A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A CYCLIN C dependent kinase that is an important component of the mediator complex. The enzyme is activated by its interaction with CYCLIN C and plays a role in transcriptional regulation by phosphorylating RNA POLYMERASE II.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a role in the transition from G1 to S PHASE and in transcriptional regulation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.

Cyclin I protects podocytes from apoptosis. (1/7)

The limited regenerative capacity of the glomerular podocyte following injury underlies the development of glomerulosclerosis and progressive renal failure in a diverse range of kidney diseases. We discovered that, in the kidney, cyclin I is uniquely expressed in the glomerular podocyte, and have constructed cyclin I knock-out mice to explore the biological function of cyclin I in these cells. Cyclin I knock-out (-/-) podocytes showed an increased susceptibility to apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Following induction of experimental glomerulonephritis, podocyte apoptosis was increased 4-fold in the cyclin I -/- mice, which was associated with dramatically decreased renal function. Our previous data showed that the Cdk inhibitor p21(Cip1/Waf1) protects podocytes from certain apoptotic stimuli. In cultured cyclin I -/- podocytes, the level of p21(Cip1/Waf1) was lower at base line, had a shorter half-life, and declined more rapidly in response to apoptotic stimuli than in wild-type cells. Enforced expression of p21(Cip1/Waf1) reversed the susceptibility of cyclin I -/- podocytes to apoptosis. Cyclin I protects podocytes from apoptosis, and we provide preliminary data to suggest that this is mediated by stabilization of p21(Cip1/Waf1).  (+info)

Serum proteomic-based analysis of pancreatic carcinoma for the identification of potential cancer biomarkers. (2/7)

To identify new biomarkers that improve the early diagnosis and lead to possible therapeutic targets in pancreatic carcinoma, we performed a proteomic approach to compare serum protein expression patterns of pancreatic carcinoma patients with that of gastric cancer patients, other pancreatic disease patients, and healthy volunteers. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analyses and mass spectroscopic identification, 10 protein spots were found significantly changed in pancreatic carcinoma and 5 proteins including cyclin I, Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta (GDI2), alpha-1 antitrypsin precursor, Haptoglobin precursor, and Serotransferrin precursor were successfully identified. The increased levels of cyclin I and GDI2 found to be associated with pancreatic carcinoma were further confirmed by Western blot analyses in an independent series of serum samples and/or pancreatic juice samples. Applying immunohistochemistry, we further validated expression of cyclin I and GDI2 in additional pancreatic carcinomas. These results indicate that cyclin I and GDI2 may be potential molecular targets for pancreatic cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.  (+info)

Microarray analysis of the cellular pathways involved in the adaptation to and progression of motor neuron injury in the SOD1 G93A mouse model of familial ALS. (3/7)

The cellular pathways of motor neuronal injury have been investigated in the SOD1 G93A murine model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using laser-capture microdissection and microarray analysis. The advantages of this study include the following: analysis of changes specifically in motor neurons (MNs), while still detecting effects of interactions with neighboring cells; the ability to profile changes during disease progression, an approach not possible in human ALS; and the use of transgenic mice bred on a homogeneous genetic background, eliminating the confounding effects arising from a mixed genetic background. By using this rigorous approach, novel changes in key cellular pathways have been detected at both the presymptomatic and late stages, which have been validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. At the presymptomatic stage (60 d), MNs extracted from SOD1 G93A mice show a significant increase in expression of genes subserving both transcriptional and translational functions, as well as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, mitochondrial preprotein translocation, and respiratory chain function, suggesting activation of a strong cellular adaptive response. Mice 90 d old still show upregulation of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, whereas transcription and mRNA processing genes begin to show downregulation. Late in the disease course (120 d), important findings include the following: marked transcriptional repression, with downregulation of multiple transcripts involved in transcriptional and metabolic functions; upregulation of complement system components; and increased expression of key cyclins involved in cell-cycle regulation. The changes described in the motor neuron transcriptome evolving during the disease course highlight potential novel targets for neuroprotective therapeutic intervention.  (+info)

Cyclin I activates Cdk5 and regulates expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL in postmitotic mouse cells. (4/7)


Cyclin I-Cdk5 governs survival in post-mitotic cells. (5/7)

Cdk5 has long been recognized to play an important role in development, maturation and apoptosis of postmitotic and terminally differentiated cells. Activation of Cdk5 is tightly regulated by specific activators. Cyclin I was recently characterized as the first cyclin protein that binds to and activates Cdk5. Cyclin I-Cdk5 activates the MEK-ERK pathway and results in increased Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) mRNA and protein levels. Lack of Cyclin I renders podocytes more susceptible to apoptosis. Interestingly, activation of Cdk5 by p35 is also involved in the podocytes' response to injury. In the absence of p35, podocytes are more prone to undergo apoptosis. Here, we propose a new model where Cdk5 plays a central role in the cellular response machinery against injury-induced apoptosis of post-mitotic cells. While Cyclin I-Cdk5 regulates Bcl-2 family proteins through activation of the MEK-ERK pathway, p35-Cdk5 directly phosphorylates and stabilizes Bcl-2.  (+info)

Both cyclin I and p35 are required for maximal survival benefit of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in kidney podocytes. (6/7)


Cyclin I is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. (7/7)


The i-CDK9-induced increase in CDK9s binding to the MYC locus is mostly BRD4-dependent.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06535.017
Lou Pagnucco wrote: , the Milan group (I cannot remember the authors) that published , in Nature some months ago, seemed to show that mice genetically , modified to exhibit lower rates of apoptosis lived about 35% longer. Miglaccio et al, Nature 402(6759):309-313. True, but it is crucial to remember that the reduction of apoptosis was not indiscriminate: it was specifically a reduction in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis due to knockout of one isoform of a protein. However, I still agree strongly with you that more experiments are needed. , Could failed, transient, apoptotic episodes result in extensive , cell/tissue damage instead of cell death? ... Is it also possible , that these failed cellular suicide attempts are due to mitochodrial , oxidative bursts that manage to leave behind the biomarkers of cellular , ageing? i.e., Is it possible that normal mitochondrial respiration has , gotten a bum rap and unfairly indicted for the cellular damage seen , in senescent cells? (whereas these ...
2494 Cyclin I (CCNI) is a member of the recently described inhibitory class of cyclin proteins. The other members of this class, cyclins G1 and G2, have been implicated in the induction of cell cycle arrest. Cyclin I is widely expressed in terminally differentiated tissues, but its function remains to be determined. We previously identified cyclin I as antigenic in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. Here, we examined expression of the human cyclin I gene in normal tissues, in tumor cell lines, and in primary human ovarian tumors. By Northern blot analysis, cyclin I was expressed at moderate to high levels in all normal tissues examined, including normal ovary. In contrast, cyclin I mRNA was dramatically reduced in nine of twenty-five ovarian tumor samples examined. These studies were confirmed and extended using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. More than half of the tumors evaluated had very low levels of cyclin I mRNA compared to the expression levels in normal ovarian tissue and other normal ...
They developed an angiogenic microfiber patch that releases angiogenic growth factors along aligned fibers and subsequently directs the spacing and orientation of mature and functional neovessels. The angiogenic microfiber patch was prepared by electrostatically binding electrosprayed angiogenic growth factor-encapsulating polymeric microparticles with electrospun polymeric microfibers. The microparticles released the angiogenic growth factors in a sustained manner, while the straightly aligned polymeric fibers guided cells to adhere along their orientation.. The patch will be highly useful in treating cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death and disability of people all over the world, Kong said.. Their work was reported in Advanced Materials in late July.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreased KAT5 Expression Impairs DNA Repair and Induces Altered DNA Methylation in Kidney Podocytes. AU - Hishikawa, Akihito. AU - Hayashi, Kaori. AU - Abe, Takaya. AU - Kaneko, Mari. AU - Yokoi, Hideki. AU - Azegami, Tatsuhiko. AU - Nakamura, Mari. AU - Yoshimoto, Norifumi. AU - Kanda, Takeshi. AU - Sakamaki, Yusuke. AU - Itoh, Hiroshi. PY - 2019/1/29. Y1 - 2019/1/29. N2 - Hishikawa et al. reveal that KAT5-mediated DNA repair is essential for podocyte maintenance and is related to changes in DNA methylation status. Decreased podocyte KAT5 expression may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy, suggesting a therapeutic target.. AB - Hishikawa et al. reveal that KAT5-mediated DNA repair is essential for podocyte maintenance and is related to changes in DNA methylation status. Decreased podocyte KAT5 expression may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy, suggesting a therapeutic target.. KW - diabetic nephropathy. KW - DNA damage repair. KW - ...
message was truncated but as of note: senescent cells (Hayflick cells) are not necessarily apoptotic. Many post-mitotic cells undergo apoptosis. See all the work on insects by me et al, Truman, Schwartz, Locke, etc. The story of apoptosis as an aborted mitosis derives from lymphocytes and is not necessarily valid, though the signalling mechansisms are interesting. See upcoming meetings at Lake Placid 9/29; Keystone Feb 95, Gordon Conf July 95. Richard A. Lockshin/Dept. Biol. Sci. St. Johns University/8000 Utopia P Jamaica NY 11439 USA/Phone 718: 990-1854/ Fax 718: 380-8543 In article ,35se7t$nru at expert.cc.purdue.edu, ckwen at expert.cc.purdue.edu (Chi-kuang Wen) writes: ,Dear Netter: , Can anyone tell me that if the cells in a mature animal or plant tissue still keep cell-division and cell-death to keep homeostasi ,cell-division and let the cells become senescent? In addition to the inactivation of telemerase may contribute to senescence, is th ,inducing senescence? If most of the cells in ...
Unfortunately, because of the early embryonic lethality associated with Mdm2-null and Mdmx-null mutations, it has been difficult to assess the physiological contributions of Mdm2 and Mdmx to the regulation of p53 levels and activity. However, conditional alleles have recently been developed that yield further insight into how and in what cell types Mdm2 and Mdmx regulate p53 (Grier et al., 2002; Steinman and Jones, 2002; Mendrysa et al., 2003; Grier et al., 2006).. To test whether Mdm2 and Mdmx are required to restrain p53 activity in a single cell type, Xiong et al. conditionally inactivated both Mdm2 and Mdmx in neuronal progenitors (Xiong et al., 2006). Meanwhile, Francoz et al. conditionally expressed p53 in neuronal progenitor cells or in post-mitotic cells of mice lacking Mdm2 and/or Mdmx (Francoz et al., 2006). Loss of Mdmx or Mdm2 leads to distinct phenotypes (see below) but, importantly, all phenotypes disappear in the absence of p53. Both Mdm2 and Mdmx are thus required to inhibit p53 ...
A fourth approach has used gels of tuneable stiffness to alter the mechanical environment of cells (Figure 5). Polyacrylamide gels coated with collagen I have been used to assess podocyte morphology on a range of soft and stiff substrates [26]. The authors found that increased substrate stiffness resulted in more mouse podocyte spreading and an increased differentiation phenotype [26]. Similarly, Abdallah and colleagues cultured human podocytes on hydrolysed polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel substrates and observed dense actin cytoskeleton formation and cell spreading with increased substrate stiffness [27]. These results were similar to a recent study that investigated whether changes in substrate stiffness affect podocyte morphology and whether optimal substrate stiffness drives podocyte differentiation and biochemical specialization. A tuneable substrate composed of gelatin microbial transglutaminase (gelatin-mTG) was used at a stiffness range (0.6-13 kPa) spanning that of healthy and diseased ...
Podoplanin is usually found in human tissues such as kidney podocytes, heart,lung, placenta, skeletal muscle, salivary glands, in myofibroblasts of the breast, mesothelial cell and osteoblasts. It is also upregulated on diverse human cancers like squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity,lungs, larynx, esophagus, cervix, skin and in some tumor related of central nervous system. A podoplanin physiological function is not fully determined yet it has been proposed as the marker of lung injury. As it is expressed in lymphatic cells shows a significant role as a specific marker forlymphatic endothelial cells and lymphangiogenesis wherein expression of endothelial cell upholds cell migration, adhesion and tube formation. Gene name: PDPN Protein name: Podoplanin Synonyms: • T1A • T1A2 • GP36 • OTS8 • AGGRUS • Nlrp4g NLR family See also: • Mucin • Transmembrane protein ...
Glomerular visceral epithelial cells, also known as podocytes, are vital to both regular kidney function as well as the development of kidney disease. localization to cell-cell junctions and driven which the SH3 domains of myo1e tail interacts with ZO-1, an element from the slit diaphragm complicated and restricted junctions. These results claim that myo1e represents an element from Docosapentaenoic acid 22n-3 the slit diaphragm complicated and may donate to regulating junctional integrity in kidney podocytes. and (from 2 representative fractionation tests) indicate that myo1e, podocin, and ZO-1 are enriched in the detergent-resistant (DR) slit diaphragm small percentage, whereas another podocyte marker, synaptopodin, exists in the cytoplasmic small percentage. The white series at indicates that 2 split elements of the blot have already been placed next to one another. indicate the locations stained for myo1e just), indicating that myo1e exists in podocyte cell systems not only is ...
Our data revealed that the mode of neurogenesis in onychophorans is more similar to that found in hexapods and crustaceans than that in chelicerates and myriapods as the onychophoran neuroectoderm shows neither post-mitotic cell clusters nor segmental invaginations. In Onychophora, instead, single precursors are recruited for neuronal fate and migrate internally as bottle-like cells, which is similar to the mode found in hexapods (figure 4). These immigrated cells are mitotically active, and in this respect resemble the neuronal stem cells (neuroblasts) of both crustaceans and hexapods (Harzsch 2001; Stollewerk & Simpson 2005; Ungerer & Scholtz 2008), even though they do not show asymmetric cell divisions. Our findings thus suggest that immigration of single cells, followed by their mitotic activity, is an ancestral feature of arthropod neurogenesis, while asymmetric cell divisions are a synapomorphy of crustaceans and hexapods (figure 8). The absence of the following three characters in ...
October 15, 2012 (Toronto, ON) - In a study published in the October issue of the prestigious journal Cell, researchers Drs. Susan Quaggin and Tony Pawson at Mount Sinai Hospitals Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, with their teams of post-doctoral researchers, have made an important discovery relating to the effects of a vital signalling protein in the kidney, potentially impacting drug therapies and treatment for the more than 30,000 Canadians who suffer from kidney failure.. The research team uncovered new information about a key binding protein of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) - a protein produced by cells that triggers growth and other changes. Drs. Quaggin and Pawson discovered that FLT1, a protein that acts as one of the targets of VEGF, plays a significant role in the health and development of microscopic kidney filters called glomeruli and is particularly important in kidney podocytes which are specialized cells in the filters, needed for proper urine production. When ...
Purpose: : The Lethal Giant Larvae (Lgl) proteins are demonstrated substrates of atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC). Previously, we have shown that aPKC lamda and zeta are essential for multiple aspects of retinal development. During zebrafish retinal development, loss of both aPKC isoforms results in retinal defects in mitotic cell behaviors (mitotic division orientation and M-phase localization), post-mitotic cell migration, photoreceptor morphogenesis, and overall retinal histology. The cell type positioning defects are non-cell autonomous, indicating that aPKC activity may function by regulating a secreted signal. Lgl proteins have been shown to regulate polarized exocytosis by interacting with exocytic machinery in both yeast and mammalian cells. To begin to test whether Lgl mediates aPKC functions during retinal development, we have isolated the zebrafish Lgl1 homologue and investigated the expression and loss-of-function consequences of Lgl1 and Lgl2 within the developing retina. Methods: : ...
The terminally differentiated podocyte functions as a critical barrier to prevent proteinuria, and proteinuria is the clinical signature for podocyte injury, with or without loss of renal functions. Emerging experimental and clinical studies have highlighted that loss of podocyte directly causes proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis, owing to podocyte apoptosis or detachment (24-27). The present study demonstrated, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that kidney and brain associated protein WWC1, is a critical molecular in podocyte injury. Reduced WWC1 expression was identified in injured podocytes, and loss of WWC1 directly induced podocyte apoptosis. In addition further evidence was obtained that WWC1 protected podocytes from apoptosis by preventing SD protein dendrin from relocating into nuclei.. The expression of WWC1 (KIBRA), the mammalian ortholog of Kibra, has been observed to be enriched in kidney and brain (18). In Drosophila, Kibra predominantly acts in the Merlin branch ...
... activates cyclin dependent kinases by removing phosphate from residues in the Cdk active site. In turn, the ... Cyclin "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. cdc25+ ... May 1991). "Dephosphorylation and activation of a p34cdc2/cyclin B complex in vitro by human CDC25 protein". Nature. 351 (6323 ... By removing inhibitory phosphate residues from target cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), Cdc25 proteins control entry into and ...
This discovery was essential to the subsequent cloning of Xenopus cyclins and kept the Hunt lab at the forefront of cyclin ... Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors come of age". Cell. 79 (4): 573-582. ... Subsequently he cloned and characterised the first human cyclins with Tony Hunter. This was crucial to recognising that cyclins ... and identified the first link between cyclins and oncoproteins by showing that cyclin A bound to adenovirus E1A, thus linking ...
"Targets of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1". Nature. 425 (6960): 859-864. Bibcode:2003Natur.425..859U. doi:10.1038/nature02062 ...
In the late G2 phase, it is present as an inactive complex of tyrosine-phosphorylated p34cdc2 and unphosphorylated cyclin ... Meijer L, Azzi L, Wang JY (1991). "Cyclin B targets p34cdc2 for tyrosine phosphorylation". EMBO J. 10 (6): 1545-54. doi:10.1002 ...
Xu W, Ji JY (2011). "Dysregulation of CDK8 and Cyclin C in tumorigenesis". J Genet Genomics. 38 (10): 439-52. doi:10.1016/j.jgg ... Another example of structural variability is seen in vertebrates, in which 3 paralogues of subunits of the cyclin-dependent ...
2002). "Cyclin G recruits PP2A to dephosphorylate Mdm2". Mol. Cell. 9 (4): 761-71. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(02)00504-X. PMID ... 2002). "Cyclin G2 associates with protein phosphatase 2A catalytic and regulatory B' subunits in active complexes and induces ...
Chen, J; Saha, P; Kornbluth, S; Dynlacht, BD; Dutta, A (September 1996). "Cyclin-binding motifs are essential for the function ... Dutta discovered how the cell cycle factor p21 interacts with and inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases and PCNA, identifying the ... Takeda, DY; Wohlschlegel, JA; Dutta, A (19 January 2001). "A bipartite substrate recognition motif for cyclin-dependent kinases ... cyclin-binding Cy or RXL motif that are also used by cdk to identify substrates for phosphorylation. He discovered how the ...
It is a cyclin dependent kinase containing the catalytic subunit, Cdk9, and a regulatory subunit, cyclin T in Drosophila. In ... Identification of multiple cyclin subunits of human P-TEFb. Genes Dev 1998; 12:755-62. Yang Z, Yik JH, Chen R, He N, Jang MK, ... Identification of a cyclin subunit required for the function of Drosophila P-TEFb. J Biol Chem 1998; 273:13855-60. Fu TJ, Peng ... The structures of human P-TEFb containing Cdk9 and cyclin T1 and the HIV Tat•P-TEFb complex have been solved using X-ray ...
Viral cyclin disruption of mammalian cell cycle control mechanisms. london.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University College London ( ... "Herpes viral cyclin/Cdk6 complexes evade inhibition by CDK inhibitor proteins". Nature. 390 (6656): 184-187. Bibcode:1997Natur. ...
Many factors including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), ubiquitin ligases, inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, and ... APC ubiquitinates nine-amino acid motif known as the destruction box (D box) in the NH2-terminal domain of mitotic cyclins for ... Cdc20 and Cdh1, which are the activators of APC, recruit substrates such as securin and B-type cyclins(Clb) for ubiquitination ... Cdk1-inhibitors could induce mitotic exit even when degradation of B-type cyclins was blocked by expression of non-degradable ...
Assembly of the pre-replication complex only occurs during late M phase and early G1 phase of the cell cycle when cyclin- ... Nguyen, Van Q.; Co, Carl; Li, Joachim J. (2001). "Cyclin-dependent kinases prevent DNA re-replication through multiple ...
de Moor, C.H.; Richter, J.D. (1999). "Cytoplasmic polyadenylation mediate masking and unmasking of cyclin B1 mRNA". EMBO J. 18 ...
Nature 332, 800-805 Deshaies, R.J., Chau, V., and Kirschner, M.W. (1995). Ubiquitination of the G1 cyclin Cln2p by a Cdc34p- ... they established that an early step in the release of Cdc14 from Net1 is the phosphorylation of Net1 by the mitotic cyclin-Cdk ... Phosphorylation by cyclin B-Cdk underlies release of mitotic exit. Science 305, 516-519 Kyprolis official website. [1] Cleave ... Phosphorylation of Sic1p by G1 cyclin/Cdk is required for its degradation and entry into S phase. Science 278, 455-460 Seol, J. ...
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is induced by both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms and can arrest the ... ISBN 978-1-58829-500-2.[page needed] Gartel AL, Tyner AL (June 2002). "The role of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in ... cell cycle at the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints by deactivating cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. The SOS response is the ...
Earlier cyclin-CDK complexes provide the signal to activate subsequent cyclin-CDK complexes. There are thousands of distinct ... CDK inhibitors (CKIs) block kinase activity in the cyclin-CDK complex to halt the cell cycle in G1 or in response to ... Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are serine-threonine kinases which regulate progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle. CDKs ... Animal cells contain at least nine distinct CDKs which bind to various cyclins with considerable specificity. ...
De Azevedo WF, Leclerc S, Meijer L, Havlicek L, Strnad M, Kim SH (1997). "Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases by purine ... Pumfery A, de la Fuente C, Berro R, Nekhai S, Kashanchi F, Chao SH (2006). "Potential use of pharmacological cyclin-dependent ... Doree M, Galas S (1994). "The cyclin-dependent protein kinases and the control of cell division". FASEB J. 8 (14): 1114-1121. ... Seliciclib (roscovitine or CYC202) is an experimental drug candidate in the family of pharmacological cyclin-dependent kinase ( ...
"Protein aggregation behavior regulates cyclin transcript localization and cell-cycle control". Developmental Cell. 25 (6): 572- ...
In the context of endoreplication these events are facilitated by an oscillation in cyclin E-Cdk2 activity. Cyclin E-Cdk2 ... de Nooij JC; Graber KH; Hariharan IK (2001). "Expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dacapo is regulated by cyclin E ... Post-transcriptional regulation of cyclin E-Cdk2 activity involves Ago/Fbw7-mediated proteolytic degradation of cyclin E and ... and cyclin E Genes Reveal Distinct Roles for the E2F-DP Transcription Factor and Cyclin E during the G1-S Transition". ...
Tibbles KL, Sarkar S, Novak B, Arumugam P (2013-11-01). Wang Y (ed.). "CDK-dependent nuclear localization of B-cyclin Clb1 ... As in the mitotic cycle, these transitions are regulated by combinations of different gene regulatory factors, the cyclin-Cdk ... Carlile TM, Amon A (April 2008). "Meiosis I is established through division-specific translational control of a cyclin". Cell. ... Ndt80 and Cdk/cyclin complex. However the activation of M-Cdk is controlled by the general phosphorylation switch Wee1/Cdc25. ...
Cyclin D-1 is a regulator of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6). It has been shown to interact with the retinoblastoma ... Cyclin D1 is a protein requisite for cell cycle progression and has been shown to be up-regulated in epithelioid sarcoma. ... Abnormal levels of cyclin D-1 may promote rapid cell division in epithelioid sarcoma. Tissue biopsy is the diagnostic modality ... Cyclin D and CDKs promote cell cycle progression by releasing transcription factors that are important for the initiation of ...
Cdk inactivation is primarily the result of the destruction of its associated cyclin. Cyclins are targeted for proteolytic ... Experimental addition of non-degradable M-cyclin to cells induces cell cycle arrest in a post-anaphase/pre-telophase-like state ... The ubiquitination of mitotic cyclins continues along with that of APC/CCDH1-specific targets such as the yeast mitotic spindle ... Blocking cdc14 activation in these cells results in the same phenotypic arrest as does blocking M-cyclin degradation. ...
2002). "Cell cycle arrest and repression of cyclin D1 transcription by INI1/hSNF5". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (16): 5975-88. doi: ...
... pyrimidine Is a Potent Inhibitor of Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinases 1, 2, and 9, Which Demonstrates Antitumor Effects in Human ... "The Development of a Selective Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor That Shows Antitumor Activity". Cancer Research. 69 (15): 6208 ... contributions to addressing unmet medical need with the invention of highly selective and bioavailable inhibitors of the Cyclin ...
The S-phase-promoting factor (SPF) is a CDK-cyclin complex that induces the S-phase (synthesis phase) of the cell cycle. The S- ... a protein which also is a stoichiometric inhibitor of Cdk1-Clb and B-type cyclins). Sic1 releases SPF from inhibition after it ... is phosphorylated by G1-cyclin-CDK. The phosphorylation marking SPF for polyubiquitination by the SCF ubiquitin ligase. Then ...
"Cyclin' out of gear: malaria parasites grinding to a halt - The University of Nottingham". www.nottingham.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019 ... "Plasmodium P-Type Cyclin CYC3 Modulates Endomitotic Growth during Oocyst Development in Mosquitoes". PLOS Pathogens. 11 (11): ... including the 2015 discovery of malarial cyclins and their importance in development of the oocyst form in the mosquito. ...
"Systemic leukocyte-directed siRNA delivery revealing cyclin D1 as an anti-inflammatory target". Science. 319 (5863): 627-30. ...
Wang, W.; Zhao, L. -J.; Tan, Y. -X.; Ren, H.; Qi, Z. -T. (2012). "MiR-138 induces cell cycle arrest by targeting cyclin D3 in ...
This caused the degradation of cyclin D1, which leads to arrest in cell cycle progression in the breast cancer cells. This, ... The toxin extracted from this primitive species enhanced the phosphorylation of cyclin D1. ...
"Effect of Cyclin D1 Overexpression on Drug Sensitivity in a Human Fibrosarcoma Cell Line". Journal of the National Cancer ...
It was found that depletion of these eRNAs led to Cyclin D1 transcriptional silencing. The last model involves transcriptional ... Supporting this hypothesis, transcripts originating from enhancers upstream of the Cyclin D1 gene are thought to serve as ...
Cyclin E2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNE2 gene. It is a G1 cyclin that binds Cdk2 and is inhibited by p27( ... Gudas JM, Payton M, Thukral S, Chen E, Bass M, Robinson MO, Coats S (January 1999). "Cyclin E2, a novel G1 cyclin that binds ...
Like all cyclin family members, cyclin E forms a complex with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2). Cyclin E/CDK2 regulates multiple ... Cyclin E is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin E binds to G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S ... Cyclin E/CDK2 plays a critical role in the G1 phase and in the G1-S phase transition. Cyclin E/CDK2 phosphorylates ... Dysregulation of cyclin E occurs in 18-22% of the breast cancers. Cyclin E is a prognostic marker in breast cancer, its altered ...
cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ... cyclin D (Cdk4) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ...
Source for information on cyclin: A Dictionary of Biology dictionary. ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. Cyclin A is also produced, which ... Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... Cyclin Dependent Kinases in the Cell Cycle. Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene ...
... like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. Thanks. Mike * ... Cyclin E-Fix. micro-mike micro-mike at cox.net Sun Mar 3 16:33:22 EST 2002 *Previous message: THE SECRET the IRS is TERRIFIED ... But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the ...
CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... Cyclin I: a new cyclin encoded by a gene isolated from human brain. Nakamura T, et al. Exp Cell Res, 1995 Dec. PMID 7493655 ...
Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does ... cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha ... Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box ... The structural results indicate a role for the cyclin-box fold both as a template for the cyclin family and as a generalised ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
... Charles Yang cyang at jhunix.hcf.jhu.edu Fri Oct 6 15:33:24 EST 1995 *Previous message: luciferase ... My problem: I cant find the nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the Cyclin H gene (the human counterpart to CCL1) and its ...
Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ...
Protein levels of cyclin B1 and cdc2 for each selected population are shown in Fig. 4B. Levels of cyclin B1 protein in cyclin ... Cyclin A regulates the initiation and maintenance of DNA synthesis whereas B cyclins control mitosis (32, 33). Cyclin B mRNA ... Cyclin B1/cdc2 kinase activity is shown in Fig. 4C. Cyclin B1 rescues the p53-dependent drop in cdc2 kinase activity in Ts- ... Cyclin B1 Expression Rescues p53-Mediated G2 Arrest.. To determine whether the decrease in cyclin B1 mRNA was the primary ...
Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis. W Meikrantz, S Gisselbrecht, S W Tam, and R Schlegel ... These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent ... Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. Stable ... to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. ...
... the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its ... the cyclin), led to a simple model for cell cycle control. Modulation of cyclin accumulation, and thereby Cdk activation, was ... CDK CKI Zellzyklus biochemistry biology cancer cell cell cycle cellular differentiation cellular growth cyclin-dependent kinase ... More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell ...
E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins ... However, endoreplication of trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes is severely impaired in the absence of cyclin E. Cyclin ... Cyclin E ablation in the mouse.. Geng Y., Yu Q., Sicinska E., Das M., Schneider J.E., Bhattacharya S., Rideout W.M., Bronson R. ... These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for ...
Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, ... Bienvenu et al. have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated ... Endogenous cyclin D1 associated with STAT3 in cells treated for 2 hours after treatment with interleukin 6 (IL-6), an activator ... F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. ...
Cyclin D1 governs microRNA processing in breast cancer Cyclin D1 controls cell cycle progression and microRNA biogenesis ... Cyclin D1 governs microRNA processing in breast cancer. Thomas Jefferson University. Journal. Nature Communications. Keywords. ... regulates expression of cyclin D1. Furthermore, the group showed that many cancer patients encode a form of cyclin D1 that ... Because the cyclin D1 gene has been implicated in a variety of other human cancers these findings may have broad implications ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
... balczonr at my-dejanews.com balczonr at my-dejanews.com Tue Sep 22 13:25:16 EST 1998 ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase synonyms, Cyclin-dependent kinase pronunciation, Cyclin-dependent kinase translation, English ... dictionary definition of Cyclin-dependent kinase. n. Any of various enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group ... Targeting cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in cancer: lessons from mice, hopes for therapeutic applications in human.. The ... STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS: DYNAMICS AND FLEXIBILITY ARE THE STORY.. STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF CYCLIN ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B regulates efferocytosis and atherosclerosis. Yoko Kojima, Kelly Downing, Ramendra Kundu, ... We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), ... See the related article at Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B regulates efferocytosis and atherosclerosis. ...
We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), ...
... Carmela Rinaldi,1 Natalia Maria Malara,2 Rosalia DAngelo,1 ... Carmela Rinaldi, Natalia Maria Malara, Rosalia DAngelo, et al., "Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer," ...
The results obtained suggest that the increment of the levels of cyclin D1 in intra-ductal breast tumors in older woman that we ... have examined is significantly associated with a lower proliferation rate.Conclusion: Cyclin D1, which characterizes tumor in ... Cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) plays pivotal roles in the development of several human cancers, including breast cancer, functioning as ... Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer. Carmela Rinaldi. ,1 Natalia Maria Malara. ,2 Rosalia DAngelo. ,1 ...
These thresholds are sequentially triggered as cyclin increases, yielding reliable order and timing. In many biological ... We conclude that mitotic events are regulated by discrete cyclin-CDK thresholds. ... Rising cyclin-CDK levels order cell cycle events PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e20788. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020788. Epub 2011 Jun ... Background: Diverse mitotic events can be triggered in the correct order and time by a single cyclin-CDK. A single regulator ...
... Nature. 1993 Dec 16;366(6456):701-4. doi: 10.1038/366701a0. ... We find that p21 inhibits the activity of each member of the cyclin/CDK family. Furthermore, overexpression of p21 inhibits the ... Our results indicate that p21 may be a universal inhibitor of cyclin kinases. ... cyclin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the p21 protein. However, in many transformed cells, proliferating cell nuclear ...
Download the full report: https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/5190761 Summary Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase ... This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found ... The latest report Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Cyclin ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cyclin T1 antibody validated for WB, IP, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 10 ... Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation ... Anti-Cyclin T1 antibody (ab2098) at 1/10000 dilution + HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cell line) Whole Cell Lysate at 10 µg. ... ab2098 (2µg/ml) staining Cyclin T1 in human lymph node using an automated system (DAKO Autostainer Plus). Using this protocol ...
Compare Anti-Cyclin K Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... Anti-Cyclin K Antibody Products. Anti-Cyclin K antibodies are available from several suppliers. In humans, this protein is ...
  • For example, in all eukaryotes mitosis (M phase) is initiated by high levels of cyclin B, which combines with a protein kinase to form the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF). (encyclopedia.com)
  • To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G 2 , we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G 2 arrest at 32°C. We have found that p53 prevents G 2 /M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. (pnas.org)
  • To study G 2 regulation by p53, we have established a human cell line, Ts-SKOV3, that stably expresses a temperature-sensitive p53 allele and undergoes G 2 arrest at 32°C. Using this cell line we have found that p53 arrests cell cycle in G 2 by lowering intracellular levels of cyclin B1, a protein absolutely required for mitotic initiation. (pnas.org)
  • The more aggressive basal-like subtype of breast cancers, however, exhibited lower levels of cyclin D1 and Dicer, which would in turn globally reduce the level of mature miRNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study involved cancer samples from 264 Taiwanese male oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and the results showed that increased levels of cyclin D1 were linked with later stage cancer and increased chance of the tumor spreading, as well as a reduced chance of survival. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • More research is needed, but assessing levels of cyclin D1 at diagnosis could help to personalize treatment. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Of the seven patients who had a recurrence, six had high levels of cyclin E activity. (scienceblog.com)
  • RESULTS- Mice treated with exendin-4 showed increased β-cell proliferation, elevated islet protein levels of cyclin A2 with unchanged D-type cyclins, elevated PDX-1 and Skp2 levels, and reduced p27 levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cyclin A is also produced, which binds to CDK2 and stimulates DNA replication. (news-medical.net)
  • Analysis of residues that are conserved throughout the A, B, and E cyclins identifies two exposed clusters of residues, one of which has recently been shown to be involved in the association with human CDK2. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does not undergo any significant conformational changes on complex formation. (nih.gov)
  • Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. (pnas.org)
  • However, their research also showed that treating breast cancer cells with a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) inhibitor can reverse letrozole resistance. (scienceblog.com)
  • After confirming that the LMW forms of cyclin E suppress the anti-proliferative effects of letrozole, the researchers examined whether a CDK2 inhibitor could reverse the drug resistance in the unresponsive breast cancer cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • We challenged the aromatase-overexpressing cells with either the wild-type or the low forms of cyclin E and then treated them with the CDK2 inhibitor roscovitine," Keyomarsi said. (scienceblog.com)
  • Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and interacting with viral proteins (Giordano et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2005). Human cyclin A1 interacts with CDK2 in vitro and in vivo (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2001). Moreover the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex regulates DNA double-strand break repair following radiation damage (Müller-Tidow et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2004) by competing with CDK2-cyclin A2 for the binding to Ku70, a pivotal player in the non-homologous end-joining double strand break repair pathway, and inhibiting apoptosis through modulating RB functions in leukemia cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, and is essential for cell cycle G1⁄S phase transition. (fishersci.ca)
  • Cyclin E forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK2, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cyclin A binds to S phase Cdk2 and is required for the cell to progress through the S phase. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Cyclin A/ Cdk2 is inhibited by the complex p21CIP. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Cyclin E binds to the G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle that determines cell division. (rockland-inc.com)
  • The Cyclin E/CDK2 complex phosphorylates p27Kip1, tagging it for degradation, thus promoting expression of Cyclin A, allowing progression to S phase. (rockland-inc.com)
  • There are currently no images for Cyclin C Antibody (NB120-2950). (novusbio.com)
  • Western Blot: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-02902] - Cyclin A1 western with U2OS cells. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-02902] - Human testis after heat-induced antigen retrieval. (novusbio.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Cyclin E1 Monoclonal Antibody (4H7) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # BSM-52048R. (thermofisher.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Cyclin B1 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 55004-1-AP. (thermofisher.com)
  • WB analysis of extracts from various cell lines using Cyclin H antibody. (genetex.com)
  • ICC/IF analysis of HeLa cells using Cyclin H antibody (green) and DAPI (blue). (genetex.com)
  • Cyclin B1 antibody detects Cyclin B1 protein at cytoplasm on mouse ovary by immunohistochemical analysis. (genetex.com)
  • TMA slides and traditional large section slides of these 200 tumours were stained with cyclin A antibody and analysed by two independent readers. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cyclins themselves have no enzymatic activity but have binding sites for some substrates and target the Cdks to specific subcellular locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cyclins oscillate, increasing and decreasing at different stages, binding to CDKs and driving the cell cycle forward. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition to cyclin levels, this provides and additional way to control the activity of CDKs. (news-medical.net)
  • Cyclins also determine the subcellular location and substrate specificity of CDKs. (nih.gov)
  • More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its control. (springer.com)
  • For example, although Cdks appear to be highly conserved phylogenetically, cyclins are much less so. (springer.com)
  • In normal cells, CDKs exist predominantly in multiple quaternary complexes, each containing a CDK, cyclin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the p21 protein. (nih.gov)
  • The temporal expression of cyclins is tightly regulated and subsequently plays a critical role in controlling the enzymatic activity of cdks. (fishersci.com)
  • Multiple cyclins activate CDKs in all eukaryotes, but it is unclear whether multiple cyclins are really required for cell cycle progression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dowejko, Bauer, Bauer, Müller-Richter, Reichert: The human HECA interacts with cyclins and CDKs to antagonize Wnt-mediated proliferation and chemoresistance of head and neck cancer cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene expression, which binds to CDK4. (news-medical.net)
  • Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) usually functions to inhibit the transcription factor E2F, however, when cyclin-D-CDK4 phosphorylates the Rb protein, this relinquishes inhibition of E2F and leads to the production of genes required for entering the S phase. (news-medical.net)
  • These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. (news-medical.net)
  • have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of the cell cycle-driving molecule, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), in HCC was significantly reduced by the treatments with vitamin K2, K3 and K5. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Overexpression of cyclin D1 results in dysregulated CDK (zeige CDK4 Proteine ) activity, rapid cell growth under conditions of restricted mitogenic signaling, bypass of key cellular checkpoints, and ultimately, neoplastic growth. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Cyclin D1 forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell cycle G 1 /S transition. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) enzymes . (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the amino-terminal regions of S and M cyclins contain short destruction-box motifs that target these proteins for proteolysis in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Once bound to a cyclin they act to phosphorylate many target proteins on serine or threonine amino acid residues. (news-medical.net)
  • Each interacts with a different cyclin at a different phase, stimulating various target proteins and ensuring that vital stages of each phase are carried out before a cell moves onto the next phase. (news-medical.net)
  • I wonder if the cytoplasmic staining we are getting is real or whether the methacarn is modifying other cytoplasmic proteins (like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. (bio.net)
  • Threading analysis shows that the cyclin-box fold is consistent with the sequences of the transcription factor TFIIB and other functionally related proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular analyses revealed that cells lacking cyclin E fail to normally incorporate MCM proteins into DNA replication origins during G(0)-->S progression. (uniprot.org)
  • The work supports the idea that cancer-causing proteins like cyclin D1 may drive cancer progression in part via miRNA biogenesis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dr Bill Wickstead, who along with his master's student Alexander Douglass characterised cyclin-like genes across Apicomplexa, said: "Cyclins are a really diverse class of proteins comprising many different types in different organisms. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cyclin E is one of the proteins that regulates the cell cycle, influencing how rapidly a cell passes through the four phases and divides. (scienceblog.com)
  • This cyclin was found to bind to important cell cycle regulators, such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • Transcription of these particular cyclins is proposed to monitor the growth factor signal and the encoded proteins participate in G1 progression. (bl.uk)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cyclin H Antibodies (129) and Cyclin H Proteins (15) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cyclin K Kits (12) and Cyclin K Proteins (7) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • There are 14939 Cyclin_C domains in 14900 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. (embl.de)
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing Cyclin_C domain. (embl.de)
  • The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with Cyclin_C domain is also avaliable . (embl.de)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing Cyclin_C domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • 4 However, we have recently demonstrated that cyclin A1 associates with the retinoblastoma gene product (Rb) and E2F-1 in leukemia cells in vivo and the interaction can change functional properties of the involved proteins. (bloodjournal.org)
  • But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the literature I have read. (bio.net)
  • Anti-Cyclin K antibodies are available from several suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 117 Cyclin K Antibodies across 20 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 1 cyclin Q Antibodies across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • Anti-Cyclin Antibodies are ideal for investigators involved in Cell Signaling, cell biology and Signal Transduction research. (rockland-inc.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 17 Cyclin H (CCNH) ELISA Kits from 4 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Tumor samples were immunostained for cyclin B using commercial antibodies. (kb.se)
  • Overexpression of cyclin D1 reduced STAT3-dependent gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • HOUSTON - Overexpression of low-molecular-weight (LMW-E) forms of the protein cyclin E renders the aromatase inhibitor letrozole ineffective among women with estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers, researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center report in Clinical Cancer Research . (scienceblog.com)
  • Cyclin A2 overexpression in primary islets increased proliferation and reduced p27. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Various studies examined the relationship between cyclin E overexpression with the clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer but yielded conflicting results. (springer.com)
  • A meta-analysis was conducted with eligible studies which quantitatively evaluated the relationship between cyclin E overexpression and survival of patients with breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • We conducted a final analysis of 7,759 patients from 23 eligible studies and evaluated the correlation between cyclin E overexpression and survival in patients with breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Cyclin E overexpression is associated with poor OS and BCSS in breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Berglund P, Landberg G. Cyclin E overexpression reduces infiltrative growth in breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Conclusions Overexpression of cyclins B and A, rather than D1 seems to characterize psoriasis. (wiley.com)
  • To investigate the frequency of cyclin A overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its relationship with clinical significance and HBx gene integration. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • overexpression of cyclin A mRNA and protein was found in 16 of 35, 21 of 35 patients, respectively. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Overexpression of cyclin A protein was correlated with patient's age, tumor size and HBx integration. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Overexpression of cyclin A occurs in the early stage of HCC carcinogenesis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cyclin A overexpression was significantly associated with poor metastasis-free survival both on TMA and large sections. (diva-portal.org)
  • Western blotting was used to measure cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27 that arrest cell cycle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • p27(KIP1) is a member of the CIP1/KIP1 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and is a potential tumor suppressor gene. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of the non-biological drugs, known as Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, are currently being tested for use in cancer treatment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Altered prostatic epithelial proliferation and apoptosis, prostatic development and serum testosterone in mice lacking cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors," Biology of Reproduction 73(5): 951-958. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • in opposition to this idea, it has been argued that cyclins might target the activated CDK to particular substrates or inhibitors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • AIMS: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) play a critical role in negatively regulating the proliferation of cardiomyocytes, although their role in cardiac differentiation remains largely undetermined. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Click on the product name to view detailed information such as the chemical structure and specific chemical properties for each of our cyclin E Inhibitors. (scbt.com)
  • In stock cyclin E Inhibitors are available for immediate shipping. (scbt.com)
  • Pituitary cyclin E/E2F1 signaling is a previously unappreciated molecular mechanism underlying neuroendocrine regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, providing a subcellular therapeutic target for small molecule cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitors of pituitary ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism, ie, Cushing disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In thisreview, we focus our attention on cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase complexes,cyclin kinase inhibitors, genes of the retinoblastoma family, p53 and N-Myc, and we aim to summarize the latest evidence indicating their involvement in thecontrol of the cell cycle and induction of differentiation in different celltypes of the peripheral and central nervous systems. (embl.de)
  • Cell changes in the cell cycle like the assembly of mitotic spindles and alignment of sister-chromatids along the spindles are induced by M cyclin- Cdk complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cyclin/cdk complexes are essential for passage through specific stages in the cell cycle. (fishersci.com)
  • Cyclin B1 complexes with p34 (cdc2) to form the maturation-promoting factor (MPF). (thermofisher.com)
  • SETD1A and cyclin K complexes may represent a therapeutic opportunity for acute myeloid leukemia and, potentially, for other cancers. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin K-containing kinase complexes maintain self-renewal in murine embryonic stem cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • It is known that the cell cycle and cell proliferation are regulated by the sequential activation of cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin complexes. (wiley.com)
  • This cyclin and its kinase partner are components of TFIIH, as well as RNA polymerase II protein complexes. (genetex.com)
  • Cyclin/CDK complexes were typically diluted to a final concentration of 50 μg/mL in a kinase reaction buffer containing 50 mmol/L Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 10 mmol/L MgCl 2 , 1 mmol/L DTT, and 0.1 mmol/L sodium orthovanadate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This cyclin shows the highest similarity with cyclin G. The transcript of this gene was found to be expressed constantly during cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin I is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), in mice promotes vascular SMC apoptosis and aneurysm progression. (jci.org)
  • The role of cyclins in controlling G1 progression in mammalian cells was tested by construction of fibroblasts that constitutively overexpress human cyclin E. This was found to shorten the duration of G1, decrease cell size, and diminish the serum requirement for the transition from G1 to S phase. (sciencemag.org)
  • These observations show that cyclin levels can be rate-limiting for G1 progression in mammalian cells and suggest that cyclin synthesis may be the target of physiological signals that control cell proliferation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cyclin A1 primarily functions in the meiotic cell cycle, but it also seems to contribute to G1/S cell cycle progression in somatic cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Because cyclin A2 was stimulated by cAMP, we assessed the role of cylcin A2 in cell cycle progression in Min6 and isolated islet β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cyclin E is an important regulator of cell cycle progression. (springer.com)
  • Destruction of Cyclin B1 is required for cell cycle progression. (thermofisher.com)
  • We hypothesized that intrapituitary cyclin E signaling regulates corticotroph tumor POMC transcription independently of cell cycle progression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 9q34.1 that encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase, which regulates cell cycle progression. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyclin D2, a positive regulator of G1 progression, shows a unique localization within radial glial (RG) cells (i.e., the neural progenitor in the developing neocortex). (wiley.com)
  • Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus ( KSHV ) encodes a D-type cyclin (ORF72) that binds CDK6 and is likely to contribute to KSHV-related cancers [9] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, cyclin B binds to CDK-1 to drive the cycle forward into M phase, stimulating mitosis. (news-medical.net)
  • In budding yeast, commitment occurs when the catalytic subunit of a protein kinase, encoded by the CDC28 gene (the homolog of the fission yeast cdc2+ gene), binds to a positively acting regulatory subunit, a cyclin. (sciencemag.org)
  • It binds to cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) and enhances its kinase activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we have investigated a series of 110 primary malignant gliomas and 8 glioma cell lines for amplification and expression of the D‐type cyclin genes CCND1 (11q13), CCND2 (12p13), and CCND3 (6p21). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Our genome-wide analysis identified 52 expressed cyclin genes in tomato. (mdpi.com)
  • Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicates that the expression patterns of tomato cyclin genes were significantly different in vegetative and reproductive stages. (mdpi.com)
  • Transcription of most cyclin genes can be enhanced or repressed by exogenous application of gibberellin, which implies that gibberellin maybe a direct regulator of cyclin genes. (mdpi.com)
  • Cyclin C was originally identified by a genetic screen for human and Drosophila cDNAs that complement a triple knock-out of the CLN genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (novusbio.com)
  • The treatment of quiescent cells with growth factors results in the transcriptional activation of the D-type cyclin genes during G1. (bl.uk)
  • Comparison of these results with those for the cyclin D1 and D2 genes should elucidate how transcription of these genes is co-ordinately regulated by growth factors. (bl.uk)
  • It is normally activated by cyclin C and is required for transcription elongation of the serum response genes (immediate early genes [IEGs]) FOS, EGR1, and cJUN. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • RV-cyclin does not control CDK8 specificity but instead enhances CDK8's effects on regulated genes, an important distinction for its use to delineate natural CDK8 targets. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae C-type cyclin and its cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk8p) repress the transcription of several stress response genes. (genetics.org)
  • In prior work, they showed that cyclin D1 regulates the non coding genome, and that the non-coding genome, in turn, regulates expression of cyclin D1. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the current study, the group sought to investigate the mechanism by which cyclin D1 regulates the biogenesis of non coding miRNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • Finally, two results suggest that cyclin C regulates programmed cell death independently of its function as a transcriptional repressor. (genetics.org)
  • Unlike other cyclins that positively regulate the cell cycle, cyclin G2 (CCNG2) regulates cell proliferation as a tumor suppressor gene. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Our earlier studies have shown that Cyclin E is proteolytically cleaved to generate p18-Cyclin E (p18CycE) in hematopoietic tumor cells upon treatment with genotoxic agents, such as ionizing radiation and regulates apoptosis by displacing Bax from Ku70 and thus providing the first step of Bax activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A cyclin forms a complex with Cdk, which begins to activate but the complete activation requires phosphorylation, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination of cyclin E by the SCFFbw7 ubiquitin ligase. (addgene.org)
  • The cyclin H / cdk7 (show CDK7 ELISA Kits )/ Mat1 (show MAT1A ELISA Kits ) kinase activity is regulated by CK2 (show CSNK2A1 ELISA Kits ) phosphorylation of cyclin H . (antibodies-online.com)
  • Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. (mdpi.com)
  • RV-cyclin does not increase activating phosphorylation events in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and does not inhibit decay of IEG mRNAs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Using antisense RNA, Dr. Pestell's group was the first to show that cyclin D1 drives mammary tumor growth in vivo. (eurekalert.org)
  • In conclusion, the findings of this study show that cyclin D1 has separate roles, and proliferation is driven by different mechanisms in ER positive and negative breast cancers. (kb.se)
  • This supports results from earlier studies that suggest that cyclin D1 could be used as a prognostic biomarker. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • We suggest that cyclin B might be a potent prognostic factor in this low-risk patient group. (kb.se)
  • This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin T2 has been shown to interact with CDK9 and Retinoblastoma protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC or EC - Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. (medindia.net)
  • This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found to interact with CDK9 and cyclin T, which suggested a possible involvement of this protein in AIDS. (medindia.net)
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC or EC pipeline Target constitutes close to 26 molecules. (medindia.net)
  • It also reviews key players involved in Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC or EC targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (medindia.net)
  • Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation factor B (P-TEFb), which is proposed to facilitate the transition from abortive to productive elongation by phosphorylating the CTD (carboxy-terminal domain) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). (abcam.com)
  • Cyclin K interacts with CDK12 and CDK13 but not CDK9 in cells, and is required to maintain self-renewal in ES cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin K inhibits HIV-1 gene expression and replication by interfering with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)-cyclin T1 interaction in Nef-dependent manner. (antibodies-online.com)
  • These results reveal an unexpectedly direct role for CDK9-cyclin K in checkpoint pathways that maintain genome integrity in response to replication stress. (antibodies-online.com)
  • P-TEFb containing cyclin K and Cdk9 can activate transcription via RNA. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. (mdpi.com)
  • HIV-1 Tat protein interacts with CDK9 and cyclin T, suggesting CDK9 may have a role in AIDS. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Study TPI-ALV-201 is examining the efficiency of alvocidib, an investigational inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), in combination with the authorized agents cytarabine and mitoxantrone in relapsed/refractory AML patients whose leukemia depends on MCL-1. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Biopharmaceutical company Probiodrug AG revealed on Friday the transfer of its experimental cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) inhibitor programme to AstraZeneca (LSE:AZN)(NYSE:AZN) for an undisclosed amount. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. (pnas.org)
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 7 (39 kDa Protein Kinase or CDK Activating Kinase 1 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 7 or TFIIH Basal Transcription Factor Complex Kinase Subunit or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 or CDK7 or EC or EC - Cell division protein kinase 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 7 (39 kDa Protein Kinase or CDK Activating Kinase 1 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 7 or TFIIH Basal Transcription Factor Complex Kinase Subunit or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 or CDK7 or EC or EC pipeline Target constitutes close to 11 molecules. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • In tumor cells, cyclin E is converted to low-molecular weight forms, an event that does not occur in normal cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. (harvard.edu)
  • Cyclin E and E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection was performed in murine corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells to elucidate mechanisms for drug action. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • R-roscovitine inhibits human pituitary corticotroph tumor ACTH by targeting the cyclin E/E2F1 pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • PCR, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the gene, mRNA and protein level of cyclin A in the tumor and nontumorous tissue. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Expression of human cyclins through the cell cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] ) The oscillations of the cyclins, namely fluctuations in cyclin gene expression and destruction by the ubiquitin mediated proteasome pathway, induce oscillations in Cdk activity to drive the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Expression of cyclins detected immunocytochemically in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase), [7] or in relation to initiation and termination of DNA replication during S-phase, can be measured by flow cytometry . (wikipedia.org)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differences at each stage are due to a balance between the gene expression of each cyclin and the ubiquitin-proteasome system which breaks them down. (news-medical.net)
  • Expression of cyclins in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase) is often measured by flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their expression is also being measured by flow cytometry concurrently with the initiation and termination of DNA replication during S-phase Cyclins are generally very different from each other in primary structure, or amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of a novel isoform of cyclin I in human testis. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Pestell and colleagues developed transgenic mice that could induce cyclin D1 expression in the breast and examined cells with cyclin D1 gene deleted. (eurekalert.org)
  • They found that patients with the luminal A subtype of breast cancer had increased levels of expression of both cyclin D1 and Dicer. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ruiling Zhang and team from Xinxiang Medical University explored the correlation between cyclin-dependent kinase 5 expression in the hippocampus and neurological impairments following prenatal ethanol exposure, and found that prenatal ethanol exposure could affect cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and its activator p35 in the hippocampus of offspring rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We titrated the budding yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 within its endogenous expression range to a stable, fixed level and measured time to occurrence of three mitotic events: growth depolarization, spindle formation, and spindle elongation, as a function of fixed Clb2 level. (nih.gov)
  • That in itself tells us there is a huge difference between the two groups of patients based on the pattern of expression of normal versus low forms of cyclin E. (scienceblog.com)
  • This approach -- using cyclin A2 expression via gene transfer -- yielded improved myocardial function. (rxpgnews.com)
  • 1997). The cyclin A1 promoter does not possess a TATA box, whereas the region upstream of the transcriptional start site region contains four GC boxes, with multiple Sp1-binding sites important for the regulation of cyclin A1 expression (Müller et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • SNIP1 itself is induced upon serum stimulation immediately prior to cyclin D1 expression. (nature.com)
  • These results define both a new function for SNIP1 and identify a previously unrecognized regulator of the cell cycle and cyclin D1 expression. (nature.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS- Cyclin A2 is required for β-cell proliferation, exendin-4 stimulates cyclin A2 expression via the cAMP pathway, and exendin-4 stimulation of cAMP requires PDX-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mutation or disruption of normal cyclin A expression causes cells to arrest in G2-phase. (fishersci.com)
  • Expression of cell cycle regulators p27Kip1 and cyclin E, alone and in combination, correlate with survival in young breast cancer patients. (springer.com)
  • We show here that accumulation of the wild-type p53 protein in either human or murine cells markedly increases expression of cyclin D1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of the members of this family of cyclins, D1, 2 and 3, is spatially and temporally regulated with respect to growth factor receptor ligation. (bl.uk)
  • The expression of cyclin H and CDK7 (show CDK7 ELISA Kits ) protein in proliferating hemangiomas was significantly higher than that in involuting hemangiomas and normal skin tissues. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin D1 expression is assoc. (kb.se)
  • High cyclin E expression is common in hormone receptor negative and high grade aggressive breast cancer, whereas cyclin D1 in hormone receptor positive and low grade breast cancer. (kb.se)
  • To test this hypotheses in large breast cancer material and to clarify the histopathological correlations of cyclin E and D1, especially the association with proliferation, we analyzed cyclin E and D1 immunohistochemical expression on breast tumour microarrays consisting of 1348 invasive breast cancers. (kb.se)
  • We found that low-risk node negative patients with high expression of cylin B had a significantly worse outcome than patients with low expression of cyclin B. Cyclin B could separate patients with poor survival from those with good survival with 80% accuracy. (kb.se)
  • Here we show that constitutive expression of RV-cyclin in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line significantly increases the level of IEG expression in response to serum stimulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • At the EGR1 gene locus, RV-cyclin increases and maintains RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy after serum stimulation, in conjunction with increased and extended EGR1 gene expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Both of RV-cyclin's functional domains, i.e., the cyclin box and the activation domain, are necessary for the overall enhancement of IEG expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Aim We evaluated epidermal cell turnover and thickness, as well as the expression of cyclins D1, B and A in psoriatic skin before and after therapy with cyclosporin. (wiley.com)
  • Cyclin A1 differs from other cyclins in its highly restricted expression pattern. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Besides its expression during spermatogenesis, cyclin A1 is also expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells and in acute myeloid leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We investigated mechanisms that might contribute to cyclin A1 expression in hematopoietic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Coexpression of a c-myb expression vector with the cyclin A1 promoter constructs significantly increased the reporter activity in adherent CV-1 as well as in myeloid U937 cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In addition, transfection of primary human embryonic fibroblasts with a c-myb expression vector led to induction of the endogenous cyclin A1 gene. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Taken together, c-myb can directly transactivate the promoter of cyclin A1, and c-myb might be involved in the high-level expression of cyclin A1 observed in acute myeloid leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Recently, we cloned the promoter of the cyclin A1 gene to elucidate the mechanisms of expression of this gene. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In addition, forced expression of c-myb in human embryonic fibroblasts induces the endogenous cyclin A1 gene. (bloodjournal.org)
  • For this reason, we wanted to compare cyclin A expression on TMA and on traditional large sections. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cyclin specificity: how many wheels do you need on a unicycle? (biomedsearch.com)
  • The sensitivity and specificity of cyclin B was 65% and 92%, respectively. (kb.se)
  • The p-TEFb complex containing this cyclin was reported to interact with, and act as a negative regulator of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single regulator could confer order and timing on multiple events if later events require higher cyclin-CDK than earlier events, so that gradually rising cyclin-CDK levels can sequentially trigger responsive events: the "quantitative model" of ordering. (nih.gov)
  • They did this by expressing the cell-cycle regulator, a protein called cyclin A2. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. (curehunter.com)
  • Cln3 cyclin of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key regulator of Start, a cell cycle event in G1 phase at which cells become committed to division. (asm.org)
  • For all of the apoptosis-inducing agents tested, the appearance of condensed chromatin was accompanied by 2- to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. (pnas.org)
  • E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. (uniprot.org)
  • It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins are critically required for proliferation of all cell types. (uniprot.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that E type cyclins are largely dispensable for mouse development. (uniprot.org)
  • These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for cyclin E in normal versus oncogenic proliferation. (uniprot.org)
  • CBP-S436A islets exhibited elevated cyclin A2, reduced p27, and no changes in D-type cyclins, PDX-1, or Skp2. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • C-, H- and J18 types only contain a cyclin-C domain, and U-type cyclins contain another potential cyclin domain. (mdpi.com)
  • NMB or NMBR silencing inhibited M-CSF (zeige CSF1R Proteine )/ c-Fms (zeige CSF1R Proteine )-mediated downstream signaling pathways like activation of ERK (zeige EPHB2 Proteine ) and Akt (zeige AKT1 Proteine ) and induction of D-type cyclins, cyclin D1 and D2. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • In contrast to mammalian cells, these yeast cells had only one CDK which interacted with various cyclins. (news-medical.net)
  • Mammalian cyclin A1 is primarily localized in the nuclei of spermatocytes in mouse and human (Liu et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Human cdk8-cyclin C might be functionally associated with the mammalian transcription apparatus, perhaps involved in relaying growth-regulatory signals. (novusbio.com)
  • In mammalian somatic cells, cyclin A is required for S-phase and passage through G2-phase. (fishersci.com)
  • Cyclin K is highly expressed in mammalian testes in a developmentally regulated manner. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Here, we discuss our findings and the Cyclin D2 function in mammalian brain development and evolution. (wiley.com)
  • Cyclin A2 ( Ccna2 ), normally silenced after birth in the mammalian heart, can induce cardiac repair in small-animal models of myocardial infarction. (sciencemag.org)
  • The structural results indicate a role for the cyclin-box fold both as a template for the cyclin family and as a generalised adaptor molecule in the regulation of transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, suggesting a mechanism whereby STAT3-dependent transcription could be immediately attenuated. (sciencemag.org)
  • Moreover, SNIP1 depletion results in inhibition of cyclin D1 promoter activity in a manner dependent upon a previously characterized binding site for the AP-1 transcription factor family. (nature.com)
  • PDX-1 knockdown reduced exendin-4-stimulated cAMP synthesis and cyclin A2 transcription. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • I have been defining the cis -acting elements and trans -acting factors that control transcription of the human cyclin D3 gene in T-cells. (bl.uk)
  • The minimal cyclin D3 promoter sequence was identified as a region 173bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. (bl.uk)
  • The protein encoded by CCNK is a member of the transcription cyclin family. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Retroviral cyclin controls cyclin-dependent kinase 8-mediated transcription elongation and reinitiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Previous work showed that the retroviral cyclin (RV-cyclin), encoded by WDSV, has separable cyclin box and transcription activation domains. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and nuclear run-on assays provide evidence that RV-cyclin does not alter the initiation of IEG transcription but does enhance the overall rate of transcription elongation and maintains transcription reinitiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Second, the human cyclin C, which does not repress transcription in yeast, does regulate ROS sensitivity. (genetics.org)
  • Gel-shift assays demonstrated that c-myb could bind to the cyclin A1 promoter at a binding site located near the transcription start site. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Dmtf1 is a MYB -like transcription factor isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a mouse T lymphocyte library with cyclin D2 bait. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Cyclin H is implicated in the regulation of the transcriptional machinery during midblastula transition and is therefore an essential gene in early zebrafish larval development. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin E-Mediated Human Proopiomelanocortin Regulation as a Therapeutic Target for Cushing Disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cyclin E and E2F1 exhibit reciprocal positive regulation in corticotroph tumors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Alvocidib is an investigational small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 , a protein important to the regulation of Myc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyclin A, cyclin E and Ki-67 are all markers for proliferation and involved in the regulation of the cell cycle. (diva-portal.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Changes in islet protein levels of cyclins and of two critical cell cycle regulators cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) were assessed in mice treated with exendin-4 and in a mouse model with specific upregulation of nuclear cAMP signaling exhibiting increased β-cell proliferation (CBP-S436A mouse). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In Min6 cells, cyclin A2 knockdown prevented exendin-4-stimulated proliferation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Experimental data has suggested that cyclin D1 and E mediate cell proliferation by different mechanisms in estrogen receptor (ER) positive and negative breast cancer. (kb.se)
  • Cyclins positively regulate cell proliferation to a large extent. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, all members of the cyclin family are similar in 100 amino acids that make up the cyclin box. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the protein the cyclin box is a region of protein sequence homology that is common to all members of the cyclin family and is required for interaction with the CDK partner. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • We have solved the crystal structure, at 2.0 A resolution, of an active recombinant fragment of bovine cyclin A, cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha helices. (nih.gov)
  • Recombinant human Cyclin E1 protein, around 100-200aa. (thermofisher.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Cyclin B1. (genetex.com)
  • Recombinant cyclin/CDK holoenzymes were purified from Sf9 cells engineered to produce baculoviruses that express a specific cyclin or CDK. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box. (nih.gov)
  • It recognizes a protein of 54kDa, which is identified as cyclin A. Its epitope is located amino acids 144-148 of human Cyclin A2. (fishersci.com)
  • The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231-280. (mdpi.com)
  • Exendin-4 stimulated cyclin A2 promoter activity via the cAMP-cAMP response element binding protein pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The human cyclin D3 gene has a TATA-less promoter and a single dominant initiation site. (bl.uk)
  • Transient transfections using CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) reporter constructs containing sequential deletions of the cyclin D3 promoter defined positively and negatively regulated regions. (bl.uk)
  • Comparison of cyclin A1 and cyclin A promoter activity in adherent and myeloid leukemia cell lines showed that the cyclin A1 promoter is preferentially active in myeloid cell lines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This preferential activity was present in a small, 335-bp cyclin A1 promoter fragment that contained several potential c-myb binding sites. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 15 We show here that the cyclin A1 promoter is preferentially active in myeloid leukemia cell lines and is transactivated by c-myb. (bloodjournal.org)
  • p34Cdc28-mediated control of Cln3 cyclin degradation. (asm.org)
  • 6-Gingerol induces cell-cycle G1-phase arrest through AKT-GSK 3β-cyclin D1 pathway in renal-cell carcinoma. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Hemodynamic forces modulate EC proliferative phenotype through the miR (show MLXIP ELISA Kits )-23b/ CAK/cyclin H pathway. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This destruction pathway is important as deleting cyclin C suppresses the hypersensitivity of slt2 mutants to oxidative damage. (genetics.org)
  • The aim was to investigate whether R-roscovitine inhibits human ACTH in corticotroph tumors by targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase 2/cyclin E signaling pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We find that p21 inhibits the activity of each member of the cyclin/CDK family. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin A is a member of the cyclin family. (rockland-inc.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. (wikidoc.org)
  • The mechanism behind this is that the low forms of cyclin E increase the activity of the cyclin E complex, and this complex is what mediates the negative effects. (scienceblog.com)
  • This study suggests that TMA technique could be useful to study histological correlations and prognostic significance of cyclin A on breast cancer on a large scale. (diva-portal.org)
  • G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in that the concentrations increase gradually (with no oscillation), throughout the cell cycle based on cell growth and the external growth-regulatory signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D2 accumulates at the very basal tip of the RG cell (i.e., the basal endfoot) via a unique cis -regulatory sequence found in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of its mRNA. (wiley.com)
  • We found that we could negate the growth inhibitory effects of letrozole with the low forms of cyclin E but not with the wild-type cyclin E," said Keyomarsi, the study's senior author. (scienceblog.com)
  • Of those, 100 expressed normal levels of wild-type cyclin E, and 28 overexpressed the low forms," Keyomarsi said. (scienceblog.com)
  • When we looked at recurrence, three of the hundred with wild-type cyclin E had experienced a recurrence compared to four of the twenty-eight with the low forms. (scienceblog.com)
  • Graf L, Webel R, Wagner S, Hamilton ST, Rawlinson WD, Sticht H, Marschall M. The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins. (mdpi.com)
  • Cyclins can be divided into four classes based on their behavior in the cell cycle of vertebrate somatic cells and yeast cells: G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyclins also promote other activities to progress the cell cycle, such as centrosome duplication in vertebrates or spindle pole body in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, the group showed that many cancer patients encode a form of cyclin D1 that evades negative feedback from the non coding genome. (eurekalert.org)
  • We also found that cyclin E-deficient cells are relatively resistant to oncogenic transformation. (uniprot.org)