as a pharmaceutical product. These parameters can be enhanced by complexation with cyclodextrin. The main goal of the present work was to incorporate caffeic acid on cyclodextrin-based hydrogels capable of controlled delivery, in order to be used as antibacterial wound dressing. MATERIALS & METHODS: Cyclodextrin-based hydrogels were prepared by direct crosslinking of -cyclodextrin or hydroxypropyl--cyclodextrin with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether in the presence of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. RESULTS: The hydrogels obtained combine good physicochemical properties (viscoelasticity, superabsorbency and high ability to retain and deliver caffeic acid) with the preservation of caffeic acid antibacterial activity and effect on fibroblasts, with gel--cyclodextrin the most suited. CONCLUSION: The hydrogels obtained ...
Transformation of mechanically interlocked molecules (e.g., rotaxanes and catenanes) into nanoscale materials or devices is an important step towards their real applications. In our current work, an azobenzene-modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivative that can form a self-inclusion complex in aqueous solution was prepared. The self-included β-CD derivative was then functionalized onto a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) surface via a ligand-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, leading to the formation of AuNP-[1]rotaxane hybrids. Corresponding non-self-included β-CD derivative functionalized AuNPs were also developed in a DMF/H2O mixture solution for control experiments. These hybrids were fully characterized by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopies, together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The competitive binding behavior of the hybrids with an adamantane dimer was investigated.
Purpose: Lipofuscin bisretinoids (LBs) accumulate irreversibly in the lysosomes of Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cells with age and in some genetic diseases, such as Stargardt and Best diseases. Excessive LB accumulation is toxic and causes retinal degeneration. The goal of this study is to develop a small drug to reduce the levels of LBs from RPE.. Methods: Using a novel solvatochromic fluorescence shift screening assay, we just developed, we searched for small molecules with ability to bind the most abundant LB, A2E.. Results: We have identified beta cyclodextrins (β-CDs), cyclic rings formed by 7 glucose residues, as small drugs that bind A2E. We show that treatment with beta-CDs stabilizes A2E by preventing its oxidation, and reduces bisretinoid content from lipofuscin granules in RPE. Molecular modeling of the complex indicate strategies to improve the LB binding of CDs. Furthermore, we tested the removal properties of CDs in eyes of ABCA4/RDH8 DKO animals, a mouse model for LB-driven ...
Cyclodextrin complex is suspended in polyalkylene glycol carrier material that does not displace the included material. The preferred perfume/cyclodextrin complexes, either alone or admixed with solvent (e.g., water), are preferably suspended in the carrier and then incorporated into solid, dryer-activated, fabric treatment (conditioning) compositions, preferably containing fabric softeners, more preferably cationic and/or nonionic fabric softeners. The perfume complexes provide fabrics with perfume benefits when they are rewetted after drying. Volatile perfume materials, including those materials that are commonly associated with freshness can be applied to the fabrics in an effective way.
In the present work the inclusion complexation of three sulfonamide (SA) drugs, namely sulfisoxazole (SSX), sulfamethizole (SMZ), and Sulfamethazine (STM) with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) has been investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy, DSC, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and molecular modeling methods. The binding constant (Kb) of SA:?-CD inclusion complexation was determined via applying the modified form of Benesi-Hildebrand equation employing the changes in absorbance at ?max. Obtained results revealed that SA drugs form 1:1 inclusion complex with ?-CD with Kb of 650, 1532, 714 M-1 at 25 �C for SSX, SMZ, and STM, respectively. The UV-Vis absorption spectra displayed solvatochromic behavior of bathochromic shift with decreasing solvent polarity that in turn is good agreement with their behavior in the presence of ?-CD in terms of environment polarity dependency. The inclusion complex formation between ?-CD and tested SA drugs in liquid and solid states was confirmed by 1H NMR and DSC, respectively. Using ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Meta/para-selectivity variation by sulfide/sulfoxide conversion of 6-substituted β-cyclodextrin. Hydrolyses of nitrophenyl acetates. ag. AU - Fujita, Kahee. AU - Ejima, Seiji. AU - Ueda, Tadashi. AU - Imoto, Taiji. AU - Schulten, Hans Rolf. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. N2 - Hydrolyses of m- and p-nitrophenyl acetates by 6-deoxy-6-alkylthio-β-cyclodextrins and the corresponding sulfoxides were studied to show that the small chemical conversion from the sulfides to the sulfoxides led to a change of meta/para-selectivity in the hydrolysis of the β-cyclodextrin moiety.. AB - Hydrolyses of m- and p-nitrophenyl acetates by 6-deoxy-6-alkylthio-β-cyclodextrins and the corresponding sulfoxides were studied to show that the small chemical conversion from the sulfides to the sulfoxides led to a change of meta/para-selectivity in the hydrolysis of the β-cyclodextrin moiety.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=6544223514&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) catalyzes the conversion of starch into non-reducing cyclic sugars, cyclodextrins, which have several industrial applications. This study aimed to establish optimal culture conditions for β-CGTase production by Bacillus sp. SM-02, isolated from soil of cassava industries waste water lake. The optimization was performed by Central Composite Design (CCD) 2, using cassava flour and corn steep liquor as substrates. The maximum production of 1087.9 U mL−1 was obtained with 25.0 g L−1 of cassava flour and 3.5 g L−1 of corn steep after 72 h by submerged fermentation. The enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 5.0 and temperature 55 °C, and maintained thermal stability at 55 °C for 3 h. The enzymatic activity was stimulated in the presence of Mg+2, Ca+2, EDTA, K+, Ba+2 and Na+ and inhibited in the presence of Hg+2, Cu+2, Fe+2 and Zn+2. The results showed that Bacillus sp. SM-02 have good potential for β-CGTase production.
A suitable host-guest inclusion complex has beenmade with a guest molecule, 1-methyl-3- octylimidazolium chloride ([MOIm]Cl) and a host molecule, α-cyclodextrin in aqueous medium. Formation of the host-guest inclusion complex has been established by Surface tension and conductivity readings while1H NMR and ultraviolet spectroscopy readingconfirms1:1 host-guest stoichiometry. These results have implications for the formation of host-guest inclusion complex of studied ionic liquid as guest in aqueous α-cyclodextrin media.. ...
A multiple regression model was generated, which can satisfactorily estimate the association constants (K-a) for the inclusion complexation of beta-cyclodextrin with mono- and 1,4-disubstituted benzenes. It was found that lnK(a) was correlated with the substituent molar refraction (R-m), hydrophobic constant (pi) and Hammett constant sigma) of the guest compounds with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. The main driving forces for beta-cyclodextrin complexation was concluded to consist of van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions, while the influence of electronic effects was small.; A multiple regression model was generated, which can satisfactorily estimate the association constants (K-a) for the inclusion complexation of beta-cyclodextrin with mono- and 1,4-disubstituted benzenes. It was found that lnK(a) was correlated with the substituent molar refraction (R-m), hydrophobic constant (pi) and Hammett constant sigma) of the guest compounds with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. The ...
A new technique to produce very small magnetic nanoparticles of maghemite (gamma-Fe(2)O(3)) is presented. The particles form and precipitate in the presence of the oligosaccharide gamma-cyclodextrin and in the final product remain entrapped in tiny pseudo-single crystals of the organic host. Evidence of nanosized particles embedded in the organic crystal was obtained by HR-TEM studies that showed the occurrence of uniformly dispersed particles with average diameter of 18 Angstrom. The resulting objects gave diffraction patterns with the same spacing as that of cyclodextrin crystals without iron. The magnetic properties were investigated by ZFC-FC magnetizations, hysteresis loops, and ac susceptibility measurements. The compound presents a complex magnetic behavior that deviates from that predicted on the basis of the classic single domain particle model. The deviation is ascribed to the complex properties of the surface, which, for such small sizes, plays the major role in determining the total ...
Communications Enantiomer Separation Modified Linear Dextrins ("Acyclodextrins") as New Chiral Selectors for the GasChromatographic Separation of Enantiomers** Giuseppe Sicoli, Zhengjin Jiang, Laszlo Jicsinsky, and Volker Schurig* In memory of Jzsef Szejtli Cyclodextrins (CDs) modified by alkylation, acylation, and silylation represent versatile chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for the gas-chromatographic separation of enantiomers.[1] Typically, they are dissolved in semipolar polysiloxanes[2a] or linked chemically to polydimethylsiloxane (Chirasil-Dex).[2b] The mechanism of enantiomer recognition is still not well understood, and the role of the CD cavity is unclear in cases were enantioselectivity is low, as it is in most reported cases (a , 1.1).[1a] We therefore conjectured that the existence of a cavity may not be a prerequisite to chirality recognition in cyclodextrins. This has now been borne out by employing linear dextrins ("acyclodextrins") as a new generation of carbohydrate-based ...
The NNPDF central office received a press release from the National Institute of Health (NIH) NPC Clinic from Dr. Forbes "Denny" Porter with an update on the Cyclodextrin Trial ...
Glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) are important enzymes for the development of amperometric enzyme linked immunosensors. The selectivity of each enzyme towards its analyte deepens its importance in determining the sensitivity of the resultant immunosensor. In designing immunosensors that have customized transducer surfaces, the incorporation with FAD and iron based enzymes ensures that electron kinetics remains optimal for electrochemical measurement. Various different immobilization strategies are used to produce response signals directly proportional to the concentration of analyte with minimal interferences. The combination of self-assembled monolayers and supramolecular chemistry affords stability and simplicity in immunosensor design. In this work, two electrochemical strategies for the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG) is presented. This involves the modification of a gold surface with a thiolated β-cyclodextrin epichlorohydrin polymer (βCDPSH) to form a ...
When during the companys R&D day the CEO of Alnylam, John Maraganore, highlighted Calandos cyclodextrin-based siRNA delivery technology (RONDEL) as one of the noteworthy non-SNALP systemic siRNA delivery technologies out there, it certainly piqued my interest. This is not least because any cash infusion and longer-term commitment by a partner like Alnylam would do wonders for the parent company of Calando, Arrowhead Research which is a conglomerate of early-stage, IP-focused business units and has just barely scraped by bankruptcy through a diet of cutbacks. While I always remembered the maturity of RONDEL, developed in the Mark Davis lab at Caltech, to be years behind SNALP, Tobias and I decided to to take a closer look at the development path of CALAA-01, the first clinical RONDEL delivery candidate and also investment focus of reorganized Arrowhead Research. When Tobias first heard of the technology, it struck him as a very elegant, because simple, and modular method to formulate targeted ...
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Osmium-labeled polysaccharides for atomic microscopy. AU - Resch, James. AU - Tunkel, David E. AU - Stoeckert, Christian. AU - Beer, Michael. PY - 1980/4/25. Y1 - 1980/4/25. N2 - With the objective of localizing cell surface polysaccharides, the reaction of several osmium (VI)-ligand complexes with glycols has been applied to sugar residues in mono- and polysaccharides. The hydrophilic ligands 4,4′-dicarboxy-2,2′-bipyridine and N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine have been employed to produce water-soluble osmate esters of the sugar glycols. Methyl glycosides react with osmium (VI) reagents to give stable products containing one osmium atom per sugar. α-Cyclodextrins, with six glucose residues in a ring, and β-cyclodextrins with seven, can bind up to, but not exceeding three osmium ligand complexes per molecule, indicating possible nearest-neighbor exclusion of reaction among the residues. Reaction of as little as 1% of the sugar residues in amylose with the ...
Alibaba.com offers 5,826 beta-cyclodextrin products. About 48% of these are auxiliaries and other medicinal chemicals, 26% are animal pharmaceuticals, and 12% are vitamins, amino acids and coenzymes. A wide variety of beta-cyclodextrin options are available to you, such as food grade, cosmetic grade, and tech grade.
Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) and their glycerides are important bioactive compounds that are found in fish oils and some vegetable oils. They are involved in human health, especially on brain and cardio-vascular diseases. The main disadvantages of these compounds are related to the low oxidative and thermal stability as well as very low water solubility. Natural cyclodextrins (α-, β- and γ-CD) can be appropriate matrices for enhancing their stability and apparent water solubility. In the present study the molecular modeling and conformational analysis on free omega-3 FAs (e.g. α-linolenic, all-(Z) eicosa-5,8,11,14,17-pentaenoic, and all-(Z) docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acids) and their mono-, di- and triglycerides have been performed using molecular mechanics (MM+) method in vacuum. The minimum energy conformations were used for docking in α-, β- and γ-CD at 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 molecular ratios. The best FAs (or their glyceride) / CDs interactions were obtained for the hydrophobic moiety of ...
Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) and their glycerides are important bioactive compounds that are found in fish oils and some vegetable oils. They are involved in human health, especially on brain and cardio-vascular diseases. The main disadvantages of these compounds are related to the low oxidative and thermal stability as well as very low water solubility. Natural cyclodextrins (α-, β- and γ-CD) can be appropriate matrices for enhancing their stability and apparent water solubility. In the present study the molecular modeling and conformational analysis on free omega-3 FAs (e.g. α-linolenic, all-(Z) eicosa-5,8,11,14,17-pentaenoic, and all-(Z) docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acids) and their mono-, di- and triglycerides have been performed using molecular mechanics (MM+) method in vacuum. The minimum energy conformations were used for docking in α-, β- and γ-CD at 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 molecular ratios. The best FAs (or their glyceride) / CDs interactions were obtained for the hydrophobic moiety of ...
... - Browse fuzing.com to find beta-cyclodextrin sellers, suppliers, wholesalers, companies, manufacturers, exporters, factories.
Piroxicam-Beta-Cyclodextrin is made by enwrapping medical piroxicam and medical beta-cyclodextrin in a certain inverse proportion with a unique art. This inclusion compound has less odor, more stability and more stable medicine releasing speed than the si
The granular starch-binding function has been demonstrated in several cases. Interact strongly with cyclodextrins. Often designated as starch-binding domains (SBD ...
Supramolecular systems, which are formed by the noncovalent intermolecular interactions between molecules, are highly dynamic. The high reversibility of supramolecular systems leads to some functional features that cannot be achieved by the single chemical component. The kinetic information for the supramolecular systems can not be inferred from thermodynamic studies or structural studies. Furthermore, the information provided by the dynamic study can be employed to infer or explain the results from the thermodynamic study and the structural study. The first objective of this work was to study the dynamics and the binding mechanism of cucurbit[7]uril with a charged guest molecule (2-naphthyl-1-ethylammonium cation, NpAmH+). In general, the binding affinity of cucurbit[7]uril to the positively charged guests are very high compared with other host systems such as cyclodextrins and bile salt aggregates. In this work, the complexation of cucurbit[7]uril and NpAmH+ was studied from a kinetic point of view.
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 1 594 478 was granted on the basis of ten claims.. Independent claim 1 reads as follows:. 1. Tablets containing one or more active pharmaceutical, dietetic or nutritional ingredients comprising at least one inner layer of gum base and outer layers comprising antiadhesion excipients and compression adjuvants selected from Isomalt, Maltol, Maltodextrin, Maltitol, Mannitol, Xylitol, Lactitol, Lactose, Skim Milk, Eritritol, Oligofructose, Retrograded Starch, polysorbates, polyethyleneoxide, dextrans, Cyclodextrins, Oligosaccarose, fructose, hydrogenated starch hydrosilates, said tablets having a sandwich like structure, the external layers containing said antiadhesion excipients being not in contact one with the other and respectively coating only the upper and the bottom part of the gum core, leaving the peripheral side thereof uncoated.. Claims 2 to 8 are dependent on claim 1. Independent claim 9 is directed to a process for the ...
During the last years she studied non-covalent interaction of small molecules with hosts of different types. Non-covalent interactions driven by H-bonds, Van der Waals, electrostatic and hydrophobic forces are at the basis of a large number of phenomena of interest in chemistry, biology and material science. Understanding the factors that govern the intermolecular interactions is an important issue. First she looked at the interaction of small chromophoric molecules with different cyclodextrins as model carrier systems and next extended her interest to the study of the interaction of small molecules with human serum albumin, chosen as transport protein and model for other proteins. Recently she also dedicated to the binding of small molecules to DNA, in particular G-rich strands in quadruplex and duplex conformation. She mainly focused on already known photoactive drugs of different classes like NSAID (ketoprofen), antibiotics (quinolones), antitumorals (doxorubicin and sabarubicin) and ...
During the last years she studied non-covalent interaction of small molecules with hosts of different types. Non-covalent interactions driven by H-bonds, Van der Waals, electrostatic and hydrophobic forces are at the basis of a large number of phenomena of interest in chemistry, biology and material science. Understanding the factors that govern the intermolecular interactions is an important issue. First she looked at the interaction of small chromophoric molecules with different cyclodextrins as model carrier systems and next extended her interest to the study of the interaction of small molecules with human serum albumin, chosen as transport protein and model for other proteins. Recently she also dedicated to the binding of small molecules to DNA, in particular G-rich strands in quadruplex and duplex conformation. She mainly focused on already known photoactive drugs of different classes like NSAID (ketoprofen), antibiotics (quinolones), antitumorals (doxorubicin and sabarubicin) and ...
This May sees the next talk in the monthly Water Colloquium series organised by WIRC @ Bath exploring the breadth of water research being undertaken at the University of Bath and beyond.. Title: Linking chemical-soil interactions to pollutant fate and transport from soil to water. Speaker: Dr Brian J. Reid, Reader, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia. When: Thursday 18th May 2017 at 1.15pm. Where: Room 2.1, 6 East, University of Bath (Location and maps). Abstract: The seminar will begin by introducing the fundamentals of how chemical and physical phenomena underpin soil-pollutants interactions. From this perspective the implications of these interactions for pollutant bioavailability and transport will be developed. I will introduce seminal research relating to the application of cyclodextrins as bioavailability mimetics (and standardisation with the ISO). I will provide insights into the interplay between pollutant exposure, pollutant bioavailability and microbial ...
The group is working in two different areas. One area is focused on the use of boron clusters as new entities for drugs and in supramolecular chemistry. The clusters have unique properties which are not found in organic or other inorganic molecules. They are the first anions which bind strongly to supramolecular hosts such as cyclodextrins and cucurbiturils. Due to the unusual properties of the cluster, their interaction with biological membranes is unexpected. The necessary methods for synthesizing derivatives of these clusters are being pursued.. The other area deals with the development of new dyes for ocular surgery. The aim is to develop better dyes, especially for visualization of the internal limiting membrane. This work includes synthesis, testing for toxicity in vitro, staining in suitable models, and collaboration with ophthalmologists for eventual application in the clinic.. Boron clusters. ...
The skin regenerates itself throughout epidermis and dermis for thicker and elastic skin. This will help reduce wrinkles and lines. The skin becomes more elastic, fresh, and enriched.. Cold processed Retinol in cream formulations is stable for at least one year, and the shelf life can be extended with Chelating agents, light protected sealed packaging like glass or aluminum. Anhydrous compositions increase shelf life and potency and hence are even more preferable.. Retinol 50P (Pharmaceutical) is a 50% Retinol in Tween-20. Retinol 50C (Cosmetic) is a 50% Retinol in Tween-20. Stabilized with cyclodextrins, liposomes, and with other vitamins is not desirable since their bio-availability gets lowered.. Enhance A.C.E. Treatment is a Retinol booster that helps accelerate cell turnover quickly while making the skin more elastic and enriched. This Treatment can be combined with other treatment modalities to give a more effective anti-aging treatment. With the help of synergistic Vitamin C & E ...
We are look for reaction types that simultaneously: (1) provide for the reaction of acyl and phosphoryl groups under non-forcing conditions; (2) suggest ways for elaboration into catalytic cycles with turnover behavior; and, (3) survive translation onto binding moieties. To date, we have focussed on artificial metalloenzymes derived from Co(III) and Cu(II) coordination complexes with cyclodextrins, preassociating alpha-nucleophiles, and binuclear metal ion complexes.
The beneficial effects of the Mas/Ang-(1-7) pathway prompted us to develop novel Ang-(1-7) analogues and ligands for Mas. In the present study, we evaluated the cardiometabolic effects of a pharmacological formulation developed by including the Mas agonist A-1317 in hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD). The inclusion compound was given orally (10 μg/Kg body weight) to Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and fructose-fed rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored for 5 hours after administration of a single dose of A-1317-HPβCD in conscious SHR. Seven-weeks-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either normal rat chow (CTL) or the same diet plus 10% fructose in the drinking water (FFR). For the last 4 wk of a 9-wk period of each diet, a subgroup of each group of animals was treated daily with the oral A-1317 (CTL-A or FFR-A) or with vehicle (CTL-V or FFR-V). Rats were subjected to oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/Kg body weight) concomitantly with the ...
Page contains details about Si nanoparticle/β-cyclodextrin polymer blend . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Popular Products of Sodium Sulfobutyl Ether Beta Cyclodextrin SBECD 128410-00-0 by Betadex sulfobutyl ether sodium - Shandong Binzhou Zhiyuan Biotechnology CO., ltd from China.
We previously reported that polyamidoamine STARBURST dendrimer (generation 3, G3) (dendrimer) conjugate with α-cyclodextrin (α-CyD) having an average degree of substitution of 2.4 of α-CyD (α-CDE) provided remarkable aspects as novel carriers for
There is disclosed a rubber composition comprising: (A) 100 parts by weight of at least one rubber containing olefinic unsaturation; and (B) 1.5 to 50 phr of a cyclodextrin compound.
Effect of β-cyclodextrin on production of L-phenylacetyl carbinol by immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (pages 256-262). Wafaa M. Mahmoud, Abdel-Halim M. M. El-Sayed and Robert W. Coughlin. Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2004 , DOI: 10.1002/bit.260360307. ...
3804 Introduction: Inadequate tumor vascularization and/or anti-vascular effects of cancer chemotherapy contribute to anticancer drugs failure. We pursued physiological drug resistance of cancer chemotherapy in mouse breast cancer models using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Methods: All animal experiments were conducted according to the institutional guidelines. Anesthetized SCID mice with orthotopic MCF-7 breast cancer were immobilized in the probe and maintained under gas anesthesia (Isoflurane 0.5%, 1 l/min). 13C-Labeled-temozolomide ([13C]TMZ) or temozolomide (TMZ: Temodar® capsule), alkylating agent, was used as a model drug. Two hundred microliter of [13C]TMZ (50 mM)/dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin (100 mM) inclusion complex was infused into the mouse via an i.p. catheter. Three-dimensional indirect 1H/13C MRSI was performed with an 8x8x8 matrix for a 16 mm isotropic field of view. During 3D map acquisition, a total of 400 μl of inclusion complex was ...
EWGs Skin Deep® database gives you practical solutions to protect yourself and your family from everyday exposures to chemicals in personal care products.
What are the molecular principles of recognition and regulation that underlie such complex biological phenomena? Our attention currently focuses on a pair of molecular adapters - the signal recognition particle (SRP) and the SRP receptor (SR) - that deliver newly synthesized proteins to particular membrane systems within the cell. This process is responsible for the sorting of all the ER resident and secretory proteins within the cell (accounting for roughly one third of cellular proteins) and is essential to establish and maintain the amazing degree of order and organization required to sustain life. ...
Benesi-Hildeband and Jobs plots show the stoichiometry of MBCA:β-CDx complex is 1:1.•XRD study shows MBCA:β-CDx inclusion complex has an amorphous ...
We were informed today that the FDA has removed the clinical hold on the hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin trial. We are planning to enroll the first patient in two weeks. This trial is a major step in trying to determine if this is a safe and biochemically effective drug for NPC. Our goal is to use data from this trial to optimize the design of a larger second trial focused on clinical efficacy. Thank you for your help and support! ...
Various percentages (1.2% to 13%) of β- cyclodextrin (β-CD) were added to water or pasteurized whole milk to study β-CD crystallization patterns. Influential factors such as crystallization time (4 to 12 h ...
alpha-Cyclodextrin (α-dextrin, α-cyclodextrin, α-CD, alphadextrin, alpha cyclodextrin (dietary fiber)) is a polysaccharide of six glucose units that are covalently attached end to end via α-1, 4 linkages. This fiber is sold under the brand names, "Alpha-Fibe" and "Calorease". Alpha-Fibe is the original product that contains this unique fiber, introduced to the worldwide nutritional supplement market by Bio-Form Essentials in 2007. Soho Flordis International became the patent Assignee as of March 30, 2012 and launched the brand Calorease in 2013. FBCx is not an ingredient, only an abbreviation, and is not part of the scientific name. The abbreviation FBCx, stands for "Fat Binding Complexer" and can be associated with the brand names, "Alpha-Fibe" and "Calorease". There are two other naturally occurring cyclodextrins, β (beta) - and γ (gamma) -, which contain seven and eight glucose units respectively. In water, these fibers take on a toroid or truncated cone configuration. In aqueous ...
Three photothermal-responsive α-cyclodextrin-based [2]rotaxanes were prepared via the copper(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, in which the α-cyclodextrin ring was threaded onto the azobenzene dumbbell component. The difference between the three [2]rotaxanes are the length of the ethylene glycol repeating chains connected between the azobenzene and triazole units in the dumbbell components. The α-cyclodextrin rings in the [2]rotaxanes can be reversibly switched between the azobenzene unit and triazole/ethylene glycol unit driven by the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene unit. The trans-to-cis isomerization of the azobenzene unit under UV light irradiation (365 nm) leads the α-cyclodextrin ring moving to the triazole/ethylene glycol unit, while the cis-to-trans isomerization of the azobenzene unit under either visible light irradiation or heating enables the α-cyclodextrin ring shuttling back to the azobenzene station. The different ethylene glycol repeating chains in the ...
A cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) technique has been developed for enantioseparation of vinpocetine using an inexpensive 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD (HP-β-CD) as the chiral selector (CS). The best chiral separation was achieved using 40 mM HP-β-CD as the CS in 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) consisting of 40 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at a separation temperature and separation voltage of 25°C and 25 kV, respectively. To the authors best knowledge, this is the first CD-MEKC study able to successfully separate the four stereoisomer of vinpocetine in separation time of 9.5 min and resolution of 1.04-3.87. Chirality, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ...
Barley limit dextrinase [Hordeum vulgare limit dextrinase (HvLD)] catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in limit dextrins. This activity plays a role in starch degradation during germination and presumably in starch biosynthesis during grain filling. The crystal structures of HvLD in complex with the competitive inhibitors α-cyclodextrin (CD) and β-CD are solved and refined to 2.5 Å and 2.1 Å, respectively, and are the first structures of a limit dextrinase. HvLD belongs to glycoside hydrolase 13 family and is composed of four domains: an immunoglobulin-like N-terminal eight-stranded β-sandwich domain, a six-stranded β-sandwich domain belonging to the carbohydrate binding module 48 family, a catalytic (β/α)8-like barrel domain that lacks α-helix 5, and a C-terminal eight-stranded β-sandwich domain of unknown function. The CDs are bound at the active site occupying carbohydrate binding subsites + 1 and + 2. A glycerol and three water molecules mimic a glucose residue at ...
Violacein, a pigment isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum, has been reported to have multiple biological activities including in vitro antitumor effects. Certain anticancer agents are known to induce apoptosis in human tumor cell lines. In this work, our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of violacein/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-containing systems to produce lethal effects in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60. Using the MTT tetrazolium reduction test, IC 50 for the inclusion complexes (1:1 and 1:2 violacein:β-CD molar ratios) and violacein alone were less than 1 μM. Violacein and violacein/β-CD complexes were able to induce NBT reduction. Moreover, by using the Feulgen reaction, all the compounds were found to trigger apoptosis in HL60 cells, inducing around 35% of DNA fragmentation, as analyzed through the diphenylamine assay. In addition, caspases seem to play an important role in the activation of the executioner phase of apoptosis induced by violacein and its ...
Abstract: Many pharmaceuticals contain active ingredients that have more than one stereoisomer. An important concern is the recognition that these different stereoisomers do not necessarily have identical, or even desirable biological activity. Consequently, analytical methods for the analysis and separation of enantiomers are important in the proper development of a marketed pharmaceutical product. In this research, direct HPLC methods for the chromatographic separation of oxyphene optical isomers have been developed and optimized using three types of chiral stationary phases. The research carried out a systematic study of the conditions for the separation of oxyphene optical isomers using synthetic polymer chiral stationary phase of cellulose tris (3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) Chiralcel OD, ß-cyclodextrin chiral stationary phase, and a1-acid glycoprotein chiral stationary phase. The methods using the ß-cyclodextrin and Chiralcel OD columns provide for the accurate determination of the ...
Due to the efforts of Hugh and Chris Hempel, Dr. Caroline Hastings and Ron Browne, an application to the Food and Drug Administration requesting "Orphan Drug Status" for cyclodextrin has been approved.. What exactly does that mean for our NPD community?. It is important to emphasize that an Orphan designation does not make any assessment at all on how the drug works in clinical trials, whether it is safe or effective in patients, nor whether it will ever be commercially available - the Orphan designations main purpose is to make the development of the drug more financially viable for the developer.. Please visit the NNPDFs cyclodextrin page for a bit of background and glossary terms that will help you to understand this latest development.. ...
This invention describes a new concept of flexible template-directed microporous partially pyrolyzed polymeric membranes which have greatly improved performance in separation of gas pairs compared to their precursor polymeric membranes. Organic hosts, such as crown ethers, cyclodextrins (CDs), calixarenes (CXs), and spherands, or polymeric additives, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were used as the micropore-forming templates. Micropore-forming template/polymer blend membranes comprising organic micropore-forming templates embedded in a polymer matrix were prepared by dissolving the organic micropore-forming templates in the polymer solution followed by solution-casting and solvent evaporation or solvent exchange. Low-temperature selectively pyrolyzing micropore-forming templates in the micropore-forming template/polymer blend membranes at a nitrogen flow resulted in the formation of flexible microporous partially pyrolyzed polymeric membranes.

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Cyclodextrin-Based [1]Rotaxanes on Gold NanoparticlesIJMS | Free Full-Text | Cyclodextrin-Based [1]Rotaxanes on Gold Nanoparticles

In our current work, an azobenzene-modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivative that can form a self-inclusion complex in aqueous ... Keywords: azobenzene; complexation; cyclodextrin; gold nanoparticle; [1]rotaxane azobenzene; complexation; cyclodextrin; gold ... Zhu, L.; Yan, H.; Zhao, Y. Cyclodextrin-Based [1]Rotaxanes on Gold Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10132-10142. ... In our current work, an azobenzene-modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivative that can form a self-inclusion complex in aqueous ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/1422-0067/13/8/10132

Patent US5032182 - Branched cyclodextrins - Google PatentsPatent US5032182 - Branched cyclodextrins - Google Patents

Branched cyclodextrins are produced by the pyrolysis of cyclodextrins. The temperature range is 135 C. to 220 C. using ... The advantage of branched cyclodextrins over cyclodextrins and especially branched beta cyclodextrins over beta cyclodextrins ... crystalline cyclodextrin is beta cyclodextrin and the branched cyclodextrin is branched beta cyclodextrin. ... crystalline cyclodextrin is beta cyclodextrin and the branched cyclodextrin is branched beta cyclodextrin. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5032182?dq=6437692

Cyclodextrins | China-Mainland | Sigma-AldrichCyclodextrins | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrich

Structural representations of β-cyclodextrin, α-cyclodextrin, and γ-cyclodextrin. The cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides ... Cyclodextrins Product Name. Formula. Mol Wt.. Assay (%). Application. Solubility. Cat. No.. α-Cyclodextrin. C36H60O30. 972.84. ... 2-Hydroxypropyl)-γ-cyclodextrin. -. -. -. -. H2O 450 mg/mL. H125. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin extent of labeling 1.5 - 2.1 methyl per ... 2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin. -. -. -. -. H2O 45 % (w/v). H107. (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin. extent of labeling 4 - 10 ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/china-mainland/zh/technical-documents/articles/biofiles/cyclodextrins.html

Feasibility Studies: Alpha-Cyclodextrin Manufacturing - EnglishFeasibility Studies: Alpha-Cyclodextrin Manufacturing - English

Techno-economic analyses of specific alpha cyclodextrin production processes, presenting capital investment breakdown, raw ... ECONOMICS OF ALPHA-CYCLODEXTRIN PRODUCTION FROM CORN (ALPHA-CYCLODEXTRIN E12A) It presents the economics of alpha-Cyclodextrin ... Cyclodextrin production costs Industrial Process Economics About Alpha-Cyclodextrin Reports Coverage of Alpha-Cyclodextrin ... ALPHA-CYCLODEXTRIN E11A) This report presents the economics of alpha-Cyclodextrin production from corn in the USA, using a ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/intratec/feasibility-studies-alphacyclodextrin-manufacturing

CYCLODEXTRIN || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWGCYCLODEXTRIN || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

About CYCLODEXTRIN: Cyclodextrin is a cyclic polysaccharide comprised of six to eight glucopyranose units.. Function(s): ... Synonym(s): .BETA.-CYCLODEXTRIN; ALPHADEX; BETADEX; CYCLOAMYLOSE; CYCLOHEPTAPENTYLOSE; BETA-CYCLOAMYLOSE; BETA- ...
more infohttp://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/701732/CYCLODEXTRIN/

Cyclodextrins in Nitrosation Chemistry, pp. 1-44Cyclodextrins in Nitrosation Chemistry, pp. 1-44

The aim of this chapter is to describe the practical aspects, and current and potential applications of cyclodextrins in ... The last section focuses on the effect of cyclodextrins on reactions undergone by some nitroso compounds and on some ... Notify me of updates to Cyclodextrins in Nitrosation Chemistry, pp. 1-44. ... The first section describes physico-chemical aspects of aqueous cyclodextrin. solutions relative to mechanistic studies. The ...
more infohttps://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=5577

Beta-cyclodextrinBeta-cyclodextrin

Browse fuzing.com to find beta-cyclodextrin sellers, suppliers, wholesalers, companies, manufacturers, exporters, factories. ... beta-cyclodextrin. You May Also Be Interested In: beta cyclodextrin cover up cyclodextrin liquid food spice essence Beta- ... cyclodextrin as a new medicine anxiliary materical, is mainly used to strengthen the stability of the medicine, prevent it from ...
more infohttps://www.fuzing.com/beta-cyclodextrin/l/48d928e7-0b72-d26f-e6e5-4e8b57fdd2fe

CoQ10 bioavailability boost from cyclodextrin complexCoQ10 bioavailability boost from cyclodextrin complex

Delivering co-enzyme Q10 complexed with beta-cyclodextrin may increase the bioavailability of the nutrient, with the benefits ... Lifton told this website that beta-cyclodextrin is allowed in Europe whereas gamma-cyclodextrin is currently forbidden in ... CoQ10 bioavailability boost from cyclodextrin complex. By Stephen Daniells 12-Mar-2010. - Last updated on 01-Apr-2010 at 07:34 ... The cyclodextrin used in the Micro-Active CoQ10 ingredient is derived from potato starch and is non-GMO, added Maypro. ...
more infohttps://www.nutraingredients.com/Article/2010/03/12/CoQ10-bioavailability-boost-from-cyclodextrin-complex

Cyclodextrin enhances room temperature phosphorescence (              Abstract         ...)Cyclodextrin enhances room temperature phosphorescence ( Abstract ...)

Abstract Cyclodextrin-enhanced roo... Introduction Cyclodextrins (CDs) a...,Cyclodextrin,enhances,room,temperature, ... Cyclodextrin enhances room temperature phosphorescence. ... Abstract Cyclodextrin-enhanced roo... Introduction Cyclodextrins ( ... This inclusion capability has led to an important use of cyclodextrins in luminescence spectroscopy. Cyclodextrins have been ... Cyclodextrins (CDs) are made up of glucose monomers coupled to form a rigid, conical structure with an interior hydrophobic ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-technology/Cyclodextrin-enhances-room-temperature-phosphorescence-1407-1/

Cyclodextrins: industrial development of Betacyclodextrins | RoquetteCyclodextrins: industrial development of Betacyclodextrins | Roquette

Cyclodextrins - Roquette is a pioneer in the industrial development of Betacyclodextrins, bio-transformation of starch. , ...
more infohttps://www.roquette.com/product-overview/cyclodextrin/

Grape Preservation Using Chitosan Combined with β-CyclodextrinGrape Preservation Using Chitosan Combined with β-Cyclodextrin

Solutions of (a) 20 mL 5% chitosan, (b) 40 mL 5% β-cyclodextrin, and (c) 20 mL 5% chitosan + 40 mL β-cyclodextrin were diluted ... Hydroxyl group on the β-cyclodextrin and hydroxyl group on the chitosan or amino interact when the compounds of β-cyclodextrin ... β-cyclodextrin. After 12 days, the MDA content of those coated with chitosan + β-cyclodextrin was 0.83 mmol/g, 35.7% lower than ... β-cyclodextrin. The respiration rate of those coated with chitosan + β-cyclodextrin was lower than that of those coated with ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ija/2013/209235/

Patent US6878695 - Compositions comprising cyclodextrin derivatives - Google PatentsPatent US6878695 - Compositions comprising cyclodextrin derivatives - Google Patents

The compositions can further comprise cyclodextrin-compatible and -incompatible materials, and other optional ingredients. ... A stable composition for removing unwanted molecules from a surface comprises low-degree of substitution cyclodextrin ... branched cyclodextrins, cationic cyclodextrins, anionic cyclodextrins, amphoteric cyclodextrins and cyclodextrins wherein at ... branched cyclodextrins, cationic cyclodextrins, anionic cyclodextrins, amphoteric cyclodextrins and cyclodextrins wherein at ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US6878695

Products That Contain HYDROXYPROPYL CYCLODEXTRIN || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWGProducts That Contain HYDROXYPROPYL CYCLODEXTRIN || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

EWGs Skin Deep® database gives you practical solutions to protect yourself and your family from everyday exposures to chemicals in personal care products.
more infohttps://www.ewg.org/skindeep/browse/ingredients/703073HYDROXYPROPYL_CYCLODEXTRIN/?category=mask

Beta cyclodextrins bind, stabilize, and remove lipofuscin bisretinoids from retinal pigment epithelium | PNASBeta cyclodextrins bind, stabilize, and remove lipofuscin bisretinoids from retinal pigment epithelium | PNAS

Beta cyclodextrins bind and remove A2E from RPE. Marcelo M. Nociari, Guillermo L. Lehmann, Andres E. Perez Bay, Roxana A. Radu ... Beta cyclodextrins bind and remove A2E from RPE. Marcelo M. Nociari, Guillermo L. Lehmann, Andres E. Perez Bay, Roxana A. Radu ... Cyclodextrin stock solutions were prepared at 100 mM in PBS buffer (pH 7.2) except for β-CD system, which, due to the ... 2011) Function of the Niemann-Pick type C proteins and their bypass by cyclodextrin. Curr Opin Lipidol 22(3):204-209. ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/111/14/E1402

Application of Cyclodextrins to the Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds from Olive Oil | SpringerLinkApplication of Cyclodextrins to the Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds from Olive Oil | SpringerLink

Their extraction with as mild conditions as possible led to its investigation using cyclodextrins as a tool. The inclusion ... Application of Cyclodextrins to the Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds from Olive Oil. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10600-005-0065-3

Application of Cyclodextrins to Foods, Toiletries and Other Products in Japan | SpringerLinkApplication of Cyclodextrins to Foods, Toiletries and Other Products in Japan | SpringerLink

Horikoshi, K. and Nakamura, N. in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Cyclodextrins (Szejtli, J.,ed.) P25-39 ( ... Hashimoto H. (1988) Application of Cyclodextrins to Foods, Toiletries and Other Products in Japan. In: Huber O., Szejtli J. ( ... Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Cyclodextrins pp 533-543 , Cite as ... eds) Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Cyclodextrins. Advances in Inclusion Science, vol 5. Springer, ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-009-2637-0_76

S-protected thiolated cyclodextrins as mucoadhesive oligomers for drug delivery.S-protected thiolated cyclodextrins as mucoadhesive oligomers for drug delivery.

The purpose of this study was to develop a novel mucoadhesive thiolated and S-protected gamma cyclodextrin (γ-CD) with an ... Cyclodextrins are popular drug solubilizers, but the use of the natural cyclodextrins is hampered by their tendency to co- ... Cyclodextrin complexes: Perspective from drug delivery and formulation.. Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been widely investigated as a ... Cyclodextrins. A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2104577/S-protected-thiolated-cyclodextrins-as-mucoadhesive-oligomers-for-drug-delivery.html

Patent US5384186 - Non-destructive carriers for cyclodextrin complexes - Google PatentsPatent US5384186 - Non-destructive carriers for cyclodextrin complexes - Google Patents

The preferred perfume/cyclodextrin complexes, either alone or admixed with solvent (e.g., water), are preferably suspended in ... Cyclodextrin complex is suspended in polyalkylene glycol carrier material that does not displace the included material. ... Preferably at least a major portion of the cyclodextrins are alpha-cyclodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin, and/or gamma-cyclodextrin, ... 1. Cyclodextrins. As used herein, the term "cyclodextrin" (CD) includes any of the known cyclodextrins such as unsubstituted ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US5384186

Beta-cyclodextrin, Beta-cyclodextrin Suppliers and Manufacturers at Alibaba.comBeta-cyclodextrin, Beta-cyclodextrin Suppliers and Manufacturers at Alibaba.com

A wide variety of beta-cyclodextrin options are available to you, such as food grade, cosmetic grade, and tech grade. ... Alibaba.com offers 5,826 beta-cyclodextrin products. About 48% of these are auxiliaries and other medicinal chemicals, 26% are ... sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin sulfobutylether beta-cyclodextrin gmp beta-cyclodextrin glucose beta-cyclodextrin beta- ... beta-cyclodextrin top purity beta-cyclodextrin high purity beta-cyclodextrin top quality beta-cyclodextrin beta-cyclodextrin ...
more infohttp://www.alibaba.com/showroom/beta--cyclodextrin.html

843. beta-Cyclodextrin (WHO Food Additives Series 35)843. beta-Cyclodextrin (WHO Food Additives Series 35)

The NOEL in this study was 1.25% -cyclodextrin in the diet, equal to a mean achieved -cyclodextrin intake which ranged from 560 ... See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Beta-Cyclodextrin (WHO Food Additives Series 32) beta-CYCLODEXTRIN (JECFA Evaluation) ... cyclodextrin complex, showing that vitamin A does not interact with -cyclodextrin in the presence of these bile acids. Similar ... cyclodextrin, the affinity of sodium cholate and sodium taurocholate for -cyclodextrin being weaker than that of sodium ...
more infohttp://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v35je12.htm

TCI AMERICAS Trimethyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin, 1g - 19XC33|T1094-1G - GraingerTCI AMERICAS Trimethyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin, 1g - 19XC33|T1094-1G - Grainger

Looking for TCI AMERICAS Trimethyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin, 1g (19XC33)? Graingers got your back. Price:$159.65. Easy ordering & ...
more infohttps://www.grainger.com/product/TCI-AMERICAS-Trimethyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin-19XC33

TNO Repository search for: subject:CyclodextrinTNO Repository search for: subject:'Cyclodextrin'

... cyclodextrin, 12619-70-4; alpha-cyclodextrin, 10016-20-3; alpha-Cyclodextrins; Carbon Radioisotopes; Cyclodextrins ... Nutrition · Carbon 14 · Carbon dioxide · Drug metabolite · Gamma cyclodextrin · Carbon · Cyclodextrin · Gamma cyclodextrin ... Biology · Physiological Sciences · alpha cyclodextrin · carbon 14 · alpha cyclodextrin derivative · alpha-cyclodextrin · carbon ... Chemicals/CAS: Cyclodextrins; gamma-cyclodextrin, 17465-86-0; gamma-Cyclodextrins; Lactose, 63-42-3 ...
more infohttps://repository.tudelft.nl/search/tno/?q=subject%3A%22Cyclodextrin%22

Development of Orodispersible Tablets of Candesartan Cilexetil-β-cyclodextrin ComplexDevelopment of Orodispersible Tablets of Candesartan Cilexetil-β-cyclodextrin Complex

The aim of this study was to investigate the use of inclusion complexation technique employing β-cyclodextrin in improving the ... Development of Orodispersible Tablets of Candesartan Cilexetil-β-cyclodextrin Complex. Maddukuri Sravya,1 Rajamanickam ... This work proved β-cyclodextrins to be effective solubilizing agent in improving the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. ... Inclusion complexes prepared using kneading, and lyophilisation techniques in the molar ratio 1 : 5 with β-cyclodextrin were ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jphar/2013/583536/abs/

Full text] Non-ionic thiolated cyclodextrins - the next generation | IJNFull text] Non-ionic thiolated cyclodextrins - the next generation | IJN

The current study was aimed at developing a novel mucoadhesive thiolated cyclodextrin (CD) without ionizable groups and an ... Non-ionic thiolated cyclodextrins -the next generation Ali Moghadam,1,2 Muhammad Ijaz,2,3 Mulazim Hussain Asim,2,4 Arshad ... Aggregation of cyclodextrins: An explanation of the abnormal solubility of β-cyclodextrin. J Incl Phenom. 1992;13(2):139-143. ... Figure 5 Cytotoxic effect of thiolated beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on Caco-2 cells as demonstrated by (A) resazurin and (B) ...
more infohttps://www.dovepress.com/non-ionic-thiolated-cyclodextrins-the-next-generation-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-IJN

Synthesis of Sulfated Cyclodextrin Amphiphiles with Liposomal Encapsulation PropertiesSynthesis of Sulfated Cyclodextrin Amphiphiles with Liposomal Encapsulation Properties

... and γ-cyclodextrin (CD) were efficiently synthesized. These compounds formed stable monolayers with high collapse pressures at ... and β-Cyclodextrins and Hexakis(6-deoxy-6-thio-2,3-di-O-pentyl)-α-Cyclodextrin at an Air-Water Interface. Tetrahedron Letters, ... Chmurski, K., Bilewicz, R. and Jurczak, J. (1996) Monolayer Behavior of [6-Deoxy-6-S-phenyl]-α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins at the ... Ashton, P.R., Königer, R. and Stoddart, J.F. (1996) Amino Acid Derivatives of β-Cyclodextrin. Journal of Organic Chemistry ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=59326
  • A stable composition for removing unwanted molecules from a surface comprises low-degree of substitution cyclodextrin derivatives. (google.com.au)
  • We report the effect of native cyclodextrins (alpha, beta, and gamma) and selected derivatives in modulating the self-assembly of the nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene cholesteryl ether (ChEO(10)) and its mixtures with triethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12EO3), which form wormlike micelles. (diva-portal.org)
  • We expect our research in this area will contribute to the design of more effective cyclodextrin derivatives for medical treatment of lipid metabolism pathologies, like for example in the treatment of Niemann-Pick type C disease. (rug.nl)
  • A frequently used approach is to use cyclodextrin as a "carrier" molecule to facilitate the dissolution of these compounds. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The cavity diameter of β-cyclodextrins has been found to be the most appropriate size for hormones, vitamins, and other compounds frequently used in tissue and cell culture applications. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The last section focuses on the effect of cyclodextrins on reactions undergone by some nitroso compounds and on some nitrosation reactions that produce nitroso compounds. (novapublishers.com)
  • β -Cyclodextrin is one of supramolecular compounds and has many particular properties such as emulsion, moisturizing, and inclusion. (hindawi.com)
  • The strong ability of complexing fragrances can also be used for another purpose: first dry, solid cyclodextrin microparticles are exposed to a controlled contact with fumes of active compounds, then they are added to fabric or paper products. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the end of the study, Madhavi and Kagan report a 3.7-fold increase in the bioavailability, and a minimum of doubling in the plasma co-Q10 levels in all people in the CoQ10 cyclodextrin group, compared to in only 44 per cent of the people in the soft gel group. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The results of an ongoing 1-year oral toxicity study in dogs and information on the effects of -cyclodextrin on the bioavailability of lipophilic nutrients were required by 1995. (inchem.org)
  • α-Cyclodextrin is marketed for a range of medical, healthcare and food and beverage applications which rely on its ability to bind to fats and reduce their bioavailability both in the body and in food and beverage products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the small pore size it was generally believed that α-cyclodextrin could not form a complex with triglyceride. (wikipedia.org)
  • demonstrated that α-cyclodextrin could complex triglyceride and at ratios that are significantly different from the 1:1 that is typical for dietary fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike lipase inhibitors, alpha-cyclodextrin forms a stable complex with the dietary fat which prevents lipase from digesting the triglyceride and the normal gut flora from using it as a carbon source, thus preventing the side effects of the lipase inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower blood (LDL or bad) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels Lower blood triglyceride levels Preferentially lowers blood saturated fat and trans fat levels Increased insulin sensitivity Increased leptin sensitivity - increased satiety[full citation needed] Improved glycemic index of foods and improved glycemic control Due to its surface active properties, α-cyclodextrin can also be used as an emulsifying fiber, for example in mayonnaise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclodextrins can also enhance drug permeability through mucosal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work proved β -cyclodextrins to be effective solubilizing agent in improving the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • Marcus, E.B. and Thorsteinn, L. (2007) Cyclodextrins as Pharmaceutical Solubilizers. (scirp.org)
  • Scypinski and Cline Love report, however, that intense room-temperature phosphorescence occurs when these well-known carcinogens are present, with an external heavy atom, in the cavity of cyclodextrin. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Horikoshi, K. and Nakamura, N. in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Cyclodextrins (Szejtli, J.,ed. (springer.com)
  • Szejtli, J. (1998) Introduction and General Overview of Cyclodextrin Chemistry. (scirp.org)
  • A CoQ10 response was defined as a doubling of CoQ10 levels, and the results support the ability of the CoQ10-cyclodextrin to "deliver both maintenance and therapeutic doses of CoQ10", ​according to the study authors, Doddabele Madhavi and Daniel Kagan from BioActives, the company that manufactures the Micro-Active CoQ10-branded ingredient used in the study. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The invention describes a process for the synthesis of cyclodextrins in gram quantities composed of 9 and more glucose units while previously the preparation of large-ring cyclodextrins has been limited to a few mg. (innovations-report.com)
  • β -cyclodextrin with a 99.9% purity was purchased from Tianjin Guangfu Fine Chemical Research Institute. (hindawi.com)
  • Furuike, T., Aiba, S. and Nishimura, S.-I. (2000) A Highly Practical Synthesis of Cyclodextrin-Based Glycoclusters Having Enhanced Affinity with Lectins. (scirp.org)
  • In this study, we report that beta cyclodextrins, cyclic sugars composed of seven glucose units, can bind retinal lipofuscin, prevent its oxidation and remove it from RPE. (pnas.org)
  • In the current review, attempts have been made to illustrate the features of cyclodextrin based nanosponges and their applications in pharmaceutical formulations. (degruyter.com)
  • The aim of this chapter is to describe the practical aspects, and current and potential applications of cyclodextrins in mechanistic studies that involve nitrosation reactions particularly. (novapublishers.com)
  • Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been widely investigated as a unique pharmaceutical excipient for past few decades and is still explored for new applications. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Due to its surface-active properties, α-cyclodextrin can also be used as emulsifying fiber, for example, in mayonnaise as well as a whipping aid, for example, in desserts and confectionery applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclodextrin complex is suspended in polyalkylene glycol carrier material that does not displace the included material. (google.ca)
  • CYCLODEXTRIN First draft prepared by Ms F D Pollitt Health Aspects of the Environment and Food (Medical) Division Department of Health London, England Explanation Biological data Toxicological studies Short-term toxicity studies Long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity studies Reproductive toxicity studies Special studies on interactions with bile acids and lipophilic nutrients Comments Evaluation References 1. (inchem.org)
  • The absorption, disposition, metabolism, and excretion of 14C-labeled γ-cyclodextrin ([14C]γ-CD) was examined in four separate experiments with Wistar rats. (tudelft.nl)
  • for example, demonstrated that α-cyclodextrin was very effective at solubilizing the free fatty acids that are generated in the colorimetric determination of triglycerides. (wikipedia.org)