Cyclin G1: A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.Cyclin G: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Cyclin D2: A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.Cyclin D3: A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.Cyclin A1: A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cyclin A2: A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.Cyclin D: A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.Cyclin G2: An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.Cyclin C: A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Cyclin B2: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Cyclin T: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.Cyclin H: A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Cyclin I: A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Genes, bcl-1: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.Interleukin-12 Receptor beta 2 Subunit: A subunit of the interleukin-12 receptor. It plays a role in receptor signaling by associating with JANUS KINASE 2.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2: An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6: Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins: A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.A Kinase Anchor Proteins: A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.

Cyclin G2 associates with protein phosphatase 2A catalytic and regulatory B' subunits in active complexes and induces nuclear aberrations and a G1/S phase cell cycle arrest. (1/25)

Cyclin G2, together with cyclin G1 and cyclin I, defines a novel cyclin family expressed in terminally differentiated tissues including brain and muscle. Cyclin G2 expression is up-regulated as cells undergo cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in response to inhibitory stimuli independent of p53 (Horne, M., Donaldson, K., Goolsby, G., Tran, D., Mulheisen, M., Hell, J. and Wahl, A. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 12650-12661). We tested the hypothesis that cyclin G2 may be a negative regulator of cell cycle progression and found that ectopic expression of cyclin G2 induces the formation of aberrant nuclei and cell cycle arrest in HEK293 and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Cyclin G2 is primarily partitioned to a detergent-resistant compartment, suggesting an association with cytoskeletal elements. We determined that cyclin G2 and its homolog cyclin G1 directly interact with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). An okadaic acid-sensitive (<2 nm) phosphatase activity coprecipitates with endogenous and ectopic cyclin G2. We found that cyclin G2 also associates with various PP2A B' regulatory subunits, as previously shown for cyclin G1. The PP2A/A subunit is not detectable in cyclin G2-PP2A-B'-C complexes. Notably, cyclin G2 colocalizes with both PP2A/C and B' subunits in detergent-resistant cellular compartments, suggesting that these complexes form in living cells. The ability of cyclin G2 to inhibit cell cycle progression correlates with its ability to bind PP2A/B' and C subunits. Together, our findings suggest that cyclin G2-PP2A complexes inhibit cell cycle progression.  (+info)

Control of cyclin G2 mRNA expression by forkhead transcription factors: novel mechanism for cell cycle control by phosphoinositide 3-kinase and forkhead. (2/25)

Cyclin G2 is an unconventional cyclin highly expressed in postmitotic cells. Unlike classical cyclins that promote cell cycle progression, cyclin G2 blocks cell cycle entry. Here we studied the mechanisms that regulate cyclin G2 mRNA expression during the cell cycle. Analysis of synchronized NIH 3T3 cell cultures showed elevated cyclin G2 mRNA expression levels at G(0), with a considerable reduction as cells enter cell cycle. Downregulation of cyclin G2 mRNA levels requires activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, suggesting that this enzyme controls cyclin G2 mRNA expression. Because the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway inhibits the FoxO family of forkhead transcription factors, we examined the involvement of these factors in the regulation of cyclin G2 expression. We show that active forms of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO3a (FKHRL1) increase cyclin G2 mRNA levels. Cyclin G2 has forkhead consensus motifs in its promoter, which are transactivated by constitutive active FoxO3a forms. Finally, interference with forkhead-mediated transcription by overexpression of an inactive form decreases cyclin G2 mRNA expression levels. These results show that FoxO genes regulate cyclin G2 expression, illustrating a new role for phosphoinositide 3-kinase and FoxO transcription factors in the control of cell cycle entry.  (+info)

Effect of cyclin G2 on proliferative ability of SGC-7901 cell. (3/25)

AIM: To study the effect of cyclin G2 on proliferation of gastric adenocarcinoma cell line-SGC-7901 cell in vitro. METHODS: By use of cation lipofectamine transfection reagent, the pIRES-G2 and pIRESneo plasmids were transferred into SGC-7901cell line. Anticlones were selected by G418. Positive clones were observed and counted using Giemsa staining. Cell proliferative ability was assayed by MTT. RESULTS: (1) The clone number of pIRES-G2 group decreased, clone volume reduced. The number of cell clones in pIRESneo group was 87+/-3, that of pIRES-G2 group was 53+/-4, occupying 60.1% of pIRESneo group, there was significant difference obviously (P<0.01, t=15.45). (2) The average absorbance of clone cell obtained by stable transfection of pIRES-G2 at 570 nm was 1.6966+/-0.2125, the average absorbance of clone cell obtained by stable transfection of pIRESneo at 570 nm was 2.1182+/-0.3675, there was significant difference between them (P<0.01, t=3.412). CONCLUSION: Cyclin G2 can inhibit SGC-7901cell proliferative ability obviously, it may be a negative regulator in cell cycle regulation.  (+info)

Cyclin G2 dysregulation in human oral cancer. (4/25)

Using expression microarray, we have previously shown that human cyclin G2 (hCG2) is significantly down-regulated in laser capture microdissected oral cancer epithelia. Western analysis showed detectable hCG2 protein in normal (2 of 2) but not in malignant (4 of 4) oral keratinocyte cell lines. Immunohistochemistry analysis done on oral cancers showed that normal oral mucosa (100%, 12 of 12) and 69.1% (47 of 68) of dysplastic oral epithelia expressed readily detectable hCG2 in the nuclei. However, only 11.1% of oral cancer epithelia (14 of 126) showed mild hCG2 nuclear staining. Interestingly, of the oral cancers devoid of nuclear hCG2 (112 cases), 58 cases (52%) showed cytoplasmic hCG2 immunostaining, whereas the other 54 cases (48%) exhibited neither nuclear nor cytoplasmic hCG2 staining. In vitro functional study by ectopic restoration of hCG2 expression in the human malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) line SCC15 resulted in a significant inhibition of cellular proliferation (P < 0.001) and colony formation (P < 2 x 10(-5)) with increased population of G(1) phase and decreased in S phase (P < 0.01). Furthermore, stable down-regulation of hCG2 by short interference RNA-based gene silencing in immortalized normal oral keratinocytes resulted in enhanced cell growth with increase in S and prominently in G(2) phase. Because hCG2 has been implicated as a negative regulator in cell cycle progression, our results support that hCG2 dysregulation may play an important role in epithelial transformation and the early stages of human oral cancer development.  (+info)

Cellular and gene expression responses involved in the rapid growth inhibition of human cancer cells by RNA interference-mediated depletion of telomerase RNA. (5/25)

Inhibition of the up-regulated telomerase activity in cancer cells has previously been shown to slow cell growth but only after prior telomere shortening. Previously, we have reported that, unexpectedly, a hairpin short interfering RNA specifically targeting human telomerase RNA rapidly inhibits the growth of human cancer cells independently of p53 or telomere length and without bulk telomere shortening (Li, S., Rosenberg, J. E., Donjacour, A. A., Botchkina, I. L., Hom, Y. K., Cunha, G. R., and Blackburn, E. H. (2004) Cancer Res. 64, 4833-4840). Here we have demonstrated that such telomerase RNA knockdown in cancer cells does not cause telomere uncapping but rather induces changes in the global gene expression profile indicative of a novel response pathway, which includes suppression of specific genes implicated in angiogenesis and metastasis, and is distinct from the expression profile changes induced by telomere-uncapping mutant template telomerase RNAs. These cellular responses to depleting telomerase in human cancer cells together suggest that cancer cells are "telomerase-addicted" and uncover functions of telomerase in tumor growth and progression in addition to telomere maintenance.  (+info)

FOXO transcription factors cooperate with delta EF1 to activate growth suppressive genes in B lymphocytes. (6/25)

Forkhead transcription factors regulate many aspects of lymphocyte development and function. The FOXO subgroup of Forkhead factors opposes proliferation and survival, and FOXO inactivation is an important outcome of Ag receptor signaling. FOXO activity at target promoters is modulated by other transcription factors in a manner dependent on cell type and external stimulus. We have investigated the mechanisms by which FOXO proteins activate the promoters of two target genes in murine B lymphocytes, Ccng2 (encoding cyclin G2) and Rbl2 (p130), each of which has been implicated in cell cycle arrest. FOXO proteins bound directly to both promoters in vitro and in vivo, augmented transcriptional activity in reporter assays, and increased expression of the endogenous genes. Each of the promoter sequences has consensus binding sites for the deltaEF1 transcription factor, previously shown to either repress or activate different promoters. deltaEF1 bound to the Ccng2 and Rbl2 promoters in vitro and in vivo and increased reporter activity as well as endogenous mRNA levels for these genes. Strikingly, deltaEF1 synergized with FOXO proteins to strongly activate transcription from both promoters. Coexpression of deltaEF1 enhanced FOXO-induced cell cycle arrest in B lymphoma cells. These findings establish a novel mechanism of FOXO function at target promoters: cooperation with deltaEF1.  (+info)

Estrogen-occupied estrogen receptor represses cyclin G2 gene expression and recruits a repressor complex at the cyclin G2 promoter. (7/25)

Estrogens, acting through their nuclear receptors have a broad impact on target cells, eliciting a transcriptional response program that involves gene repression as well as gene stimulation. While much is known about the mechanisms by which the estrogen-occupied estrogen receptor (ER) stimulates gene expression, the molecular events that lead to gene repression by the hormone-ER complex are largely unknown. Because estradiol represses expression of the cyclin G2 gene, which encodes a negative regulator of the cell cycle, our aim was to understand the mechanism by which cyclin G2 is repressed by estrogen. We show that cyclin G2 is a primary ER target gene in MCF-7 breast cancer cells that is rapidly and robustly down-regulated by estrogen. Promoter analysis reveals a responsive region containing a half-estrogen response element and GC-rich region that interact with ER and Sp1 proteins. Mutation of the half-ERE abrogates hormone-mediated repression. Mutational mapping of receptor reveals a requirement for its N-terminal region and DNA binding domain to support cyclin G2 repression. Following estradiol treatment of cells, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses reveal recruitment of ER to the cyclin G2 regulatory region, dismissal of RNA polymerase II, and recruitment of a complex containing N-CoR and histone deacetylases, leading to a hypoacetylated chromatin state. Our study provides evidence for a mechanism by which the estrogen-occupied ER is able to actively repress gene expression in vivo and indicates a role for nuclear receptor corepressors and associated histone deacetylase activity in mediating negative gene regulation by this hormone-occupied nuclear receptor.  (+info)

Cyclin G2 is a centrosome-associated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that influences microtubule stability and induces a p53-dependent cell cycle arrest. (8/25)

Cyclin G2 is an atypical cyclin that associates with active protein phosphatase 2A. Cyclin G2 gene expression correlates with cell cycle inhibition; it is significantly upregulated in response to DNA damage and diverse growth inhibitory stimuli, but repressed by mitogenic signals. Ectopic expression of cyclin G2 promotes cell cycle arrest, cyclin dependent kinase 2 inhibition and the formation of aberrant nuclei [Bennin, D. A., Don, A. S., Brake, T., McKenzie, J. L., Rosenbaum, H., Ortiz, L., DePaoli-Roach, A. A., and Horne, M. C. (2002). Cyclin G2 associates with protein phosphatase 2A catalytic and regulatory B' subunits in active complexes and induces nuclear aberrations and a G(1)/S-phase cell cycle arrest. J Biol Chem 277, 27449-67]. Here we report that endogenous cyclin G2 copurifies with centrosomes and microtubules (MT) and that ectopic G2 expression alters microtubule stability. We find exogenous and endogenous cyclin G2 present at microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) where it colocalizes with centrosomal markers in a variety of cell lines. We previously reported that cyclin G2 forms complexes with active protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and colocalizes with PP2A in a detergent-resistant compartment. We now show that cyclin G2 and PP2A colocalize at MTOCs in transfected cells and that the endogenous proteins copurify with isolated centrosomes. Displacement of the endogenous centrosomal scaffolding protein AKAP450 that anchors PP2A at the centrosome resulted in the depletion of centrosomal cyclin G2. We find that ectopic expression of cyclin G2 induces microtubule bundling and resistance to depolymerization, inhibition of polymer regrowth from MTOCs and a p53-dependent cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we determined that a 100 amino acid carboxy-terminal region of cyclin G2 is sufficient to both direct GFP localization to centrosomes and induce cell cycle inhibition. Colocalization of endogenous cyclin G2 with only one of two GFP-centrin-tagged centrioles, the mature centriole present at microtubule foci, indicates that cyclin G2 resides primarily on the mother centriole. Copurification of cyclin G2 and PP2A subunits with microtubules and centrosomes, together with the effects of ectopic cyclin G2 on cell cycle progression, nuclear morphology and microtubule growth and stability, suggests that cyclin G2 may modulate the cell cycle and cellular division processes through modulation of PP2A and centrosomal associated activities.  (+info)

CCNG2 gene was initially identified in 1996 and encodes for a protein that belongs to a family of cyclins homologous to CCNG1 (7). Previous studies have reported that CCNG2 participates in carcinogenesis and is a known tumor suppressor gene (15-17,20-26). CCNG2 gene expression is downregulated in thyroid (20), oral (21), ovarian (22), breast (23,24), gastric (16), esophageal (17), prostate (25), kidney (26) and colorectal (15) cancer cells.. Several aspects of CCNG2 behavior are associated with antitumor effects. Antitumor agents induce CCNG2 expression, which results in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation (8-10). In breast cancer, CCNG2 knockdown induces multidrug resistance (8). In colorectal cancer, CCNG2 expression correlates with the tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage, histological grade and overall survival (15). In gastric cancer, CCNG2 expression correlates with the extent of differentiation: CCNG2 expression is high in well-differentiated adenocarcinomas and low ...
Rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against a human CCNG1 peptide using ARM Technology. A synthetic peptide of human CCNG1 is used for rabbit immunization.Customer or Abnova will decide on the preferred peptide sequence. (H00000900-K) - Products - Abnova
79 ccng2 TaqMan 5-nuclease assay chemistry provides a fast and simple way to get single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping results.
Transcriptional regulator which directly modulates PDPK1 expression, thus promoting survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Also regulates expression of NDFIP1, BNIP3, and CCNG1.
An Integrated Bioinformatics Approach Identifies Elevated Cyclin E2 Expression and E2F Activity as Distinct Features of Tamoxifen Resistant Breast Tumors. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) reported to be associated with pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and miR-122 expression is down regulated in HCC. Previous studies reported miR-122 targets cyclin G1 (CCNG1) expression and this in turn abolishes p53-mediated inhibition of HBV replication. Here we investigated the involvement of HBx protein in the modulation of miR-122 expression in hepatoblastoma cells. Expression of miR-122 was measured in HepG2 cells transfected with HBx plasmid (HBx-HepG2), full length HBV genome (HBV-HepG2) and in constitutively HBV synthesizing HepG2.2.15 cells. CCNG1 mRNA (a direct target of miR-122) and protein expressions were also measured in both HBx-HepG2, HBV-HepG2 cells and in HepG2.2.15 cells. miR-122 expressions were analyzed in HBx-HepG2, HBV-HepG2 and in HepG2.2.15 cells after treatment with HBx mRNA specific siRNA. Expressions of p53 mRNA and protein which is negatively regulated by CCNG1 were analyzed in HBx transfected HepG2 cells; X silenced HBx
Complete information for CNOT4 gene (Protein Coding), CCR4-NOT Transcription Complex Subunit 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CNOT6 gene (Protein Coding), CCR4-NOT Transcription Complex Subunit 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
CNOT4 - CNOT4 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 4 (CNOT4), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
CNOT4 - CNOT4 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 4 (CNOT4), transcript variant 3 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
G2 is commenced by E2F-mediated transcription of cyclin A, which forms the cyclin A-Cdk2 complex. In order to proceed into ... saw that untagged cyclin B migrated with the cyclin B influenced by iRap. The untagged cyclin is insentive to the treatment, ... Many factors including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), ubiquitin ligases, inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, and ... Phosphorylation of cyclin B promotes translocation to the nucleus, and cyclin B in the nucleus is much more likely to be ...
2002). "Interaction of p58(PITSLRE), a G2/M-specific protein kinase, with cyclin D3". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (38): 35314-22. doi: ... 2004). "Cyclin L2, a novel RNA polymerase II-associated cyclin, is involved in pre-mRNA splicing and induces apoptosis of human ... 2004). "Characterization of cyclin L2, a novel cyclin with an arginine/serine-rich domain: phosphorylation by DYRK1A and ... a G2/M-specific protein kinase, with cyclin D3". J. Biol. Chem. United States. 277 (38): 35314-22. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202179200. ...
The nucleotide sequence of cyclin G1 and cyclin G2 are 53% identical. Unlike cyclin G1, cyclin G2 contains a C-terminal PEST ... "Cyclin G1 and cyclin G2 comprise a new family of cyclins with contrasting tissue-specific and cell cycle-regulated expression ... "Estrogen-occupied estrogen receptor represses cyclin G2 gene expression and recruits a repressor complex at the cyclin G2 ... Cyclin-G2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNG2 gene. The eukaryotic cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent ...
Cyclin D1, Cyclin O, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4, Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C, DNMT1, EP300, Flap structure-specific ... Kawabe T, Suganuma M, Ando T, Kimura M, Hori H, Okamoto T (March 2002). "Cdc25C interacts with PCNA at G2/M transition". ... "Association of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins in normal and transformed human T ... Webb G, Parsons P, Chenevix-Trench G (1991). "Localization of the gene for human proliferating nuclear antigen/cyclin by in ...
Cyclin B1, essential in the entry into mitosis, is targeted by SCFNIPA in interphase. Phosphorylation of NIPA occurs in G2 ... at G2/M involves cyclin B1/Cdk1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (22): 15965-72. doi:10.1074/jbc.M610819200. PMID ... Oscillating ubiquitination of nuclear cyclin B1 driven by the SCFNIPA complex contributes to the timing of mitotic entry. NIPA ... phase, results in dissociation of NIPA from the SCF core, and has been proven critical for proper G2/M transition. ...
During the transition of G2 to M phase, cdk1 is de-phosphorylated by CDC25. The CDK1 subunit is now free and can bind to cyclin ... The mitotic cyclins can be grouped as cyclins A & B. These cyclins have a nine residue sequence in the N-terminal region called ... Cyclin, a regulatory subunit. The cyclins are necessary for the kinase subunit to function with the appropriate substrate. ... As the concentration of Cyclin B/CDK1 increases, the heterodimer promotes APC to polyubiquitinate Cyclin B/CDK1. Smith, L. ...
2007). "Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein regulates G2/M transition through stabilization of cyclin A2 mRNA". Proc. Natl. Acad ...
During G1 phase, the G1/S cyclin activity rises significantly near the end of the G1 phase. Complexes of cyclin that are active ... G1 phase together with the S phase and G2 phase comprise the long growth period of the cell cycle called interphase that takes ... which targets and degrades S and M cyclins (but not G1/S cyclins); and a high concentration of Cdk inhibitors is found during ... At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. These ...
G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNF gene. This gene encodes a member of the cyclin ... "Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". The EMBO Journal. 19 (6): 1378- ... Cyclin F differs from other cyclins by its ability to monitor and regulate cell cycle without the need for cyclin-dependent ... D'Angiolella V, Esencay M, Pagano M (March 2013). "A cyclin without cyclin-dependent kinases: cyclin F controls genome ...
... cyclin and cyclin dependent kinase (CDK), that control the transition from one stage to another. These proteins are called ... When cells with nuclei divide, they divide in phases called G1 (growth), S (synthesis), G2 (growth), and M (mitosis). Nurse, ... "Cyclin Dependent Kinases and Cell Cycle Control" (PDF). nobelprize.org. Retrieved 20 September 2012. Fantes PA; Hoffman CS ( ... These genes stop and start cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) by adding or removing phosphate groups. In 1984, Nurse joined the ...
During G2 phase of the cell cycle, Cdk1 and cyclin B1 makes a complex and forms maturation promoting factor (MPF). The complex ... Cdc25C phosphatase is present in the cytoplasm and in late G2 phase it is translocated into the nucleus by signaling such as ... The system cannot be stable at intermediate levels of Cyclin B1, and the transition between the two stable states is abrupt ... Exhibiting hysteresis, for different levels of Cyclin B1, the switches from low to high and high to low states vary. However, ...
Therefore, cancer cells with uncontrolled growth and improper G2/M checkpoints lack KAT5 regulation by cyclin dependent kinase ... KAT5 catalytic activity is regulated by the phosphorylation of its histones during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. ...
In the late G2 phase, it is present as an inactive complex of tyrosine-phosphorylated p34cdc2 and unphosphorylated cyclin ... As cells leave the S phase and enter the G2 phase, a massive tyrosine phosphorylation of p34cdc2 occurs. Regulation with ... Meijer L, Azzi L, Wang JY (1991). "Cyclin B targets p34cdc2 for tyrosine phosphorylation". EMBO J. 10 (6): 1545-54. PMC 452818 ...
"Hamartin and tuberin interaction with the G2/M cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1 and its regulatory cyclins A and B". J. Neuropathol ... by cyclin-dependent kinase 1/cyclin B". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (51): 51372-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M303956200. PMID 14551205. Nellist M ...
1993). "G2 delay induced by nitrogen mustard in human cells affects cyclin A/cdk2 and cyclin B1/cdc2-kinase complexes ... Absence of a consensus sequence for the p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (46): 27653-60. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.46. ...
2008). "Cyclin G2 is degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and mediates the antiproliferative effect of activin ...
It also interacts with CRIF, which causes the inhibition of Cdc2-cyclin B1 and Cdk-cyclin E. GADD45 also works with the cyclin- ... inhibits cell growth and induces cell cycle G2/M arrest for hepatoma Hep-G2 cell lines". Mol. Biol. Rep. 30 (4): 249-53. doi: ... GADD45G prevents the kinase ability of the cyclin b1/Cdk1 complex in a fashion that does not break apart the complex. It plays ... "GADD45b and GADD45g are cdc2/cyclinB1 kinase inhibitors with a role in S and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints induced by genotoxic ...
The gene is also mapped to 6 G2-G3 on the mouse chromosome, and 4q43 distal-q4 on the rat chromosome respectively.[13] BHLHE41 ... Breast cancer tumors that show high expression of BHLHE41 and CyclinG2 are believed to have a lower metastatic risk.[37][38] ...
APC catalyzes the formation of cyclin B-ubiquitin conjugate that is responsible for the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of B- ... a protein essential for cell cycle progression through the G2/M transition. This protein is a component of anaphase-promoting ... type cyclins. This protein and 3 other members of the APC complex contain the TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat), a protein domain ...
"Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle in G2 by inhibiting the activation of p34cdc2-cyclin B". J. ... Zheng XF, Ruderman JV (1993). "Functional analysis of the P box, a domain in cyclin B required for the activation of Cdc25". ... It directs dephosphorylation of cyclin B-bound CDC2 (CDK1) and triggers entry into mitosis. It is also thought to suppress p53- ... 1991). "Dephosphorylation and activation of a p34cdc2/cyclin B complex in vitro by human CDC25 protein". Nature. 351 (6323): ...
... of human Myt1 kinase induces a G2 cell cycle delay by interfering with the intracellular trafficking of Cdc2-cyclin B1 ... 2004). "Keratinocyte G2/M growth arrest by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is caused by Cdc2 phosphorylation through Wee1 and Myt1 ... 2002). "Akt inhibits Myt1 in the signalling pathway that leads to meiotic G2/M-phase transition". Nat. Cell Biol. 4 (2): 111-6 ... and thus negatively regulates cell cycle G2/M transition. This kinase is associated with the membrane throughout the cell cycle ...
"Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle in G2 by inhibiting the activation of p34cdc2-cyclin B". J. ... Elder RT, Yu M, Chen M, Zhu X, Yanagida M, Zhao Y (2001). "HIV-1 Vpr induces cell cycle G2 arrest in fission yeast ( ... Elder RT, Yu M, Chen M, Edelson S, Zhao Y (2000). "Cell cycle G2 arrest induced by HIV-1 Vpr in fission yeast ( ... a cellular factor linked to the G2/M phase transition of the mammalian cell cycle". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (7): 3419- ...
Activation of Chk1 holds the cell in the G2 phase until ready to enter the mitotic phase. This delay allows time for DNA to ... The degradation has an inhibitory effect on the formation of cyclin-dependent kinase complexes, which are key drivers of the ... Chk1 impacts various stages of the cell cycle including the S phase, G2/M transition and M phase. In addition to mediating cell ... Phosphorylation of WEE1 kinase inhibits cdk1 which results in cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase. Chk1 has a role in the spindle ...
In the context of endoreplication these events are facilitated by an oscillation in cyclin E-Cdk2 activity. Cyclin E-Cdk2 ... Endoreplication can be understood simply as a variant form of the mitotic cell cycle (G1-S-G2-M) in which mitosis is ... de Nooij JC; Graber KH; Hariharan IK (2001). "Expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dacapo is regulated by cyclin E ... Post-transcriptional regulation of cyclin E-Cdk2 activity involves Ago/Fbw7-mediated proteolytic degradation of cyclin E and ...
"Cyclin G1 and cyclin G2 comprise a new family of cyclins with contrasting tissue-specific and cell cycle-regulated expression ... "Cyclin G1 overcomes radiation-induced G2 arrest and increases cell death through transcriptional activation of cyclin B1". Cell ... Bennin DA, Don AS, Brake T, McKenzie JL, Rosenbaum H, Ortiz L, DePaoli-Roach AA, Horne MC (2002). "Cyclin G2 associates with ... Cyclin-G1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNG1 gene. The eukaryotic cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent ...
The MASTL depleted cells are delayed by RNAi in G2 phase and show a decreased condensation of the chromosomes. RNAi cells which ... This enzyme enhances the cyclin B1-Cdk1-dependent mitotic phosphorylation events during mitosis. This enzyme is also essential ...
SLBP are marked for degradation by phosphorylation at two threonine residues by cyclin dependent kinases, possibly cyclin A/ ... for example in pericentric heterochromatin of cells during G2. H3S10 phosphorylation has also been linked to DNA damage caused ... NPAT activates histone gene expression only after it has been phosphorylated by the G1/S-Cdk cyclin E-Cdk2 in early S phase.[ ... NPAT is also a substrate of cyclin E-Cdk2, which is required for the transition between G1 phase and S phase. ...
"Elevated expression of a regulator of the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, neuronal CIP-1-associated regulator of cyclin B, in ... McShea A, Samuel T, Eppel JT, Galloway DA, Funk JO (Jul 2000). "Identification of CIP-1-associated regulator of cyclin B (CARB ... a novel p21-binding protein acting in the G2 phase of the cell cycle". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (30): 23181-6. ...
Cyclin G2 (CCNG2; encoded by CCNG2 gene) belongs to a family of cyclins homologous to CCNG1 (7). Cyclins positively regulate ... Choi MG, Noh JH, An JY, Hong SK, Park SB, Baik YH, Kim KM, Sohn TS and Kim S: Expression levels of cyclin G2, but not cyclin E ... Unlike other cyclins that positively regulate the cell cycle, cyclin G2 (CCNG2) regulates cell proliferation as a tumor ... i] CCNG2, cyclin G2; NS, not significant; Ph/Pb/Pt, pancreatic head/body/tail; (+/-), yes/no; well/mod/poor, well/moderately/ ...
Help Cycling 2.5 Gal Betta Tank 276158 - in Freshwater Beginners forum - Hi Everyone, tl;dr Is it really necessary to cycle a 2.5 gallon Betta tank? is this still necessary if all the levels are already fine?...
When compared to other countries The Netherlands has a unique cycling culture. Three years ago I showed you some typically Dutch cycling traits. Mannerisms you certainly wont see in countries with a more racing type of cycling culture. Even in Denmark or Germany, however, the countries with a culture that comes closest to the Dutch,…
This adjustment period is commonly referred to as a fat adaptation phase. I learned about these methods from Dr. Mauro Di Pasquales excellent book: The Metabolic Diet. I learned about "Dr. Di" at a Charles Poliquin training seminar and I later saw him lecture at the SWIS weight training symposium in Toronto, Canada many many years ago.. The Metabolic Diet starts you off on a very low carb "assessment phase" which is what I am describing here.. Why do you need this?. Well, when excessive amounts of poor quality carbohydrates have been over consumed (i.e. diabetes epidemic), insulin levels are chronically elevated which leads to insulin resistance.. Heres an analogy: You walk into a bar (no, this isnt a one liner joke…) and there is a live band playing. You cant hear a thing! Then, eventually, you become kind of numb to the music and it doesnt seem as loud anymore.. Well, thats what happens to the insulin receptors of your cells when you consume an abundance of over processed carbs. Your ...
You are instructed not to make use of or mix it with another GABA boosters including alcohol as mixing these elements with Phenibut may cause several serious
... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity, protein kinase binding, mitotic cell cycle phase ... transition, regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity ... cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex, cytoplasm, nucleus, ... IPR039361 Cyclin. IPR013763 Cyclin-like. IPR036915 Cyclin-like_sf. IPR006671 Cyclin_N. ...
Cyclins are positive regulatory subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and thereby play an essential role in the ... IPR013763. Cyclin-like. IPR036915. Cyclin-like_sf. IPR015452. Cyclin_B3. IPR004367. Cyclin_C-dom. IPR006671. Cyclin_N. ... IPR013763. Cyclin-like. IPR036915. Cyclin-like_sf. IPR015452. Cyclin_B3. IPR004367. Cyclin_C-dom. IPR006671. Cyclin_N. ... Cluster: G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B3. 16. Q8WWL7-2. G3RQC9. A0A2I3SM53. A0A2I3H8Y1. F7AMH3. Gorilla gorilla gorilla (Western ...
Compare Cyclin G2 ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com. ... Order Cyclin G2 ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. ... The nucleotide sequence of cyclin G1 and cyclin G2 are 53% identical. Unlike cyclin G1, cyclin G2 contains a C-terminal PEST ... Human Cyclin G2 (CCNG2) interaction partners * This study demonstrates that cyclin G2 suppresses Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and ...
... is a key regulator of the G2/M cell cycle transition. Cyclin B1 accumulates in the cytoplasm through S and G2 phases and ... resulted in nuclear accumulation of cyclin B1 in G2 phase. Disruption of an NES which has been identified in cyclin B1 here ... Nuclear export of cyclin B1 and its possible role in the DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint.. Toyoshima F1, Moriguchi T, Wada A, ... These results suggest a role of nuclear exclusion of cyclin B1 in the DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint. ...
Thus, during G2 PP2A activity is high and cyclin B-Cdc2 activity low, thereby preventing phosphorylation of mitotic substrates ... These data are most likely a result of the G2 arrest, although a partial degradation of cyclin B was also observed, probably as ... Loss of human Greatwall results in G2 arrest and multiple mitotic defects due to deregulation of the cyclin B-Cdc2/PP2A balance ... Loss of human Greatwall results in G2 arrest and multiple mitotic defects due to deregulation of the cyclin B-Cdc2/PP2A balance ...
This is the first study of the expression of cyclin G2, a novel cyclin having a role opposite to that of conventional cyclins, ... However, little is known about the cyclin G2 expression in human carcinomas. We thus investigated cyclin G2 expression in human ... retained cyclin G2 expression than carcinomas.. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that lack of cyclin G2 plays an important role ... Cyclin G2 is a novel cyclin negatively regulating the cell cycle progression, contrary to the characteristics of conventional ...
Whereas many components regulating the progression from S phase through G2 phase into mitosis have been identified, the ... Here we show that depletion of Cyclin A or inhibition of Cdk2 during late S/early G2 phase maintains the G2 phase arrest by ... Thus, a normal role for Cyclin A/Cdk2 during early G2 phase is to increase the level of Cdh1 which destabilises Claspin which ... This mechanism links S phase exit with G2 phase transit into mitosis, provides a novel insight into the roles of Cyclin A/Cdk2 ...
Cyclin G1 and TASCC regulate kidney epithelial cell G2-M arrest and fibrotic maladaptive repair ... Cyclin G1 (CG1), an atypical cyclin, promoted G2-M arrest in PTCs and up-regulated TASCC formation. PTC TASCC formation was ... Cyclin G1 regulates G2-M arrest in proximal tubular cells, promoting a TASCC-induced secretory phenotype, fibrosis, and kidney ... Cyclin G1 regulates G2-M arrest in proximal tubular cells, promoting a TASCC-induced secretory phenotype, fibrosis, and kidney ...
Mitotic G2-G2/M phases (Caenorhabditis elegans) * G2/M Transition (Caenorhabditis elegans) * Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events ... Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events during G2/M transition Stable Identifier ... Phosphorylation of Cyclin B1 in the CRS domain (Caenorhabditis elegans) * Translocation of CRS phosphorylated Cyclin B1:Cdc2 ... Formation of Cyclin B:Cdc2 complexes (Caenorhabditis elegans) * Myt-1 mediated phosphorylation of Cyclin B:Cdc2 complexes ( ...
Tong W,Pollard JW,Progesterone inhibits estrogen-induced cyclin D1 and cdk4 nuclear translocation, cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 ... Cyclin B1 binds to Cdc2 at the beginning of G2 phase forming an activated cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex and then phosphorylates its ... Cyclin B1 / biosynthesis, physiology*. Endometrium / cytology*. Female. Flow Cytometry. G2 Phase / physiology*. Humans. Indoles ... cyclin D1 and cyclin E was detected in endometrial carcinomas, which indicated that cyclins might be the major cell cycle ...
Cell cycle control in mammalian cells: role of cyclins, cyclin dependant kinases (CDKs), growth suppressor genes, and cyclin- ... P276-00, a novel cyclin-dependent inhibitor induces G1-G2 arrest, shows antitumor activity on cisplatin-resistant cells and ... Cdk4/6-cyclin D, Cdk2-cyclin E, and the transcription complex that includes pRb and E2F are pivotal in controlling progression ... Hall M, Peters G. genetic alterations of cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases, and Cdk inhibitors in human cancer. Adv Cancer Res ...
Cyclin A was the first cyclin identified (51). Mammals express two A-type cyclins, embryonic-specific cyclin A1 and somatic ... However, cyclin A2 is the major A-type cyclin in somatic cells (52). Cyclin A2 is ubiquitously expressed in proliferating cells ... Loss of cyclin A2 in HDAC10 knockdown cells contributed to G2/M arrest. The effect of HDAC10 on cyclin A2 transcription was ... At late prophase, cyclin A2 may no longer be necessary as cyclin B/CDK1 becomes active, so it is rapidly degraded by the ...
The Disappearance of Cyclins A and B and the Increase in Activity of the G2/M-Phase Cellular Kinase cdc2 in Herpes Simplex ... The levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, and cdc2 decrease in HSV-1-infected cells relative to those of mock-infected cells.The ... Antibodies against cdc2, cyclin A, and cyclin B (Santa Cruz) were diluted 1:100 in PBS. Antibody to MPM-2 (Upstate ... In uninfected cells, peak levels of cyclin A and cyclin B protein were observed at the 12-h time point consistent with expected ...
G2- & M-phase Cyclin) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone V92.1 ] validated in IF, FC, IP ( ... M-phase Cyclin) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide Cyclin B1 (G2- & M-phase Cyclin) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide. Mouse ... Cyclin B1 (G2- & M-phase Cyclin) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1, CCNB1, CCNB. Format 200ug/ml of Ab purified from Bioreactor Concentrate by Protein A/G. Prepared ...
These data indicate that the cyclin D3-Cdk4 activity is necessary for cell cycle progression through G2 phase into mitosis and ... Cdk4 and Cdk6 complexes with increased avidity and inhibited a cyclin D3-Cdk4 complex normally activated in late S/early G2 ... Activation of this complex was correlated with the caffeine-induced release from the UV-induced G2 delay and a decrease in the ... The UV-responsive lines contained elevated levels of p16 post-treatment, and the accumulation of p16 correlated with the G2 ...
"CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE G2 regulates salinity stress response and salt mediated flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant ... CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE G2 regulates salinity stress response and salt mediated flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. CYCLIN- ... CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE G2 regulates salinity stress response and salt mediated flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ma, Xiaoyan ... Here, Arabidopsis thaliana CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE G2 (CDKG2) was shown to act as a negative regulator of the salinity stress ...
Recombinant Protein and G2/mitotic-specific cyclin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin C13-1. G2/mitotic-specific cyclin C13-1 ELISA Kit. G2/mitotic-specific cyclin C13-1 Recombinant. G2/ ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin S13-6. G2/mitotic-specific cyclin S13-6 ELISA Kit. G2/mitotic-specific cyclin S13-6 Recombinant. G2/ ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin S13-7. G2/mitotic-specific cyclin S13-7 ELISA Kit. G2/mitotic-specific cyclin S13-7 Recombinant. G2/ ...
Negative regulation of G1 and G2 by S-phase cyclins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.: Cell cycle progression in the budding yeast ... Negative regulation of G1 and G2 by S-phase cyclins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. Authors * R D Basco ... In the present study, we show, in addition, that these cyclins negatively regulate G1- and G2-specific functions. The ... a G1 cyclin, and Clb2, a mitotic cyclin, in vivo. These observations are consistent with the observed cell cycle phase ...
a: Glucose uptake in cyclin G2-overexpressing and cyclin G2-knockdown U87 or U251 cells. b: Lactate concentrations in cyclin G2 ... and cyclin G2-knockdown U87 or U251 cells. c-f: Extracellular acidification rates in cyclin G2-overexpressing and cyclin G2- ... cyclin G2 induces G1/S cell cycle arrest even though it possesses a conserved cyclin-fold domain [25]. Similarly, cyclin G2 ... f: LDH activity in cyclin G2-overexpressing or cyclin G2-knockdown U87 or U251 cells. g: LDH activity in WT and Ccng2-/- MEF ...
Dpr1 was identified as a cyclin G2-interacting protein which was required for the cyclin G2-mediated inhibition of β-catenin ... Mechanically, cyclin G2 impacted the activity of CKI to phosphorylate Dpr1, which has been proved to be a protein that acts as ... Cyclin G2 has been shown to be associated with the development of multiple types of tumors, but its underlying mechanisms in ... We found that cyclin G2 levels were decreased in gastric cancer tissues and were associated with tumor size, migration and poor ...
  • We found that cyclin G2 levels were decreased in gastric cancer tissues and were associated with tumor size, migration and poor differentiation status. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Treatment of HeLa cells with leptomycin B (LMB), a specific inhibitor of the NES-dependent transport, resulted in nuclear accumulation of cyclin B1 in G2 phase. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the in vitro cellular potency, together with in vivo antitumor activity, confirms the potential of P276-00, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor as an anticancer molecule. (aacrjournals.org)
  • a. start with cdk 4/6 (inactive) with inhibitor phosphate b. mitogen through Ras activated cyclin D c. cyclin D binds to cdk 4/6 d. add cak with activating phosphate e. lose inhibitor phosphate f. (brainscape.com)
  • We show here that cytoplasmic localization of cyclin B1 during interphase is directed by its nuclear export signal (NES)-dependent transport mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, overexpression of cyclin G2 attenuated tumor growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • WTAP knockdown induced G 2 accumulation, which is partially rescued by adenoviral overexpression of cyclin A2. (elsevier.com)
  • The UV-responsive lines contained elevated levels of p16 post-treatment, and the accumulation of p16 correlated with the G2 delay. (garvan.org.au)
  • Discrete sequence elements control posterior pole accumulation and translational repression of maternal cyclin B RNA in Drosophila. (sdbonline.org)
  • Disruption of an NES which has been identified in cyclin B1 here abolished the nuclear export of this protein, and consequently the NES-disrupted cyclin B1 when expressed in cells accumulated in the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • The complete depletion of Gwl by siRNA arrests human cells in G2. (pnas.org)
  • Normal thyroids expressed cyclin G2 in more than 5% of follicular cells. (nih.gov)
  • Of 30 papillary carcinomas including 6 microcarcinoma, cyclin G2 expression was not, or only occasionally, observed in carcinoma cells, indicating its expression decreased in all these cases. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, in 16 of the 24 follicular adenomas (66.7%) and 5 of the 23 follicular carcinomas (21.7%), cyclin G2 expression was retained (more than 5% of neoplastic cells were positive), and adenomas more frequently (p = 0.0032) retained cyclin G2 expression than carcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, substitution of aspartic acid 199 with alanine in ICP0 abolished stabilization of cyclin D3, reduced the yields of virus from resting cells, and reduced the capacity of the virus to invade the mouse central nervous system from a peripheral site. (asm.org)
  • The consequences of this negative regulation were most apparent in clb6 mutants, which had a shorter pre-Start G1 phase as well as a shorter G2 phase than congenic wild-type cells. (mysciencework.com)
  • Furthermore, specific inactivation of SmE by shRNA significantly increased the percentage of cells in S phase, whereas the amount of G2/M arrested cells was reduced. (iegt-rostock.de)
  • During G2, the cells "check" the DNA to make sure no mistakes were made. (madsci.org)
  • These cells do not express any G1 cyclins (clns). (slideserve.com)
  • HN30 cells are from head and neck cancer tumors that over express cyclin B1 and D1. (antibodies-online.com)
  • ZER-NLC arrested the Jurkat cells at G2/M phase with inactivation of cyclin B1 protein. (dovepress.com)
  • Notably, these mutations do not effect transcription of other spermatocyte genes, such as pelota, cyclin A and roughex . (biologists.org)
  • In the present study, we show, in addition, that these cyclins negatively regulate G1- and G2-specific functions. (mysciencework.com)
  • In addition, in a therapeutic perspective, we assayed the effects of a restored miR-122 expression in triggering doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and we proved that miR-122, as well as cyclin G1 silencing, increases sensitivity to doxorubicin challenge. (aacrjournals.org)
  • METHODS: To investigate the role of cyclin B1 in proliferation and differentiation of hECs in menstrual cycle, the expression of cyclin B1 throughout the menstrual cycle was evaluated in hECs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that cyclin B1 is a critical factor in proliferation and differentiation of hECs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The inactive cyclin B-p34cdc2 complex continues to accumulate in the cytoplasm until the completion of DNA synthesis, when Cdc25, a specific protein phosphatase, dephosphorylates aa 14Thr and 15Tyr of p34cdc2 rendering the complex active at the G2/M boundary. (fishersci.com)
  • HMGA2 loss resulted in enrichment of the transcriptional repressor E4F at the cyclin A2 promoter. (asm.org)
  • Cyclin G2 has been shown to be associated with the development of multiple types of tumors, but its underlying mechanisms in gastric tumors is not well-understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the role and the underlying mechanisms of cyclin G2 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in gastric cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, a xenograft model and a metastasis model of nude mice was used to determine the influence of cyclin G2 on gastric tumor growth and migration in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, there are few reports on the identity of pathways and the precise mechanisms that mediate the roles of cyclin G2 in gastric tumorigenesis and other cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mechanically, cyclin G2 impacted the activity of CKI to phosphorylate Dpr1, which has been proved to be a protein that acts as a suppressor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling when unphosphorylated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • what complex activity keeps M-cyclin levels low in G1? (brainscape.com)
  • During G1 phase, the G1/S cyclin activity rises significantly near the end of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)