Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
MAP Kinase Kinase 2
MAP Kinase Kinase 1
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
CDC2 Protein Kinase
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Cell Cycle Proteins
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
Tumor Suppressor Proteins
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
E2F Transcription Factors
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Gene Expression Regulation
Transcription Factor DP1
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
E2F1 Transcription Factor
Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Amino Acid Sequence
Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae
S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins
RNA, Small Interfering
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).
NIH 3T3 Cells
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8
Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
Cyclin I protects podocytes from apoptosis. (1/7)The limited regenerative capacity of the glomerular podocyte following injury underlies the development of glomerulosclerosis and progressive renal failure in a diverse range of kidney diseases. We discovered that, in the kidney, cyclin I is uniquely expressed in the glomerular podocyte, and have constructed cyclin I knock-out mice to explore the biological function of cyclin I in these cells. Cyclin I knock-out (-/-) podocytes showed an increased susceptibility to apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Following induction of experimental glomerulonephritis, podocyte apoptosis was increased 4-fold in the cyclin I -/- mice, which was associated with dramatically decreased renal function. Our previous data showed that the Cdk inhibitor p21(Cip1/Waf1) protects podocytes from certain apoptotic stimuli. In cultured cyclin I -/- podocytes, the level of p21(Cip1/Waf1) was lower at base line, had a shorter half-life, and declined more rapidly in response to apoptotic stimuli than in wild-type cells. Enforced expression of p21(Cip1/Waf1) reversed the susceptibility of cyclin I -/- podocytes to apoptosis. Cyclin I protects podocytes from apoptosis, and we provide preliminary data to suggest that this is mediated by stabilization of p21(Cip1/Waf1). (+info)
Serum proteomic-based analysis of pancreatic carcinoma for the identification of potential cancer biomarkers. (2/7)To identify new biomarkers that improve the early diagnosis and lead to possible therapeutic targets in pancreatic carcinoma, we performed a proteomic approach to compare serum protein expression patterns of pancreatic carcinoma patients with that of gastric cancer patients, other pancreatic disease patients, and healthy volunteers. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analyses and mass spectroscopic identification, 10 protein spots were found significantly changed in pancreatic carcinoma and 5 proteins including cyclin I, Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta (GDI2), alpha-1 antitrypsin precursor, Haptoglobin precursor, and Serotransferrin precursor were successfully identified. The increased levels of cyclin I and GDI2 found to be associated with pancreatic carcinoma were further confirmed by Western blot analyses in an independent series of serum samples and/or pancreatic juice samples. Applying immunohistochemistry, we further validated expression of cyclin I and GDI2 in additional pancreatic carcinomas. These results indicate that cyclin I and GDI2 may be potential molecular targets for pancreatic cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. (+info)
Microarray analysis of the cellular pathways involved in the adaptation to and progression of motor neuron injury in the SOD1 G93A mouse model of familial ALS. (3/7)The cellular pathways of motor neuronal injury have been investigated in the SOD1 G93A murine model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using laser-capture microdissection and microarray analysis. The advantages of this study include the following: analysis of changes specifically in motor neurons (MNs), while still detecting effects of interactions with neighboring cells; the ability to profile changes during disease progression, an approach not possible in human ALS; and the use of transgenic mice bred on a homogeneous genetic background, eliminating the confounding effects arising from a mixed genetic background. By using this rigorous approach, novel changes in key cellular pathways have been detected at both the presymptomatic and late stages, which have been validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. At the presymptomatic stage (60 d), MNs extracted from SOD1 G93A mice show a significant increase in expression of genes subserving both transcriptional and translational functions, as well as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, mitochondrial preprotein translocation, and respiratory chain function, suggesting activation of a strong cellular adaptive response. Mice 90 d old still show upregulation of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, whereas transcription and mRNA processing genes begin to show downregulation. Late in the disease course (120 d), important findings include the following: marked transcriptional repression, with downregulation of multiple transcripts involved in transcriptional and metabolic functions; upregulation of complement system components; and increased expression of key cyclins involved in cell-cycle regulation. The changes described in the motor neuron transcriptome evolving during the disease course highlight potential novel targets for neuroprotective therapeutic intervention. (+info)
Cyclin I activates Cdk5 and regulates expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL in postmitotic mouse cells. (4/7)(+info)
Cyclin I-Cdk5 governs survival in post-mitotic cells. (5/7)Cdk5 has long been recognized to play an important role in development, maturation and apoptosis of postmitotic and terminally differentiated cells. Activation of Cdk5 is tightly regulated by specific activators. Cyclin I was recently characterized as the first cyclin protein that binds to and activates Cdk5. Cyclin I-Cdk5 activates the MEK-ERK pathway and results in increased Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) mRNA and protein levels. Lack of Cyclin I renders podocytes more susceptible to apoptosis. Interestingly, activation of Cdk5 by p35 is also involved in the podocytes' response to injury. In the absence of p35, podocytes are more prone to undergo apoptosis. Here, we propose a new model where Cdk5 plays a central role in the cellular response machinery against injury-induced apoptosis of post-mitotic cells. While Cyclin I-Cdk5 regulates Bcl-2 family proteins through activation of the MEK-ERK pathway, p35-Cdk5 directly phosphorylates and stabilizes Bcl-2. (+info)
Both cyclin I and p35 are required for maximal survival benefit of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in kidney podocytes. (6/7)(+info)
Cyclin I is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. (7/7)(+info)
EP 0863204 A4 20000119 - HUMAN CYCLIN I AND GENE ENCODING THE SAME
387453381 - EP 0863204 A4 20000119 - HUMAN CYCLIN I AND GENE ENCODING THE SAME - [origin: US6218115B1] This invention relates to a novel protein having a high degree of homology to the amino acid sequence of the so-called cyclin box which is characteristic of cyclins: they are herein referred to as human cyclin I or human cyclin I protein. Further, the invention relates to a gene encoding their amino acid sequences and the protein: the gene is referred to as gene encoding human cyclin I or human cyclin I gene. Also, the invention relates to expression vector into which the human cyclin I gene is incorporated as well as to a transformant into which the vector is introduced. Still further, the invention relates to a recombinant protein obtained by growing the transformant. In addition, the invention relates to a novel neuron-marking method using an anitisense nucleotide of the gene as probe. Furthermore, the invention relates to method for screening cancer cell using the human cyclin I gene.
The i-CDK9-induced increase in CDK9s binding to the MY | Open-i
The i-CDK9-induced increase in CDK9s binding to the MYC locus is mostly BRD4-dependent.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06535.017
Telomerase protect post-mitotic cells too
Lou Pagnucco wrote: , the Milan group (I cannot remember the authors) that published , in Nature some months ago, seemed to show that mice genetically , modified to exhibit lower rates of apoptosis lived about 35% longer. Miglaccio et al, Nature 402(6759):309-313. True, but it is crucial to remember that the reduction of apoptosis was not indiscriminate: it was specifically a reduction in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis due to knockout of one isoform of a protein. However, I still agree strongly with you that more experiments are needed. , Could failed, transient, apoptotic episodes result in extensive , cell/tissue damage instead of cell death? ... Is it also possible , that these failed cellular suicide attempts are due to mitochodrial , oxidative bursts that manage to leave behind the biomarkers of cellular , ageing? i.e., Is it possible that normal mitochondrial respiration has , gotten a bum rap and unfairly indicted for the cellular damage seen , in senescent cells? (whereas these ...
2494 Cyclin I (CCNI) is a member of the recently described inhibitory class of cyclin proteins. The other members of this class, cyclins G1 and G2, have been implicated in the induction of cell cycle arrest. Cyclin I is widely expressed in terminally differentiated tissues, but its function remains to be determined. We previously identified cyclin I as antigenic in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. Here, we examined expression of the human cyclin I gene in normal tissues, in tumor cell lines, and in primary human ovarian tumors. By Northern blot analysis, cyclin I was expressed at moderate to high levels in all normal tissues examined, including normal ovary. In contrast, cyclin I mRNA was dramatically reduced in nine of twenty-five ovarian tumor samples examined. These studies were confirmed and extended using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. More than half of the tumors evaluated had very low levels of cyclin I mRNA compared to the expression levels in normal ovarian tissue and other normal ...
Assistant Professor Kong publishes innovation of patch in Advanced Materials - Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
They developed an angiogenic microfiber patch that releases angiogenic growth factors along aligned fibers and subsequently directs the spacing and orientation of mature and functional neovessels. The angiogenic microfiber patch was prepared by electrostatically binding electrosprayed angiogenic growth factor-encapsulating polymeric microparticles with electrospun polymeric microfibers. The microparticles released the angiogenic growth factors in a sustained manner, while the straightly aligned polymeric fibers guided cells to adhere along their orientation.. The patch will be highly useful in treating cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death and disability of people all over the world, Kong said.. Their work was reported in Advanced Materials in late July.. ...
Decreased KAT5 Expression Impairs DNA Repair and Induces Altered DNA Methylation in Kidney Podocytes<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreased KAT5 Expression Impairs DNA Repair and Induces Altered DNA Methylation in Kidney Podocytes. AU - Hishikawa, Akihito. AU - Hayashi, Kaori. AU - Abe, Takaya. AU - Kaneko, Mari. AU - Yokoi, Hideki. AU - Azegami, Tatsuhiko. AU - Nakamura, Mari. AU - Yoshimoto, Norifumi. AU - Kanda, Takeshi. AU - Sakamaki, Yusuke. AU - Itoh, Hiroshi. PY - 2019/1/29. Y1 - 2019/1/29. N2 - Hishikawa et al. reveal that KAT5-mediated DNA repair is essential for podocyte maintenance and is related to changes in DNA methylation status. Decreased podocyte KAT5 expression may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy, suggesting a therapeutic target.. AB - Hishikawa et al. reveal that KAT5-mediated DNA repair is essential for podocyte maintenance and is related to changes in DNA methylation status. Decreased podocyte KAT5 expression may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy, suggesting a therapeutic target.. KW - diabetic nephropathy. KW - DNA damage repair. KW - ...
apoptosis vs cell-cycle
message was truncated but as of note: senescent cells (Hayflick cells) are not necessarily apoptotic. Many post-mitotic cells undergo apoptosis. See all the work on insects by me et al, Truman, Schwartz, Locke, etc. The story of apoptosis as an aborted mitosis derives from lymphocytes and is not necessarily valid, though the signalling mechansisms are interesting. See upcoming meetings at Lake Placid 9/29; Keystone Feb 95, Gordon Conf July 95. Richard A. Lockshin/Dept. Biol. Sci. St. Johns University/8000 Utopia P Jamaica NY 11439 USA/Phone 718: 990-1854/ Fax 718: 380-8543 In article ,35se7t$nru at expert.cc.purdue.edu, ckwen at expert.cc.purdue.edu (Chi-kuang Wen) writes: ,Dear Netter: , Can anyone tell me that if the cells in a mature animal or plant tissue still keep cell-division and cell-death to keep homeostasi ,cell-division and let the cells become senescent? In addition to the inactivation of telemerase may contribute to senescence, is th ,inducing senescence? If most of the cells in ...
MDMX: from bench to bedside | Journal of Cell Science
Unfortunately, because of the early embryonic lethality associated with Mdm2-null and Mdmx-null mutations, it has been difficult to assess the physiological contributions of Mdm2 and Mdmx to the regulation of p53 levels and activity. However, conditional alleles have recently been developed that yield further insight into how and in what cell types Mdm2 and Mdmx regulate p53 (Grier et al., 2002; Steinman and Jones, 2002; Mendrysa et al., 2003; Grier et al., 2006).. To test whether Mdm2 and Mdmx are required to restrain p53 activity in a single cell type, Xiong et al. conditionally inactivated both Mdm2 and Mdmx in neuronal progenitors (Xiong et al., 2006). Meanwhile, Francoz et al. conditionally expressed p53 in neuronal progenitor cells or in post-mitotic cells of mice lacking Mdm2 and/or Mdmx (Francoz et al., 2006). Loss of Mdmx or Mdm2 leads to distinct phenotypes (see below) but, importantly, all phenotypes disappear in the absence of p53. Both Mdm2 and Mdmx are thus required to inhibit p53 ...
January 2021 - Nala
Adult Literacy is co-funded by the Irish Government and the European Social Fund (ESF) as part of the ESF Programme for Employability, Inclusion and Learning 2014-2020. ...
The mechanobiology of kidney podocytes in health and disease | Clinical Science | Portland Press
A fourth approach has used gels of tuneable stiffness to alter the mechanical environment of cells (Figure 5). Polyacrylamide gels coated with collagen I have been used to assess podocyte morphology on a range of soft and stiff substrates . The authors found that increased substrate stiffness resulted in more mouse podocyte spreading and an increased differentiation phenotype . Similarly, Abdallah and colleagues cultured human podocytes on hydrolysed polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel substrates and observed dense actin cytoskeleton formation and cell spreading with increased substrate stiffness . These results were similar to a recent study that investigated whether changes in substrate stiffness affect podocyte morphology and whether optimal substrate stiffness drives podocyte differentiation and biochemical specialization. A tuneable substrate composed of gelatin microbial transglutaminase (gelatin-mTG) was used at a stiffness range (0.6-13 kPa) spanning that of healthy and diseased ...
Podoplanin - Biology-Online Dictionary
Podoplanin is usually found in human tissues such as kidney podocytes, heart,lung, placenta, skeletal muscle, salivary glands, in myofibroblasts of the breast, mesothelial cell and osteoblasts. It is also upregulated on diverse human cancers like squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity,lungs, larynx, esophagus, cervix, skin and in some tumor related of central nervous system. A podoplanin physiological function is not fully determined yet it has been proposed as the marker of lung injury. As it is expressed in lymphatic cells shows a significant role as a specific marker forlymphatic endothelial cells and lymphangiogenesis wherein expression of endothelial cell upholds cell migration, adhesion and tube formation. Gene name: PDPN Protein name: Podoplanin Synonyms: • T1A • T1A2 • GP36 • OTS8 • AGGRUS • Nlrp4g NLR family See also: • Mucin • Transmembrane protein ...
Glomerular visceral epithelial cells, also known as podocytes, are vital to both regular kidney function as well as the...
Glomerular visceral epithelial cells, also known as podocytes, are vital to both regular kidney function as well as the development of kidney disease. localization to cell-cell junctions and driven which the SH3 domains of myo1e tail interacts with ZO-1, an element from the slit diaphragm complicated and restricted junctions. These results claim that myo1e represents an element from Docosapentaenoic acid 22n-3 the slit diaphragm complicated and may donate to regulating junctional integrity in kidney podocytes. and (from 2 representative fractionation tests) indicate that myo1e, podocin, and ZO-1 are enriched in the detergent-resistant (DR) slit diaphragm small percentage, whereas another podocyte marker, synaptopodin, exists in the cytoplasmic small percentage. The white series at indicates that 2 split elements of the blot have already been placed next to one another. indicate the locations stained for myo1e just), indicating that myo1e exists in podocyte cell systems not only is ...
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
Our data revealed that the mode of neurogenesis in onychophorans is more similar to that found in hexapods and crustaceans than that in chelicerates and myriapods as the onychophoran neuroectoderm shows neither post-mitotic cell clusters nor segmental invaginations. In Onychophora, instead, single precursors are recruited for neuronal fate and migrate internally as bottle-like cells, which is similar to the mode found in hexapods (figure 4). These immigrated cells are mitotically active, and in this respect resemble the neuronal stem cells (neuroblasts) of both crustaceans and hexapods (Harzsch 2001; Stollewerk & Simpson 2005; Ungerer & Scholtz 2008), even though they do not show asymmetric cell divisions. Our findings thus suggest that immigration of single cells, followed by their mitotic activity, is an ancestral feature of arthropod neurogenesis, while asymmetric cell divisions are a synapomorphy of crustaceans and hexapods (figure 8). The absence of the following three characters in ...
Mount Sinai researchers` discovery has potential to impact treatments of kidney disease | Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum
October 15, 2012 (Toronto, ON) - In a study published in the October issue of the prestigious journal Cell, researchers Drs. Susan Quaggin and Tony Pawson at Mount Sinai Hospitals Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, with their teams of post-doctoral researchers, have made an important discovery relating to the effects of a vital signalling protein in the kidney, potentially impacting drug therapies and treatment for the more than 30,000 Canadians who suffer from kidney failure.. The research team uncovered new information about a key binding protein of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) - a protein produced by cells that triggers growth and other changes. Drs. Quaggin and Pawson discovered that FLT1, a protein that acts as one of the targets of VEGF, plays a significant role in the health and development of microscopic kidney filters called glomeruli and is particularly important in kidney podocytes which are specialized cells in the filters, needed for proper urine production. When ...
Expression and Functional Analysis of Lgl1 and Lgl2 During Retinal Lamination in Zebrafish | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose: : The Lethal Giant Larvae (Lgl) proteins are demonstrated substrates of atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC). Previously, we have shown that aPKC lamda and zeta are essential for multiple aspects of retinal development. During zebrafish retinal development, loss of both aPKC isoforms results in retinal defects in mitotic cell behaviors (mitotic division orientation and M-phase localization), post-mitotic cell migration, photoreceptor morphogenesis, and overall retinal histology. The cell type positioning defects are non-cell autonomous, indicating that aPKC activity may function by regulating a secreted signal. Lgl proteins have been shown to regulate polarized exocytosis by interacting with exocytic machinery in both yeast and mammalian cells. To begin to test whether Lgl mediates aPKC functions during retinal development, we have isolated the zebrafish Lgl1 homologue and investigated the expression and loss-of-function consequences of Lgl1 and Lgl2 within the developing retina. Methods: : ...
WWC1 promotes podocyte survival via stabilizing slit diaphragm protein dendrin
The terminally differentiated podocyte functions as a critical barrier to prevent proteinuria, and proteinuria is the clinical signature for podocyte injury, with or without loss of renal functions. Emerging experimental and clinical studies have highlighted that loss of podocyte directly causes proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis, owing to podocyte apoptosis or detachment (24-27). The present study demonstrated, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that kidney and brain associated protein WWC1, is a critical molecular in podocyte injury. Reduced WWC1 expression was identified in injured podocytes, and loss of WWC1 directly induced podocyte apoptosis. In addition further evidence was obtained that WWC1 protected podocytes from apoptosis by preventing SD protein dendrin from relocating into nuclei.. The expression of WWC1 (KIBRA), the mammalian ortholog of Kibra, has been observed to be enriched in kidney and brain (18). In Drosophila, Kibra predominantly acts in the Merlin branch ...
Best Chicken Dishes in the U.S. | Food & Wine
In this Chicken Nation, here are the best restaurant dishes, including a classic wood-oven-roasted chicken, Vietnamese-inspired wings and spicy fried thighs. Here are the best chicken dishes in America, from roasted chicken to spicy fried thighs.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ... CDK4, CMM3, PSK-J3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin dependent kinase 4. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a kinase that has been previously hypothesized to ...
cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ... p21Cip1 (alternatively p21Waf1), also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin- ... CDKN1A, CAP20, CDKN1, CIP1, MDA-6, P21, SDI1, WAF1, p21CIP1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)".. *^ Gartel AL, Radhakrishnan SK (May 2005). "Lost in ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ...
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
ORF72 - vCyclin ORF73 - LANA, latency-associated nuclear antigen- tethers genome to chromosome during latency, also regulates ... cyclin-D, a G protein-coupled receptor, interferon regulatory factor and Flice inhibitory protein (FLIP), as well as DNA ...
Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are a group of several different kinases involved in regulation of the cell cycle. They ... Lim, S.; Kaldis, P. (16 July 2013). "Cdks, cyclins and CKIs: roles beyond cell cycle regulation". Development. 140 (15): 3079- ... Different combinations of specific CDKs and cyclins mark different parts of the cell cycle. Additionally, the phosphorylation ... Harper, J. W.; Adams, P. D. (August 2001). "Cyclin-Dependent Kinases". Chemical Reviews. 101 (8): 2511-2526. doi:10.1021/ ...
Induced cell cycle arrest
Different classes of cyclins are up- and down-regulated at different parts of the cell cycle. Measurement of the cyclins from ... For example, a peak of cyclin E protein would indicate the G1/S transition, a cyclin A peak would indicate late G2 phase, and a ... Cyclins are proteins that control progression through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases. Destruction of a ... This can actually be used to destroy phase-specific cyclins beyond just G2 - for instance, destruction of cyclin D1 mRNA by ...
RNA polymerase II holoenzyme
Also involved in the phosphorylation and regulation of the RPB1 CTD is cyclin T1 (CCNT1). Cyclin T1 tightly associates and ... "CCNT1 cyclin T1 [ Homo sapiens ]".. Missing or empty ,url=. (help). *^ Cho H, Kim TK, Mancebo H, Lane WS, Flores O, Reinberg D ... "CDK8 cyclin-dependent kinase 8 [Homo sapiens]".. *^ "CTDP1 CTD (carboxy-terminal domain, RNA polymerase II, polypeptide A) ... 2002). "A kinase-cyclin pair in the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme". Nature. 374 (6518): 193-6. doi:10.1038/374193a0. PMID ...
Cell cycle analysis
... cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin B1, each in relation to DNA content Concurrent measurement of DNA content and of incorporation of ... Darzynkiewicz Z, Gong JP, Juan G, Ardelt B, Traganos F (1996). "Cytometry of cyclin proteins". Cytometry. 25 (1): 1-13. doi: ... cell cycle compartments are also recognized by multiparameter analysis that includes measurement of expression of cyclin D1, ...
... contain a cyclin box motif and have structural similarity to the cyclins. The encoded protein may play an important role in ... Cyclin M2 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CNNM2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ancient conserved domain ... provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]. "Entrez Gene: Cyclin M2". Retrieved 2013-02-23. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) v t e. ...
... activates cyclin dependent kinases by removing phosphate from residues in the Cdk active site. In turn, the ... Cyclin "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. cdc25+ ... May 1991). "Dephosphorylation and activation of a p34cdc2/cyclin B complex in vitro by human CDC25 protein". Nature. 351 (6323 ... By removing inhibitory phosphate residues from target cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), Cdc25 proteins control entry into and ...
Cyclins are proteins that play a key role in regulating the cell-division cycle. Hunt found that cyclins begin to be ... He and others subsequently showed that cyclins bind and activate a family of protein kinases, now called the cyclin-dependent ... the protein cyclin which is a component of cyclin dependent kinases, demonstrating his ability to grasp the significance of the ... He showed that cyclins are degraded periodically at each cell division, a mechanism proved to be of general importance for cell ...
Maturation promoting factor
The mitotic cyclins can be grouped as cyclins A & B. These cyclins have a nine residue sequence in the N-terminal region called ... Cyclin, a regulatory subunit. The cyclins are necessary for the kinase subunit to function with the appropriate substrate. ... As the concentration of Cyclin B/CDK1 increases, the heterodimer promotes APC to polyubiquitinate Cyclin B/CDK1. Smith LD, ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), the cyclin-dependent kinase subunit. It uses ATP to phosphorylate specific serine and ...
... , a cyclin protein. This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title CYCB. If an internal link led you ...
Cyclin-L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNL2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to cyclin family. ... 2004). "Cyclin L2, a novel RNA polymerase II-associated cyclin, is involved in pre-mRNA splicing and induces apoptosis of human ... 2004). "Characterization of cyclin L2, a novel cyclin with an arginine/serine-rich domain: phosphorylation by DYRK1A and ... "Entrez Gene: CCNL2 cyclin L2". Human CCNL2 genome location and CCNL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Maruyama K, ...
p16 inhibits cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6) and thereby activates the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of proteins ... "CDKN2A cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-10-11. ... CDKN2A, also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, is a gene which in humans is located at chromosome 9, band p21.3. ... "CDKN2A - Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDKN2A gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2016- ...
2004). "Characterization of cyclin L2, a novel cyclin with an arginine/serine-rich domain: phosphorylation by DYRK1A and ... "Entrez Gene: CCNL1 cyclin L1". Human CCNL1 genome location and CCNL1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Zhang QH, Ye ... Cyclin-L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNL1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163660 - Ensembl, May ... 2006). "Cyclin L1 (CCNL1) gene alterations in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma". Br. J. Cancer. 94 (7): 1041-4. doi: ...
G. Pradeep Kumar
He holds a US and international patent on Activators of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (ACDK) and has mentored many doctoral scholars ... 19-. ISBN 978-94-007-0265-3. She, Jin-Xiong; Wang, Cong-Yi; Kumar, G. Pradeep (20 December 2017). "Activators of cyclin- ...
cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • protein ... cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex. • nucleus. • nucleoplasm. • cytosol. • intracellular membrane-bounded ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1). Structure of the C-terminal region of p21(WAF1/CIP1) complexed with human ... regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • G2/M ...
... cyclin box.' In mammalian cells, 9 cyclin species have been identified, and they are referred to as cyclins A through I. Cyclin ... Cyclin G-associated kinase received its name because it immunoprecipitated with cyclin G though it now appears to not be ... Cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK) is a serine/threonine kinase that in humans is encoded by the GAK gene. In all eukaryotes, the ... Cyclin G-associated kinase is a two domain cystolic protein. The domain of interest is the C-terminal domain which consists of ...
"Entrez Gene: RUNX1T1 runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1 (cyclin D-related)". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T ...
Jain SK, Bharate SB, Vishwakarma RA (2012). "Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition by flavoalkaloids". Mini Rev Med Chem. 12 (7): ... Bose P, Simmons GL, Grant S (2013). "Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor therapy for hematologic malignancies". Expert Opin ...
... has been shown to interact with: CDC45-related protein and CDC6, Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase, Cyclin- ... Laman H, Peters G, Jones N (Dec 2001). "Cyclin-mediated export of human Orc1". Experimental Cell Research. 271 (2): 230-7. doi: ... "Human CDC6/Cdc18 associates with Orc1 and cyclin-cdk and is selectively eliminated from the nucleus at the onset of S phase". ... "Human CDC6/Cdc18 associates with Orc1 and cyclin-cdk and is selectively eliminated from the nucleus at the onset of S phase". ...
Cyclin D-bound cdks 4 and 6 are activated by cdk-activating kinase and drive the cell towards the restriction point. Cyclin D, ... Sustained mitogen signaling promotes cell cycle entry largely through regulation of the G1 cyclins (cyclin D1-3) and their ... including the major G1 cyclin, cyclin D1. Myc also regulates expression of a wide variety of pro-proliferative and pro-growth ... The defining biochemical feature of the restriction point is the activation of G1/S- and S-phase cyclin-CDK complexes, which in ...
Anthony R. Hunter
Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathan (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors come of age". Cell. 79 (4): 573-582. ... "Human cyclin A is adenovirus E1A-associated protein p60 and behaves differently from cyclin B". Nature. 346 (6286): 760-763. ... Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1991). "Cyclins and cancer". Cell. 66 (6): 1071-1074. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90028-W. PMID ...
This discovery was essential to the subsequent cloning of Xenopus cyclins and kept the Hunt lab at the forefront of cyclin ... Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors come of age". Cell. 79 (4): 573-582. ... Subsequently he cloned and characterised the first human cyclins with Tony Hunter. This was crucial to recognising that cyclins ... and identified the first link between cyclins and oncoproteins by showing that cyclin A bound to adenovirus E1A, thus linking ...
Cdk2, la enciclopedia libre
de 2001). «Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and ... de 2002). «Reversal of growth suppression by p107 via direct phosphorylation by cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4». Mol. Cell ... de 1997). «Identification of a p130 domain mediating interactions with cyclin A/cdk 2 and cyclin E/cdk 2 complexes». Oncogene ( ... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases». Oncogene (ENGLAND) 15 (2): 143-57. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 9244350. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ...
It has also been shown that Cdk2 complexes with both cyclin A and cyclin E and this complex is critical for centrosome ... by cyclin-dependent kinase 2-cyclin E and its role in centrosome duplication". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (24): ... "CDK2 cyclin dependent kinase 2 [Homo sapiens (human)]". Gene - NCBI. Retrieved 1 December 2019. Hinchcliffe EH, Li C, Thompson ... This link between the cell cycle and the centrosome cycle is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2). Cdk2 is a protein ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase 12 is a protein kinase that in humans is encoded by the CDK12 gene. This enzyme is a member of ... "Entrez Gene: CDK12 cyclin-dependent kinase 12". Human CDK12 genome location and CDK12 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... cyclin-dependent kinase protein family. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167258 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release ...
Cyclin - Wikipedia
cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ... cyclin D (Cdk4) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ...
Cyclin T2 - Wikipedia
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ...
cyclin | Encyclopedia.com
Source for information on cyclin: A Dictionary of Biology dictionary. ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...
What are Cyclin-Dependent Kinases?
Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. Cyclin A is also produced, which ... Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... Cyclin Dependent Kinases in the Cell Cycle. Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene ...
... like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. Thanks. Mike * ... Cyclin E-Fix. micro-mike micro-mike at cox.net Sun Mar 3 16:33:22 EST 2002 *Previous message: THE SECRET the IRS is TERRIFIED ... But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the ...
CCNI cyclin I [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... Cyclin I: a new cyclin encoded by a gene isolated from human brain. Nakamura T, et al. Exp Cell Res, 1995 Dec. PMID 7493655 ...
The crystal structure of cyclin A. - PubMed - NCBI
Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does ... cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha ... Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box ... The structural results indicate a role for the cyclin-box fold both as a template for the cyclin family and as a generalised ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (P24941) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Que são Cyclins?
... é regulado pelos cyclins, um tipo de proteína que liga e activa quinase do dependente do cyclin (CDKs). Crédito de imagem: ... Para cada fase, há um grupo correspondente de cyclins: Cyclins G1, cyclins de G1/S, cyclins de S e cyclins de M, cada um com ... A função dos cyclins no ciclo de pilha. Cyclins não tem nenhuma função enzimático do seus próprios, e liga-a pelo contrário a ... Descoberta de Cyclins. Cyclins foi descoberto pela caça de Timothy, pelo Leland H. Hartwell e pela enfermeira de Paul M, que ...
Looking for Cyclin H.....
Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan ... - VRBO
Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ...
p53 regulates a G2 checkpoint through cyclin B1 | PNAS
Protein levels of cyclin B1 and cdc2 for each selected population are shown in Fig. 4B. Levels of cyclin B1 protein in cyclin ... Cyclin A regulates the initiation and maintenance of DNA synthesis whereas B cyclins control mitosis (32, 33). Cyclin B mRNA ... Cyclin B1/cdc2 kinase activity is shown in Fig. 4C. Cyclin B1 rescues the p53-dependent drop in cdc2 kinase activity in Ts- ... Cyclin B1 Expression Rescues p53-Mediated G2 Arrest.. To determine whether the decrease in cyclin B1 mRNA was the primary ...
Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis | PNAS
Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis. W Meikrantz, S Gisselbrecht, S W Tam, and R Schlegel ... These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent ... Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. Stable ... to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. ...
Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK) Inhibitors | SpringerLink
... the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its ... the cyclin), led to a simple model for cell cycle control. Modulation of cyclin accumulation, and thereby Cdk activation, was ... CDK CKI Zellzyklus biochemistry biology cancer cell cell cycle cellular differentiation cellular growth cyclin-dependent kinase ... More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell ...
Cyclin E ablation in the mouse.
E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins ... However, endoreplication of trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes is severely impaired in the absence of cyclin E. Cyclin ... Cyclin E ablation in the mouse.. Geng Y., Yu Q., Sicinska E., Das M., Schneider J.E., Bhattacharya S., Rideout W.M., Bronson R. ... These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for ...
Cyclin D1 Attenuates STAT3 | Science Signaling
Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, ... Bienvenu et al. have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated ... Endogenous cyclin D1 associated with STAT3 in cells treated for 2 hours after treatment with interleukin 6 (IL-6), an activator ... F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. ...
Cyclin D1 governs microRNA processing in breast cancer | EurekAlert! Science News
Cyclin D1 governs microRNA processing in breast cancer Cyclin D1 controls cell cycle progression and microRNA biogenesis ... Cyclin D1 governs microRNA processing in breast cancer. Thomas Jefferson University. Journal. Nature Communications. Keywords. ... regulates expression of cyclin D1. Furthermore, the group showed that many cancer patients encode a form of cyclin D1 that ... Because the cyclin D1 gene has been implicated in a variety of other human cancers these findings may have broad implications ...
RCSB PDB - Gene View - CDK12 - cyclin dependent kinase 12
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
CYCLIN A EXPRESSION VECTOE FOR EUK CELLS
Cyclin-dependent kinase - definition of Cyclin-dependent kinase by The Free Dictionary
Cyclin-dependent kinase synonyms, Cyclin-dependent kinase pronunciation, Cyclin-dependent kinase translation, English ... dictionary definition of Cyclin-dependent kinase. n. Any of various enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group ... Targeting cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in cancer: lessons from mice, hopes for therapeutic applications in human.. The ... STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS: DYNAMICS AND FLEXIBILITY ARE THE STORY.. STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF CYCLIN ...
JCI - Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B regulates efferocytosis and atherosclerosis
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B regulates efferocytosis and atherosclerosis. Yoko Kojima, Kelly Downing, Ramendra Kundu, ... We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), ... See the related article at Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B regulates efferocytosis and atherosclerosis. ...
JCI - Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B regulates efferocytosis and atherosclerosis
Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer
Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer
The results obtained suggest that the increment of the levels of cyclin D1 in intra-ductal breast tumors in older woman that we ... have examined is significantly associated with a lower proliferation rate.Conclusion: Cyclin D1, which characterizes tumor in ... Cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) plays pivotal roles in the development of several human cancers, including breast cancer, functioning as ... Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer. Carmela Rinaldi. ,1 Natalia Maria Malara. ,2 Rosalia DAngelo. ,1 ...
Rising cyclin-CDK levels order cell cycle events
These thresholds are sequentially triggered as cyclin increases, yielding reliable order and timing. In many biological ... We conclude that mitotic events are regulated by discrete cyclin-CDK thresholds. ... Rising cyclin-CDK levels order cell cycle events PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e20788. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020788. Epub 2011 Jun ... Background: Diverse mitotic events can be triggered in the correct order and time by a single cyclin-CDK. A single regulator ...
Cyclin-dependent kinases as targets for cancer therapy
Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017
Download the full report: https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/5190761 Summary Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase ... This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found ... The latest report Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Cyclin ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase ...
Anti-Cyclin T1 antibody (ab2098) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal Cyclin T1 antibody validated for WB, IP, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 10 ... Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation ... Anti-Cyclin T1 antibody (ab2098) at 1/10000 dilution + HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cell line) Whole Cell Lysate at 10 µg. ... ab2098 (2µg/ml) staining Cyclin T1 in human lymph node using an automated system (DAKO Autostainer Plus). Using this protocol ...
Anti-Cyclin K Antibody Products | Biocompare
KinasesLevels of cyclinCDK2ProteinsCdksAntibodyAntibodiesProgressionShow that cyclinInhibitorsComplexesRegulatory subunitGenesPhosphorylationMitosisSubunitRegulatesBindsTumorSuggest that cyclinCdk9SpecificityRegulatorRegulateType cyclinsExpression of cyclinCellMitoticTranscriptionRegulationMembers of the cyclin familyMammalianInhibitorProliferationGene expressionPrognosticTumorsRetinoblastomaLocalizationInducesCDK7ReplicationActivity of the cyclinOverexpression of cyclin D1CancersHuman Cyclin A1AccumulationAminoRecombinantWild-type cyclinInteracts with cyclinsPromoterPhosphorylate
- Cyclins, when bound with the dependent kinases , such as the p34 / cdc2 / cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor . (wikipedia.org)
- Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. (wikipedia.org)
- They act in conjunction with cyclin-dependent protein kinases, which are proteins that phosphorylate other proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
- What are Cyclin-Dependent Kinases? (news-medical.net)
- Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell cycle. (news-medical.net)
- Cyclin dependent kinases are present at constant levels throughout the cell cycle, but are only active in the presence of cyclins. (news-medical.net)
- Eukaryotic cell cycle progression is regulated by cyclin dependent protein kinases (CDKs) whose activity is regulated by association with cyclins and by reversible phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
- p53 inhibits G 1 /S transition in cells exposed to DNA-damaging agents by causing accumulation of p21 CIP1/WAF1 ( 6 , 15 ), a protein that binds to and inactivates the cyclin-dependent kinases necessary for initiating DNA synthesis ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
- These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases, is also an important event during apoptosis. (pnas.org)
- Not only were both of the known cell cycle transitions, from G 1 to S phase and G2 to M phase, found to be dependent on these protein kinases, but the reg- ulatory assumption intrinsic to cyclin-dependent kinases, a stable inactive catalytic subunit (the Cdk) and an unstable requisite positive regulatory activating subunit (the cyclin), led to a simple model for cell cycle control. (springer.com)
- Targeting cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in cancer: lessons from mice, hopes for therapeutic applications in human. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This is known as the cell cycle and cyclins and their partners, cyclin-dependant kinases, are its master control proteins. (eurekalert.org)
- NEW YORK - Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases like CDK7 and CDK12 are recurrently altered genetically in a range of cancer types, providing insight into potential treatment strategies, according to a new study. (genomeweb.com)
- Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) typically bind cyclins and regulate a number of downstream proteins that are key components of cell division and transcription. (genomeweb.com)
- Cyclin A1 is a member of the highly conserved cyclin family whose members are able to control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 1991). Cyclin A family members are characterized by a typical periodicity in protein abundance through the cell division cycle functioning as activating subunits of enzymatic complexes, together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) (Lapenna and Giordano, 2009). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- The D‐type cyclins (cyclin D1, D2, and D3) promote cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase by binding to and activating the cyclin dependent kinases Cdk4 and Cdk6. (ingentaconnect.com)
- D-type cyclins associate with partner cyclin-dependent kinases, CDK4 and CDK6, and promote phosphorylation and subsequent inactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product, RB and RB-related proteins. (nature.com)
- They also interact with cyclin-dependent kinases to control cell cycle progression in plants. (mdpi.com)
- This cyclin binds both CDK2 and CDC2 kinases, which give two distinct kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2, and thus regulate separate functions in cell cycle. (novusbio.com)
- Cyclins are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance throughout the cell cycle and function as regulators of CDK kinases. (rockland-inc.com)
- CAK activates the cyclin-associated kinases CDK1, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 by threonine phosphorylation. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Cyclins are regulatory subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) and they control transition at different specific phases of the cell cycle. (fishersci.com)
- The key cell-cycle regulator Cdc2 belongs to a family of cyclin-dependent kinases in higher eukaryotes. (sciencemag.org)
- A dominant-negative Cdc2 mutant arrested cells at the G2 to M phase transition, whereas mutants of the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk2 and Cdk3 caused a G1 block. (sciencemag.org)
- The induction of cyclin D1 can also be mediated by a target of p53, the p21 (WAF1/CIP1) inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. (aacrjournals.org)
- Cyclins bind to and regulate the activity of the Cyclin dependent protein kinases (CDKs). (thermofisher.com)
- Strikingly, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is itself a substrate for two protein kinases-the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk7 and Cdk9-that are activated by hypertrophic cues. (ahajournals.org)
- Cyclins are eukaryotic proteins that play an active role in controlling nuclear cell division cycles [ ( PUBMED:12910258 ) ], and regulate cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). (embl.de)
- Cyclins, together with the p34 (cdc2) or cdk2 kinases, form the Maturation Promoting Factor (MPF). (embl.de)
Levels of cyclin9
- For example, in all eukaryotes mitosis (M phase) is initiated by high levels of cyclin B, which combines with a protein kinase to form the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF). (encyclopedia.com)
- To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G 2 , we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G 2 arrest at 32°C. We have found that p53 prevents G 2 /M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. (pnas.org)
- To study G 2 regulation by p53, we have established a human cell line, Ts-SKOV3, that stably expresses a temperature-sensitive p53 allele and undergoes G 2 arrest at 32°C. Using this cell line we have found that p53 arrests cell cycle in G 2 by lowering intracellular levels of cyclin B1, a protein absolutely required for mitotic initiation. (pnas.org)
- The more aggressive basal-like subtype of breast cancers, however, exhibited lower levels of cyclin D1 and Dicer, which would in turn globally reduce the level of mature miRNA. (eurekalert.org)
- The study involved cancer samples from 264 Taiwanese male oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and the results showed that increased levels of cyclin D1 were linked with later stage cancer and increased chance of the tumor spreading, as well as a reduced chance of survival. (fiercebiotech.com)
- More research is needed, but assessing levels of cyclin D1 at diagnosis could help to personalize treatment. (fiercebiotech.com)
- Of the seven patients who had a recurrence, six had high levels of cyclin E activity. (scienceblog.com)
- RESULTS- Mice treated with exendin-4 showed increased β-cell proliferation, elevated islet protein levels of cyclin A2 with unchanged D-type cyclins, elevated PDX-1 and Skp2 levels, and reduced p27 levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Human prostate carcinoma cell lines frequently express elevated levels of cyclin D1 protein, although the gene is not amplified in these cells ( 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Cyclin A is also produced, which binds to CDK2 and stimulates DNA replication. (news-medical.net)
- Analysis of residues that are conserved throughout the A, B, and E cyclins identifies two exposed clusters of residues, one of which has recently been shown to be involved in the association with human CDK2. (nih.gov)
- Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does not undergo any significant conformational changes on complex formation. (nih.gov)
- Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. (pnas.org)
- However, their research also showed that treating breast cancer cells with a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) inhibitor can reverse letrozole resistance. (scienceblog.com)
- After confirming that the LMW forms of cyclin E suppress the anti-proliferative effects of letrozole, the researchers examined whether a CDK2 inhibitor could reverse the drug resistance in the unresponsive breast cancer cells. (scienceblog.com)
- We challenged the aromatase-overexpressing cells with either the wild-type or the low forms of cyclin E and then treated them with the CDK2 inhibitor roscovitine," Keyomarsi said. (scienceblog.com)
- Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and interacting with viral proteins (Giordano et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 2005). Human cyclin A1 interacts with CDK2 in vitro and in vivo (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 2001). Moreover the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex regulates DNA double-strand break repair following radiation damage (Müller-Tidow et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 2004) by competing with CDK2-cyclin A2 for the binding to Ku70, a pivotal player in the non-homologous end-joining double strand break repair pathway, and inhibiting apoptosis through modulating RB functions in leukemia cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, and is essential for cell cycle G1⁄S phase transition. (fishersci.ca)
- Cdk2 and cyclin E, long thought to be essential, are largely dispensable. (sciencemag.org)
- Cyclin E forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK2, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. (thermofisher.com)
- Cyclin A binds to S phase Cdk2 and is required for the cell to progress through the S phase. (rockland-inc.com)
- Cyclin A/ Cdk2 is inhibited by the complex p21CIP. (rockland-inc.com)
- Cyclin E binds to the G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle that determines cell division. (rockland-inc.com)
- The Cyclin E/CDK2 complex phosphorylates p27Kip1, tagging it for degradation, thus promoting expression of Cyclin A, allowing progression to S phase. (rockland-inc.com)
- Hbo1 is a cyclin E/CDK2 substrate that enriches breast cancer stem-like cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) enzymes . (wikipedia.org)
- For example, the amino-terminal regions of S and M cyclins contain short destruction-box motifs that target these proteins for proteolysis in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
- cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle . (encyclopedia.com)
- Once bound to a cyclin they act to phosphorylate many target proteins on serine or threonine amino acid residues. (news-medical.net)
- Each interacts with a different cyclin at a different phase, stimulating various target proteins and ensuring that vital stages of each phase are carried out before a cell moves onto the next phase. (news-medical.net)
- I wonder if the cytoplasmic staining we are getting is real or whether the methacarn is modifying other cytoplasmic proteins (like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. (bio.net)
- Threading analysis shows that the cyclin-box fold is consistent with the sequences of the transcription factor TFIIB and other functionally related proteins. (nih.gov)
- Cyclin is a family of proteins that controls the progression of a cell through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) enzymes or group of enzymes required for synthesis of cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Molecular analyses revealed that cells lacking cyclin E fail to normally incorporate MCM proteins into DNA replication origins during G(0)-->S progression. (uniprot.org)
- The work supports the idea that cancer-causing proteins like cyclin D1 may drive cancer progression in part via miRNA biogenesis. (eurekalert.org)
- Dr Bill Wickstead, who along with his master's student Alexander Douglass characterised cyclin-like genes across Apicomplexa, said: "Cyclins are a really diverse class of proteins comprising many different types in different organisms. (eurekalert.org)
- Cyclin E is one of the proteins that regulates the cell cycle, influencing how rapidly a cell passes through the four phases and divides. (scienceblog.com)
- This cyclin was found to bind to important cell cycle regulators, such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family proteins. (novusbio.com)
- After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho and nonphospho cyclin D1 proteins are captured by the coated antibody. (cellsignal.com)
- Transcription of these particular cyclins is proposed to monitor the growth factor signal and the encoded proteins participate in G1 progression. (bl.uk)
- Additionally we are shipping Cyclin H Antibodies (129) and Cyclin H Proteins (15) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
- Additionally we are shipping Cyclin K Kits (12) and Cyclin K Proteins (7) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
- Proteolytically processed forms of cyclin E proteins, which are specifically generated in tumors that overexpress cyclin E proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
- There are 14939 Cyclin_C domains in 14900 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. (embl.de)
- Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing Cyclin_C domain. (embl.de)
- The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with Cyclin_C domain is also avaliable . (embl.de)
- Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing Cyclin_C domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
- Cyclins themselves have no enzymatic activity but have binding sites for some substrates and target the Cdks to specific subcellular locations. (wikipedia.org)
- These cyclins oscillate, increasing and decreasing at different stages, binding to CDKs and driving the cell cycle forward. (news-medical.net)
- In addition to cyclin levels, this provides and additional way to control the activity of CDKs. (news-medical.net)
- Cyclins also determine the subcellular location and substrate specificity of CDKs. (nih.gov)
- O ciclo de pilha é regulado pelos cyclins, um tipo de proteína que liga e activa quinase do dependente do cyclin (CDKs). (news-medical.net)
- Cyclins não tem nenhuma função enzimático do seus próprios, e liga-a pelo contrário a CDKs para ativá-los. (news-medical.net)
- More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its control. (springer.com)
- For example, although Cdks appear to be highly conserved phylogenetically, cyclins are much less so. (springer.com)
- In a new study, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania now analyzed copy number gains and losses as well as other alterations affecting cyclins and CDKs in more than 10,000 tumors. (genomeweb.com)
- As they reported in Cell Reports on Tuesday , the researchers found that cell cycle-related cyclins and CDKs were often amplified in tumors, but that copy number losses, especially affecting CDK7 and CDK12, also occurred. (genomeweb.com)
- They identified more than two dozen CDKs and cyclins that were recurrently altered. (genomeweb.com)
- Cell cycle-linked CDKs and cyclins were often amplified in cancers, but transcription-linked CDKs and cyclins tended to experience copy number losses. (genomeweb.com)
- Our genomic analysis provided an additional rationale for the clinical development of targeting transcriptional CDKs/cyclins, especially for CDK7-targeted therapy," Zhang and his colleagues wrote. (genomeweb.com)
- The temporal expression of cyclins is tightly regulated and subsequently plays a critical role in controlling the enzymatic activity of cdks. (fishersci.com)
- Multiple cyclins activate CDKs in all eukaryotes, but it is unclear whether multiple cyclins are really required for cell cycle progression. (biomedsearch.com)
- Dowejko, Bauer, Bauer, Müller-Richter, Reichert: The human HECA interacts with cyclins and CDKs to antagonize Wnt-mediated proliferation and chemoresistance of head and neck cancer cells. (antibodies-online.com)
- There are currently no images for Cyclin C Antibody (NB120-2950). (novusbio.com)
- Western Blot: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-02902] - Cyclin A1 western with U2OS cells. (novusbio.com)
- Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-02902] - Human testis after heat-induced antigen retrieval. (novusbio.com)
- The absorbance readings at 450 nm are shown in the top figure, while the corresponding western blot using Cyclin D1 Antibody #2922, is shown in the bottom figure. (cellsignal.com)
- A Cyclin D1 Rabbit Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. (cellsignal.com)
- Following extensive washing, Cyclin D1 Mouse Detection Antibody is added to detect the captured cyclin D1 protein. (cellsignal.com)
- The following product was used in this experiment: Cyclin E1 Monoclonal Antibody (4H7) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # BSM-52048R. (thermofisher.com)
- The following product was used in this experiment: Cyclin B1 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 55004-1-AP. (thermofisher.com)
- WB analysis of extracts from various cell lines using Cyclin H antibody. (genetex.com)
- ICC/IF analysis of HeLa cells using Cyclin H antibody (green) and DAPI (blue). (genetex.com)
- Cyclin B1 antibody detects Cyclin B1 protein at cytoplasm on mouse ovary by immunohistochemical analysis. (genetex.com)
- But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the literature I have read. (bio.net)
- Anti-Cyclin K antibodies are available from several suppliers. (biocompare.com)
- Your search returned 117 Cyclin K Antibodies across 20 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
- Your search returned 1 cyclin Q Antibodies across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
- Anti-Cyclin Antibodies are ideal for investigators involved in Cell Signaling, cell biology and Signal Transduction research. (rockland-inc.com)
- On www.antibodies-online.com are 17 Cyclin H (CCNH) ELISA Kits from 4 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
- Tumor samples were immunostained for cyclin B using commercial antibodies. (kb.se)
- This cyclin shows the highest similarity with cyclin G. The transcript of this gene was found to be expressed constantly during cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
- Cyclin I is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
- We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), in mice promotes vascular SMC apoptosis and aneurysm progression. (jci.org)
- The role of cyclins in controlling G1 progression in mammalian cells was tested by construction of fibroblasts that constitutively overexpress human cyclin E. This was found to shorten the duration of G1, decrease cell size, and diminish the serum requirement for the transition from G1 to S phase. (sciencemag.org)
- These observations show that cyclin levels can be rate-limiting for G1 progression in mammalian cells and suggest that cyclin synthesis may be the target of physiological signals that control cell proliferation. (sciencemag.org)
- Cyclin A1 primarily functions in the meiotic cell cycle, but it also seems to contribute to G1/S cell cycle progression in somatic cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Taken together, our results demonstrate that cyclin D2 has a critical role in cell cycle progression and the tumorigenicity of GSCs. (nature.com)
- D-type cyclins are known to have critical roles in cell cycle progression. (nature.com)
- Because cyclin A2 was stimulated by cAMP, we assessed the role of cylcin A2 in cell cycle progression in Min6 and isolated islet β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Cyclin E is an important regulator of cell cycle progression. (springer.com)
- Destruction of Cyclin B1 is required for cell cycle progression. (thermofisher.com)
- Cyclin E deregulation impairs mitotic progression through premature activation of Cdc25C. (semanticscholar.org)
- We hypothesized that intrapituitary cyclin E signaling regulates corticotroph tumor POMC transcription independently of cell cycle progression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- A gene on chromosome 9q34.1 that encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase, which regulates cell cycle progression. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The cyclin D1 oncogene encodes the regulatory subunit of a holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the Rb protein and promotes progression through G 1 to S phase of the cell cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
- However, the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and prostate tumor progression has yet to be clearly characterized. (aacrjournals.org)
- Cyclin D2, a positive regulator of G1 progression, shows a unique localization within radial glial (RG) cells (i.e., the neural progenitor in the developing neocortex). (wiley.com)
Show that cyclin3
- Using antisense RNA, Dr. Pestell's group was the first to show that cyclin D1 drives mammary tumor growth in vivo. (eurekalert.org)
- Here we show that cyclin D2 is the cyclin that is predominantly expressed in GSCs and suppression of its expression by RNA interference causes G1 arrest in vitro and growth retardation of GSCs xenografted into immunocompromised mice in vivo . (nature.com)
- In conclusion, the findings of this study show that cyclin D1 has separate roles, and proliferation is driven by different mechanisms in ER positive and negative breast cancers. (kb.se)
- Western blotting was used to measure cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27 that arrest cell cycle. (thefreedictionary.com)
- p27(KIP1) is a member of the CIP1/KIP1 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and is a potential tumor suppressor gene. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Some of the non-biological drugs, known as Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, are currently being tested for use in cancer treatment. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Altered prostatic epithelial proliferation and apoptosis, prostatic development and serum testosterone in mice lacking cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors," Biology of Reproduction 73(5): 951-958. (thefreedictionary.com)
- in opposition to this idea, it has been argued that cyclins might target the activated CDK to particular substrates or inhibitors. (biomedsearch.com)
- AIMS: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) play a critical role in negatively regulating the proliferation of cardiomyocytes, although their role in cardiac differentiation remains largely undetermined. (biomedsearch.com)
- Pituitary cyclin E/E2F1 signaling is a previously unappreciated molecular mechanism underlying neuroendocrine regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, providing a subcellular therapeutic target for small molecule cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitors of pituitary ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism, ie, Cushing disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In thisreview, we focus our attention on cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase complexes,cyclin kinase inhibitors, genes of the retinoblastoma family, p53 and N-Myc, and we aim to summarize the latest evidence indicating their involvement in thecontrol of the cell cycle and induction of differentiation in different celltypes of the peripheral and central nervous systems. (embl.de)
- Cell changes in the cell cycle like the assembly of mitotic spindles and alignment of sister-chromatids along the spindles are induced by M cyclin- Cdk complexes. (wikipedia.org)
- It depicts the many complexes of cyclin and Cdk (cyclin/Cdk) as fulfilling unique and essential steps that dictate the sequential order of cell cycle events. (sciencemag.org)
- These cyclin/cdk complexes are essential for passage through specific stages in the cell cycle. (fishersci.com)
- Cyclin B1 complexes with p34 (cdc2) to form the maturation-promoting factor (MPF). (thermofisher.com)
- SETD1A and cyclin K complexes may represent a therapeutic opportunity for acute myeloid leukemia and, potentially, for other cancers. (antibodies-online.com)
- Cyclin K-containing kinase complexes maintain self-renewal in murine embryonic stem cells. (antibodies-online.com)
- It is known that the cell cycle and cell proliferation are regulated by the sequential activation of cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin complexes. (wiley.com)
- This cyclin and its kinase partner are components of TFIIH, as well as RNA polymerase II protein complexes. (genetex.com)
- Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. (pnas.org)
- This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found to interact with CDK9 and cyclin T, which suggested a possible involvement of this protein in AIDS. (medindia.net)
- Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation factor B (P-TEFb), which is proposed to facilitate the transition from abortive to productive elongation by phosphorylating the CTD (carboxy-terminal domain) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). (abcam.com)
- In budding yeast, commitment occurs when the catalytic subunit of a protein kinase, encoded by the CDC28 gene (the homolog of the fission yeast cdc2+ gene), binds to a positively acting regulatory subunit, a cyclin. (sciencemag.org)
- Cyclin D1 forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell cycle G 1 /S transition. (rockland-inc.com)
- Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) usually functions to inhibit the transcription factor E2F, however, when cyclin-D-CDK4 phosphorylates the Rb protein, this relinquishes inhibition of E2F and leads to the production of genes required for entering the S phase. (news-medical.net)
- These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. (news-medical.net)
- For their analysis, the researchers determined the somatic copy number alterations, mutations, and transcript fusions affecting 21 CDK genes and 26 cyclin genes within The Cancer Genome Atlas. (genomeweb.com)
- Here, we have investigated a series of 110 primary malignant gliomas and 8 glioma cell lines for amplification and expression of the D‐type cyclin genes CCND1 (11q13), CCND2 (12p13), and CCND3 (6p21). (ingentaconnect.com)
- 5 Three D-type cyclins, cyclin D1, D2 and D3, are encoded by distinct genes, but show significant amino-acid similarity. (nature.com)
- Our genome-wide analysis identified 52 expressed cyclin genes in tomato. (mdpi.com)
- Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicates that the expression patterns of tomato cyclin genes were significantly different in vegetative and reproductive stages. (mdpi.com)
- Transcription of most cyclin genes can be enhanced or repressed by exogenous application of gibberellin, which implies that gibberellin maybe a direct regulator of cyclin genes. (mdpi.com)
- Cyclin C was originally identified by a genetic screen for human and Drosophila cDNAs that complement a triple knock-out of the CLN genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (novusbio.com)
- The treatment of quiescent cells with growth factors results in the transcriptional activation of the D-type cyclin genes during G1. (bl.uk)
- Comparison of these results with those for the cyclin D1 and D2 genes should elucidate how transcription of these genes is co-ordinately regulated by growth factors. (bl.uk)
- It is normally activated by cyclin C and is required for transcription elongation of the serum response genes (immediate early genes [IEGs]) FOS, EGR1, and cJUN. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- RV-cyclin does not control CDK8 specificity but instead enhances CDK8's effects on regulated genes, an important distinction for its use to delineate natural CDK8 targets. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The Saccharomyces cerevisiae C-type cyclin and its cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk8p) repress the transcription of several stress response genes. (genetics.org)
- A cyclin forms a complex with Cdk, which begins to activate but the complete activation requires phosphorylation, as well. (wikipedia.org)
- Phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination of cyclin E by the SCFFbw7 ubiquitin ligase. (addgene.org)
- The cyclin H / cdk7 (show CDK7 ELISA Kits )/ Mat1 (show MAT1A ELISA Kits ) kinase activity is regulated by CK2 (show CSNK2A1 ELISA Kits ) phosphorylation of cyclin H . (antibodies-online.com)
- Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. (mdpi.com)
- RV-cyclin does not increase activating phosphorylation events in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and does not inhibit decay of IEG mRNAs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The levels of S cyclins remain high, not only throughout S phase, but through G2 and early mitosis as well to promote early events in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
- M cyclin concentrations rise as the cell begins to enter mitosis and the concentrations peak at metaphase. (wikipedia.org)
- The destruction of M cyclins during metaphase and anaphase, after the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint is satisfied, causes the exit of mitosis and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Finally, cyclin B binds to CDK-1 to drive the cycle forward into M phase, stimulating mitosis. (news-medical.net)
- Cyclin B1 is a regulatory protein involved in mitosis. (rockland-inc.com)
- The D and E type cyclins regulate the passage of G1, while cyclin B is a critical regulator of mitosis. (fishersci.com)
- Cyclin B1 is not ubiquitinated during G2/M phase, resulting in its steady accumulation during G2 phase, followed by abrupt APC dependent destruction at the end of mitosis. (thermofisher.com)
- The cyclin concentration increases during the cycle until halfway to the mitosis stage, when it drops to zero. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cyclin may act as a molecular switch that activates mitosis when its concentration reaches a certain point. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Low molecular weight cyclin E overexpression shortens mitosis, leading to chromosome missegregation and centrosome amplification. (semanticscholar.org)
- During RG division, Cyclin D2 protein is asymmetrically distributed to two daughter cells following mitosis. (wiley.com)
- There are two main groups of cyclins, G1/S cyclins, which are essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G1/S (start) transition, and G2/M cyclins, which are essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G2/M (mitosis) transition. (embl.de)
- G2/M cyclins accumulate steadily during G2 and are abruptly destroyed as cells exit from mitosis (at the end of the M-phase). (embl.de)
- Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 184.108.40.206 or EC 220.127.116.11) - Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. (medindia.net)
- Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 18.104.22.168 or EC 22.214.171.124) pipeline Target constitutes close to 26 molecules. (medindia.net)
- It also reviews key players involved in Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 126.96.36.199 or EC 188.8.131.52) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (medindia.net)
- Cyclin Dependent Kinase 7 (39 kDa Protein Kinase or CDK Activating Kinase 1 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 7 or TFIIH Basal Transcription Factor Complex Kinase Subunit or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 or CDK7 or EC 184.108.40.206 or EC 220.127.116.11) - Cell division protein kinase 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Cyclin Dependent Kinase 7 (39 kDa Protein Kinase or CDK Activating Kinase 1 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 7 or TFIIH Basal Transcription Factor Complex Kinase Subunit or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 or CDK7 or EC 18.104.22.168 or EC 22.214.171.124) pipeline Target constitutes close to 11 molecules. (researchandmarkets.com)
- In prior work, they showed that cyclin D1 regulates the non coding genome, and that the non-coding genome, in turn, regulates expression of cyclin D1. (eurekalert.org)
- In the current study, the group sought to investigate the mechanism by which cyclin D1 regulates the biogenesis of non coding miRNA. (eurekalert.org)
- Finally, two results suggest that cyclin C regulates programmed cell death independently of its function as a transcriptional repressor. (genetics.org)
- Unlike other cyclins that positively regulate the cell cycle, cyclin G2 (CCNG2) regulates cell proliferation as a tumor suppressor gene. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus ( KSHV ) encodes a D-type cyclin (ORF72) that binds CDK6 and is likely to contribute to KSHV-related cancers  . (wikipedia.org)
- Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene expression, which binds to CDK4. (news-medical.net)
- It binds to cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) and enhances its kinase activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In tumor cells, cyclin E is converted to low-molecular weight forms, an event that does not occur in normal cells. (scienceblog.com)
- A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. (harvard.edu)
- Cyclin E and E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection was performed in murine corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells to elucidate mechanisms for drug action. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- R-roscovitine inhibits human pituitary corticotroph tumor ACTH by targeting the cyclin E/E2F1 pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- These data indicated that the tumor-promoting activity of cyclin D1 may be tissue specific. (aacrjournals.org)
Suggest that cyclin2
- This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. (wikipedia.org)
- Cyclin T2 has been shown to interact with CDK9 and Retinoblastoma protein. (wikipedia.org)
- Cyclin K interacts with CDK12 and CDK13 but not CDK9 in cells, and is required to maintain self-renewal in ES cells. (antibodies-online.com)
- Cyclin K inhibits HIV-1 gene expression and replication by interfering with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)-cyclin T1 interaction in Nef-dependent manner. (antibodies-online.com)
- These results reveal an unexpectedly direct role for CDK9-cyclin K in checkpoint pathways that maintain genome integrity in response to replication stress. (antibodies-online.com)
- P-TEFb containing cyclin K and Cdk9 can activate transcription via RNA. (antibodies-online.com)
- The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. (mdpi.com)
- HIV-1 Tat protein interacts with CDK9 and cyclin T, suggesting CDK9 may have a role in AIDS. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Study TPI-ALV-201 is examining the efficiency of alvocidib, an investigational inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), in combination with the authorized agents cytarabine and mitoxantrone in relapsed/refractory AML patients whose leukemia depends on MCL-1. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Biopharmaceutical company Probiodrug AG revealed on Friday the transfer of its experimental cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) inhibitor programme to AstraZeneca (LSE:AZN)(NYSE:AZN) for an undisclosed amount. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The p-TEFb complex containing this cyclin was reported to interact with, and act as a negative regulator of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein. (wikipedia.org)
- A single regulator could confer order and timing on multiple events if later events require higher cyclin-CDK than earlier events, so that gradually rising cyclin-CDK levels can sequentially trigger responsive events: the "quantitative model" of ordering. (nih.gov)
- They did this by expressing the cell-cycle regulator, a protein called cyclin A2. (rxpgnews.com)
- These results define both a new function for SNIP1 and identify a previously unrecognized regulator of the cell cycle and cyclin D1 expression. (nature.com)
- Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. (curehunter.com)
- E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. (uniprot.org)
- It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins are critically required for proliferation of all cell types. (uniprot.org)
- Here, we demonstrate that E type cyclins are largely dispensable for mouse development. (uniprot.org)
- These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for cyclin E in normal versus oncogenic proliferation. (uniprot.org)
- b ) The mRNA levels of D-type cyclins in undifferentiated (stem) or differentiated (diff) GB1-3 and 5 cells were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. (nature.com)
- CBP-S436A islets exhibited elevated cyclin A2, reduced p27, and no changes in D-type cyclins, PDX-1, or Skp2. (diabetesjournals.org)
- C-, H- and J18 types only contain a cyclin-C domain, and U-type cyclins contain another potential cyclin domain. (mdpi.com)
- NMB or NMBR silencing inhibited M-CSF (zeige CSF1R Proteine )/ c-Fms (zeige CSF1R Proteine )-mediated downstream signaling pathways like activation of ERK (zeige EPHB2 Proteine ) and Akt (zeige AKT1 Proteine ) and induction of D-type cyclins, cyclin D1 and D2. (antikoerper-online.de)
Expression of cyclin3
- We show here that accumulation of the wild-type p53 protein in either human or murine cells markedly increases expression of cyclin D1. (aacrjournals.org)
- The expression of cyclin H and CDK7 (show CDK7 ELISA Kits ) protein in proliferating hemangiomas was significantly higher than that in involuting hemangiomas and normal skin tissues. (antibodies-online.com)
- We found that low-risk node negative patients with high expression of cylin B had a significantly worse outcome than patients with low expression of cyclin B. Cyclin B could separate patients with poor survival from those with good survival with 80% accuracy. (kb.se)
- By the way, the name cyclin, which I coined, was really a joke, it's because I liked cycling so much at the time, but they did come and go in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
- Expression of human cyclins through the cell cycle . (wikipedia.org)
- Cyclins were originally named because their concentration varies in a cyclical fashion during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Note that the cyclins are now classified according to their conserved cyclin box structure, and not all these cyclins alter in level through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
-  ) The oscillations of the cyclins, namely fluctuations in cyclin gene expression and destruction by the ubiquitin mediated proteasome pathway, induce oscillations in Cdk activity to drive the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Cyclins can be divided into four classes based on their behavior in the cell cycle of vertebrate somatic cells and yeast cells: G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. (wikipedia.org)
- This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not universal as some cyclins have different functions or timing in different cell types. (wikipedia.org)
- The cyclins also promote other activities to progress the cell cycle, such as centrosome duplication in vertebrates or spindle pole body in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
- G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in that the concentrations increase gradually (with no oscillation), throughout the cell cycle based on cell growth and the external growth-regulatory signals. (wikipedia.org)
- The presence of G cyclins coordinate cell growth with the entry to a new cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
-  Expression of cyclins detected immunocytochemically in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase),  or in relation to initiation and termination of DNA replication during S-phase, can be measured by flow cytometry . (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- CDC28 was identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which bound to cyclins and drove the cell through the various transitions of the cell cycle. (news-medical.net)
- Knockdown of Cyclin I induced cell cycle arrest at S/G2/M phases. (nih.gov)
- Cyclins were originally discovered by R. Timothy Hunt in 1982 while studying the cell cycle of sea urchins. (wikipedia.org)
- There are several different cyclins that are active in different parts of the cell cycle and that cause the Cdk to phosphorylate different substrates. (wikipedia.org)
- Modulation of cyclin accumulation, and thereby Cdk activation, was proposed to be the overarching principle governing the passage through cell cycle phases. (springer.com)
- However, endoreplication of trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes is severely impaired in the absence of cyclin E. Cyclin E-deficient cells proliferate actively under conditions of continuous cell cycling but are unable to reenter the cell cycle from the quiescent G(0) state. (uniprot.org)
- In addition to its role in regulating the cell cycle, cyclin D1 induces Dicer and thereby promotes the maturation of miRNA," says lead researcher Richard Pestell, M.D., Ph.D., Director of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University and Chair of the Department of Cancer Biology. (eurekalert.org)
- Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of the cell cycle-driving molecule, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), in HCC was significantly reduced by the treatments with vitamin K2, K3 and K5. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cyclin A1 transfected 293T cell line lysate. (abcam.com)
- Dr Magali Roques, who is the lead author said: "This first functional study of cyclin in the malaria parasite and its consequences in parasite development within pathogen-carrying mosquitoes will definitely further our understanding of parasite cell division, which I hope will lead to the elimination of this disease in the future. (eurekalert.org)
- The research, focused on the role of cyclin, one of the most important protein molecules needed for cell division. (eurekalert.org)
- However, until now, very little was known about cyclins in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, which undergoes atypical types of cell cycle during its development both in the human host where the disease is manifested and in the vector mosquito which transmits the disease. (eurekalert.org)
- 6-Gingerol induces cell-cycle G1-phase arrest through AKT-GSK 3β-cyclin D1 pathway in renal-cell carcinoma. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Human F-box protein hCdc4 targets cyclin E for proteolysis and is mutated in a breast cancer cell line. (addgene.org)
- It is unique in its control at two major transitions of the cell cycle and is the only cyclin that is completely silenced after birth in mice, rats and humans. (rxpgnews.com)
- Cyclin A1 is also expressed in several myeloid leukemia cell lines and various other tumour types (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 2004). Cyclin A1 has an important role in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): its localization in normal hematopoietic cells is nuclear, whereas in leukemic cells from AML patients and cell lines, it is predominantly cytoplasmic (Ekberg et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Male knockout mice lacking cyclin A1 are infertile owing to a cell cycle arrest before the first meiotic division (Liu et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Here, we discuss the phenotypes of these and other cyclin/Cdk mutants in genetically tractable metazoa (mouse, fly, and nematode) and explore possible reasons behind similarities and differences among experimental systems and cell types. (sciencemag.org)
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Changes in islet protein levels of cyclins and of two critical cell cycle regulators cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) were assessed in mice treated with exendin-4 and in a mouse model with specific upregulation of nuclear cAMP signaling exhibiting increased β-cell proliferation (CBP-S436A mouse). (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS- Cyclin A2 is required for β-cell proliferation, exendin-4 stimulates cyclin A2 expression via the cAMP pathway, and exendin-4 stimulation of cAMP requires PDX-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Cyclins play important roles in cell division and cell expansion. (mdpi.com)
- The cyclin encoded by this gene was shown to be expressed in testis and brain, as well as in several leukemic cell lines, and is thought to primarily function in the control of the germline meiotic cell cycle. (novusbio.com)
- In addition to its role in regulating the cell cycle cyclin D1 induc. (bio-medicine.org)
- However, this kit has a low detection level for cyclin D1 in some cell lines, such as HeLa, Mv 1 Lu or NIH/3T3. (cellsignal.com)
- Cyclin D1 is unsuitable for minimal residual disease monitoring in bone marrow of patients with mantle cell lymphoma. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Overexpression of cyclin D1 results in dysregulated CDK (zeige CDK4 Proteine ) activity, rapid cell growth under conditions of restricted mitogenic signaling, bypass of key cellular checkpoints, and ultimately, neoplastic growth. (antikoerper-online.de)
- in its absence, cyclins D2 and D3 are also not expressed, preventing hematopoietic cell division and differentiation at its earliest stage. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Induction of mammary gland hyperplasia and carcinomas in transgenic mice expressing human cyclin E. Mol Cell Biol. (springer.com)
- Expression of cell cycle regulators p27Kip1 and cyclin E, alone and in combination, correlate with survival in young breast cancer patients. (springer.com)
- Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity is essential for eukaryotic cell cycle events. (biomedsearch.com)
- Experimental data has suggested that cyclin D1 and E mediate cell proliferation by different mechanisms in estrogen receptor (ER) positive and negative breast cancer. (kb.se)
- Cyclin B1 is overexpressed in various cancers, including breast, prostate, and non-small cell lung cancer. (thermofisher.com)
- that cyclin K may be a novel molecular link between germ cell development, cancer development and embryonic stem cell maintenance. (antibodies-online.com)
- P16-INK4a interacts strongly with cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 and inhibits their ability to interact with cyclins D. P16-INK4a induces cell cycle arrest at G1 and G2/M checkpoints, blocking them from phosphorylating RB1 and preventing exit from G1 phase of the cell cycle. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- The distribution patterns of pUL97 and cyclin T1 were independent of HCMV strain and host cell type. (mdpi.com)
- Here we show that constitutive expression of RV-cyclin in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line significantly increases the level of IEG expression in response to serum stimulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- These findings demonstrate a new role for the Slt2p MAP kinase cascade in protecting the cell from programmed cell death through cyclin C destruction. (genetics.org)
- Several prostate cancer cell lines and a subset of primary prostate cancer samples have increased cyclin D1 protein expression. (aacrjournals.org)
- The data showed that overexpression of cyclin D1 in the initiated BPH-1 cell line increased cell proliferation rate but did not elicit tumorigenicity in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
- Studies have shown that mouse prostatic normal and Rb −/− epithelial cells have elevated cyclin D1 expression as they enter the cell cycle ( 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Cyclin D2 accumulates at the very basal tip of the RG cell (i.e., the basal endfoot) via a unique cis -regulatory sequence found in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of its mRNA. (wiley.com)
- The daughter cell that inherits Cyclin D2 mRNA maintains its self-renewal capability, while its sibling undergoes differentiation. (wiley.com)
- Aim We evaluated epidermal cell turnover and thickness, as well as the expression of cyclins D1, B and A in psoriatic skin before and after therapy with cyclosporin. (wiley.com)
- Methods Epidermal thickness, mitotic and apoptotic indices (MI, AI), as well as the percentages of epidermal cell nuclei positive for Ki-67 and cyclins D1, B and A were calculated. (wiley.com)
- Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (wikipedia.org)
- The ability of p53 to control mitotic initiation by regulating intracellular cyclin B1 levels suggests that the cyclin B-dependent G 2 checkpoint has a role in preventing neoplastic transformation. (pnas.org)
- For all of the apoptosis-inducing agents tested, the appearance of condensed chromatin was accompanied by 2- to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. (pnas.org)
- Diverse mitotic events can be triggered in the correct order and time by a single cyclin-CDK. (nih.gov)
- We titrated the budding yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 within its endogenous expression range to a stable, fixed level and measured time to occurrence of three mitotic events: growth depolarization, spindle formation, and spindle elongation, as a function of fixed Clb2 level. (nih.gov)
- We conclude that mitotic events are regulated by discrete cyclin-CDK thresholds. (nih.gov)
- G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B2, HsT17299, cyclin B2. (prospecbio.com)
- The structural results indicate a role for the cyclin-box fold both as a template for the cyclin family and as a generalised adaptor molecule in the regulation of transcription. (nih.gov)
- Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, suggesting a mechanism whereby STAT3-dependent transcription could be immediately attenuated. (sciencemag.org)
- Moreover, SNIP1 depletion results in inhibition of cyclin D1 promoter activity in a manner dependent upon a previously characterized binding site for the AP-1 transcription factor family. (nature.com)
- PDX-1 knockdown reduced exendin-4-stimulated cAMP synthesis and cyclin A2 transcription. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Human cdk8-cyclin C might be functionally associated with the mammalian transcription apparatus, perhaps involved in relaying growth-regulatory signals. (novusbio.com)
- I have been defining the cis -acting elements and trans -acting factors that control transcription of the human cyclin D3 gene in T-cells. (bl.uk)
- The minimal cyclin D3 promoter sequence was identified as a region 173bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. (bl.uk)
- The protein encoded by CCNK is a member of the transcription cyclin family. (antibodies-online.com)
- Retroviral cyclin controls cyclin-dependent kinase 8-mediated transcription elongation and reinitiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Previous work showed that the retroviral cyclin (RV-cyclin), encoded by WDSV, has separable cyclin box and transcription activation domains. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and nuclear run-on assays provide evidence that RV-cyclin does not alter the initiation of IEG transcription but does enhance the overall rate of transcription elongation and maintains transcription reinitiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- 1997). The cyclin A1 promoter does not possess a TATA box, whereas the region upstream of the transcriptional start site region contains four GC boxes, with multiple Sp1-binding sites important for the regulation of cyclin A1 expression (Müller et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Cyclin H is implicated in the regulation of the transcriptional machinery during midblastula transition and is therefore an essential gene in early zebrafish larval development. (antibodies-online.com)
- Cyclin E-Mediated Human Proopiomelanocortin Regulation as a Therapeutic Target for Cushing Disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Cyclin E and E2F1 exhibit reciprocal positive regulation in corticotroph tumors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Alvocidib is an investigational small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 , a protein important to the regulation of Myc. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Microarray analysis showed that the expression profiles between CAFs and NPF cyclin D1 cells were highly concordant including cyclin D1 up-regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
Members of the cyclin family2
- However, all members of the cyclin family are similar in 100 amino acids that make up the cyclin box. (wikipedia.org)
- Within the protein the cyclin box is a region of protein sequence homology that is common to all members of the cyclin family and is required for interaction with the CDK partner. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- In contrast to mammalian cells, these yeast cells had only one CDK which interacted with various cyclins. (news-medical.net)
- Mammalian cyclin A1 is primarily localized in the nuclei of spermatocytes in mouse and human (Liu et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- In mammalian somatic cells, cyclin A is required for S-phase and passage through G2-phase. (fishersci.com)
- Cyclin K is highly expressed in mammalian testes in a developmentally regulated manner. (antibodies-online.com)
- Here, we discuss our findings and the Cyclin D2 function in mammalian brain development and evolution. (wiley.com)
- Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) bound to the inhibitor ribociclib (detail view). (news-medical.net)
- Verzenio is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4 & 6 inhibitor that will be available as 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg tablets. (thefreedictionary.com)
- HOUSTON - Overexpression of low-molecular-weight (LMW-E) forms of the protein cyclin E renders the aromatase inhibitor letrozole ineffective among women with estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers, researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center report in Clinical Cancer Research . (scienceblog.com)
- The M. D. Anderson team hypothesized that ER+ breast cancer patients whose tumors express the LMW forms of cyclin E would be less responsive to treatment with an aromatase inhibitor. (scienceblog.com)
- This arrest is characterized by accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (WAF1/CIP1) and of underphosphorylated forms of retinoblastoma protein. (aacrjournals.org)
- Cardiac differentiation in Xenopus requires the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27Xic1. (biomedsearch.com)
- Belongs to the cdkn2 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor family. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
- Cyclin A2 overexpression in primary islets increased proliferation and reduced p27. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In Min6 cells, cyclin A2 knockdown prevented exendin-4-stimulated proliferation. (diabetesjournals.org)
- To test this hypotheses in large breast cancer material and to clarify the histopathological correlations of cyclin E and D1, especially the association with proliferation, we analyzed cyclin E and D1 immunohistochemical expression on breast tumour microarrays consisting of 1348 invasive breast cancers. (kb.se)
- The differences at each stage are due to a balance between the gene expression of each cyclin and the ubiquitin-proteasome system which breaks them down. (news-medical.net)
- Overexpression of cyclin D1 reduced STAT3-dependent gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. (sciencemag.org)
- At the EGR1 gene locus, RV-cyclin increases and maintains RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy after serum stimulation, in conjunction with increased and extended EGR1 gene expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The aim was to investigate whether R-roscovitine inhibits human ACTH in corticotroph tumors by targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase 2/cyclin E signaling pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- 1998). Cyclin A1 interacts also with E2F1 and the retinoblastoma protein (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- A similar localization pattern of Cyclin D2 protein has been observed in the human fetal cortical primordium, suggesting a common mechanism of maintenance of neural progenitors that may be evolutionarily conserved across higher mammals such as primates. (wiley.com)
- S cyclins bind to Cdk and the complex directly induces DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
- This cyclin forms a complex with CDK7 kinase and ring finger protein MAT1. (antibodies-online.com)
- The Cdk- G1/S cyclin complex begins to induce the initial processes of DNA replication, primarily by arresting systems that prevent S phase Cdk activity in G1. (wikipedia.org)
- Confocal immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of pUL97 with cyclin T1 in subnuclear compartments, most pronounced in viral replication centres. (mdpi.com)
Activity of the cyclin1
- The mechanism behind this is that the low forms of cyclin E increase the activity of the cyclin E complex, and this complex is what mediates the negative effects. (scienceblog.com)
Overexpression of cyclin D12
- However, overexpression of cyclin D1 in normal prostate fibroblasts (NPF) that were subsequently recombined with BPH-1 did induce malignant transformation of the epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Overexpression of cyclin D1 plays important roles in the development of human cancers, including breast, colon, and melanoma ( 11 , 13 - 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Because the cyclin D1 gene has been implicated in a variety of other human cancers these findings may have broad implications for processing of non coding RNA in human tumorigenesis. (eurekalert.org)
- Background: Cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) plays pivotal roles in the development of several human cancers, including breast cancer, functioning as an oncogene. (hindawi.com)
Human Cyclin A12
- A second prediction of the model is that increasing the rate of cyclin accumulation should globally advance timing of all events. (nih.gov)
- Cyclins are generally very different from each other in primary structure, or amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
- Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box. (nih.gov)
- My problem: I can't find the nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the Cyclin H gene (the human counterpart to CCL1) and its corresponding protein. (bio.net)
- It recognizes a protein of 54kDa, which is identified as cyclin A. Its epitope is located amino acids 144-148 of human Cyclin A2. (fishersci.com)
- The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231-280. (mdpi.com)
- We have solved the crystal structure, at 2.0 A resolution, of an active recombinant fragment of bovine cyclin A, cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha helices. (nih.gov)
- Recombinant human Cyclin E1 protein, around 100-200aa. (thermofisher.com)
- Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Cyclin B1. (genetex.com)
- We found that we could negate the growth inhibitory effects of letrozole with the low forms of cyclin E but not with the wild-type cyclin E," said Keyomarsi, the study's senior author. (scienceblog.com)
- Of those, 100 expressed normal levels of wild-type cyclin E, and 28 overexpressed the low forms," Keyomarsi said. (scienceblog.com)
- When we looked at recurrence, three of the hundred with wild-type cyclin E had experienced a recurrence compared to four of the twenty-eight with the low forms. (scienceblog.com)
Interacts with cyclins1
- Graf L, Webel R, Wagner S, Hamilton ST, Rawlinson WD, Sticht H, Marschall M. The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins. (mdpi.com)
- Exendin-4 stimulated cyclin A2 promoter activity via the cAMP-cAMP response element binding protein pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The human cyclin D3 gene has a TATA-less promoter and a single dominant initiation site. (bl.uk)
- Transient transfections using CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) reporter constructs containing sequential deletions of the cyclin D3 promoter defined positively and negatively regulated regions. (bl.uk)
- Cyclin K1 is the primary cyclin partner for CDK12/CrkRS and it is required for activation of CDK12/CrkRS to phosphorylate the C-terminal domain of RNA Pol II. (antibodies-online.com)