Cyclin D: A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.Cyclin D3: A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.Cyclin D2: A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Hu Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis Antigens: A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Madurella: A mitosporic fungal genus that causes MYCETOMA in humans. Madurella grisea and M. mycetomatis are the etiological agents.Estranes: A group of compounds forming the nucleus of the estrogenic steroid family.Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Bromochlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing BROMINE; CHLORINE and FLOURINE.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Gonanes: Steroids containing the fundamental tetracyclic unit with no methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and with no side chain at C-17. The concept includes both saturated and unsaturated derivatives.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Cyclin T: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor B: A transcriptional elongation factor complex that is comprised of a heterodimer of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9 and one of several CYCLINS including TYPE T CYCLINS and cyclin K. It functions by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA POLYMERASE II.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9: A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Gene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 126.96.36.199.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Wolfram Syndrome: A hereditary condition characterized by multiple symptoms including those of DIABETES INSIPIDUS; DIABETES MELLITUS; OPTIC ATROPHY; and DEAFNESS. This syndrome is also known as DIDMOAD (first letter of each word) and is usually associated with VASOPRESSIN deficiency. It is caused by mutations in gene WFS1 encoding wolframin, a 100-kDa transmembrane protein.Triploidy: Polyploidy with three sets of chromosomes. Triploidy in humans are 69XXX, 69XXY, and 69XYY. It is associated with HOLOPROSENCEPHALY; ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; and MISCARRAGES.Alexander Disease: Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Interactions between Tat and TAR and human immunodeficiency virus replication are facilitated by human cyclin T1 but not cyclins T2a or T2b. (1/166)The transcriptional transactivator (Tat) from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not function efficiently in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Only somatic cell hybrids between CHO and human cells and CHO cells containing human chromosome 12 (CHO12) support high levels of Tat transactivation. This restriction was mapped to interactions between Tat and TAR. Recently, human cyclin T1 was found to increase the binding of Tat to TAR and levels of Tat transactivation in rodent cells. By combining individually with CDK9, cyclin T1 or related cyclins T2a and T2b form distinct positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complexes. In this report, we found that of these three cyclins, only cyclin T1 is encoded on human chromosome 12 and is responsible for its effects in CHO cells. Moreover, only human cyclin T1, not mouse cyclin T1 or human cyclins T2a or T2b, supported interactions between Tat and TAR in vitro. Finally, after introducing appropriate receptors and human cyclin T1 into CHO cells, they became permissive for infection by and replication of HIV. (+info)
Tat activates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcriptional elongation independent of TFIIH kinase. (2/166)Tat stimulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcriptional elongation by recruitment of the human transcription elongation factor P-TEFb, consisting of Cdk9 and cyclin T1, to the HIV-1 promoter via cooperative binding to the nascent HIV-1 transactivation response RNA element. The Cdk9 kinase activity has been shown to be essential for P-TEFb to hyperphosphorylate the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II and mediate Tat transactivation. Recent reports have shown that Tat can also interact with the multisubunit transcription factor TFIIH complex and increase the phosphorylation of CTD by the Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex associated with the core TFIIH. These observations have led to the proposal that TFIIH and P-TEFb may act sequentially and in a concerted manner to promote phosphorylation of CTD and increase polymerase processivity. Here, we show that under conditions in which a specific and efficient interaction between Tat and P-TEFb is observed, only a weak interaction between Tat and TFIIH that is independent of critical amino acid residues in the Tat transactivation domain can be detected. Furthermore, immunodepletion of CAK under high-salt conditions, which allow CAK to be dissociated from core-TFIIH, has no effect on either basal HIV-1 transcription or Tat activation of polymerase elongation in vitro. Therefore, unlike the P-TEFb kinase activity that is essential for Tat activation of HIV-1 transcriptional elongation, the CAK kinase associated with TFIIH appears to be dispensable for Tat function. (+info)
Human and rodent transcription elongation factor P-TEFb: interactions with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat and carboxy-terminal domain substrate. (3/166)The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcriptional regulator Tat increases the efficiency of elongation, and complexes containing the cellular kinase CDK9 have been implicated in this process. CDK9 is part of the Tat-associated kinase TAK and of the elongation factor P-TEFb (positive transcription elongation factor-b), which consists minimally of CDK9 and cyclin T. TAK and P-TEFb are both able to phosphorylate the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II, but their relationships to one another and to the stimulation of elongation by Tat are not well characterized. Here we demonstrate that human cyclin T1 (but not cyclin T2) interacts with the activation domain of Tat and is a component of TAK as well as of P-TEFb. Rodent (mouse and Chinese hamster) cyclin T1 is defective in Tat binding and transactivation, but hamster CDK9 interacts with human cyclin T1 to give active TAK in hybrid cells containing human chromosome 12. Although TAK is phosphorylated on both serine and threonine residues, it specifically phosphorylates serine 5 in the CTD heptamer. TAK is found in the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of human cells as a large complex (approximately 950 kDa). Magnesium or zinc ions are required for the association of Tat with the kinase. We suggest a model in which Tat first interacts with P-TEFb to form the TAK complex that engages with TAR RNA and the elongating transcription complex, resulting in hyperphosphorylation of the CTD on serine 5 residues. (+info)
Analysis of the effect of natural sequence variation in Tat and in cyclin T on the formation and RNA binding properties of Tat-cyclin T complexes. (4/166)The biological activity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat (Tat1) transcriptional activator requires the recruitment of a Tat1-CyclinT1 (CycT1) complex to the TAR RNA target encoded within the viral long terminal repeat (LTR). While other primate immunodeficiency viruses, such as HIV-2 and mandrill simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmnd), also encode Tat proteins that activate transcription via RNA targets, these proteins differ significantly, both from each other and from Tat1, in terms of their ability to activate transcription directed by LTR promoter elements found in different HIV and SIV isolates. Here, we show that CycT1 also serves as an essential cofactor for HIV-2 Tat (Tat2) and SIVmnd Tat (Tat-M) function. Moreover, the CycT1 complex formed by each Tat protein displays a distinct RNA target specificity that accurately predicts the level of activation observed with a particular LTR. While Tat2 and Tat-M share the ability of Tat1 to bind to CycT1, they differ from Tat1 in that they are also able to bind to the related but distinct CycT2. However, the resultant Tat-CycT2 complexes fail to bind TAR and are therefore abortive. Surprisingly, mutation of a single residue in CycT2 (asparagine 260 to cysteine) rescues the ability of CycT2 to bind Tat1 and also activates not only TAR binding by all three Tat-CycT2 complexes but also Tat function. Therefore, the RNA target specificity of different Tat-CycT1 complexes is modulated by natural sequence variation in both the viral Tat transcriptional activator and in the host cell CycT molecule recruited by Tat. Further, the RNA target specificity of the resultant Tat-CycT1 complex accurately predicts the ability of that complex to activate transcription from a given LTR promoter element. (+info)
Highly divergent lentiviral Tat proteins activate viral gene expression by a common mechanism. (5/166)The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein (hTat) activates transcription initiated at the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter by a unique mechanism requiring recruitment of the human cyclin T1 (hCycT1) cofactor to the viral TAR RNA target element. While activation of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) gene expression by the EIAV Tat (eTat) protein appears similar in that the target element is a promoter proximal RNA, eTat shows little sequence homology to hTat, does not activate the HIV-1 LTR, and is not active in human cells that effectively support hTat function. To address whether eTat and hTat utilize similar or distinct mechanisms of action, we have cloned the equine homolog of hCycT1 (eCycT1) and examined whether it is required to mediate eTat function. Here, we report that expression of eCycT1 in human cells fully rescues eTat function and that eCycT1 and eTat form a protein complex that specifically binds to the EIAV, but not the HIV-1, TAR element. While hCycT1 is also shown to interact with eTat, the lack of eTat function in human cells is explained by the failure of the resultant protein complex to bind to EIAV TAR. Critical sequences in eCycT1 required to support eTat function are located very close to the amino terminus, i.e., distal to the HIV-1 Tat-TAR interaction motif previously identified in the hCycT1 protein. Together, these data provide a molecular explanation for the species tropism displayed by eTat and demonstrate that highly divergent lentiviral Tat proteins activate transcription from their cognate LTR promoters by essentially identical mechanisms. (+info)
Host-cell positive transcription elongation factor b kinase activity is essential and limiting for HIV type 1 replication. (6/166)HIV-1 gene expression and viral replication require the viral transactivator protein Tat. The RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation factor P-TEFb (cyclin-dependent kinase 9/cyclin T) is a cellular protein kinase that has recently been shown to be a key component of the Tat-transactivation process. For this report, we studied the requirement for P-TEFb in HIV-1 infection, and we now show that P-TEFb is both essential and limiting for HIV-1 replication. Attenuation of P-TEFb kinase activity either by expression of a dominant-negative cyclin-dependent kinase 9 transgene or through the use of small-molecule inhibitors suppresses HIV-1 gene expression and HIV-1 replication. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication is affected in a manner consistent with a direct and specific effect on P-TEFb and the known functional role of P-TEFb in Tat-activated transcription. Tat-activated expression of HIV-1 genes seems uniquely dependent on P-TEFb, as inhibition of P-TEFb activity and HIV-1 replication can be achieved without compromising cell viability or RNA polymerase II-dependent cellular gene transcription. Selective inhibition of the P-TEFb kinase may therefore provide a novel approach for developing chemotherapeutic agents against HIV-1. (+info)
Recruitment of cyclin T1/P-TEFb to an HIV type 1 long terminal repeat promoter proximal RNA target is both necessary and sufficient for full activation of transcription. (7/166)Transcriptional activation of the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter element by the viral Tat protein is an essential step in the HIV-1 life cycle. Tat function is mediated by the TAR RNA target element encoded within the LTR and is known to require the recruitment of a complex consisting of Tat and the cyclin T1 (CycT1) component of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to TAR. Here, we demonstrate that both TAR and Tat become entirely dispensable for activation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter when CycT1/P-TEFb is artificially recruited to a heterologous promoter proximal RNA target. The level of activation observed was indistinguishable from the level induced by Tat and was neither inhibited nor increased when Tat was expressed in trans. Activation by artificially recruited CycT1 depended on the ability to bind the CDK9 component of P-TEFb. In contrast, although binding to both Tat and TAR was essential for the ability of CycT1 to act as a Tat cofactor, these interactions became dispensable when CycT1 was directly recruited to the LTR. Importantly, activation of the LTR both by Tat and by directly recruited CycT1 was found to be at the level of transcription elongation. Together, these data demonstrate that recruitment of CycT1/P-TEFb to the HIV-1 LTR is fully sufficient to activate this promoter element and imply that the sole role of the Tat/TAR axis in viral transcription is to permit the recruitment of CycT1/P-TEFb. (+info)
Transcriptional regulation by targeted recruitment of cyclin-dependent CDK9 kinase in vivo. (8/166)The CDK9 kinase in association with Cyclin T is a component of the transcription positive-acting complex pTEFb which facilitates the transition from abortive to productive transcription elongation by phosphorylating the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. The Cyclin T1/CDK9 complex is implicated in Tat transactivation, and it has been suggested that Tat functions by recruiting this complex to RNAPII through cooperative binding to RNA. Here, we demonstrate that targeted recruitment of Cyclin T1/CDK9 kinase complex to specific promoters, through fusion to a DNA-binding domain of either Cyclin T1 or CDK9 kinase, stimulates transcription in vivo. Transcriptional enhancement was dependent on active CDK9, as a catalytically inactive form had no transcriptional effect. We determined that, unlike conventional activators, DNA-bound CDK9 does not activate enhancerless TATA-promoters unless TBP is overexpressed, suggesting that CDK9 acts in vivo at a step subsequent to TFIID recruitment DNA-bound. Finally, we determined that CDK9-mediated transcriptional activation is mediated by preferentially stimulating productive transcription elongation. (+info)
... D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to S phase. G2/M cyclins - essential for ... The rise in presence of G1/S cyclins is paralleled by a rise in S cyclins. G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ... Note that the cyclins are now classified according to their conserved cyclin box structure, and not all these cyclins alter in ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ...
Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (Apr 1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... "The consensus motif for phosphorylation by cyclin D1-Cdk4 is different from that for phosphorylation by cyclin A/E-Cdk2". The ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDKs (Cyclin-dependent kinase). Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... cyclin D1 is translocated to the IgH promoter leading to cyclin D1 overexpression. Chromosomal translocation of the cyclin D1 ... Cyclin-D1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND1 gene. The CCND1 gene encodes the cyclin D1 protein. The human ... Cyclin D1 has been found to be overexpressed in breast carcinoma. Its potential use as a biomarker was suggested. Cyclin D1 is ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns that ... Cyclin-T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin tightly associates with CDK9 kinase, and was found to be a major subunit of the transcription elongation factor p- ... This cyclin and its kinase partner were also found to be involved in the phosphorylation and regulation of the carboxy-terminal ...
... is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin B is a mitotic cyclin. The amount of cyclin B (which binds to Cdk1) and the ... Because cyclin B is necessary for cells to enter mitosis and therefore necessary for cell division, cyclin B levels are often ... The fact that cyclin B is often disregulated in cancer cells makes cyclin B an attractive biomarker. Many studies have been ... Cyclin B at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Cyclin B - The Interactive Fly. ...
... remains associated with CDK1 from late S into late G2 phase when it is replaced by cyclin B. Cyclin A/CDK1 is thought ... Cyclin A is the only cyclin that regulates multiple steps of the cell cycle. Cyclin A can regulate multiple cell cycle steps ... Cyclin A2 is expressed in dividing somatic cells. Cyclin A, along with the other members of the cyclin family, regulates cell ... P21 is a CDK inhibitor that binds to several cyclin/CDK complexes, including cyclin A-CDK2/1 and cyclin D/CDK4, and blocks the ...
"Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378-88. doi: ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNB1 gene. Cyclin B1 is a regulatory protein ... Like all cyclins, levels of cyclin B1 oscillate over the course of the cell cycle. Just prior to mitosis, a large amount of ... Cyclin B1 can reside in the nucleus or the cytoplasm which can have an effect on the malignant potential of cyclin B1 when ...
Like all cyclin family members, cyclin E forms a complex with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2). Cyclin E/CDK2 regulates multiple ... Cyclin E is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin E binds to G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S ... Cyclin E/CDK2 plays a critical role in the G1 phase and in the G1-S phase transition. Cyclin E/CDK2 phosphorylates ... Dysregulation of cyclin E occurs in 18-22% of the breast cancers. Cyclin E is a prognostic marker in breast cancer, its altered ...
... has been shown to interact with P53, Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and MNAT1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000134480 ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-H is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNH gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin forms a complex with CDK7 kinase and ring finger protein MAT1. The kinase complex is able to phosphorylate CDK2 and ...
"Entrez Gene: CCNE1 cyclin E1". Shanahan F, Seghezzi W, Parry D, Mahony D, Lees E (February 1999). "Cyclin E associates with ... Mumberg D, Wick M, Bürger C, Haas K, Funk M, Müller R (1997). "Cyclin ET, a new splice variant of human cyclin E with a unique ... Cyclin E1 has been shown to interact with: CDC25A, CDKN1B, CUL3 Cdk1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, HERC5, P21, Retinoblastoma- ... Koff A, Cross F, Fisher A, Schumacher J, Leguellec K, Philippe M, Roberts JM (1991). "Human cyclin E, a new cyclin that ...
Other than Rb, viral cyclin D-Cdk6 complex also targets p27Kip, a Cdk inhibitor of cyclin E and A. In addition, viral cyclin D- ... In mice and humans, two more cyclin D proteins have been identified. The three homologues, called cyclin D1, cyclin D2, and ... among which is cyclin D. In this way, cyclin D is synthesized as long as the growth factor is present. Even though cyclin D ... The synthesis of cyclin D is initiated during G1 and drives the G1/S phase transition. Cyclin D protein is anywhere from 155 ( ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4, Cyclin-dependent kinase 6, EIF3K, and Retinoic acid receptor alpha. Cyclin Cyclin D GRCh38: Ensembl ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ...
Cyclin-O is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNO gene. Cyclin O has been shown to interact with RPA2 and PCNA. ... Hirst R, Gosden R, Miller D (June 2006). "The cyclin-like uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) of murine oocytes and its relationship ... Muller SJ, Caradonna S (January 1993). "Cell cycle regulation of a human cyclin-like gene encoding uracil-DNA glycosylase". The ... CCNO cyclin O". Otterlei M, Warbrick E, Nagelhus TA, Haug T, Slupphaug G, Akbari M, Aas PA, Steinsbekk K, Bakke O, Krokan HE ( ...
... is a member of the cyclin family, specifically the B-type cyclins. The B-type cyclins, B1 and B2, associate with ... Cyclin B1 co-localizes with microtubules, whereas cyclin B2 is primarily associated with the Golgi region. Cyclin B2 also binds ... Cyclin B2 has been shown to interact with TGF beta receptor 2. Cyclin B GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000157456 - Ensembl, ... "Cyclin B2-null mice develop normally and are fertile whereas cyclin B1-null mice die in utero". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
Cyclin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA2 gene. It is one of the two types of cyclin A: cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A2 belongs to the cyclin family, whose members regulate cell cycle progression by interacting with CDK kinases. Cyclin ... The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex eventually phosphorylates E2F, turning off cyclin A2 transcription. E2F promotes cyclin A2 ... Cyclin A2 is synthesized at the onset of S phase and localizes to the nucleus, where the cyclin A2-CDK2 complex is implicated ...
Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Different cyclins ... Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ...
"Cyclin K inhibits HIV-1 gene expression and replication by interfering with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)-cyclin T1 ... Cyclin K has been shown to interact with CDK9. Cyclin K also interacts with HIV nef protein. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... These cyclins may regulate transcription through their association with and activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) that ... Baek K, Brown RS, Birrane G, Ladias JA (Feb 2007). "Crystal structure of human cyclin K, a positive regulator of cyclin- ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNE2 gene. It is a G1 cyclin that binds Cdk2 and is inhibited by p27( ... Gudas, Jean M.; Payton, Marc; Thukral, Sushil; Chen, Eddy; Bass, Michael; Robinson, Murray O.; Coats, Steve (1999). "Cyclin E2 ... a novel G1 cyclin that binds Cdk2 and is aberrantly expressed in human cancers". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 (1): 612-22 ...
CDK6; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK7; cyclin H CDK8; cyclin C CDK9; cyclin T1, cyclin T2a, cyclin T2b, cyclin K CDK10 ... cyclin A, cyclin B CDK2; cyclin A, cyclin E CDK3; cyclin C CDK4; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK5; CDK5R1, CDK5R2. See also ... Furthermore, cyclin binding determines the specificity of the cyclin-CDK complex for particular substrates. Cyclins can ... Viruses can encode proteins with sequence homology to cyclins. One much-studied example is K-cyclin (or v-cyclin) from Kaposi ...
The Cyclin D/Cdk4 complex is a multi-protein structure consisting of the proteins Cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase 4, or ... Specifically, E2F helps to activate Cyclin E and Cyclin A, which are constituents of other Cdk/Cyclin complexes and are ... This complex is one of many cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes that are the "hearts of the cell-cycle control system" and ... GATA-1 serves as an activating transcription factor of Cyclin D and potentially also as a repressor of the Cyclin D inhibitor, ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4
Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ... 1995). "Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 also known as cell division protein kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK4 gene ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 3
"Entrez Gene: CDK3 cyclin-dependent kinase 3". Bullrich F, MacLachlan TK, Sang N, et al. (1995). "Chromosomal mapping of members ... 2002). "ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3)". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (23): 6076-82. doi:10.1046/j. ... Ren S, Rollins BJ (2004). "Cyclin C/cdk3 promotes Rb-dependent G0 exit". Cell. 117 (2): 239-51. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00300 ... CDK3 can phosphorylate histone H1 and interacts with an unknown type of cyclin. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000250506 - ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 8
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK8 and cyclin C associate ... Rickert P, Corden JL, Lees E (Jan 1999). "Cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are biochemically distinct CTD kinases". Oncogene ... "Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proceedings of the National ... "Entrez Gene: CDK8 cyclin-dependent kinase 8". Nemet J, Jelicic B, Rubelj I, Sopta M (Feb 2014). "The two faces of Cdk8, a ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 10
"Entrez Gene: CDK10 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDC2-like) 10". Kasten M, Giordano A (Apr 2001). "Cdk10, a Cdc2-related kinase, ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 10 has been shown to interact with ETS2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000185324 - Ensembl, May ...
Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb complex containing this cyclin was reported to interact with, and act as a negative regulator of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode distinct isoforms, have been described. Cyclin T2 has been shown to interact with CDK9 and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000082258 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". ...
Cyclin T2 antibody LS-C342834 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human Cyclin T2 (CCNT2 ). Validated for DB and WB.
Viruses | Free Full-Text | The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded protein kinase, pUL97, is considered a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) ortholog, due to shared structural and functional characteristics. The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of pUL97 with cyclin T1 in subnuclear compartments, most pronounced in viral replication centres. The distribution patterns of pUL97 and cyclin T1 were independent of HCMV strain and host cell type. The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231-280. Additional co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed cyclin B1 and cyclin A as further pUL97 interaction partners. Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay
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Amino acids M1 - K726 (end) of human Cyclin T1. Residue M232 of the fusion protein is equivalent to M11 of the native enzyme. The GST tag is located at residues 1 - 220 ...
PLOS Pathogens: miR-198 Inhibits HIV-1 Gene Expression and Replication in Monocytes and Its Mechanism of Action Appears To...
Author Summary Monocytes do not support HIV-1 replication, in part because they do not express adequate levels of essential cellular cofactors that mediate steps in the viral replication cycle. Monocytes become permissive for viral replication upon differentiation to macrophages, indicating that cellular cofactors are induced during the differentiation process. One such cofactor is Cyclin T1, which is not expressed in monocytes and is expressed at high levels following macrophage differentiation. Cyclin T1 functions to greatly stimulate the amount of HIV-1 produced in the infected cell. We identified a microRNA (miRNA) named miR-198 that represses the expression of Cyclin T1 in monocytes. miRNAs block expression of proteins by binding to messenger RNAs and preventing their translation by ribosomes. The expression levels of miR-198 are greatly reduced in macrophages, and this appears to allow translation of Cyclin T1 mRNA and expression of Cyclin T1 protein. Our study indicates that this miRNA restricts
Cyclin T1 Antibody 20992-1-AP has been identified with WB, ELISA. 20992-1-AP detected 87 kDa band in K-562 cells with 1:200-1:1000 dilution...
Rabbit polyclonal Cyclin T1 antibody validated for WB, IP, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 10 publications.
Mouse monoclonal Cyclin T2 antibody [2128C1a] validated for WB, Dot and tested in Human. Referenced in 2 publications. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant…
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Complex effects of flavopiridol on the expression of primary response genes | Cell Division | Full Text
The Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) is a complex of Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (CDK9) with either cyclins T1, T2 or K. The complex phosphorylates the C-Terminal Domain of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and negative elongation factors, stimulating productive elongation by RNAPII, which is paused after initiation. P-TEFb is recruited downstream of the promoters of many genes, including primary response genes, upon certain stimuli. Flavopiridol (FVP) is a potent pharmacological inhibitor of CDK9 and has been used extensively in cells as a means to inhibit CDK9 activity. Inhibition of P-TEFb complexes has potential therapeutic applications. It has been shown that Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates the recruitment of P-TEFb to Primary Response Genes (PRGs) and proposed that P-TEFb activity is required for their expression, as the CDK9 inhibitor DRB prevents localization of RNAPII in the body of these genes. We have previously determined the effects of FVP in global gene expression in a
"Quantitative analysis of RNA-mediated protein-protein interactions in " by Ya-Lin Chiu, Hong Cao et al.
Specific assembly of ribonucleoprotein complexes is essential in controlling various cellular functions including gene regulation. Diverse scaffolds containing proteins or nucleic acids could play key roles in stabilizing specific ribonucleoprotein complexes by enhancing protein-protein or RNA-protein interactions. One such example is the assembly of active RNA polymerase II transcription elongation complex originating from HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoter that involves HIV-1-encoded Tat protein and viral mRNA structure, trans-activation responsive RNA, and human CyclinT1 which is a subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor complex b. By using genetically encoded fluorescent proteins fused with Tat and human CyclinT1, here we demonstrate that human CyclinT1 was diffused throughout the nucleus and specific interactions between Tat and human CyclinT1 altered the localization of human CyclinT1 to specific nuclear foci. We also found that trans-activation responsive RNA enhanced protein
Essential member of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T) complex, also called positive transcription elongation factor B (P-TEFb), which is proposed to facilitate the transition from abortive to production elongation by phosphorylating the CTD (C-terminal domain) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and spt-5.
Transcription factor IIS cooperates with the E3 ligase UBR5 to ubiquitinate the CDK9 subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor B ...
EC 3.1, ELOABP1elongin A-binding protein 1, EloA-BP1REX1, Elongin-A-binding protein 1, KIAA1138elongin A binding protein 1, REX1, RNA exonuclease 1 homolog (S. cerevisiae), TCEB3BP1RNA exonuclease 1 homolog, transcription elongation factor B polypeptide 3 binding protein 1, Transcription elongation factor B polypeptide 3-binding protein ...
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Transcription elongation factor B polypeptide 2 - Q15370 (ELOB HUMAN)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Chimeric HIV-1 containing SIV matrix exhibit enhanced assembly in murine cells and replicate in a cell-type-dependent manner in...
Murine fibroblasts expressing viral receptors and human cyclin T1 allow HIV-1 entry and viral gene expression but do not support efficient assembly. A chimeric HIV-1 carrying a non-homologous matrix (MA) from murine leukemia virus in place of HIV-1 MA can assemble efficiently in murine cells, yet has poor infectivity. Here, we assess the ability of a homologous MA from SIV MAC239 to complement assembly and infection in chimeric viruses designated SHIV(MA). The resulting SHIV(MA) chimeras produce more virus than native HIV-1 when transfected into murine cells. SHIV(MA) exhibits cell-type-specific replication in human T cell lines, replicating well in MT4 cells and poorly in Jurkat cells due to an incompatibility with the HIV-1 Env. The infectivity defects of SHIV(MA) are rescued by pseudotyping with VSV-G but not by truncation of the cytoplasmic tail of Env. Passage of SHIV(MA) in Jurkat cells produces variants with improved Env incorporation and improved replication in Jurkat but not in 3T3 TXC ...
The general transcription factor P-TEFb, consisting of Cdk9 and cyclin T, strongly stimulates RNA polymerase II elongation. It is also a host cell cofactor for...
A series of mono-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines 4a-4k, unsymmetrical bis-purine isosteres 5a-5e and symmetrical bis-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines 6a and 6b connected via di(1,2,3-triazolyl)phenyl linker were synthesized by click chemistry. Whereas mono- 4g and bis-pseudopurine 5e showed selective inhibitory activities on cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells, bis-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine 6b exhibited potent and selective anti-proliferative effect in the nanomolar range on pancreatic carcinoma (CFPAC-1) cells. Among these, compound 6b induced a significant reduction in the expression level of CDK9 (cyclin-dependent kinase 9)/cyclin T1 in CFPAC-1 cells concomitant with attenuation of proliferative signaling mediated by c-Raf (rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma) and p38 MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases ...
While acetylation levels are regulated by HATs (writers) and HDACs (erasers), acetylation marks are recognised by bromodomains, which can be found in chromatin-associated and transcription-associated proteins that drive the formation of protein complexes that mediate active transcription.13 The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) domain family of proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT) constitutes the probably best characterised group of chromatin reader proteins in cancer.51 By binding to acetylated chromatin via their tandem-bromodomains, BET proteins regulate the transcription of specific subsets of genes, including those that promote cell-cycle progression and the evasion of apoptosis.52 Furthermore, BET proteins function as critical mediators of transcriptional elongation by promoting the recruitment and activation of the positive transcription elongation factor-b complex (P-TEFb).53 Based on the importance of BET proteins in controlling important numerous cancer-relevant genes such as ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Plasmid -962 human cyclin D1 promoter EtsB site mutant pGL3Basic from Dr. Frank McCormicks lab contains the insert CCND1 and is published in Nature. 1999 Apr 1;398(6726):422-6. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
POU1F1 recombinant protein | Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1 (POU1F1) Recombinant Protein-NP 001036325.1
Buy POU1F1 recombinant protein, Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1 (POU1F1) Recombinant Protein-NP_001036325.1 (MBS1353963) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins
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Synthetic Transcription Elongation Factors License Transcription Across Repressive Chromatin - PubMed
The release of paused RNA polymerase II into productive elongation is highly regulated, especially at genes that affect human development and disease. To exert control over this rate-limiting step, we designed sequence-specific synthetic transcription elongation factors (Syn-TEFs). These molecules a …
This gene encodes a member of the transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like (TCEAL) gene family. This family is comprised of nuclear phosphoproteins that modulate transcription in a promoter context-dependent manner. Multiple family members are located on the X chromosome. Alternatively splicing results in multiple transcript variants. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 13. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015 ...
An Intron-Retaining Splice Variant of Human Cyclin A2, Expressed in Adult Differentiated Tissues, Induces a G1-S Cell Cycle...
An Intron-Retaining Splice Variant of Human Cyclin A2, Expressed in Adult Differentiated Tissues, Induces a G1-S Cell Cycle Arrest In Vitro. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Cyclin - Wikipedia
cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ... cyclin D (Cdk4) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin
Cyclin T2 - Wikipedia
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin_T2
cyclin | Encyclopedia.com
Source for information on cyclin: A Dictionary of Biology dictionary. ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cyclin
... like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. Thanks. Mike * ... Cyclin E-Fix. micro-mike micro-mike at cox.net Sun Mar 3 16:33:22 EST 2002 *Previous message: THE SECRET the IRS is TERRIFIED ... But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the ...http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/cellbiol/2002-March/014568.html
What are Cyclin-Dependent Kinases?
Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. Cyclin A is also produced, which ... Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... Cyclin Dependent Kinases in the Cell Cycle. Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene ...https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/What-are-Cyclin-Dependent-Kinases.aspx
Looking for Cyclin H.....
... Charles Yang cyang at jhunix.hcf.jhu.edu Fri Oct 6 15:33:24 EST 1995 *Previous message: luciferase ... My problem: I cant find the nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the Cyclin H gene (the human counterpart to CCL1) and its ...http://bio.net/bionet/mm/yeast/1995-October/003937.html
PHO85 cyclin-10 (P53124) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.https://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/P53124
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (P24941) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/P24941
CCNI cyclin I [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... Cyclin I: a new cyclin encoded by a gene isolated from human brain. Nakamura T, et al. Exp Cell Res, 1995 Dec. PMID 7493655 ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/10983
The crystal structure of cyclin A. - PubMed - NCBI
Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does ... cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha ... Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box ... The structural results indicate a role for the cyclin-box fold both as a template for the cyclin family and as a generalised ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8591034?dopt=Abstract
Cyclin D1 Attenuates STAT3 | Science Signaling
Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, ... Bienvenu et al. have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated ... Endogenous cyclin D1 associated with STAT3 in cells treated for 2 hours after treatment with interleukin 6 (IL-6), an activator ... F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. ...https://stke.sciencemag.org/content/2001/83/tw5
Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK) Inhibitors | SpringerLink
... the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its ... the cyclin), led to a simple model for cell cycle control. Modulation of cyclin accumulation, and thereby Cdk activation, was ... CDK CKI Zellzyklus biochemistry biology cancer cell cell cycle cellular differentiation cellular growth cyclin-dependent kinase ... More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell ...https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-642-71941-7
Cyclin E ablation in the mouse.
E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins ... However, endoreplication of trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes is severely impaired in the absence of cyclin E. Cyclin ... Cyclin E ablation in the mouse.. Geng Y., Yu Q., Sicinska E., Das M., Schneider J.E., Bhattacharya S., Rideout W.M., Bronson R. ... These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for ...http://www.uniprot.org/citations/12941272
CCNA1 (cyclin A1)
... cyclin A1), Authors: Immacolata Vocca, Gianmarco Muzi, Francesca Pentimalli, Antonio Giordano. Published in: Atlas Genet ... Cyclin A2, also known as cyclin A, is the major A-type cyclin in mammals. Cyclin A1 primarily functions in the meiotic cell ... Schematic diagram of human cyclin A1. The positions of the cyclin box (with the two cyclin box folds) and the polyalanine ... Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and ...http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/CCNA1ID949ch13q13.html
Anti-Cyclin T1 antibody (ab2098) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal Cyclin T1 antibody validated for WB, IP, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 10 ... Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation ... Anti-Cyclin T1 antibody (ab2098) at 1/10000 dilution + HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cell line) Whole Cell Lysate at 10 µg. ... ab2098 (2µg/ml) staining Cyclin T1 in human lymph node using an automated system (DAKO Autostainer Plus). Using this protocol ...http://www.abcam.com/cyclin-t1-antibody-ab2098.html
CYCLIN A EXPRESSION VECTOE FOR EUK CELLS
... balczonr at my-dejanews.com balczonr at my-dejanews.com Tue Sep 22 13:25:16 EST 1998 ...http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/cellbiol/1998-September/009607.html
Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan ... - VRBO
Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ...https://www.vrbo.com/589888
Anti-Cyclin A1 antibody (ab172317) | Abcam
Mouse polyclonal Cyclin A1 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding ... All lanes : Anti-Cyclin A1 antibody (ab172317) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Cyclin A1 transfected 293T cell line lysate. Lane 2 : Non- ... Full length protein corresponding to Human Cyclin A1 aa 1-464. (ABM85414.1).. Sequence: ...https://www.abcam.com/cyclin-a1-antibody-ab172317.html
RCSB PDB - Gene View - CDK12 - cyclin dependent kinase 12
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.https://www.rcsb.org/pdb/gene/CDK12
RCSB PDB - Gene View - CDK9 - cyclin dependent kinase 9
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/gene/CDK9?v=hg38
Cyclin D1 Down-Regulation | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action
60 Abstracts with Cyclin D1 Down-Regulation Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Kahweol-mediated cyclin D1 degradation may contribute to the inhibition of the proliferation in human colorectal cancer cells. ... Pharmacological Actions : Antiproliferative , Apoptotic, Cell cycle arrest, Cyclin D1 Down-Regulation. Additional Keywords : ... Pharmacological Actions : Antiproliferative , Apoptotic, Cell cycle arrest, Cyclin D1 Down-Regulation. Additional Keywords : ...https://www.greenmedinfo.com/pharmacological-action/cyclin-d1-down-regulation
Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017
Download the full report: https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/5190761 Summary Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase ... This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found ... The latest report Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Cyclin ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase ...https://www.medindia.net/health-press-release/Cyclin-Dependent-Kinase-9-Pipeline-Review-H2-2017-349010-1.htm
Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis | PNAS
Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis. W Meikrantz, S Gisselbrecht, S W Tam, and R Schlegel ... These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent ... Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. Stable ... to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. ...https://www.pnas.org/content/91/9/3754?ijkey=a111b4daa51fd5e7a8be36bf6ebca16e907a07da&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Function of a human cyclin gene as an oncogene. | PNAS
Construction of a Cyclin D1-Cdk2 Fusion Protein to Model the Biological Functions of Cyclin D1-Cdk2 Complexes ... Cyclin D1 Promotes Cell Cycle Progression through Enhancing NDR1/2 Kinase Activity Independent of Cyclin-dependent Kinase 4 ... D-Type Cyclins and Their Cyclin-dependent Kinases: G1 Phase Integrators of the Mitogenic Response ... Heat Shock Protein B8, a Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Independent Cyclin D1 Target Gene, Contributes to Its Effects on Radiation ...https://www.pnas.org/content/91/2/709?ijkey=97d31aa2daf68b3ccff9b8e0adee633fa52a113c&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
CDK2/Cyclin A Recombinant Human Protein
CDK2/cyclin A. Assays. CDK2/cyclin A was pre-diluted in enzyme dilution buffer and assayed in 20mM Tris (pH 7.5), 5mM MgCl2, ... CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, and is essential for cell cycle G1⁄S phase ...https://www.fishersci.ca/shop/products/cdk2-cyclin-a-recombinant-human-protein/PV3267
CDK2SubunitCdksCDK4ProgressionShow that cyclinFound that cyclinHighly conservedOverexpression1998DependentComplexesGene expressionBindsRegulatoryCytoplasmicSaccharomycesAminoCCND1MitoticIsoformRenal-cell carcBovineKnockout MiceBelongsMolecularPrognosticActivationSubtypePhosphorylateCell cycle arrestProliferationLevelsAbsenceComplex
- Cyclin A is also produced, which binds to CDK2 and stimulates DNA replication. (news-medical.net)
- Analysis of residues that are conserved throughout the A, B, and E cyclins identifies two exposed clusters of residues, one of which has recently been shown to be involved in the association with human CDK2. (nih.gov)
- Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does not undergo any significant conformational changes on complex formation. (nih.gov)
- Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and interacting with viral proteins (Giordano et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 2005). Human cyclin A1 interacts with CDK2 in vitro and in vivo (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 2001). Moreover the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex regulates DNA double-strand break repair following radiation damage (Müller-Tidow et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 2004) by competing with CDK2-cyclin A2 for the binding to Ku70, a pivotal player in the non-homologous end-joining double strand break repair pathway, and inhibiting apoptosis through modulating RB functions in leukemia cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. (pnas.org)
- Cyclins themselves have no enzymatic activity but have binding sites for some substrates and target the Cdks to specific subcellular locations. (wikipedia.org)
- These cyclins oscillate, increasing and decreasing at different stages, binding to CDKs and driving the cell cycle forward. (news-medical.net)
- In addition to cyclin levels, this provides and additional way to control the activity of CDKs. (news-medical.net)
- Cyclins also determine the subcellular location and substrate specificity of CDKs. (nih.gov)
- More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its control. (springer.com)
- For example, although Cdks appear to be highly conserved phylogenetically, cyclins are much less so. (springer.com)
- Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene expression, which binds to CDK4. (news-medical.net)
- Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) usually functions to inhibit the transcription factor E2F, however, when cyclin-D-CDK4 phosphorylates the Rb protein, this relinquishes inhibition of E2F and leads to the production of genes required for entering the S phase. (news-medical.net)
- These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. (news-medical.net)
- F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. (sciencemag.org)
- Overexpression of cyclin D1 results in dysregulated CDK (zeige CDK4 Proteine ) activity, rapid cell growth under conditions of restricted mitogenic signaling, bypass of key cellular checkpoints, and ultimately, neoplastic growth. (antikoerper-online.de)
- This cyclin shows the highest similarity with cyclin G. The transcript of this gene was found to be expressed constantly during cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
- Cyclin I is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
- Cyclin A1 primarily functions in the meiotic cell cycle, but it also seems to contribute to G1/S cell cycle progression in somatic cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, suggesting a mechanism whereby STAT3-dependent transcription could be immediately attenuated. (sciencemag.org)
- Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer," Analytical Cellular Pathology , vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 179-185, 2012. (hindawi.com)
- ) The oscillations of the cyclins, namely fluctuations in cyclin gene expression and destruction by the ubiquitin mediated proteasome pathway, induce oscillations in Cdk activity to drive the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- The differences at each stage are due to a balance between the gene expression of each cyclin and the ubiquitin-proteasome system which breaks them down. (news-medical.net)
- But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the literature I have read. (bio.net)
- 2004). Cyclin A1 has an important role in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): its localization in normal hematopoietic cells is nuclear, whereas in leukemic cells from AML patients and cell lines, it is predominantly cytoplasmic (Ekberg et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Cyclins are generally very different from each other in primary structure, or amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
- However, all members of the cyclin family are similar in 100 amino acids that make up the cyclin box. (wikipedia.org)
- My problem: I can't find the nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the Cyclin H gene (the human counterpart to CCL1) and its corresponding protein. (bio.net)
- Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box. (nih.gov)
- Their expression is also being measured by flow cytometry concurrently with the initiation and termination of DNA replication during S-phase Cyclins are generally very different from each other in primary structure, or amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
- The cyclin D1 (PRAD1, CCND1) gene is affected by translocations and amplification in the genomes of a number of human tumors, suggesting that these changes confer growth advantage on developing tumor cell clones. (pnas.org)
- Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 24 Cyclin D1 (CCND1) Proteine von 9 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
- From the determination of the structure of cyclin A, together with results from biochemical and genetic analyses, we can identify which parts of the cyclin molecular may contribute to cyclin A structure and function. (nih.gov)
- These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for cyclin E in normal versus oncogenic proliferation. (uniprot.org)
- Cyclin I promotes cisplatin resistance via Cdk5 activation in cervical cancer. (nih.gov)
- Modulation of cyclin accumulation, and thereby Cdk activation, was proposed to be the overarching principle governing the passage through cell cycle phases. (springer.com)
- NMB or NMBR silencing inhibited M-CSF (zeige CSF1R Proteine )/ c-Fms (zeige CSF1R Proteine )-mediated downstream signaling pathways like activation of ERK (zeige EPHB2 Proteine ) and Akt (zeige AKT1 Proteine ) and induction of D-type cyclins, cyclin D1 and D2. (antikoerper-online.de)
- 2008). Cyclin A1 is expressed at low levels in G0 phase and increases in early G1, S and G2/M phases (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- The study involved cancer samples from 264 Taiwanese male oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and the results showed that increased levels of cyclin D1 were linked with later stage cancer and increased chance of the tumor spreading, as well as a reduced chance of survival. (fiercebiotech.com)
- More research is needed, but assessing levels of cyclin D1 at diagnosis could help to personalize treatment. (fiercebiotech.com)