Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
A transcriptional elongation factor complex that is comprised of a heterodimer of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9 and one of several CYCLINS including TYPE T CYCLINS and cyclin K. It functions by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA POLYMERASE II.
A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.

Cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are biochemically distinct CTD kinases. (1/60)

Phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II is important for basal transcriptional processes in vivo and for cell viability. Several kinases, including certain cyclin-dependent kinases, can phosphorylate this substrate in vitro. It has been proposed that differential CTD phosphorylation by different kinases may regulate distinct transcriptional processes. We have found that two of these kinases, cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36, can specifically phosphorylate distinct residues in recombinant CTD substrates. This difference in specificity may be largely due to their varying ability to phosphorylate lysine-substituted heptapeptide repeats within the CTD, since they phosphorylate the same residue in CTD consensus heptapeptide repeats. Furthermore, this substrate specificity is reflected in vivo where cyclin C/ CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 can differentially phosphorylate an endogenous RNA polymerase II substrate. Several small-molecule kinase inhibitors have different specificities for these related kinases, indicating that these enzymes have diverse active-site conformations. These results suggest that cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are physically distinct enzymes that may have unique roles in transcriptional regulation mediated by their phosphorylation of specific sites on RNA polymerase II.  (+info)

Transforming growth factor beta targeted inactivation of cyclin E:cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) complexes by inhibition of Cdk2 activating kinase activity. (2/60)

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-mediated G(1) arrest previously has been shown to specifically target inactivation of cyclin D:cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 4/6 complexes. We report here that TGF-beta-treated human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells arrest in G(1), but retain continued cyclin D:Cdk4/6 activity and active, hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. Consistent with this observation, TGF-beta-treated cells failed to induce p15(INK4b), down-regulate CDC25A, or increase levels of p21(CIP1), p27(KIP1), and p57(KIP2). However, TGF-beta treatment resulted in the specific inactivation of cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes caused by absence of the activating Thr(160) phosphorylation on Cdk2. Whole-cell lysates from TGF-beta-treated cells showed inhibition of Cdk2 Thr(160) Cdk activating kinase (CAK) activity; however, cyclin H:Cdk7 activity, a previously assumed mammalian CAK, was not altered. Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a genetically and biochemically proven CAK gene, CAK1, that encodes a monomeric 44-kDa Cak1p protein unrelated to Cdk7. Anti-Cak1p antibodies cross-reacted with a 45-kDa human protein with CAK activity that was specifically down-regulated in response to TGF-beta treatment. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that TGF-beta signaling mediates a G(1) arrest in HepG2 cells by targeting Cdk2 CAK and suggests the presence of at least two mammalian CAKs: one specific for Cdk2 and one for Cdk4/6.  (+info)

Activation of a Plasmodium falciparum cdc2-related kinase by heterologous p25 and cyclin H. Functional characterization of a P. falciparum cyclin homologue. (3/60)

Several Plasmodium falciparum genes encoding cdc2-related protein kinases have been identified, but the modalities of their regulation remains largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the regulation in vitro of PfPK5, a putative homologue of Cdk1 (cdc2) in P. falciparum. We show that (i) PfPK5 is efficiently activated by heterologous (human) cyclin H and p25, a cyclin-like molecule that specifically activates human Cdk5; (ii) the activated enzyme can be inhibited by chemical Cdk inhibitors; (iii) Pfmrk, a putative P. falciparum homologue of the Cdk-activating kinase, does neither activate nor phosphorylate PfPK5; and (iv) PfPK5 is able to autophosphorylate in the presence of a cyclin. Taken together, these results suggest that the regulation of Plasmodium Cdks may differ in important aspects from that of their human counterparts. Furthermore, we cloned an open reading frame encoding a novel P. falciparum protein possessing maximal homology to cyclin H from various organisms, and we show that this protein, called Pfcyc-1, is able to activate recombinant PfPK5 in vitro with an efficiency similar to that of human cyclin H and p25. This work opens the way to the development of screening procedures aimed at identifying compounds that specifically target the parasite Cdks.  (+info)

From androgen receptor to the general transcription factor TFIIH. Identification of cdk activating kinase (CAK) as an androgen receptor NH(2)-terminal associated coactivator. (4/60)

The androgen receptor (AR), like other steroid receptors, modulates the activity of the general transcription machinery on the core promoter to exert its function as a regulator. Co-immunoprecipitation of prostate cancer LNCaP cell extract using protein A-Sepharose coupled with anti-AR antibody indicates that the AR interacts with the general transcription factor TFIIH in a physiological condition. Co-transfection of cdk activating kinase (CAK), the kinase moiety of TFIIH, enhanced AR-mediated transcription in a ligand-dependent manner in human prostate cancer PC-3 and LNCaP cells, and in a ligand-independent manner in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. Detailed interaction studies further revealed that the AR NH(2)-terminal domain interacting with CAK was essential for the CAK-induced AR transactivation. Together, our data suggest that the AR may interact with TFIIH for efficient communication with the general transcription factors/RNA polymerase II on the core promoter.  (+info)

Distinct regions of MAT1 regulate cdk7 kinase and TFIIH transcription activities. (5/60)

The transcription/DNA repair factor TFIIH may be resolved into at least two subcomplexes: the core TFIIH and the cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex. The CAK complex, which is also found free in the cell, is composed of cdk7, cyclin H, and MAT1. In the present work, we found that the C terminus of MAT1 binds to the cdk7 x cyclin H complex and activates the cdk7 kinase activity. The median portion of MAT1, which contains a coiled-coil motif, allows the binding of CAK to the TFIIH core through interactions with both XPD and XPB helicases. Furthermore, using recombinant TFIIH complexes, it is demonstrated that the N-terminal RING finger domain of MAT1 is crucial for transcription activation and participates to the phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II.  (+info)

CDK9 autophosphorylation regulates high-affinity binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat-P-TEFb complex to TAR RNA. (6/60)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat interacts with cyclin T1 (CycT1), a regulatory partner of CDK9 in the positive transcription elongation factor (P-TEFb) complex, and binds cooperatively with CycT1 to TAR RNA to recruit P-TEFb and promote transcription elongation. We show here that Tat also stimulates phosphorylation of affinity-purified core RNA polymerase II and glutathione S-transferase-C-terminal-domain substrates by CycT1-CDK9, but not CycH-CDK7, in vitro. Interestingly, incubation of recombinant Tat-P-TEFb complexes with ATP enhanced binding to TAR RNA dramatically, and the C-terminal half of CycT1 masked binding of Tat to TAR RNA in the absence of ATP. ATP incubation lead to autophosphorylation of CDK9 at multiple C-terminal Ser and Thr residues, and full-length CycT1 (amino acids 728) [CycT1(1-728)], but not truncated CycT1(1-303), was also phosphorylated by CDK9. P-TEFb complexes containing a catalytically inactive CDK9 mutant (D167N) bound TAR RNA weakly and independently of ATP, as did a C-terminal truncated CDK9 mutant that was catalytically active but unable to undergo autophosphorylation. Analysis of different Tat proteins revealed that the 101-amino-acid SF2 HIV-1 Tat was unable to bind TAR with CycT1(1-303) in the absence of phosphorylated CDK9, whereas unphosphorylated CDK9 strongly blocked binding of HIV-2 Tat to TAR RNA in a manner that was reversed upon autophosphorylation. Replacement of CDK9 phosphorylation sites with negatively charged residues restored binding of CycT1(1-303)-D167N-Tat, and rendered D167N a more potent inhibitor of transcription in vitro. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CDK9 phosphorylation is required for high-affinity binding of Tat-P-TEFb to TAR RNA and that the state of P-TEFb phosphorylation may regulate Tat transactivation in vivo.  (+info)

Interactions of Cdk7 and Kin28 with Hint/PKCI-1 and Hnt1 histidine triad proteins. (7/60)

Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (Cdk7) forms a trimeric complex with cyclin H and Mat1 to form the mammalian Cdk-activating kinase, CAK, as well as a part of the basal transcription factor TFIIH, where Cdk7 phosphorylates the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. Here, we report a novel interaction between Cdk7 and a histidine triad (HIT) family protein, Hint/PKCI-1. This interaction was initially observed in a yeast two-hybrid study and subsequently verified by co-immunoprecipitation and subcellular localization studies, where overexpression of Cdk7 leads to partial relocalization of Hint to the nucleus. The physical association is independent of cyclin H binding or Cdk7 kinase activity and is conserved between the related Sacharomyces cerevisiae CTD kinase Kin28 and the HIT protein Hnt1. Furthermore, combination of a disruption of HNT1 and a KIN28 temperature-sensitive allele in S. cerevisiae led to highly elongated cell morphology and reduced colony formation, indicating a genetic interaction between KIN28 and HNT1. The physical and genetic interactions of Hint and Hnt1 with Cdk7 and Kin28 suggest a role for this class of histidine triad proteins in the regulation of Cdk7 and Kin28 functions.  (+info)

Regulation of CDK7-carboxyl-terminal domain kinase activity by the tumor suppressor p16(INK4A) contributes to cell cycle regulation. (8/60)

The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDK4 and CDK6, which are activated by D-type cyclins during the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, are thought to be responsible for phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb). The tumor suppressor p16(INK4A) inhibits phosphorylation of pRb by CDK4 and CDK6 and can thereby block cell cycle progression at the G(1)/S boundary. Phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II by general transcription factor TFIIH is believed to be an important regulatory event in transcription. TFIIH contains a CDK7 kinase subunit and phosphorylates the CTD. We have previously shown that p16(INK4A) inhibits phosphorylation of the CTD by TFIIH. Here we report that the ability of p16(INK4A) to inhibit CDK7-CTD kinase contributes to the capacity to induce cell cycle arrest. These results suggest that p16(INK4A) may regulate cell cycle progression by inhibiting not only CDK4-pRb kinase activity but also by modulating CDK7-CTD kinase activity. Regulation of CDK7-CTD kinase activity by p16(INK4A) thus may represent an alternative pathway for controlling cell cycle progression.  (+info)

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The mechanism of activation of p38MAPK/MSK1 is out of scope of this study, but involves very likely a non‐genomic activation event (Masia et al, 2007), similar to that described for steroid receptors (Castoria et al, 2001; Vicent et al, 2006) and requiring RARα. One of the targets of MSK1 is RARα, which becomes rapidly phosphorylated at S369 located in the LBD, and we found that phosphorylation of this residue is critical for the binding of TFIIH and the subsequent phosphorylation of the NTD at S77 by cdk7. Given that S369 is located in close proximity of the cyclin H‐binding domain (Bour et al, 2005a), we propose that, in vivo, phosphorylation of this residue by MSK1 propagates a signal to the cyclin H‐binding surface, allowing the recruitment of CAK within TFIIH, in line with our previous in vitro results (Gaillard et al, 2006). Ultimately, the consequence of the last step of this cascade, that is, S77 phosphorylation, is to anchor RARα-TFIIH complexes to target promoters. To gain ...
KIN28 encodes a C-terminal domain kinase that controls mRNA transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae but lacks cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase (CAK) activity. is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at Harvard University.
Cyclin H antibody (cyclin H) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Cyclin H pAb (GTX53904) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Human CDK7 (NM_001799, 1 a.a. - 346a.a.) and CCNH (NM_001239, 1 a.a. - 323 a.a.) and MNAT1 (NM_002431, 1 a.a. - 309 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-His tag expressed in Sf9 cells. (P4662) - Products - Abnova
Gene Information The protein encoded by this gene along with cyclin H and CDK7 forms the CDK-activating kinase (CAK) enzymatic complex. This complex activates several cyclin-associated kinases and can also associate with TFIIH to activate transcription by RNA polymerase II. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq Sep 2011]. ...
Summary: Interaction studies demonstrate that Mms19 forms complexes with Xpd, thereby preventing Xpd-mediated repression of the mitotic kinase activity of the CAK complex and facilitating progression through mitosis. ...
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Activation of the cyclin-dependent kinases to promote cell cycle progression requires their association with cyclins as well as phosphorylation of a threonine (residue 161 in human p34cdc2). This phosphorylation is carried out by CAK, the Cdk-activating kinase. We have purified and cloned CAK from S …
Earlier studies from our laboratory indicated that lowering the expression of PDK1 has a pronounced effect on tumorigenesis of PTEN+/− mice (Bayascas et al., 2005). Reduction in levels of PDK1 expression is likely to impact on the activity of multiple downstream targets of PDK1. However, the only major signalling defect we observed in the PDK1K465E/K465EPTEN+/− mice was a moderate reduction of Akt T308 phosphorylation, which reduces Akt isoform activity. All other AGC kinases we have studied, including S6K1 and SGK activity (as judged by phosphorylation of NDRG1), are not affected in the tumours that develop in the PDK1K465E/K465EPTEN+/− mice. This indicates that a moderate reduction in Akt isoform activity is sufficient to delay tumour onset and development. The mechanism by which reduction in Akt activity delays tumour onset and development requires further investigation because phosphorylation of the Akt substrates we have investigated is not markedly inhibited in tumours derived from ...
Free CAK and rCAK complexes show a stronger preference for the cdk2 substrate versus the ctd oligopeptide. CAK is thus most likely involved in regulation of the cell cycle through cdk phosphorylation (Morgan, 1995). Although free CAK is able to use the ctd oligopeptide as a substrate, it cannot phosphorylate the CTD of RNA pol II alone or when added to an in vitro transcription system lacking TFIIH. On the contrary, TFIIH which contains CAK, is able to phosphorylate the CTD of RNA pol II, in addition to TBP and TFIIEα, two polypeptides absolutely required for basal transcription of protein‐coding genes.. Free CAK and rCAK are not able to substitute for TFIIH in transcription. TFIIH lacking CAK complex allows RNA synthesis when added to an in vitro transcription system that contains all the components of the basal transcription machinery. However, when a CAK subcomplex (free CAK or rCAK) is added, the level of RNA synthesis is significantly increased. TFIIH may thus incorporate CAK to become ...
immune Uncategorized EPZ005687, Rabbit Polyclonal to Cyclin H (phospho-Thr315). Era of orthotopic xenograft mouse types of leukemia is vital that you understand the mechanisms of leukemogenesis cancer progression its cross talk with the bone marrow microenvironment and for preclinical evaluation of drugs. combined immune deficiency (preclinical drug efficacy studies. for long periods but leukemia xenografts have proven extremely useful not only for passaging primary samples but also for the modeling of the human disease in mice (3). In these models human cell lines or leukemia cells isolated from patients are intravenously injected into immunodeficient mice to generate systemic disease. Leukemia cells engraft and proliferate in the bone marrow followed by infiltration into the spleen liver and other organs including CNS (4). The progression of the disease in mice can be tracked in real time by sampling murine peripheral blood (5 6 These models accurately recapitulate the disease characteristics ...
Cell proliferation is an important determinant of plant growth and development. In addition, modulation of cell-division rate is an important mechanism of plant plasticity and is key in adapting of plants to environmental conditions. One of the greatest challenges in understanding the cell cycle of flowering plants is the large families of CDKs and cyclins that have the potential to form many different complexes. However, it is largely unclear which complexes are active. In addition, there are many CDK- and cyclin-related proteins whose biological role is still unclear, i.e. whether they have indeed enzymatic activity. Thus, a biochemical characterization of these proteins is of key importance for the understanding of their function. Here we present a straightforward system to systematically express and purify active CDK-cyclin complexes from E. coli extracts. Our method relies on the concomitant production of a CDK activating kinase, which catalyzes the T-loop phosphorylation necessary for kinase
Cell proliferation is an important determinant of plant growth and development. In addition, modulation of cell-division rate is an important mechanism of plant plasticity and is key in adapting of plants to environmental conditions. One of the greatest challenges in understanding the cell cycle of flowering plants is the large families of CDKs and cyclins that have the potential to form many different complexes. However, it is largely unclear which complexes are active. In addition, there are many CDK- and cyclin-related proteins whose biological role is still unclear, i.e. whether they have indeed enzymatic activity. Thus, a biochemical characterization of these proteins is of key importance for the understanding of their function. Here we present a straightforward system to systematically express and purify active CDK-cyclin complexes from E. coli extracts. Our method relies on the concomitant production of a CDK activating kinase, which catalyzes the T-loop phosphorylation necessary for kinase
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reciprocal activation by cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 7 is directed by substrate specificity determinants outside the T loop. AU - Garrett, S.. AU - Barton, W. A.. AU - Knights, R.. AU - Jin, P.. AU - Morgan, D. O.. AU - Fisher, R. P.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) is the catalytic subunit of the metazoan CDK-activating kinase (CAK), which activates CDKs, such as CDC2 and CDK2, through phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue in the T loop. Full activation of CDK7 requires association with a positive regulatory subunit, cyclin H, and phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue at position 170 in its own T loop. We show that threonine-170 of CDK7 is phosphorylated in vitro by its targets, CDC2 and CDK2, which also phosphorylate serine-164 in the CDK7 T loop, a site that perfectly matches their consensus phosphorylation site. In contrast, neither CDK4 nor CDK7 itself can phosphorylate the CDK7 T loop in vitro. The ability of CDC2 ...
Fukuda A، Tokonabe S، Hamada M، Matsumoto M، Tsukui T، Nogi Y، Hisatake K (April 2003). Alleviation of PC4-mediated transcriptional repression by the ERCC3 helicase activity of general transcription factor TFIIH. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (17): 14827-31. PMID 12590132. doi:10.1074/jbc.M213172200. ...
Wiki-Pi: a web resource for human protein-protein interactions. It shows genes and PPIs with information about pathways, protein-protein interactions (PPIs), Gene Ontology (GO) annotations including cellular localization, molecular function and biological process, drugs, diseases, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), GO enrichments, PDB ID, Uniprot ID, HPRD ID, and word cloud from pubmed abstracts.
View Notes - PS_7_older_key from BIO 115 at UCSC. Bio 115, Winter 2005 Problem set #7, 1. What is a T-loop? What function is it thought to perform? March 4, 2005 The loop structure formed by
C_horizon,C horizon]]:-> [[parent_rock,parent rock]]:母岩 ;[[C-value_paradox,C-value paradox]]: ;[[C3_pathway,C3 pathway (C,sub>3,/sub> pathway)]]:C3経路 ;[[C3_plant,C3 plant(s) [C,sub>3,/sub> plant(s)]]]:C3植物 ;[[C4_pathway,C4 pathway (C,sub>4,/sub> pathway)]]:C4経路 ;[[C4_photosynthesis,C4 photosynthesis (C,sub>4,/sub> photosynthesis)]] ;[[C4_plant,C4 plant(s) [C,sub>4,/sub> plant(s)]]]:C4植物 === Ca === ;[[Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent_protein_kinase , Ca,sup>2+,/sup>/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase]]:->[[CaM-kinase]] ;cactus:サボテン,サボテン類 ==== Cad ==== ;[[cadherin]]:カドヘリン ;[[caducous]]: ==== Cae ==== ;[[Caenorhabditis_elegans , Caenorhabditis elegans]]: ==== Cag ==== ;[[caged_molecule,caged molecule]]: ==== Cak ==== ;[[CAK]]:->[[Cdk-activating_kinase , Cdk-activating kinase]] ==== Cal ==== ;[[calcitonin]]: ;[[calcium_pump,calcium pump]]:->[[Ca2+_pump , Ca,sup>2+,/sup> pump]] ;[[calcrete,calcrete (caliche)]]: ;caliche:-> [[calcrete,calcrete]] ...
Structural characterization of form I of anhydrous rifampicin CrystEngComm, 2014, 16,8555-8562DOI: 10.1039/C4CE01157K, PaperAmanda Laura Ibiapino, Rafael Cardoso Seiceira, Altivo Pitaluga, Antonio Carlos Trindade, Fabio Furlan Ferreira Amanda Laura Ibiapino,a Rafael Cardoso Seiceira,b Altivo Pitaluga, Jr.,c Antonio Carlos Trindaded and Fabio Furlan Ferreira*a *Corresponding authorsaCenter of Natural and Human Sciences (CCNH), Federal University of ABC (UFABC), Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André,…
Namecheap domains Reviews & Product Details The actual contribution of Cdk8 to CTD phosphorylation in vivo is, however, unclear as a number of recent studies
Posted on September 8, 2015 The expression, or transcription, of genes controls the identity and function of a cell. DNA damage caused by UV light or other carcinogens must be repaired to maintain genome integrity. The general transcription factor TFIIH plays central roles in both processes and is also important to couple gene transcription with DNA repair. Researchers at the Institute for Systems Biology, in collaboration with the University of California, San Francisco, the University of Colorado Boulder, and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, have mapped the architecture of the multi-subunit TFIIH complex. This research, published online in Molecular Cell on Sept. 4, 2015, represents a breakthrough in understanding the structural basis for transcription and DNA repair, and provides critical insights into how disruption of the TFIIH complex can lead to cancer and other diseases.. ...
Acts as a tumor suppressor in many tumor types; induces growth arrest or apoptosis depending on the physiological circumstances and cell type. Involved in cell cycle regulation as a trans-activator that acts to negatively regulate cell division by controlling a set of genes required for this process. One of the activated genes is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Apoptosis induction seems to be mediated either by stimulation of BAX and FAS antigen expression, or by repression of Bcl-2 expression. In cooperation with mitochondrial PPIF is involved in activating oxidative stress-induced necrosis; the function is largely independent of transcription. Prevents CDK7 kinase activity when associated to CAK complex in response to DNA damage, thus stopping cell cycle progression. Induces the transcription of long intergenic non-coding RNA p21 (lincRNA-p21) and lincRNA-Mkln1. LincRNA-p21 participates in TP53-dependent transcriptional repression leading to apoptosis and seem to have to effect on cell-cycle
Genetic factors that contribute to increased incidence of CLL:. - Early studies have associated the risk of developing aggressive CLL with polymorphisms in the gene encoding CD5 (located at 11q13), CD38 (located at 4p15), or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and other genes mapping to 13q21.33-q22.2.. - Disease-susceptibility associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms in or around genes encoding proteins involved in apoptosis or immune regulatory pathways, namely CCNH (located at 5q13.3), APAF1 (located at 12q23), IL16 (located at 15q26.3), CASP8 (located at 2q33.1), NOS2A (located at 17q11.1), and CCR7 (located at 17q21.2). ...
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cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ... CDK4, CMM3, PSK-J3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin dependent kinase 4. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5[edit]. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a kinase that has been previously hypothesized to ...
Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are a group of several different kinases involved in regulation of the cell cycle. They ... Lim, S.; Kaldis, P. (16 July 2013). "Cdks, cyclins and CKIs: roles beyond cell cycle regulation". Development. 140 (15): 3079- ... Different combinations of specific CDKs and cyclins mark different parts of the cell cycle. Additionally, the phosphorylation ... Harper, J. W.; Adams, P. D. (August 2001). "Cyclin-Dependent Kinases". Chemical Reviews. 101 (8): 2511-2526. doi:10.1021/ ...
Members of this protein family contain a cyclin box motif and have structural similarity to the cyclins. The encoded protein ... Cyclin M2 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CNNM2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ancient conserved domain ... provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]. "Entrez Gene: Cyclin M2". Retrieved 2013-02-23. ...
Cyclins are proteins that play a key role in regulating the cell-division cycle. Hunt found that cyclins begin to be ... He and others subsequently showed that cyclins bind and activate a family of protein kinases, now called the cyclin-dependent ... the protein cyclin which is a component of cyclin dependent kinases, demonstrating his ability to grasp the significance of the ... He showed that cyclins are degraded periodically at each cell division, a mechanism proved to be of general importance for cell ...
The mitotic cyclins can be grouped as cyclins A & B. These cyclins have a nine residue sequence in the N-terminal region called ... Cyclin, a regulatory subunit. The cyclins are necessary for the kinase subunit to function with the appropriate substrate. ... As the concentration of Cyclin B/CDK1 increases, the heterodimer promotes APC to polyubiquitinate Cyclin B/CDK1. Smith, L. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), the cyclin-dependent kinase subunit. It uses ATP to phosphorylate specific serine and ...
Cyclin-L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNL2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to cyclin family. ... 2004). "Cyclin L2, a novel RNA polymerase II-associated cyclin, is involved in pre-mRNA splicing and induces apoptosis of human ... 2004). "Characterization of cyclin L2, a novel cyclin with an arginine/serine-rich domain: phosphorylation by DYRK1A and ... CCNL2 cyclin L2". Human CCNL2 genome location and CCNL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Maruyama K, Sugano S ( ...
p16 inhibits cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6) and thereby activates the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of proteins ... "CDKN2A cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-10-11. ... CDKN2A, also known as cyclin-dependent kinase Inhibitor 2A, is a gene which in humans is located at chromosome 9, band p21.3. ... "CDKN2A - Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDKN2A gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2016- ...
2004). "Characterization of cyclin L2, a novel cyclin with an arginine/serine-rich domain: phosphorylation by DYRK1A and ... "Entrez Gene: CCNL1 cyclin L1". Human CCNL1 genome location and CCNL1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Zhang QH, Ye ... Cyclin-L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNL1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163660 - Ensembl, May ... 2006). "Cyclin L1 (CCNL1) gene alterations in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma". Br. J. Cancer. 94 (7): 1041-4. doi: ...
He holds a US and international patent on Activators of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (ACDK) and has mentored many doctoral scholars ... 19-. ISBN 978-94-007-0265-3. She, Jin-Xiong; Wang, Cong-Yi; Kumar, G. Pradeep (2017-12-20). "Activators of cyclin-dependent ...
Also involved in the phosphorylation and regulation of the RPB1 CTD is cyclin T1 (CCNT1). Cyclin T1 tightly associates and ... CDK8 and cyclin C (CCNC) are components of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme that phosphorylate the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD ... 2002). "A kinase-cyclin pair in the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme". Nature. 374 (6518): 193-6. doi:10.1038/374193a0. PMID ... TFIIH is a large protein complex that contains among others the CDK7/cyclin H kinase complex and a DNA helicase. TFIIH has ...
... cyclin box.' In mammalian cells, 9 cyclin species have been identified, and they are referred to as cyclins A through I. Cyclin ... Cyclin G-associated kinase received its name because it immunoprecipitated with cyclin G though it now appears to not be ... Cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK) is a serine/threonine kinase that in humans is encoded by the GAK gene. In all eukaryotes, the ... Cyclin G-associated kinase is a two domain cystolic protein. The domain of interest is the C-terminal domain which consists of ...
"Entrez Gene: RUNX1T1 runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1 (cyclin D-related)". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T ...
Jain SK, Bharate SB, Vishwakarma RA (2012). "Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition by flavoalkaloids". Mini Rev Med Chem. 12 (7): ... Bose P, Simmons GL, Grant S (2013). "Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor therapy for hematologic malignancies". Expert Opin ...
... has been shown to interact with: CDC45-related protein and CDC6, Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase, Cyclin- ... Laman H, Peters G, Jones N (Dec 2001). "Cyclin-mediated export of human Orc1". Experimental Cell Research. 271 (2): 230-7. doi: ... "Human CDC6/Cdc18 associates with Orc1 and cyclin-cdk and is selectively eliminated from the nucleus at the onset of S phase". ... "Human CDC6/Cdc18 associates with Orc1 and cyclin-cdk and is selectively eliminated from the nucleus at the onset of S phase". ...
Cyclin D-bound cdks 4 and 6 are activated by cdk-activating kinase and drive the cell towards the restriction point. Cyclin D, ...
doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90028-W. Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathan (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors ... "Human cyclin A is adenovirus E1A-associated protein p60 and behaves differently from cyclin B". Nature. 346 (6286): 760-763. ... Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1991). "Cyclins and cancer". Cell. 66 (6): 1071-1074. ...
This discovery was essential to the subsequent cloning of Xenopus cyclins and kept the Hunt lab at the forefront of cyclin ... Subsequently he cloned and characterised the first human cyclins with Tony Hunter. This was crucial to recognising that cyclins ... doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90028-W. Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors ... and identified the first link between cyclins and oncoproteins by showing that cyclin A bound to adenovirus E1A, thus linking ...
cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ... p21Cip1 (alternatively p21Waf1), also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin- ... CDKN1A, CAP20, CDKN1, CIP1, MDA-6, P21, SDI1, WAF1, p21CIP1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)".. *^ Gartel AL, Radhakrishnan SK (May 2005). "Lost in ...
Cyclin D is the first cyclin produced in the cell cycle, in response to extracellular signals (e.g. growth factors). Cyclin D ... cyclins have no catalytic activity and CDKs are inactive in the absence of a partner cyclin. When activated by a bound cyclin, ... cyclin A, DNA polymerase, thymidine kinase, etc. Cyclin E thus produced binds to CDK2, forming the cyclin E-CDK2 complex, which ... Two key classes of regulatory molecules, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), determine a cell's progress through the ...
It has also been shown that Cdk2 complexes with both cyclin A and cyclin E and this complex is critical for centrosome ... by cyclin-dependent kinase 2-cyclin E and its role in centrosome duplication". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (24): ... This link between the cell cycle and the centrosome cycle is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2). There has been ample ... Hinchcliffe, EH; Li, C; Thompson, EA; Maller, JL; Sluder, G (Feb 5, 1999). "Requirement of Cdk2-cyclin E activity for repeated ...
"Cyclin C is a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor". Nature Cell Biology. 16 (11): 1080-91. doi:10.1038/ncb3046. PMC 4235773 . ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase 12 is a protein kinase that in humans is encoded by the CDK12 gene. This enzyme is a member of ... "Entrez Gene: CDK12 cyclin-dependent kinase 12". Human CDK12 genome location and CDK12 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... cyclin-dependent kinase protein family. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167258 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release ...
The degradation of cyclins is the key step that governs the exit from mitosis and progress into the next cell cycle. Cyclins ... The cyclins are removed via a ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic pathway. Caspases are an important group of proteases involved in ... Cyclins are a group of proteins that activate kinases involved in cell division. ... Glotzer M, Murray AW, Kirschner MW (1991). "Cyclin is degraded by the ubiquitin pathway". Nature. 349 (6305): 132-8. doi: ...
First, cyclin must bind to the Cdk. In the second step, CAK must phosphorylate the cyclin-Cdk complex on the threonine residue ... In budding yeast, activating phosphorylation by CAK can take place before cyclin binding. In both humans and yeast, cyclin ... Since Cdks need to be free of Cdk inhibitor proteins (CKIs) and associated with cyclins in order to be activated, CAK activity ... Lolli G, Johnson LN (April 2005). "CAK-Cyclin-dependent Activating Kinase: a key kinase in cell cycle control and a target for ...
In the late G2 phase, it is present as an inactive complex of tyrosine-phosphorylated p34cdc2 and unphosphorylated cyclin ... Meijer L, Azzi L, Wang JY (1991). "Cyclin B targets p34cdc2 for tyrosine phosphorylation". EMBO J. 10 (6): 1545-54. PMC 452818 ...
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Xu W, Ji JY (2011). "Dysregulation of CDK8 and Cyclin C in tumorigenesis". J ... Another example of structural variability is seen in vertebrates, in which 3 paralogues of subunits of the cyclin-dependent ...
Metaphase ends with the destruction of B cyclin. B cyclin is marked with ubiquitin which flags it for destruction by ... proteasomes, which is required for the function of metaphase cyclin-dependent kinases (M-Cdks). Interphase Prophase ...
Zhou BB, Li H, Yuan J, Kirschner MW (Jun 1998). "Caspase-dependent activation of cyclin-dependent kinases during Fas-induced ... APC catalyzes the formation of cyclin B-ubiquitin conjugate that is responsible for the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of B- ... D'Angiolella V, Mari C, Nocera D, Rametti L, Grieco D (Oct 2003). "The spindle checkpoint requires cyclin-dependent kinase ... type cyclins. This protein and 3 other members of the APC complex contain the TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat), a protein domain ...
... by maintaining high levels of proteins that control cell cycle progression such as the cyclins and their associated cyclin- ... dependent kinases (cdk). The complex Cyclin B/CDK1 a.k.a. MPF (maturation promoting factor) promotes entry into mitosis. The ...
Compare Cyclin H ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com. ... Order Cyclin H ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. ... Protein level used designations for Cyclin H (CCNH) ELISA Kits cyclin-H , cyclin h , Cyclin H , cyclin H , CG7405-PA , CycH-PA ... Browse our Cyclin H (CCNH) ELISA Kits. Full name:. Cyclin H ELISA Kits (CCNH). On www.antibodies-online.com are 17 Cyclin H ( ...
... cyclin H) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Cyclin H pAb (GTX53904) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... cyclin H. Background. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... This cyclin forms a complex with CDK7 kinase and ring finger protein MAT1. The kinase complex is able to phosphorylate CDK2 and ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... cyclin G1 interacting protein,cyclin H assembly factor,menage a trois 1 (CAK assembly factor) ... This cyclin forms a complex with CDK7 kinase and ring finger protein MAT1. The kinase complex is able to phosphorylate CDK2 and ... Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which play an essential role in cell cycle control of eukaryotic cells, are phosphorylated and ...
cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ... cyclin D (Cdk4) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ...
Source for information on cyclin: A Dictionary of Biology dictionary. ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. Cyclin A is also produced, which ... Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... Cyclin Dependent Kinases in the Cell Cycle. Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene ...
... like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. Thanks. Mike * ... Cyclin E-Fix. micro-mike micro-mike at cox.net Sun Mar 3 16:33:22 EST 2002 *Previous message: THE SECRET the IRS is TERRIFIED ... But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the ...
CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... Cyclin I: a new cyclin encoded by a gene isolated from human brain. Nakamura T, et al. Exp Cell Res, 1995 Dec. PMID 7493655 ...
Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does ... cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha ... Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box ... The structural results indicate a role for the cyclin-box fold both as a template for the cyclin family and as a generalised ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
... Charles Yang cyang at jhunix.hcf.jhu.edu Fri Oct 6 15:33:24 EST 1995 *Previous message: luciferase ... My problem: I cant find the nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the Cyclin H gene (the human counterpart to CCL1) and its ...
Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ...
Protein levels of cyclin B1 and cdc2 for each selected population are shown in Fig. 4B. Levels of cyclin B1 protein in cyclin ... Cyclin A regulates the initiation and maintenance of DNA synthesis whereas B cyclins control mitosis (32, 33). Cyclin B mRNA ... Cyclin B1/cdc2 kinase activity is shown in Fig. 4C. Cyclin B1 rescues the p53-dependent drop in cdc2 kinase activity in Ts- ... Cyclin B1 Expression Rescues p53-Mediated G2 Arrest.. To determine whether the decrease in cyclin B1 mRNA was the primary ...
Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis. W Meikrantz, S Gisselbrecht, S W Tam, and R Schlegel ... These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent ... Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. Stable ... to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. ...
... the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its ... the cyclin), led to a simple model for cell cycle control. Modulation of cyclin accumulation, and thereby Cdk activation, was ... CDK CKI Zellzyklus biochemistry biology cancer cell cell cycle cellular differentiation cellular growth cyclin-dependent kinase ... More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell ...
E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins ... However, endoreplication of trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes is severely impaired in the absence of cyclin E. Cyclin ... Cyclin E ablation in the mouse.. Geng Y., Yu Q., Sicinska E., Das M., Schneider J.E., Bhattacharya S., Rideout W.M., Bronson R. ... These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for ...
Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, ... Bienvenu et al. have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated ... Endogenous cyclin D1 associated with STAT3 in cells treated for 2 hours after treatment with interleukin 6 (IL-6), an activator ... F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. ...
Cyclin D1 governs microRNA processing in breast cancer Cyclin D1 controls cell cycle progression and microRNA biogenesis ... Cyclin D1 governs microRNA processing in breast cancer. Thomas Jefferson University. Journal. Nature Communications. Keywords. ... regulates expression of cyclin D1. Furthermore, the group showed that many cancer patients encode a form of cyclin D1 that ... Because the cyclin D1 gene has been implicated in a variety of other human cancers these findings may have broad implications ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
... balczonr at my-dejanews.com balczonr at my-dejanews.com Tue Sep 22 13:25:16 EST 1998 ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase synonyms, Cyclin-dependent kinase pronunciation, Cyclin-dependent kinase translation, English ... dictionary definition of Cyclin-dependent kinase. n. Any of various enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group ... Targeting cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in cancer: lessons from mice, hopes for therapeutic applications in human.. The ... STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS: DYNAMICS AND FLEXIBILITY ARE THE STORY.. STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF CYCLIN ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B regulates efferocytosis and atherosclerosis. Yoko Kojima, Kelly Downing, Ramendra Kundu, ... We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), ... See the related article at Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B regulates efferocytosis and atherosclerosis. ...
We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), ...
... Carmela Rinaldi,1 Natalia Maria Malara,2 Rosalia DAngelo,1 ... Carmela Rinaldi, Natalia Maria Malara, Rosalia DAngelo, et al., "Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer," ...
The results obtained suggest that the increment of the levels of cyclin D1 in intra-ductal breast tumors in older woman that we ... have examined is significantly associated with a lower proliferation rate.Conclusion: Cyclin D1, which characterizes tumor in ... Cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) plays pivotal roles in the development of several human cancers, including breast cancer, functioning as ... Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer. Carmela Rinaldi. ,1 Natalia Maria Malara. ,2 Rosalia DAngelo. ,1 ...
These thresholds are sequentially triggered as cyclin increases, yielding reliable order and timing. In many biological ... We conclude that mitotic events are regulated by discrete cyclin-CDK thresholds. ... Rising cyclin-CDK levels order cell cycle events PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e20788. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020788. Epub 2011 Jun ... Background: Diverse mitotic events can be triggered in the correct order and time by a single cyclin-CDK. A single regulator ...
... Nature. 1993 Dec 16;366(6456):701-4. doi: 10.1038/366701a0. ... We find that p21 inhibits the activity of each member of the cyclin/CDK family. Furthermore, overexpression of p21 inhibits the ... Our results indicate that p21 may be a universal inhibitor of cyclin kinases. ... cyclin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the p21 protein. However, in many transformed cells, proliferating cell nuclear ...
Download the full report: https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/5190761 Summary Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase ... This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found ... The latest report Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Cyclin ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cyclin T1 antibody validated for WB, IP, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 10 ... Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation ... Anti-Cyclin T1 antibody (ab2098) at 1/10000 dilution + HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cell line) Whole Cell Lysate at 10 µg. ... ab2098 (2µg/ml) staining Cyclin T1 in human lymph node using an automated system (DAKO Autostainer Plus). Using this protocol ...
Compare Anti-Cyclin K Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... Anti-Cyclin K Antibody Products. Anti-Cyclin K antibodies are available from several suppliers. In humans, this protein is ...
Mouse polyclonal Cyclin A1 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding ... All lanes : Anti-Cyclin A1 antibody (ab172317) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Cyclin A1 transfected 293T cell line lysate. Lane 2 : Non- ... Full length protein corresponding to Human Cyclin A1 aa 1-464. (ABM85414.1).. Sequence: ...
  • The cyclin H / cdk7 (show CDK7 ELISA Kits )/ Mat1 (show MAT1A ELISA Kits ) kinase activity is regulated by CK2 (show CSNK2A1 ELISA Kits ) phosphorylation of cyclin H . (antibodies-online.com)
  • This cyclin forms a complex with CDK7 kinase and ring finger protein MAT1. (antibodies-online.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 17 Cyclin H (CCNH) ELISA Kits from 4 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The expression of cyclin H and CDK7 (show CDK7 ELISA Kits ) protein in proliferating hemangiomas was significantly higher than that in involuting hemangiomas and normal skin tissues. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin H is implicated in the regulation of the transcriptional machinery during midblastula transition and is therefore an essential gene in early zebrafish larval development. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Hemodynamic forces modulate EC proliferative phenotype through the miR (show MLXIP ELISA Kits )-23b/ CAK/cyclin H pathway. (antibodies-online.com)
  • For example, in all eukaryotes mitosis (M phase) is initiated by high levels of cyclin B, which combines with a protein kinase to form the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF). (encyclopedia.com)
  • To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G 2 , we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G 2 arrest at 32°C. We have found that p53 prevents G 2 /M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. (pnas.org)
  • To study G 2 regulation by p53, we have established a human cell line, Ts-SKOV3, that stably expresses a temperature-sensitive p53 allele and undergoes G 2 arrest at 32°C. Using this cell line we have found that p53 arrests cell cycle in G 2 by lowering intracellular levels of cyclin B1, a protein absolutely required for mitotic initiation. (pnas.org)
  • The more aggressive basal-like subtype of breast cancers, however, exhibited lower levels of cyclin D1 and Dicer, which would in turn globally reduce the level of mature miRNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study involved cancer samples from 264 Taiwanese male oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and the results showed that increased levels of cyclin D1 were linked with later stage cancer and increased chance of the tumor spreading, as well as a reduced chance of survival. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • More research is needed, but assessing levels of cyclin D1 at diagnosis could help to personalize treatment. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Of the seven patients who had a recurrence, six had high levels of cyclin E activity. (scienceblog.com)
  • RESULTS- Mice treated with exendin-4 showed increased β-cell proliferation, elevated islet protein levels of cyclin A2 with unchanged D-type cyclins, elevated PDX-1 and Skp2 levels, and reduced p27 levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cyclin A is also produced, which binds to CDK2 and stimulates DNA replication. (news-medical.net)
  • Analysis of residues that are conserved throughout the A, B, and E cyclins identifies two exposed clusters of residues, one of which has recently been shown to be involved in the association with human CDK2. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does not undergo any significant conformational changes on complex formation. (nih.gov)
  • Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. (pnas.org)
  • However, their research also showed that treating breast cancer cells with a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) inhibitor can reverse letrozole resistance. (scienceblog.com)
  • After confirming that the LMW forms of cyclin E suppress the anti-proliferative effects of letrozole, the researchers examined whether a CDK2 inhibitor could reverse the drug resistance in the unresponsive breast cancer cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • We challenged the aromatase-overexpressing cells with either the wild-type or the low forms of cyclin E and then treated them with the CDK2 inhibitor roscovitine," Keyomarsi said. (scienceblog.com)
  • Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and interacting with viral proteins (Giordano et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2005). Human cyclin A1 interacts with CDK2 in vitro and in vivo (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2001). Moreover the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex regulates DNA double-strand break repair following radiation damage (Müller-Tidow et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2004) by competing with CDK2-cyclin A2 for the binding to Ku70, a pivotal player in the non-homologous end-joining double strand break repair pathway, and inhibiting apoptosis through modulating RB functions in leukemia cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, and is essential for cell cycle G1⁄S phase transition. (fishersci.ca)
  • Cyclin E forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK2, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cyclin A binds to S phase Cdk2 and is required for the cell to progress through the S phase. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Cyclin A/ Cdk2 is inhibited by the complex p21CIP. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Cyclin E binds to the G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle that determines cell division. (rockland-inc.com)
  • The Cyclin E/CDK2 complex phosphorylates p27Kip1, tagging it for degradation, thus promoting expression of Cyclin A, allowing progression to S phase. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Cyclins themselves have no enzymatic activity but have binding sites for some substrates and target the Cdks to specific subcellular locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cyclins oscillate, increasing and decreasing at different stages, binding to CDKs and driving the cell cycle forward. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition to cyclin levels, this provides and additional way to control the activity of CDKs. (news-medical.net)
  • Cyclins also determine the subcellular location and substrate specificity of CDKs. (nih.gov)
  • More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its control. (springer.com)
  • For example, although Cdks appear to be highly conserved phylogenetically, cyclins are much less so. (springer.com)
  • In normal cells, CDKs exist predominantly in multiple quaternary complexes, each containing a CDK, cyclin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the p21 protein. (nih.gov)
  • The temporal expression of cyclins is tightly regulated and subsequently plays a critical role in controlling the enzymatic activity of cdks. (fishersci.com)
  • Multiple cyclins activate CDKs in all eukaryotes, but it is unclear whether multiple cyclins are really required for cell cycle progression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dowejko, Bauer, Bauer, Müller-Richter, Reichert: The human HECA interacts with cyclins and CDKs to antagonize Wnt-mediated proliferation and chemoresistance of head and neck cancer cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene expression, which binds to CDK4. (news-medical.net)
  • Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) usually functions to inhibit the transcription factor E2F, however, when cyclin-D-CDK4 phosphorylates the Rb protein, this relinquishes inhibition of E2F and leads to the production of genes required for entering the S phase. (news-medical.net)
  • These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. (news-medical.net)
  • have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of the cell cycle-driving molecule, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), in HCC was significantly reduced by the treatments with vitamin K2, K3 and K5. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Overexpression of cyclin D1 results in dysregulated CDK (zeige CDK4 Proteine ) activity, rapid cell growth under conditions of restricted mitogenic signaling, bypass of key cellular checkpoints, and ultimately, neoplastic growth. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Cyclin D1 forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell cycle G 1 /S transition. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) enzymes . (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the amino-terminal regions of S and M cyclins contain short destruction-box motifs that target these proteins for proteolysis in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Once bound to a cyclin they act to phosphorylate many target proteins on serine or threonine amino acid residues. (news-medical.net)
  • Each interacts with a different cyclin at a different phase, stimulating various target proteins and ensuring that vital stages of each phase are carried out before a cell moves onto the next phase. (news-medical.net)
  • I wonder if the cytoplasmic staining we are getting is real or whether the methacarn is modifying other cytoplasmic proteins (like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. (bio.net)
  • Threading analysis shows that the cyclin-box fold is consistent with the sequences of the transcription factor TFIIB and other functionally related proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular analyses revealed that cells lacking cyclin E fail to normally incorporate MCM proteins into DNA replication origins during G(0)-->S progression. (uniprot.org)
  • The work supports the idea that cancer-causing proteins like cyclin D1 may drive cancer progression in part via miRNA biogenesis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dr Bill Wickstead, who along with his master's student Alexander Douglass characterised cyclin-like genes across Apicomplexa, said: "Cyclins are a really diverse class of proteins comprising many different types in different organisms. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cyclin E is one of the proteins that regulates the cell cycle, influencing how rapidly a cell passes through the four phases and divides. (scienceblog.com)
  • This cyclin was found to bind to important cell cycle regulators, such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • Transcription of these particular cyclins is proposed to monitor the growth factor signal and the encoded proteins participate in G1 progression. (bl.uk)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cyclin H Antibodies (129) and Cyclin H Proteins (15) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cyclin K Kits (12) and Cyclin K Proteins (7) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • There are 14939 Cyclin_C domains in 14900 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. (embl.de)
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing Cyclin_C domain. (embl.de)
  • The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with Cyclin_C domain is also avaliable . (embl.de)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing Cyclin_C domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • 4 However, we have recently demonstrated that cyclin A1 associates with the retinoblastoma gene product (Rb) and E2F-1 in leukemia cells in vivo and the interaction can change functional properties of the involved proteins. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Overexpression of cyclin D1 reduced STAT3-dependent gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • HOUSTON - Overexpression of low-molecular-weight (LMW-E) forms of the protein cyclin E renders the aromatase inhibitor letrozole ineffective among women with estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers, researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center report in Clinical Cancer Research . (scienceblog.com)
  • Cyclin A2 overexpression in primary islets increased proliferation and reduced p27. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Various studies examined the relationship between cyclin E overexpression with the clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer but yielded conflicting results. (springer.com)
  • A meta-analysis was conducted with eligible studies which quantitatively evaluated the relationship between cyclin E overexpression and survival of patients with breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • We conducted a final analysis of 7,759 patients from 23 eligible studies and evaluated the correlation between cyclin E overexpression and survival in patients with breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Cyclin E overexpression is associated with poor OS and BCSS in breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Berglund P, Landberg G. Cyclin E overexpression reduces infiltrative growth in breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Conclusions Overexpression of cyclins B and A, rather than D1 seems to characterize psoriasis. (wiley.com)
  • To investigate the frequency of cyclin A overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its relationship with clinical significance and HBx gene integration. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • overexpression of cyclin A mRNA and protein was found in 16 of 35, 21 of 35 patients, respectively. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Overexpression of cyclin A protein was correlated with patient's age, tumor size and HBx integration. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Overexpression of cyclin A occurs in the early stage of HCC carcinogenesis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cyclin A overexpression was significantly associated with poor metastasis-free survival both on TMA and large sections. (diva-portal.org)
  • Western blotting was used to measure cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27 that arrest cell cycle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • p27(KIP1) is a member of the CIP1/KIP1 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and is a potential tumor suppressor gene. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of the non-biological drugs, known as Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, are currently being tested for use in cancer treatment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Altered prostatic epithelial proliferation and apoptosis, prostatic development and serum testosterone in mice lacking cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors," Biology of Reproduction 73(5): 951-958. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • in opposition to this idea, it has been argued that cyclins might target the activated CDK to particular substrates or inhibitors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • AIMS: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) play a critical role in negatively regulating the proliferation of cardiomyocytes, although their role in cardiac differentiation remains largely undetermined. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Click on the product name to view detailed information such as the chemical structure and specific chemical properties for each of our cyclin E Inhibitors. (scbt.com)
  • In stock cyclin E Inhibitors are available for immediate shipping. (scbt.com)
  • Pituitary cyclin E/E2F1 signaling is a previously unappreciated molecular mechanism underlying neuroendocrine regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, providing a subcellular therapeutic target for small molecule cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitors of pituitary ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism, ie, Cushing disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In thisreview, we focus our attention on cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase complexes,cyclin kinase inhibitors, genes of the retinoblastoma family, p53 and N-Myc, and we aim to summarize the latest evidence indicating their involvement in thecontrol of the cell cycle and induction of differentiation in different celltypes of the peripheral and central nervous systems. (embl.de)
  • This cyclin shows the highest similarity with cyclin G. The transcript of this gene was found to be expressed constantly during cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin I is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), in mice promotes vascular SMC apoptosis and aneurysm progression. (jci.org)
  • The role of cyclins in controlling G1 progression in mammalian cells was tested by construction of fibroblasts that constitutively overexpress human cyclin E. This was found to shorten the duration of G1, decrease cell size, and diminish the serum requirement for the transition from G1 to S phase. (sciencemag.org)
  • These observations show that cyclin levels can be rate-limiting for G1 progression in mammalian cells and suggest that cyclin synthesis may be the target of physiological signals that control cell proliferation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cyclin A1 primarily functions in the meiotic cell cycle, but it also seems to contribute to G1/S cell cycle progression in somatic cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Because cyclin A2 was stimulated by cAMP, we assessed the role of cylcin A2 in cell cycle progression in Min6 and isolated islet β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cyclin E is an important regulator of cell cycle progression. (springer.com)
  • Destruction of Cyclin B1 is required for cell cycle progression. (thermofisher.com)
  • We hypothesized that intrapituitary cyclin E signaling regulates corticotroph tumor POMC transcription independently of cell cycle progression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 9q34.1 that encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase, which regulates cell cycle progression. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyclin D2, a positive regulator of G1 progression, shows a unique localization within radial glial (RG) cells (i.e., the neural progenitor in the developing neocortex). (wiley.com)
  • Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus ( KSHV ) encodes a D-type cyclin (ORF72) that binds CDK6 and is likely to contribute to KSHV-related cancers [9] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, cyclin B binds to CDK-1 to drive the cycle forward into M phase, stimulating mitosis. (news-medical.net)
  • In budding yeast, commitment occurs when the catalytic subunit of a protein kinase, encoded by the CDC28 gene (the homolog of the fission yeast cdc2+ gene), binds to a positively acting regulatory subunit, a cyclin. (sciencemag.org)
  • It binds to cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) and enhances its kinase activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we have investigated a series of 110 primary malignant gliomas and 8 glioma cell lines for amplification and expression of the D‐type cyclin genes CCND1 (11q13), CCND2 (12p13), and CCND3 (6p21). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Our genome-wide analysis identified 52 expressed cyclin genes in tomato. (mdpi.com)
  • Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicates that the expression patterns of tomato cyclin genes were significantly different in vegetative and reproductive stages. (mdpi.com)
  • Transcription of most cyclin genes can be enhanced or repressed by exogenous application of gibberellin, which implies that gibberellin maybe a direct regulator of cyclin genes. (mdpi.com)
  • Cyclin C was originally identified by a genetic screen for human and Drosophila cDNAs that complement a triple knock-out of the CLN genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (novusbio.com)
  • The treatment of quiescent cells with growth factors results in the transcriptional activation of the D-type cyclin genes during G1. (bl.uk)
  • Comparison of these results with those for the cyclin D1 and D2 genes should elucidate how transcription of these genes is co-ordinately regulated by growth factors. (bl.uk)
  • It is normally activated by cyclin C and is required for transcription elongation of the serum response genes (immediate early genes [IEGs]) FOS, EGR1, and cJUN. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • RV-cyclin does not control CDK8 specificity but instead enhances CDK8's effects on regulated genes, an important distinction for its use to delineate natural CDK8 targets. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae C-type cyclin and its cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk8p) repress the transcription of several stress response genes. (genetics.org)
  • In prior work, they showed that cyclin D1 regulates the non coding genome, and that the non-coding genome, in turn, regulates expression of cyclin D1. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the current study, the group sought to investigate the mechanism by which cyclin D1 regulates the biogenesis of non coding miRNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • Finally, two results suggest that cyclin C regulates programmed cell death independently of its function as a transcriptional repressor. (genetics.org)
  • Unlike other cyclins that positively regulate the cell cycle, cyclin G2 (CCNG2) regulates cell proliferation as a tumor suppressor gene. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Our earlier studies have shown that Cyclin E is proteolytically cleaved to generate p18-Cyclin E (p18CycE) in hematopoietic tumor cells upon treatment with genotoxic agents, such as ionizing radiation and regulates apoptosis by displacing Bax from Ku70 and thus providing the first step of Bax activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A cyclin forms a complex with Cdk, which begins to activate but the complete activation requires phosphorylation, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination of cyclin E by the SCFFbw7 ubiquitin ligase. (addgene.org)
  • The cyclin H / cdk7 (show CDK7 ELISA Kits )/ Mat1 (show MAT1A ELISA Kits ) kinase activity is regulated by CK2 (show CSNK2A1 ELISA Kits ) phosphorylation of cyclin H . (antibodies-online.com)
  • Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. (mdpi.com)
  • RV-cyclin does not increase activating phosphorylation events in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and does not inhibit decay of IEG mRNAs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Using antisense RNA, Dr. Pestell's group was the first to show that cyclin D1 drives mammary tumor growth in vivo. (eurekalert.org)
  • In conclusion, the findings of this study show that cyclin D1 has separate roles, and proliferation is driven by different mechanisms in ER positive and negative breast cancers. (kb.se)
  • This supports results from earlier studies that suggest that cyclin D1 could be used as a prognostic biomarker. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • We suggest that cyclin B might be a potent prognostic factor in this low-risk patient group. (kb.se)
  • This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin T2 has been shown to interact with CDK9 and Retinoblastoma protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) - Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. (medindia.net)
  • This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found to interact with CDK9 and cyclin T, which suggested a possible involvement of this protein in AIDS. (medindia.net)
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) pipeline Target constitutes close to 26 molecules. (medindia.net)
  • It also reviews key players involved in Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (medindia.net)
  • Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation factor B (P-TEFb), which is proposed to facilitate the transition from abortive to productive elongation by phosphorylating the CTD (carboxy-terminal domain) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). (abcam.com)
  • Cyclin K interacts with CDK12 and CDK13 but not CDK9 in cells, and is required to maintain self-renewal in ES cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin K inhibits HIV-1 gene expression and replication by interfering with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)-cyclin T1 interaction in Nef-dependent manner. (antibodies-online.com)
  • These results reveal an unexpectedly direct role for CDK9-cyclin K in checkpoint pathways that maintain genome integrity in response to replication stress. (antibodies-online.com)
  • P-TEFb containing cyclin K and Cdk9 can activate transcription via RNA. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. (mdpi.com)
  • HIV-1 Tat protein interacts with CDK9 and cyclin T, suggesting CDK9 may have a role in AIDS. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Study TPI-ALV-201 is examining the efficiency of alvocidib, an investigational inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), in combination with the authorized agents cytarabine and mitoxantrone in relapsed/refractory AML patients whose leukemia depends on MCL-1. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Biopharmaceutical company Probiodrug AG revealed on Friday the transfer of its experimental cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) inhibitor programme to AstraZeneca (LSE:AZN)(NYSE:AZN) for an undisclosed amount. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. (pnas.org)
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 7 (39 kDa Protein Kinase or CDK Activating Kinase 1 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 7 or TFIIH Basal Transcription Factor Complex Kinase Subunit or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 or CDK7 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) - Cell division protein kinase 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 7 (39 kDa Protein Kinase or CDK Activating Kinase 1 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 7 or TFIIH Basal Transcription Factor Complex Kinase Subunit or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 or CDK7 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) pipeline Target constitutes close to 11 molecules. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • In tumor cells, cyclin E is converted to low-molecular weight forms, an event that does not occur in normal cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. (harvard.edu)
  • Cyclin E and E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection was performed in murine corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells to elucidate mechanisms for drug action. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • R-roscovitine inhibits human pituitary corticotroph tumor ACTH by targeting the cyclin E/E2F1 pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • PCR, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the gene, mRNA and protein level of cyclin A in the tumor and nontumorous tissue. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Expression of human cyclins through the cell cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] ) The oscillations of the cyclins, namely fluctuations in cyclin gene expression and destruction by the ubiquitin mediated proteasome pathway, induce oscillations in Cdk activity to drive the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Expression of cyclins detected immunocytochemically in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase), [7] or in relation to initiation and termination of DNA replication during S-phase, can be measured by flow cytometry . (wikipedia.org)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of cyclins in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase) is often measured by flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their expression is also being measured by flow cytometry concurrently with the initiation and termination of DNA replication during S-phase Cyclins are generally very different from each other in primary structure, or amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differences at each stage are due to a balance between the gene expression of each cyclin and the ubiquitin-proteasome system which breaks them down. (news-medical.net)
  • Expression of a novel isoform of cyclin I in human testis. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Pestell and colleagues developed transgenic mice that could induce cyclin D1 expression in the breast and examined cells with cyclin D1 gene deleted. (eurekalert.org)
  • They found that patients with the luminal A subtype of breast cancer had increased levels of expression of both cyclin D1 and Dicer. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ruiling Zhang and team from Xinxiang Medical University explored the correlation between cyclin-dependent kinase 5 expression in the hippocampus and neurological impairments following prenatal ethanol exposure, and found that prenatal ethanol exposure could affect cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and its activator p35 in the hippocampus of offspring rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We titrated the budding yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 within its endogenous expression range to a stable, fixed level and measured time to occurrence of three mitotic events: growth depolarization, spindle formation, and spindle elongation, as a function of fixed Clb2 level. (nih.gov)
  • That in itself tells us there is a huge difference between the two groups of patients based on the pattern of expression of normal versus low forms of cyclin E. (scienceblog.com)
  • This approach -- using cyclin A2 expression via gene transfer -- yielded improved myocardial function. (rxpgnews.com)
  • 1997). The cyclin A1 promoter does not possess a TATA box, whereas the region upstream of the transcriptional start site region contains four GC boxes, with multiple Sp1-binding sites important for the regulation of cyclin A1 expression (Müller et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • SNIP1 itself is induced upon serum stimulation immediately prior to cyclin D1 expression. (nature.com)
  • These results define both a new function for SNIP1 and identify a previously unrecognized regulator of the cell cycle and cyclin D1 expression. (nature.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS- Cyclin A2 is required for β-cell proliferation, exendin-4 stimulates cyclin A2 expression via the cAMP pathway, and exendin-4 stimulation of cAMP requires PDX-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mutation or disruption of normal cyclin A expression causes cells to arrest in G2-phase. (fishersci.com)
  • Expression of cell cycle regulators p27Kip1 and cyclin E, alone and in combination, correlate with survival in young breast cancer patients. (springer.com)
  • We show here that accumulation of the wild-type p53 protein in either human or murine cells markedly increases expression of cyclin D1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of the members of this family of cyclins, D1, 2 and 3, is spatially and temporally regulated with respect to growth factor receptor ligation. (bl.uk)
  • The expression of cyclin H and CDK7 (show CDK7 ELISA Kits ) protein in proliferating hemangiomas was significantly higher than that in involuting hemangiomas and normal skin tissues. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin D1 expression is assoc. (kb.se)
  • High cyclin E expression is common in hormone receptor negative and high grade aggressive breast cancer, whereas cyclin D1 in hormone receptor positive and low grade breast cancer. (kb.se)
  • To test this hypotheses in large breast cancer material and to clarify the histopathological correlations of cyclin E and D1, especially the association with proliferation, we analyzed cyclin E and D1 immunohistochemical expression on breast tumour microarrays consisting of 1348 invasive breast cancers. (kb.se)
  • We found that low-risk node negative patients with high expression of cylin B had a significantly worse outcome than patients with low expression of cyclin B. Cyclin B could separate patients with poor survival from those with good survival with 80% accuracy. (kb.se)
  • Here we show that constitutive expression of RV-cyclin in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line significantly increases the level of IEG expression in response to serum stimulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • At the EGR1 gene locus, RV-cyclin increases and maintains RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy after serum stimulation, in conjunction with increased and extended EGR1 gene expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Both of RV-cyclin's functional domains, i.e., the cyclin box and the activation domain, are necessary for the overall enhancement of IEG expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Aim We evaluated epidermal cell turnover and thickness, as well as the expression of cyclins D1, B and A in psoriatic skin before and after therapy with cyclosporin. (wiley.com)
  • Cyclin A1 differs from other cyclins in its highly restricted expression pattern. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Besides its expression during spermatogenesis, cyclin A1 is also expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells and in acute myeloid leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We investigated mechanisms that might contribute to cyclin A1 expression in hematopoietic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Coexpression of a c-myb expression vector with the cyclin A1 promoter constructs significantly increased the reporter activity in adherent CV-1 as well as in myeloid U937 cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In addition, transfection of primary human embryonic fibroblasts with a c-myb expression vector led to induction of the endogenous cyclin A1 gene. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Taken together, c-myb can directly transactivate the promoter of cyclin A1, and c-myb might be involved in the high-level expression of cyclin A1 observed in acute myeloid leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Recently, we cloned the promoter of the cyclin A1 gene to elucidate the mechanisms of expression of this gene. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In addition, forced expression of c-myb in human embryonic fibroblasts induces the endogenous cyclin A1 gene. (bloodjournal.org)
  • For this reason, we wanted to compare cyclin A expression on TMA and on traditional large sections. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cyclin specificity: how many wheels do you need on a unicycle? (biomedsearch.com)
  • The sensitivity and specificity of cyclin B was 65% and 92%, respectively. (kb.se)
  • The levels of S cyclins remain high, not only throughout S phase, but through G2 and early mitosis as well to promote early events in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • M cyclin concentrations rise as the cell begins to enter mitosis and the concentrations peak at metaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The destruction of M cyclins during metaphase and anaphase, after the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint is satisfied, causes the exit of mitosis and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin B1 is a regulatory protein involved in mitosis. (rockland-inc.com)
  • The D and E type cyclins regulate the passage of G1, while cyclin B is a critical regulator of mitosis. (fishersci.com)
  • Cyclin B1 is not ubiquitinated during G2/M phase, resulting in its steady accumulation during G2 phase, followed by abrupt APC dependent destruction at the end of mitosis. (thermofisher.com)
  • The cyclin concentration increases during the cycle until halfway to the mitosis stage, when it drops to zero. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyclin may act as a molecular switch that activates mitosis when its concentration reaches a certain point. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During RG division, Cyclin D2 protein is asymmetrically distributed to two daughter cells following mitosis. (wiley.com)
  • There are two main groups of cyclins, G1/S cyclins, which are essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G1/S (start) transition, and G2/M cyclins, which are essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G2/M (mitosis) transition. (embl.de)
  • G2/M cyclins accumulate steadily during G2 and are abruptly destroyed as cells exit from mitosis (at the end of the M-phase). (embl.de)
  • The p-TEFb complex containing this cyclin was reported to interact with, and act as a negative regulator of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single regulator could confer order and timing on multiple events if later events require higher cyclin-CDK than earlier events, so that gradually rising cyclin-CDK levels can sequentially trigger responsive events: the "quantitative model" of ordering. (nih.gov)
  • They did this by expressing the cell-cycle regulator, a protein called cyclin A2. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. (curehunter.com)
  • Cln3 cyclin of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key regulator of Start, a cell cycle event in G1 phase at which cells become committed to division. (asm.org)
  • For all of the apoptosis-inducing agents tested, the appearance of condensed chromatin was accompanied by 2- to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. (pnas.org)
  • E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. (uniprot.org)
  • It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins are critically required for proliferation of all cell types. (uniprot.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that E type cyclins are largely dispensable for mouse development. (uniprot.org)
  • These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for cyclin E in normal versus oncogenic proliferation. (uniprot.org)
  • CBP-S436A islets exhibited elevated cyclin A2, reduced p27, and no changes in D-type cyclins, PDX-1, or Skp2. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • C-, H- and J18 types only contain a cyclin-C domain, and U-type cyclins contain another potential cyclin domain. (mdpi.com)
  • NMB or NMBR silencing inhibited M-CSF (zeige CSF1R Proteine )/ c-Fms (zeige CSF1R Proteine )-mediated downstream signaling pathways like activation of ERK (zeige EPHB2 Proteine ) and Akt (zeige AKT1 Proteine ) and induction of D-type cyclins, cyclin D1 and D2. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Cyclin H is implicated in the regulation of the transcriptional machinery during midblastula transition and is therefore an essential gene in early zebrafish larval development. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin E-Mediated Human Proopiomelanocortin Regulation as a Therapeutic Target for Cushing Disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cyclin E and E2F1 exhibit reciprocal positive regulation in corticotroph tumors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Alvocidib is an investigational small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 , a protein important to the regulation of Myc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyclin A, cyclin E and Ki-67 are all markers for proliferation and involved in the regulation of the cell cycle. (diva-portal.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Changes in islet protein levels of cyclins and of two critical cell cycle regulators cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) were assessed in mice treated with exendin-4 and in a mouse model with specific upregulation of nuclear cAMP signaling exhibiting increased β-cell proliferation (CBP-S436A mouse). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In Min6 cells, cyclin A2 knockdown prevented exendin-4-stimulated proliferation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Experimental data has suggested that cyclin D1 and E mediate cell proliferation by different mechanisms in estrogen receptor (ER) positive and negative breast cancer. (kb.se)
  • Cyclins positively regulate cell proliferation to a large extent. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, all members of the cyclin family are similar in 100 amino acids that make up the cyclin box. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the protein the cyclin box is a region of protein sequence homology that is common to all members of the cyclin family and is required for interaction with the CDK partner. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • We have solved the crystal structure, at 2.0 A resolution, of an active recombinant fragment of bovine cyclin A, cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha helices. (nih.gov)
  • Recombinant human Cyclin E1 protein, around 100-200aa. (thermofisher.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Cyclin B1. (genetex.com)
  • Recombinant cyclin/CDK holoenzymes were purified from Sf9 cells engineered to produce baculoviruses that express a specific cyclin or CDK. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box. (nih.gov)
  • It recognizes a protein of 54kDa, which is identified as cyclin A. Its epitope is located amino acids 144-148 of human Cyclin A2. (fishersci.com)
  • The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231-280. (mdpi.com)
  • Exendin-4 stimulated cyclin A2 promoter activity via the cAMP-cAMP response element binding protein pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The human cyclin D3 gene has a TATA-less promoter and a single dominant initiation site. (bl.uk)
  • Transient transfections using CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) reporter constructs containing sequential deletions of the cyclin D3 promoter defined positively and negatively regulated regions. (bl.uk)
  • Comparison of cyclin A1 and cyclin A promoter activity in adherent and myeloid leukemia cell lines showed that the cyclin A1 promoter is preferentially active in myeloid cell lines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This preferential activity was present in a small, 335-bp cyclin A1 promoter fragment that contained several potential c-myb binding sites. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 15 We show here that the cyclin A1 promoter is preferentially active in myeloid leukemia cell lines and is transactivated by c-myb. (bloodjournal.org)
  • p34Cdc28-mediated control of Cln3 cyclin degradation. (asm.org)
  • 6-Gingerol induces cell-cycle G1-phase arrest through AKT-GSK 3β-cyclin D1 pathway in renal-cell carcinoma. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Hemodynamic forces modulate EC proliferative phenotype through the miR (show MLXIP ELISA Kits )-23b/ CAK/cyclin H pathway. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This destruction pathway is important as deleting cyclin C suppresses the hypersensitivity of slt2 mutants to oxidative damage. (genetics.org)
  • The aim was to investigate whether R-roscovitine inhibits human ACTH in corticotroph tumors by targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase 2/cyclin E signaling pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We find that p21 inhibits the activity of each member of the cyclin/CDK family. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin A is a member of the cyclin family. (rockland-inc.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. (wikidoc.org)
  • The mechanism behind this is that the low forms of cyclin E increase the activity of the cyclin E complex, and this complex is what mediates the negative effects. (scienceblog.com)
  • This study suggests that TMA technique could be useful to study histological correlations and prognostic significance of cyclin A on breast cancer on a large scale. (diva-portal.org)
  • G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in that the concentrations increase gradually (with no oscillation), throughout the cell cycle based on cell growth and the external growth-regulatory signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D2 accumulates at the very basal tip of the RG cell (i.e., the basal endfoot) via a unique cis -regulatory sequence found in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of its mRNA. (wiley.com)
  • 1998). Cyclin A1 interacts also with E2F1 and the retinoblastoma protein (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • This arrest is characterized by accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (WAF1/CIP1) and of underphosphorylated forms of retinoblastoma protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found that we could negate the growth inhibitory effects of letrozole with the low forms of cyclin E but not with the wild-type cyclin E," said Keyomarsi, the study's senior author. (scienceblog.com)
  • Of those, 100 expressed normal levels of wild-type cyclin E, and 28 overexpressed the low forms," Keyomarsi said. (scienceblog.com)
  • When we looked at recurrence, three of the hundred with wild-type cyclin E had experienced a recurrence compared to four of the twenty-eight with the low forms. (scienceblog.com)
  • Graf L, Webel R, Wagner S, Hamilton ST, Rawlinson WD, Sticht H, Marschall M. The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins. (mdpi.com)
  • Cyclins can be divided into four classes based on their behavior in the cell cycle of vertebrate somatic cells and yeast cells: G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyclins also promote other activities to progress the cell cycle, such as centrosome duplication in vertebrates or spindle pole body in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, the group showed that many cancer patients encode a form of cyclin D1 that evades negative feedback from the non coding genome. (eurekalert.org)
  • We also found that cyclin E-deficient cells are relatively resistant to oncogenic transformation. (uniprot.org)