Cyclin I: A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Phosphorylase a: The active form of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that is derived from the phosphorylation of PHOSPHORYLASE B. Phosphorylase a is deactivated via hydrolysis of phosphoserine by PHOSPHORYLASE PHOSPHATASE to form PHOSPHORYLASE B.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Lymphoma, AIDS-Related: B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.Cyclin D2: A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.Cyclin D3: A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.Cyclin A1: A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.Cyclin A2: A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.Cyclin D: A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Cyclin G1: A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.Cyclin G: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cyclin C: A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Cyclin B2: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Cyclin T: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Cyclin G2: An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.Cyclin H: A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Genes, bcl-1: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cycloaddition Reaction: Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Mesothelioma, Cystic: A peritoneal mesothelioma affecting mainly young females and producing cysts of variable size and number lined by a single layer of benign mesothelial cells. The disease follows a benign course and is compatible with a normal life expectancy, requiring occasionally partial excision or decompression for relief of pain or other symptoms. Malignant potential is exceptional. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1345)Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.F-Box Proteins: A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.G0 Phase: A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Propanidid: An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9: A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins: A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins: A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Reduced Folate Carrier Protein: A ubiquitously expressed folic acid transporter that functions via an antiporter mechanism which is coupled to the transport of organic phosphates.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell: A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8: A CYCLIN C dependent kinase that is an important component of the mediator complex. The enzyme is activated by its interaction with CYCLIN C and plays a role in transcriptional regulation by phosphorylating RNA POLYMERASE II.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cdh1 Proteins: Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3: A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a role in the transition from G1 to S PHASE and in transcriptional regulation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos: Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Cyclin I protects podocytes from apoptosis. (1/7)The limited regenerative capacity of the glomerular podocyte following injury underlies the development of glomerulosclerosis and progressive renal failure in a diverse range of kidney diseases. We discovered that, in the kidney, cyclin I is uniquely expressed in the glomerular podocyte, and have constructed cyclin I knock-out mice to explore the biological function of cyclin I in these cells. Cyclin I knock-out (-/-) podocytes showed an increased susceptibility to apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Following induction of experimental glomerulonephritis, podocyte apoptosis was increased 4-fold in the cyclin I -/- mice, which was associated with dramatically decreased renal function. Our previous data showed that the Cdk inhibitor p21(Cip1/Waf1) protects podocytes from certain apoptotic stimuli. In cultured cyclin I -/- podocytes, the level of p21(Cip1/Waf1) was lower at base line, had a shorter half-life, and declined more rapidly in response to apoptotic stimuli than in wild-type cells. Enforced expression of p21(Cip1/Waf1) reversed the susceptibility of cyclin I -/- podocytes to apoptosis. Cyclin I protects podocytes from apoptosis, and we provide preliminary data to suggest that this is mediated by stabilization of p21(Cip1/Waf1). (+info)
Serum proteomic-based analysis of pancreatic carcinoma for the identification of potential cancer biomarkers. (2/7)To identify new biomarkers that improve the early diagnosis and lead to possible therapeutic targets in pancreatic carcinoma, we performed a proteomic approach to compare serum protein expression patterns of pancreatic carcinoma patients with that of gastric cancer patients, other pancreatic disease patients, and healthy volunteers. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analyses and mass spectroscopic identification, 10 protein spots were found significantly changed in pancreatic carcinoma and 5 proteins including cyclin I, Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta (GDI2), alpha-1 antitrypsin precursor, Haptoglobin precursor, and Serotransferrin precursor were successfully identified. The increased levels of cyclin I and GDI2 found to be associated with pancreatic carcinoma were further confirmed by Western blot analyses in an independent series of serum samples and/or pancreatic juice samples. Applying immunohistochemistry, we further validated expression of cyclin I and GDI2 in additional pancreatic carcinomas. These results indicate that cyclin I and GDI2 may be potential molecular targets for pancreatic cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. (+info)
Microarray analysis of the cellular pathways involved in the adaptation to and progression of motor neuron injury in the SOD1 G93A mouse model of familial ALS. (3/7)The cellular pathways of motor neuronal injury have been investigated in the SOD1 G93A murine model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using laser-capture microdissection and microarray analysis. The advantages of this study include the following: analysis of changes specifically in motor neurons (MNs), while still detecting effects of interactions with neighboring cells; the ability to profile changes during disease progression, an approach not possible in human ALS; and the use of transgenic mice bred on a homogeneous genetic background, eliminating the confounding effects arising from a mixed genetic background. By using this rigorous approach, novel changes in key cellular pathways have been detected at both the presymptomatic and late stages, which have been validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. At the presymptomatic stage (60 d), MNs extracted from SOD1 G93A mice show a significant increase in expression of genes subserving both transcriptional and translational functions, as well as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, mitochondrial preprotein translocation, and respiratory chain function, suggesting activation of a strong cellular adaptive response. Mice 90 d old still show upregulation of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, whereas transcription and mRNA processing genes begin to show downregulation. Late in the disease course (120 d), important findings include the following: marked transcriptional repression, with downregulation of multiple transcripts involved in transcriptional and metabolic functions; upregulation of complement system components; and increased expression of key cyclins involved in cell-cycle regulation. The changes described in the motor neuron transcriptome evolving during the disease course highlight potential novel targets for neuroprotective therapeutic intervention. (+info)
Cyclin I activates Cdk5 and regulates expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL in postmitotic mouse cells. (4/7)(+info)
Cyclin I-Cdk5 governs survival in post-mitotic cells. (5/7)Cdk5 has long been recognized to play an important role in development, maturation and apoptosis of postmitotic and terminally differentiated cells. Activation of Cdk5 is tightly regulated by specific activators. Cyclin I was recently characterized as the first cyclin protein that binds to and activates Cdk5. Cyclin I-Cdk5 activates the MEK-ERK pathway and results in increased Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) mRNA and protein levels. Lack of Cyclin I renders podocytes more susceptible to apoptosis. Interestingly, activation of Cdk5 by p35 is also involved in the podocytes' response to injury. In the absence of p35, podocytes are more prone to undergo apoptosis. Here, we propose a new model where Cdk5 plays a central role in the cellular response machinery against injury-induced apoptosis of post-mitotic cells. While Cyclin I-Cdk5 regulates Bcl-2 family proteins through activation of the MEK-ERK pathway, p35-Cdk5 directly phosphorylates and stabilizes Bcl-2. (+info)
Both cyclin I and p35 are required for maximal survival benefit of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in kidney podocytes. (6/7)(+info)
Cyclin I is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. (7/7)(+info)
... D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to S phase. G2/M cyclins - essential for ... The rise in presence of G1/S cyclins is paralleled by a rise in S cyclins. G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ... Note that the cyclins are now classified according to their conserved cyclin box structure, and not all these cyclins alter in ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ...
Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (Apr 1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... "The consensus motif for phosphorylation by cyclin D1-Cdk4 is different from that for phosphorylation by cyclin A/E-Cdk2". The ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDKs (Cyclin-dependent kinase). Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... cyclin D1 is translocated to the IgH promoter leading to cyclin D1 overexpression. Chromosomal translocation of the cyclin D1 ... Cyclin-D1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND1 gene. The CCND1 gene encodes the cyclin D1 protein. The human ... Cyclin D1 has been found to be overexpressed in breast carcinoma. Its potential use as a biomarker was suggested. Cyclin D1 is ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns that ... Cyclin-T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin tightly associates with CDK9 kinase, and was found to be a major subunit of the transcription elongation factor p- ... This cyclin and its kinase partner were also found to be involved in the phosphorylation and regulation of the carboxy-terminal ...
... is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin B is a mitotic cyclin. The amount of cyclin B (which binds to Cdk1) and the ... Because cyclin B is necessary for cells to enter mitosis and therefore necessary for cell division, cyclin B levels are often ... The fact that cyclin B is often disregulated in cancer cells makes cyclin B an attractive biomarker. Many studies have been ... Cyclin B at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Cyclin B - The Interactive Fly. ...
... remains associated with CDK1 from late S into late G2 phase when it is replaced by cyclin B. Cyclin A/CDK1 is thought ... Cyclin A is the only cyclin that regulates multiple steps of the cell cycle. Cyclin A can regulate multiple cell cycle steps ... Cyclin A2 is expressed in dividing somatic cells. Cyclin A, along with the other members of the cyclin family, regulates cell ... P21 is a CDK inhibitor that binds to several cyclin/CDK complexes, including cyclin A-CDK2/1 and cyclin D/CDK4, and blocks the ...
"Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378-88. doi: ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNB1 gene. Cyclin B1 is a regulatory protein ... Like all cyclins, levels of cyclin B1 oscillate over the course of the cell cycle. Just prior to mitosis, a large amount of ... Cyclin B1 can reside in the nucleus or the cytoplasm which can have an effect on the malignant potential of cyclin B1 when ...
Like all cyclin family members, cyclin E forms a complex with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2). Cyclin E/CDK2 regulates multiple ... Cyclin E is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin E binds to G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S ... Cyclin E/CDK2 plays a critical role in the G1 phase and in the G1-S phase transition. Cyclin E/CDK2 phosphorylates ... Dysregulation of cyclin E occurs in 18-22% of the breast cancers. Cyclin E is a prognostic marker in breast cancer, its altered ...
... has been shown to interact with P53, Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and MNAT1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000134480 ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-H is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNH gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin forms a complex with CDK7 kinase and ring finger protein MAT1. The kinase complex is able to phosphorylate CDK2 and ...
"Entrez Gene: CCNE1 cyclin E1". Shanahan F, Seghezzi W, Parry D, Mahony D, Lees E (February 1999). "Cyclin E associates with ... Mumberg D, Wick M, Bürger C, Haas K, Funk M, Müller R (1997). "Cyclin ET, a new splice variant of human cyclin E with a unique ... Cyclin E1 has been shown to interact with: CDC25A, CDKN1B, CUL3 Cdk1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, HERC5, P21, Retinoblastoma- ... Koff A, Cross F, Fisher A, Schumacher J, Leguellec K, Philippe M, Roberts JM (1991). "Human cyclin E, a new cyclin that ...
Other than Rb, viral cyclin D-Cdk6 complex also targets p27Kip, a Cdk inhibitor of cyclin E and A. In addition, viral cyclin D- ... In mice and humans, two more cyclin D proteins have been identified. The three homologues, called cyclin D1, cyclin D2, and ... among which is cyclin D. In this way, cyclin D is synthesized as long as the growth factor is present. Even though cyclin D ... The synthesis of cyclin D is initiated during G1 and drives the G1/S phase transition. Cyclin D protein is anywhere from 155 ( ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4, Cyclin-dependent kinase 6, EIF3K, and Retinoic acid receptor alpha. Cyclin Cyclin D GRCh38: Ensembl ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ...
Cyclin-O is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNO gene. Cyclin O has been shown to interact with RPA2 and PCNA. ... Hirst R, Gosden R, Miller D (June 2006). "The cyclin-like uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) of murine oocytes and its relationship ... Muller SJ, Caradonna S (January 1993). "Cell cycle regulation of a human cyclin-like gene encoding uracil-DNA glycosylase". The ... CCNO cyclin O". Otterlei M, Warbrick E, Nagelhus TA, Haug T, Slupphaug G, Akbari M, Aas PA, Steinsbekk K, Bakke O, Krokan HE ( ...
... is a member of the cyclin family, specifically the B-type cyclins. The B-type cyclins, B1 and B2, associate with ... Cyclin B1 co-localizes with microtubules, whereas cyclin B2 is primarily associated with the Golgi region. Cyclin B2 also binds ... Cyclin B2 has been shown to interact with TGF beta receptor 2. Cyclin B GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000157456 - Ensembl, ... "Cyclin B2-null mice develop normally and are fertile whereas cyclin B1-null mice die in utero". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
Cyclin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA2 gene. It is one of the two types of cyclin A: cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A2 belongs to the cyclin family, whose members regulate cell cycle progression by interacting with CDK kinases. Cyclin ... The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex eventually phosphorylates E2F, turning off cyclin A2 transcription. E2F promotes cyclin A2 ... Cyclin A2 is synthesized at the onset of S phase and localizes to the nucleus, where the cyclin A2-CDK2 complex is implicated ...
Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Different cyclins ... Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ...
"Cyclin K inhibits HIV-1 gene expression and replication by interfering with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)-cyclin T1 ... Cyclin K has been shown to interact with CDK9. Cyclin K also interacts with HIV nef protein. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... These cyclins may regulate transcription through their association with and activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) that ... Baek K, Brown RS, Birrane G, Ladias JA (Feb 2007). "Crystal structure of human cyclin K, a positive regulator of cyclin- ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNE2 gene. It is a G1 cyclin that binds Cdk2 and is inhibited by p27( ... Gudas, Jean M.; Payton, Marc; Thukral, Sushil; Chen, Eddy; Bass, Michael; Robinson, Murray O.; Coats, Steve (1999). "Cyclin E2 ... a novel G1 cyclin that binds Cdk2 and is aberrantly expressed in human cancers". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 (1): 612-22 ...
CDK6; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK7; cyclin H CDK8; cyclin C CDK9; cyclin T1, cyclin T2a, cyclin T2b, cyclin K CDK10 ... cyclin A, cyclin B CDK2; cyclin A, cyclin E CDK3; cyclin C CDK4; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK5; CDK5R1, CDK5R2. See also ... Furthermore, cyclin binding determines the specificity of the cyclin-CDK complex for particular substrates. Cyclins can ... Viruses can encode proteins with sequence homology to cyclins. One much-studied example is K-cyclin (or v-cyclin) from Kaposi ...
The Cyclin D/Cdk4 complex is a multi-protein structure consisting of the proteins Cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase 4, or ... Specifically, E2F helps to activate Cyclin E and Cyclin A, which are constituents of other Cdk/Cyclin complexes and are ... This complex is one of many cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes that are the "hearts of the cell-cycle control system" and ... GATA-1 serves as an activating transcription factor of Cyclin D and potentially also as a repressor of the Cyclin D inhibitor, ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4
Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ... 1995). "Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 also known as cell division protein kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK4 gene ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 3
"Entrez Gene: CDK3 cyclin-dependent kinase 3". Bullrich F, MacLachlan TK, Sang N, et al. (1995). "Chromosomal mapping of members ... 2002). "ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3)". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (23): 6076-82. doi:10.1046/j. ... Ren S, Rollins BJ (2004). "Cyclin C/cdk3 promotes Rb-dependent G0 exit". Cell. 117 (2): 239-51. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00300 ... CDK3 can phosphorylate histone H1 and interacts with an unknown type of cyclin. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000250506 - ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 8
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK8 and cyclin C associate ... Rickert P, Corden JL, Lees E (Jan 1999). "Cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are biochemically distinct CTD kinases". Oncogene ... "Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proceedings of the National ... "Entrez Gene: CDK8 cyclin-dependent kinase 8". Nemet J, Jelicic B, Rubelj I, Sopta M (Feb 2014). "The two faces of Cdk8, a ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 10
"Entrez Gene: CDK10 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDC2-like) 10". Kasten M, Giordano A (Apr 2001). "Cdk10, a Cdc2-related kinase, ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 10 has been shown to interact with ETS2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000185324 - Ensembl, May ...
The i-CDK9-induced increase in CDK9s binding to the MYC locus is mostly BRD4-dependent.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06535.017
Lou Pagnucco wrote: , the Milan group (I cannot remember the authors) that published , in Nature some months ago, seemed to show that mice genetically , modified to exhibit lower rates of apoptosis lived about 35% longer. Miglaccio et al, Nature 402(6759):309-313. True, but it is crucial to remember that the reduction of apoptosis was not indiscriminate: it was specifically a reduction in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis due to knockout of one isoform of a protein. However, I still agree strongly with you that more experiments are needed. , Could failed, transient, apoptotic episodes result in extensive , cell/tissue damage instead of cell death? ... Is it also possible , that these failed cellular suicide attempts are due to mitochodrial , oxidative bursts that manage to leave behind the biomarkers of cellular , ageing? i.e., Is it possible that normal mitochondrial respiration has , gotten a bum rap and unfairly indicted for the cellular damage seen , in senescent cells? (whereas these ...
2494 Cyclin I (CCNI) is a member of the recently described inhibitory class of cyclin proteins. The other members of this class, cyclins G1 and G2, have been implicated in the induction of cell cycle arrest. Cyclin I is widely expressed in terminally differentiated tissues, but its function remains to be determined. We previously identified cyclin I as antigenic in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. Here, we examined expression of the human cyclin I gene in normal tissues, in tumor cell lines, and in primary human ovarian tumors. By Northern blot analysis, cyclin I was expressed at moderate to high levels in all normal tissues examined, including normal ovary. In contrast, cyclin I mRNA was dramatically reduced in nine of twenty-five ovarian tumor samples examined. These studies were confirmed and extended using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. More than half of the tumors evaluated had very low levels of cyclin I mRNA compared to the expression levels in normal ovarian tissue and other normal ...
message was truncated but as of note: senescent cells (Hayflick cells) are not necessarily apoptotic. Many post-mitotic cells undergo apoptosis. See all the work on insects by me et al, Truman, Schwartz, Locke, etc. The story of apoptosis as an aborted mitosis derives from lymphocytes and is not necessarily valid, though the signalling mechansisms are interesting. See upcoming meetings at Lake Placid 9/29; Keystone Feb 95, Gordon Conf July 95. Richard A. Lockshin/Dept. Biol. Sci. St. Johns University/8000 Utopia P Jamaica NY 11439 USA/Phone 718: 990-1854/ Fax 718: 380-8543 In article ,35se7t$nru at expert.cc.purdue.edu, ckwen at expert.cc.purdue.edu (Chi-kuang Wen) writes: ,Dear Netter: , Can anyone tell me that if the cells in a mature animal or plant tissue still keep cell-division and cell-death to keep homeostasi ,cell-division and let the cells become senescent? In addition to the inactivation of telemerase may contribute to senescence, is th ,inducing senescence? If most of the cells in ...
Unfortunately, because of the early embryonic lethality associated with Mdm2-null and Mdmx-null mutations, it has been difficult to assess the physiological contributions of Mdm2 and Mdmx to the regulation of p53 levels and activity. However, conditional alleles have recently been developed that yield further insight into how and in what cell types Mdm2 and Mdmx regulate p53 (Grier et al., 2002; Steinman and Jones, 2002; Mendrysa et al., 2003; Grier et al., 2006).. To test whether Mdm2 and Mdmx are required to restrain p53 activity in a single cell type, Xiong et al. conditionally inactivated both Mdm2 and Mdmx in neuronal progenitors (Xiong et al., 2006). Meanwhile, Francoz et al. conditionally expressed p53 in neuronal progenitor cells or in post-mitotic cells of mice lacking Mdm2 and/or Mdmx (Francoz et al., 2006). Loss of Mdmx or Mdm2 leads to distinct phenotypes (see below) but, importantly, all phenotypes disappear in the absence of p53. Both Mdm2 and Mdmx are thus required to inhibit p53 ...
Podoplanin is usually found in human tissues such as kidney podocytes, heart,lung, placenta, skeletal muscle, salivary glands, in myofibroblasts of the breast, mesothelial cell and osteoblasts. It is also upregulated on diverse human cancers like squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity,lungs, larynx, esophagus, cervix, skin and in some tumor related of central nervous system. A podoplanin physiological function is not fully determined yet it has been proposed as the marker of lung injury. As it is expressed in lymphatic cells shows a significant role as a specific marker forlymphatic endothelial cells and lymphangiogenesis wherein expression of endothelial cell upholds cell migration, adhesion and tube formation. Gene name: PDPN Protein name: Podoplanin Synonyms: • T1A • T1A2 • GP36 • OTS8 • AGGRUS • Nlrp4g NLR family See also: • Mucin • Transmembrane protein ...
Our data revealed that the mode of neurogenesis in onychophorans is more similar to that found in hexapods and crustaceans than that in chelicerates and myriapods as the onychophoran neuroectoderm shows neither post-mitotic cell clusters nor segmental invaginations. In Onychophora, instead, single precursors are recruited for neuronal fate and migrate internally as bottle-like cells, which is similar to the mode found in hexapods (figure 4). These immigrated cells are mitotically active, and in this respect resemble the neuronal stem cells (neuroblasts) of both crustaceans and hexapods (Harzsch 2001; Stollewerk & Simpson 2005; Ungerer & Scholtz 2008), even though they do not show asymmetric cell divisions. Our findings thus suggest that immigration of single cells, followed by their mitotic activity, is an ancestral feature of arthropod neurogenesis, while asymmetric cell divisions are a synapomorphy of crustaceans and hexapods (figure 8). The absence of the following three characters in ...
Expression and Functional Analysis of Lgl1 and Lgl2 During Retinal Lamination in Zebrafish | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose: : The Lethal Giant Larvae (Lgl) proteins are demonstrated substrates of atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC). Previously, we have shown that aPKC lamda and zeta are essential for multiple aspects of retinal development. During zebrafish retinal development, loss of both aPKC isoforms results in retinal defects in mitotic cell behaviors (mitotic division orientation and M-phase localization), post-mitotic cell migration, photoreceptor morphogenesis, and overall retinal histology. The cell type positioning defects are non-cell autonomous, indicating that aPKC activity may function by regulating a secreted signal. Lgl proteins have been shown to regulate polarized exocytosis by interacting with exocytic machinery in both yeast and mammalian cells. To begin to test whether Lgl mediates aPKC functions during retinal development, we have isolated the zebrafish Lgl1 homologue and investigated the expression and loss-of-function consequences of Lgl1 and Lgl2 within the developing retina. Methods: : ...
The terminally differentiated podocyte functions as a critical barrier to prevent proteinuria, and proteinuria is the clinical signature for podocyte injury, with or without loss of renal functions. Emerging experimental and clinical studies have highlighted that loss of podocyte directly causes proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis, owing to podocyte apoptosis or detachment (24-27). The present study demonstrated, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that kidney and brain associated protein WWC1, is a critical molecular in podocyte injury. Reduced WWC1 expression was identified in injured podocytes, and loss of WWC1 directly induced podocyte apoptosis. In addition further evidence was obtained that WWC1 protected podocytes from apoptosis by preventing SD protein dendrin from relocating into nuclei.. The expression of WWC1 (KIBRA), the mammalian ortholog of Kibra, has been observed to be enriched in kidney and brain (18). In Drosophila, Kibra predominantly acts in the Merlin branch ...
Overexpression of cyclin E protein is associated with specific mutation types in the p53 gene and poor survival in human breast...
Cyclin E is one of the key regulators of the G(1)/S transition in the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin E has been observed ... One hundred and seventy-one patients (63%) had low cyclin E, 72 (27%) medium and 27 (10%) had high cyclin E content. Fifty-six ... of those with low cyclin E content (P , 0.0001). In p53 mutated breast cancers high cyclin E content was associated with ... Overexpression of cyclin E protein is associated with specific mutation types in the p53 gene and poor survival in human breast ...http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:109801
"F-box protein FBXO31 mediates cyclin D1 degradation to induce G1 arres" by Manas K. Santra, Narendra Wajapeyee et al.
Cyclin D1 degradation results from a direct interaction with FBXO31 and is dependent on the F-box motif of FBXO31 and ... We show that ectopic expression of FBXO31 acts through a proteasome-directed pathway to mediate the degradation of cyclin D1, ... phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at Thr 286, which is known to be required for cyclin D1 proteolysis. The involvement of the DDR in ... Cyclin D1 degradation results from a direct interaction with FBXO31 and is dependent on the F-box motif of FBXO31 and ...https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/2182/
Cyclin - Wikipedia
cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ... cyclin D (Cdk4) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin
Cyclin T2 - Wikipedia
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin_T2
cyclin | Encyclopedia.com
Source for information on cyclin: A Dictionary of Biology dictionary. ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cyclin
... like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. Thanks. Mike * ... Cyclin E-Fix. micro-mike micro-mike at cox.net Sun Mar 3 16:33:22 EST 2002 *Previous message: THE SECRET the IRS is TERRIFIED ... But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the ...http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/cellbiol/2002-March/014568.html
What are Cyclin-Dependent Kinases?
Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. Cyclin A is also produced, which ... Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... Cyclin Dependent Kinases in the Cell Cycle. Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene ...https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/What-are-Cyclin-Dependent-Kinases.aspx
Looking for Cyclin H.....
... Charles Yang cyang at jhunix.hcf.jhu.edu Fri Oct 6 15:33:24 EST 1995 *Previous message: luciferase ... My problem: I cant find the nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the Cyclin H gene (the human counterpart to CCL1) and its ...http://bio.net/bionet/mm/yeast/1995-October/003937.html
PHO85 cyclin-10 (P53124) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.https://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/P53124
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (P24941) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/P24941
CCNI cyclin I [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... Cyclin I: a new cyclin encoded by a gene isolated from human brain. Nakamura T, et al. Exp Cell Res, 1995 Dec. PMID 7493655 ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/10983
The crystal structure of cyclin A. - PubMed - NCBI
Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does ... cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha ... Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box ... The structural results indicate a role for the cyclin-box fold both as a template for the cyclin family and as a generalised ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8591034?dopt=Abstract
Cyclin D1 Attenuates STAT3 | Science Signaling
Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, ... Bienvenu et al. have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated ... Endogenous cyclin D1 associated with STAT3 in cells treated for 2 hours after treatment with interleukin 6 (IL-6), an activator ... F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. ...https://stke.sciencemag.org/content/2001/83/tw5
Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK) Inhibitors | SpringerLink
... the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its ... the cyclin), led to a simple model for cell cycle control. Modulation of cyclin accumulation, and thereby Cdk activation, was ... CDK CKI Zellzyklus biochemistry biology cancer cell cell cycle cellular differentiation cellular growth cyclin-dependent kinase ... More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell ...https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-642-71941-7
Cyclin E ablation in the mouse.
E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins ... However, endoreplication of trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes is severely impaired in the absence of cyclin E. Cyclin ... Cyclin E ablation in the mouse.. Geng Y., Yu Q., Sicinska E., Das M., Schneider J.E., Bhattacharya S., Rideout W.M., Bronson R. ... These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for ...http://www.uniprot.org/citations/12941272
CCNA1 (cyclin A1)
... cyclin A1), Authors: Immacolata Vocca, Gianmarco Muzi, Francesca Pentimalli, Antonio Giordano. Published in: Atlas Genet ... Cyclin A2, also known as cyclin A, is the major A-type cyclin in mammals. Cyclin A1 primarily functions in the meiotic cell ... Schematic diagram of human cyclin A1. The positions of the cyclin box (with the two cyclin box folds) and the polyalanine ... Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and ...http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/CCNA1ID949ch13q13.html
Anti-Cyclin T1 antibody (ab2098) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal Cyclin T1 antibody validated for WB, IP, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 10 ... Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation ... Anti-Cyclin T1 antibody (ab2098) at 1/10000 dilution + HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cell line) Whole Cell Lysate at 10 µg. ... ab2098 (2µg/ml) staining Cyclin T1 in human lymph node using an automated system (DAKO Autostainer Plus). Using this protocol ...http://www.abcam.com/cyclin-t1-antibody-ab2098.html
CYCLIN A EXPRESSION VECTOE FOR EUK CELLS
... balczonr at my-dejanews.com balczonr at my-dejanews.com Tue Sep 22 13:25:16 EST 1998 ...http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/cellbiol/1998-September/009607.html
Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan ... - VRBO
Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ...https://www.vrbo.com/589888
Anti-Cyclin A1 antibody (ab172317) | Abcam
Mouse polyclonal Cyclin A1 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding ... All lanes : Anti-Cyclin A1 antibody (ab172317) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Cyclin A1 transfected 293T cell line lysate. Lane 2 : Non- ... Full length protein corresponding to Human Cyclin A1 aa 1-464. (ABM85414.1).. Sequence: ...https://www.abcam.com/cyclin-a1-antibody-ab172317.html
RCSB PDB - Gene View - CDK12 - cyclin dependent kinase 12
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.https://www.rcsb.org/pdb/gene/CDK12
RCSB PDB - Gene View - CDK9 - cyclin dependent kinase 9
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/gene/CDK9?v=hg38
Cyclin D1 Down-Regulation | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action
60 Abstracts with Cyclin D1 Down-Regulation Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Kahweol-mediated cyclin D1 degradation may contribute to the inhibition of the proliferation in human colorectal cancer cells. ... Pharmacological Actions : Antiproliferative , Apoptotic, Cell cycle arrest, Cyclin D1 Down-Regulation. Additional Keywords : ... Pharmacological Actions : Antiproliferative , Apoptotic, Cell cycle arrest, Cyclin D1 Down-Regulation. Additional Keywords : ...https://www.greenmedinfo.com/pharmacological-action/cyclin-d1-down-regulation
Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017
Download the full report: https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/5190761 Summary Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase ... This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found ... The latest report Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Cyclin ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase ...https://www.medindia.net/health-press-release/Cyclin-Dependent-Kinase-9-Pipeline-Review-H2-2017-349010-1.htm
Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis | PNAS
Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis. W Meikrantz, S Gisselbrecht, S W Tam, and R Schlegel ... These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent ... Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. Stable ... to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. ...https://www.pnas.org/content/91/9/3754?ijkey=a111b4daa51fd5e7a8be36bf6ebca16e907a07da&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
- Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) enzymes . (wikipedia.org)
- This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, in all eukaryotes mitosis (M phase) is initiated by high levels of cyclin B, which combines with a protein kinase to form the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF). (encyclopedia.com)
- Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell cycle. (news-medical.net)
- Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) bound to the inhibitor ribociclib (detail view). (news-medical.net)
- have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated signaling. (sciencemag.org)
- Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation factor B (P-TEFb), which is proposed to facilitate the transition from abortive to productive elongation by phosphorylating the CTD (carboxy-terminal domain) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). (abcam.com)
- Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 220.127.116.11 or EC 18.104.22.168) - Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. (medindia.net)
- Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 22.214.171.124 or EC 126.96.36.199) pipeline Target constitutes close to 26 molecules. (medindia.net)
- It also reviews key players involved in Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 188.8.131.52 or EC 184.108.40.206) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (medindia.net)
- For all of the apoptosis-inducing agents tested, the appearance of condensed chromatin was accompanied by 2- to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. (pnas.org)
- CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, and is essential for cell cycle G1⁄S phase transition. (fishersci.ca)
- The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. (wikidoc.org)
- This protein forms a trimeric complex with cyclin H and MAT1 , which functions as a Cdk-activating kinase (CAK). (wikidoc.org)
- Cyclin A is also produced, which binds to CDK2 and stimulates DNA replication. (news-medical.net)
- Analysis of residues that are conserved throughout the A, B, and E cyclins identifies two exposed clusters of residues, one of which has recently been shown to be involved in the association with human CDK2. (nih.gov)
- Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does not undergo any significant conformational changes on complex formation. (nih.gov)
- Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and interacting with viral proteins (Giordano et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 2005). Human cyclin A1 interacts with CDK2 in vitro and in vivo (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 2001). Moreover the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex regulates DNA double-strand break repair following radiation damage (Müller-Tidow et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 2004) by competing with CDK2-cyclin A2 for the binding to Ku70, a pivotal player in the non-homologous end-joining double strand break repair pathway, and inhibiting apoptosis through modulating RB functions in leukemia cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. (pnas.org)
- Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene expression, which binds to CDK4. (news-medical.net)
- Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) usually functions to inhibit the transcription factor E2F, however, when cyclin-D-CDK4 phosphorylates the Rb protein, this relinquishes inhibition of E2F and leads to the production of genes required for entering the S phase. (news-medical.net)
- These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. (news-medical.net)
- F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. (sciencemag.org)
- Overexpression of cyclin D1 results in dysregulated CDK (zeige CDK4 Proteine ) activity, rapid cell growth under conditions of restricted mitogenic signaling, bypass of key cellular checkpoints, and ultimately, neoplastic growth. (antikoerper-online.de)
- But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the literature I have read. (bio.net)
- 2004). Cyclin A1 has an important role in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): its localization in normal hematopoietic cells is nuclear, whereas in leukemic cells from AML patients and cell lines, it is predominantly cytoplasmic (Ekberg et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- The cyclin D1 (PRAD1, CCND1) gene is affected by translocations and amplification in the genomes of a number of human tumors, suggesting that these changes confer growth advantage on developing tumor cell clones. (pnas.org)
- Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 24 Cyclin D1 (CCND1) Proteine von 9 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Cyclin I promotes cisplatin resistance via Cdk5 activation in cervical cancer. (nih.gov)
- Modulation of cyclin accumulation, and thereby Cdk activation, was proposed to be the overarching principle governing the passage through cell cycle phases. (springer.com)
- NMB or NMBR silencing inhibited M-CSF (zeige CSF1R Proteine )/ c-Fms (zeige CSF1R Proteine )-mediated downstream signaling pathways like activation of ERK (zeige EPHB2 Proteine ) and Akt (zeige AKT1 Proteine ) and induction of D-type cyclins, cyclin D1 and D2. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Cyclins can be divided into four classes based on their behavior in the cell cycle of vertebrate somatic cells and yeast cells: G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. (wikipedia.org)
- In contrast to mammalian cells, these yeast cells had only one CDK which interacted with various cyclins. (news-medical.net)
- If the tight control over the CDK-cyclin system breaks down, then cells can proliferate uncontrollably. (news-medical.net)
- Endogenous cyclin D1 associated with STAT3 in cells treated for 2 hours after treatment with interleukin 6 (IL-6), an activator of STAT3. (sciencemag.org)
- However, endoreplication of trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes is severely impaired in the absence of cyclin E. Cyclin E-deficient cells proliferate actively under conditions of continuous cell cycling but are unable to reenter the cell cycle from the quiescent G(0) state. (uniprot.org)
- We show here that in cultured cells, a cDNA clone of the cyclin D1 gene can contribute to cell transformation by complementing a defective adenovirus E1A oncogene. (pnas.org)
- a new function for cyclin D1 in the control of redox metabolism and interactions of cyclin D1 -expressing multiple myeloma cells with their bone marrow microenvironment. (antikoerper-online.de)
- The researchers noticed that cells lacking cyclin D1 produced less of the miRNA-processing protein, Dicer, and therefore had reduced levels of mature miRNA. (eurekalert.org)
- The group also examined cells lacking Dicer, and noted many similarities between Dicer-lacking and cyclin D1-lacking cells, in addition to failure of miRNA processing, suggesting a deeper connection between these two processes. (eurekalert.org)
- 2008). Cyclin A1 is expressed at low levels in G0 phase and increases in early G1, S and G2/M phases (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- The study involved cancer samples from 264 Taiwanese male oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and the results showed that increased levels of cyclin D1 were linked with later stage cancer and increased chance of the tumor spreading, as well as a reduced chance of survival. (fiercebiotech.com)
- More research is needed, but assessing levels of cyclin D1 at diagnosis could help to personalize treatment. (fiercebiotech.com)