Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
MAP Kinase Kinase 2
MAP Kinase Kinase 1
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
CDC2 Protein Kinase
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Cell Cycle Proteins
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
Tumor Suppressor Proteins
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
E2F Transcription Factors
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Gene Expression Regulation
Transcription Factor DP1
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
E2F1 Transcription Factor
Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Amino Acid Sequence
Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae
S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins
RNA, Small Interfering
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).
NIH 3T3 Cells
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8
Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
Cyclin I protects podocytes from apoptosis. (1/7)The limited regenerative capacity of the glomerular podocyte following injury underlies the development of glomerulosclerosis and progressive renal failure in a diverse range of kidney diseases. We discovered that, in the kidney, cyclin I is uniquely expressed in the glomerular podocyte, and have constructed cyclin I knock-out mice to explore the biological function of cyclin I in these cells. Cyclin I knock-out (-/-) podocytes showed an increased susceptibility to apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Following induction of experimental glomerulonephritis, podocyte apoptosis was increased 4-fold in the cyclin I -/- mice, which was associated with dramatically decreased renal function. Our previous data showed that the Cdk inhibitor p21(Cip1/Waf1) protects podocytes from certain apoptotic stimuli. In cultured cyclin I -/- podocytes, the level of p21(Cip1/Waf1) was lower at base line, had a shorter half-life, and declined more rapidly in response to apoptotic stimuli than in wild-type cells. Enforced expression of p21(Cip1/Waf1) reversed the susceptibility of cyclin I -/- podocytes to apoptosis. Cyclin I protects podocytes from apoptosis, and we provide preliminary data to suggest that this is mediated by stabilization of p21(Cip1/Waf1). (+info)
Serum proteomic-based analysis of pancreatic carcinoma for the identification of potential cancer biomarkers. (2/7)To identify new biomarkers that improve the early diagnosis and lead to possible therapeutic targets in pancreatic carcinoma, we performed a proteomic approach to compare serum protein expression patterns of pancreatic carcinoma patients with that of gastric cancer patients, other pancreatic disease patients, and healthy volunteers. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analyses and mass spectroscopic identification, 10 protein spots were found significantly changed in pancreatic carcinoma and 5 proteins including cyclin I, Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta (GDI2), alpha-1 antitrypsin precursor, Haptoglobin precursor, and Serotransferrin precursor were successfully identified. The increased levels of cyclin I and GDI2 found to be associated with pancreatic carcinoma were further confirmed by Western blot analyses in an independent series of serum samples and/or pancreatic juice samples. Applying immunohistochemistry, we further validated expression of cyclin I and GDI2 in additional pancreatic carcinomas. These results indicate that cyclin I and GDI2 may be potential molecular targets for pancreatic cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. (+info)
Microarray analysis of the cellular pathways involved in the adaptation to and progression of motor neuron injury in the SOD1 G93A mouse model of familial ALS. (3/7)The cellular pathways of motor neuronal injury have been investigated in the SOD1 G93A murine model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using laser-capture microdissection and microarray analysis. The advantages of this study include the following: analysis of changes specifically in motor neurons (MNs), while still detecting effects of interactions with neighboring cells; the ability to profile changes during disease progression, an approach not possible in human ALS; and the use of transgenic mice bred on a homogeneous genetic background, eliminating the confounding effects arising from a mixed genetic background. By using this rigorous approach, novel changes in key cellular pathways have been detected at both the presymptomatic and late stages, which have been validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. At the presymptomatic stage (60 d), MNs extracted from SOD1 G93A mice show a significant increase in expression of genes subserving both transcriptional and translational functions, as well as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, mitochondrial preprotein translocation, and respiratory chain function, suggesting activation of a strong cellular adaptive response. Mice 90 d old still show upregulation of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, whereas transcription and mRNA processing genes begin to show downregulation. Late in the disease course (120 d), important findings include the following: marked transcriptional repression, with downregulation of multiple transcripts involved in transcriptional and metabolic functions; upregulation of complement system components; and increased expression of key cyclins involved in cell-cycle regulation. The changes described in the motor neuron transcriptome evolving during the disease course highlight potential novel targets for neuroprotective therapeutic intervention. (+info)
Cyclin I activates Cdk5 and regulates expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL in postmitotic mouse cells. (4/7)(+info)
Cyclin I-Cdk5 governs survival in post-mitotic cells. (5/7)Cdk5 has long been recognized to play an important role in development, maturation and apoptosis of postmitotic and terminally differentiated cells. Activation of Cdk5 is tightly regulated by specific activators. Cyclin I was recently characterized as the first cyclin protein that binds to and activates Cdk5. Cyclin I-Cdk5 activates the MEK-ERK pathway and results in increased Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) mRNA and protein levels. Lack of Cyclin I renders podocytes more susceptible to apoptosis. Interestingly, activation of Cdk5 by p35 is also involved in the podocytes' response to injury. In the absence of p35, podocytes are more prone to undergo apoptosis. Here, we propose a new model where Cdk5 plays a central role in the cellular response machinery against injury-induced apoptosis of post-mitotic cells. While Cyclin I-Cdk5 regulates Bcl-2 family proteins through activation of the MEK-ERK pathway, p35-Cdk5 directly phosphorylates and stabilizes Bcl-2. (+info)
Both cyclin I and p35 are required for maximal survival benefit of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in kidney podocytes. (6/7)(+info)
Cyclin I is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. (7/7)(+info)
EP 0863204 A4 20000119 - HUMAN CYCLIN I AND GENE ENCODING THE SAME
387453381 - EP 0863204 A4 20000119 - HUMAN CYCLIN I AND GENE ENCODING THE SAME - [origin: US6218115B1] This invention relates to a novel protein having a high degree of homology to the amino acid sequence of the so-called cyclin box which is characteristic of cyclins: they are herein referred to as human cyclin I or human cyclin I protein. Further, the invention relates to a gene encoding their amino acid sequences and the protein: the gene is referred to as gene encoding human cyclin I or human cyclin I gene. Also, the invention relates to expression vector into which the human cyclin I gene is incorporated as well as to a transformant into which the vector is introduced. Still further, the invention relates to a recombinant protein obtained by growing the transformant. In addition, the invention relates to a novel neuron-marking method using an anitisense nucleotide of the gene as probe. Furthermore, the invention relates to method for screening cancer cell using the human cyclin I gene.
The i-CDK9-induced increase in CDK9s binding to the MY | Open-i
The i-CDK9-induced increase in CDK9s binding to the MYC locus is mostly BRD4-dependent.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06535.017
Telomerase protect post-mitotic cells too
Lou Pagnucco wrote: , the Milan group (I cannot remember the authors) that published , in Nature some months ago, seemed to show that mice genetically , modified to exhibit lower rates of apoptosis lived about 35% longer. Miglaccio et al, Nature 402(6759):309-313. True, but it is crucial to remember that the reduction of apoptosis was not indiscriminate: it was specifically a reduction in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis due to knockout of one isoform of a protein. However, I still agree strongly with you that more experiments are needed. , Could failed, transient, apoptotic episodes result in extensive , cell/tissue damage instead of cell death? ... Is it also possible , that these failed cellular suicide attempts are due to mitochodrial , oxidative bursts that manage to leave behind the biomarkers of cellular , ageing? i.e., Is it possible that normal mitochondrial respiration has , gotten a bum rap and unfairly indicted for the cellular damage seen , in senescent cells? (whereas these ...
2494 Cyclin I (CCNI) is a member of the recently described inhibitory class of cyclin proteins. The other members of this class, cyclins G1 and G2, have been implicated in the induction of cell cycle arrest. Cyclin I is widely expressed in terminally differentiated tissues, but its function remains to be determined. We previously identified cyclin I as antigenic in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. Here, we examined expression of the human cyclin I gene in normal tissues, in tumor cell lines, and in primary human ovarian tumors. By Northern blot analysis, cyclin I was expressed at moderate to high levels in all normal tissues examined, including normal ovary. In contrast, cyclin I mRNA was dramatically reduced in nine of twenty-five ovarian tumor samples examined. These studies were confirmed and extended using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. More than half of the tumors evaluated had very low levels of cyclin I mRNA compared to the expression levels in normal ovarian tissue and other normal ...
Assistant Professor Kong publishes innovation of patch in Advanced Materials - Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
They developed an angiogenic microfiber patch that releases angiogenic growth factors along aligned fibers and subsequently directs the spacing and orientation of mature and functional neovessels. The angiogenic microfiber patch was prepared by electrostatically binding electrosprayed angiogenic growth factor-encapsulating polymeric microparticles with electrospun polymeric microfibers. The microparticles released the angiogenic growth factors in a sustained manner, while the straightly aligned polymeric fibers guided cells to adhere along their orientation.. The patch will be highly useful in treating cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death and disability of people all over the world, Kong said.. Their work was reported in Advanced Materials in late July.. ...
Decreased KAT5 Expression Impairs DNA Repair and Induces Altered DNA Methylation in Kidney Podocytes<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreased KAT5 Expression Impairs DNA Repair and Induces Altered DNA Methylation in Kidney Podocytes. AU - Hishikawa, Akihito. AU - Hayashi, Kaori. AU - Abe, Takaya. AU - Kaneko, Mari. AU - Yokoi, Hideki. AU - Azegami, Tatsuhiko. AU - Nakamura, Mari. AU - Yoshimoto, Norifumi. AU - Kanda, Takeshi. AU - Sakamaki, Yusuke. AU - Itoh, Hiroshi. PY - 2019/1/29. Y1 - 2019/1/29. N2 - Hishikawa et al. reveal that KAT5-mediated DNA repair is essential for podocyte maintenance and is related to changes in DNA methylation status. Decreased podocyte KAT5 expression may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy, suggesting a therapeutic target.. AB - Hishikawa et al. reveal that KAT5-mediated DNA repair is essential for podocyte maintenance and is related to changes in DNA methylation status. Decreased podocyte KAT5 expression may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy, suggesting a therapeutic target.. KW - diabetic nephropathy. KW - DNA damage repair. KW - ...
apoptosis vs cell-cycle
message was truncated but as of note: senescent cells (Hayflick cells) are not necessarily apoptotic. Many post-mitotic cells undergo apoptosis. See all the work on insects by me et al, Truman, Schwartz, Locke, etc. The story of apoptosis as an aborted mitosis derives from lymphocytes and is not necessarily valid, though the signalling mechansisms are interesting. See upcoming meetings at Lake Placid 9/29; Keystone Feb 95, Gordon Conf July 95. Richard A. Lockshin/Dept. Biol. Sci. St. Johns University/8000 Utopia P Jamaica NY 11439 USA/Phone 718: 990-1854/ Fax 718: 380-8543 In article ,35se7t$nru at expert.cc.purdue.edu, ckwen at expert.cc.purdue.edu (Chi-kuang Wen) writes: ,Dear Netter: , Can anyone tell me that if the cells in a mature animal or plant tissue still keep cell-division and cell-death to keep homeostasi ,cell-division and let the cells become senescent? In addition to the inactivation of telemerase may contribute to senescence, is th ,inducing senescence? If most of the cells in ...
MDMX: from bench to bedside | Journal of Cell Science
Unfortunately, because of the early embryonic lethality associated with Mdm2-null and Mdmx-null mutations, it has been difficult to assess the physiological contributions of Mdm2 and Mdmx to the regulation of p53 levels and activity. However, conditional alleles have recently been developed that yield further insight into how and in what cell types Mdm2 and Mdmx regulate p53 (Grier et al., 2002; Steinman and Jones, 2002; Mendrysa et al., 2003; Grier et al., 2006).. To test whether Mdm2 and Mdmx are required to restrain p53 activity in a single cell type, Xiong et al. conditionally inactivated both Mdm2 and Mdmx in neuronal progenitors (Xiong et al., 2006). Meanwhile, Francoz et al. conditionally expressed p53 in neuronal progenitor cells or in post-mitotic cells of mice lacking Mdm2 and/or Mdmx (Francoz et al., 2006). Loss of Mdmx or Mdm2 leads to distinct phenotypes (see below) but, importantly, all phenotypes disappear in the absence of p53. Both Mdm2 and Mdmx are thus required to inhibit p53 ...
January 2021 - Nala
Adult Literacy is co-funded by the Irish Government and the European Social Fund (ESF) as part of the ESF Programme for Employability, Inclusion and Learning 2014-2020. ...
The mechanobiology of kidney podocytes in health and disease | Clinical Science | Portland Press
A fourth approach has used gels of tuneable stiffness to alter the mechanical environment of cells (Figure 5). Polyacrylamide gels coated with collagen I have been used to assess podocyte morphology on a range of soft and stiff substrates . The authors found that increased substrate stiffness resulted in more mouse podocyte spreading and an increased differentiation phenotype . Similarly, Abdallah and colleagues cultured human podocytes on hydrolysed polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel substrates and observed dense actin cytoskeleton formation and cell spreading with increased substrate stiffness . These results were similar to a recent study that investigated whether changes in substrate stiffness affect podocyte morphology and whether optimal substrate stiffness drives podocyte differentiation and biochemical specialization. A tuneable substrate composed of gelatin microbial transglutaminase (gelatin-mTG) was used at a stiffness range (0.6-13 kPa) spanning that of healthy and diseased ...
Podoplanin - Biology-Online Dictionary
Podoplanin is usually found in human tissues such as kidney podocytes, heart,lung, placenta, skeletal muscle, salivary glands, in myofibroblasts of the breast, mesothelial cell and osteoblasts. It is also upregulated on diverse human cancers like squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity,lungs, larynx, esophagus, cervix, skin and in some tumor related of central nervous system. A podoplanin physiological function is not fully determined yet it has been proposed as the marker of lung injury. As it is expressed in lymphatic cells shows a significant role as a specific marker forlymphatic endothelial cells and lymphangiogenesis wherein expression of endothelial cell upholds cell migration, adhesion and tube formation. Gene name: PDPN Protein name: Podoplanin Synonyms: • T1A • T1A2 • GP36 • OTS8 • AGGRUS • Nlrp4g NLR family See also: • Mucin • Transmembrane protein ...
Glomerular visceral epithelial cells, also known as podocytes, are vital to both regular kidney function as well as the...
Glomerular visceral epithelial cells, also known as podocytes, are vital to both regular kidney function as well as the development of kidney disease. localization to cell-cell junctions and driven which the SH3 domains of myo1e tail interacts with ZO-1, an element from the slit diaphragm complicated and restricted junctions. These results claim that myo1e represents an element from Docosapentaenoic acid 22n-3 the slit diaphragm complicated and may donate to regulating junctional integrity in kidney podocytes. and (from 2 representative fractionation tests) indicate that myo1e, podocin, and ZO-1 are enriched in the detergent-resistant (DR) slit diaphragm small percentage, whereas another podocyte marker, synaptopodin, exists in the cytoplasmic small percentage. The white series at indicates that 2 split elements of the blot have already been placed next to one another. indicate the locations stained for myo1e just), indicating that myo1e exists in podocyte cell systems not only is ...
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
Our data revealed that the mode of neurogenesis in onychophorans is more similar to that found in hexapods and crustaceans than that in chelicerates and myriapods as the onychophoran neuroectoderm shows neither post-mitotic cell clusters nor segmental invaginations. In Onychophora, instead, single precursors are recruited for neuronal fate and migrate internally as bottle-like cells, which is similar to the mode found in hexapods (figure 4). These immigrated cells are mitotically active, and in this respect resemble the neuronal stem cells (neuroblasts) of both crustaceans and hexapods (Harzsch 2001; Stollewerk & Simpson 2005; Ungerer & Scholtz 2008), even though they do not show asymmetric cell divisions. Our findings thus suggest that immigration of single cells, followed by their mitotic activity, is an ancestral feature of arthropod neurogenesis, while asymmetric cell divisions are a synapomorphy of crustaceans and hexapods (figure 8). The absence of the following three characters in ...
Mount Sinai researchers` discovery has potential to impact treatments of kidney disease | Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum
October 15, 2012 (Toronto, ON) - In a study published in the October issue of the prestigious journal Cell, researchers Drs. Susan Quaggin and Tony Pawson at Mount Sinai Hospitals Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, with their teams of post-doctoral researchers, have made an important discovery relating to the effects of a vital signalling protein in the kidney, potentially impacting drug therapies and treatment for the more than 30,000 Canadians who suffer from kidney failure.. The research team uncovered new information about a key binding protein of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) - a protein produced by cells that triggers growth and other changes. Drs. Quaggin and Pawson discovered that FLT1, a protein that acts as one of the targets of VEGF, plays a significant role in the health and development of microscopic kidney filters called glomeruli and is particularly important in kidney podocytes which are specialized cells in the filters, needed for proper urine production. When ...
Expression and Functional Analysis of Lgl1 and Lgl2 During Retinal Lamination in Zebrafish | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose: : The Lethal Giant Larvae (Lgl) proteins are demonstrated substrates of atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC). Previously, we have shown that aPKC lamda and zeta are essential for multiple aspects of retinal development. During zebrafish retinal development, loss of both aPKC isoforms results in retinal defects in mitotic cell behaviors (mitotic division orientation and M-phase localization), post-mitotic cell migration, photoreceptor morphogenesis, and overall retinal histology. The cell type positioning defects are non-cell autonomous, indicating that aPKC activity may function by regulating a secreted signal. Lgl proteins have been shown to regulate polarized exocytosis by interacting with exocytic machinery in both yeast and mammalian cells. To begin to test whether Lgl mediates aPKC functions during retinal development, we have isolated the zebrafish Lgl1 homologue and investigated the expression and loss-of-function consequences of Lgl1 and Lgl2 within the developing retina. Methods: : ...
WWC1 promotes podocyte survival via stabilizing slit diaphragm protein dendrin
The terminally differentiated podocyte functions as a critical barrier to prevent proteinuria, and proteinuria is the clinical signature for podocyte injury, with or without loss of renal functions. Emerging experimental and clinical studies have highlighted that loss of podocyte directly causes proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis, owing to podocyte apoptosis or detachment (24-27). The present study demonstrated, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that kidney and brain associated protein WWC1, is a critical molecular in podocyte injury. Reduced WWC1 expression was identified in injured podocytes, and loss of WWC1 directly induced podocyte apoptosis. In addition further evidence was obtained that WWC1 protected podocytes from apoptosis by preventing SD protein dendrin from relocating into nuclei.. The expression of WWC1 (KIBRA), the mammalian ortholog of Kibra, has been observed to be enriched in kidney and brain (18). In Drosophila, Kibra predominantly acts in the Merlin branch ...
Best Chicken Dishes in the U.S. | Food & Wine
In this Chicken Nation, here are the best restaurant dishes, including a classic wood-oven-roasted chicken, Vietnamese-inspired wings and spicy fried thighs. Here are the best chicken dishes in America, from roasted chicken to spicy fried thighs.