A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.
A subunit of the interleukin-12 receptor. It plays a role in receptor signaling by associating with JANUS KINASE 2.
An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.

Cyclin G2 associates with protein phosphatase 2A catalytic and regulatory B' subunits in active complexes and induces nuclear aberrations and a G1/S phase cell cycle arrest. (1/25)

Cyclin G2, together with cyclin G1 and cyclin I, defines a novel cyclin family expressed in terminally differentiated tissues including brain and muscle. Cyclin G2 expression is up-regulated as cells undergo cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in response to inhibitory stimuli independent of p53 (Horne, M., Donaldson, K., Goolsby, G., Tran, D., Mulheisen, M., Hell, J. and Wahl, A. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 12650-12661). We tested the hypothesis that cyclin G2 may be a negative regulator of cell cycle progression and found that ectopic expression of cyclin G2 induces the formation of aberrant nuclei and cell cycle arrest in HEK293 and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Cyclin G2 is primarily partitioned to a detergent-resistant compartment, suggesting an association with cytoskeletal elements. We determined that cyclin G2 and its homolog cyclin G1 directly interact with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). An okadaic acid-sensitive (<2 nm) phosphatase activity coprecipitates with endogenous and ectopic cyclin G2. We found that cyclin G2 also associates with various PP2A B' regulatory subunits, as previously shown for cyclin G1. The PP2A/A subunit is not detectable in cyclin G2-PP2A-B'-C complexes. Notably, cyclin G2 colocalizes with both PP2A/C and B' subunits in detergent-resistant cellular compartments, suggesting that these complexes form in living cells. The ability of cyclin G2 to inhibit cell cycle progression correlates with its ability to bind PP2A/B' and C subunits. Together, our findings suggest that cyclin G2-PP2A complexes inhibit cell cycle progression.  (+info)

Control of cyclin G2 mRNA expression by forkhead transcription factors: novel mechanism for cell cycle control by phosphoinositide 3-kinase and forkhead. (2/25)

Cyclin G2 is an unconventional cyclin highly expressed in postmitotic cells. Unlike classical cyclins that promote cell cycle progression, cyclin G2 blocks cell cycle entry. Here we studied the mechanisms that regulate cyclin G2 mRNA expression during the cell cycle. Analysis of synchronized NIH 3T3 cell cultures showed elevated cyclin G2 mRNA expression levels at G(0), with a considerable reduction as cells enter cell cycle. Downregulation of cyclin G2 mRNA levels requires activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, suggesting that this enzyme controls cyclin G2 mRNA expression. Because the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway inhibits the FoxO family of forkhead transcription factors, we examined the involvement of these factors in the regulation of cyclin G2 expression. We show that active forms of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO3a (FKHRL1) increase cyclin G2 mRNA levels. Cyclin G2 has forkhead consensus motifs in its promoter, which are transactivated by constitutive active FoxO3a forms. Finally, interference with forkhead-mediated transcription by overexpression of an inactive form decreases cyclin G2 mRNA expression levels. These results show that FoxO genes regulate cyclin G2 expression, illustrating a new role for phosphoinositide 3-kinase and FoxO transcription factors in the control of cell cycle entry.  (+info)

Effect of cyclin G2 on proliferative ability of SGC-7901 cell. (3/25)

AIM: To study the effect of cyclin G2 on proliferation of gastric adenocarcinoma cell line-SGC-7901 cell in vitro. METHODS: By use of cation lipofectamine transfection reagent, the pIRES-G2 and pIRESneo plasmids were transferred into SGC-7901cell line. Anticlones were selected by G418. Positive clones were observed and counted using Giemsa staining. Cell proliferative ability was assayed by MTT. RESULTS: (1) The clone number of pIRES-G2 group decreased, clone volume reduced. The number of cell clones in pIRESneo group was 87+/-3, that of pIRES-G2 group was 53+/-4, occupying 60.1% of pIRESneo group, there was significant difference obviously (P<0.01, t=15.45). (2) The average absorbance of clone cell obtained by stable transfection of pIRES-G2 at 570 nm was 1.6966+/-0.2125, the average absorbance of clone cell obtained by stable transfection of pIRESneo at 570 nm was 2.1182+/-0.3675, there was significant difference between them (P<0.01, t=3.412). CONCLUSION: Cyclin G2 can inhibit SGC-7901cell proliferative ability obviously, it may be a negative regulator in cell cycle regulation.  (+info)

Cyclin G2 dysregulation in human oral cancer. (4/25)

Using expression microarray, we have previously shown that human cyclin G2 (hCG2) is significantly down-regulated in laser capture microdissected oral cancer epithelia. Western analysis showed detectable hCG2 protein in normal (2 of 2) but not in malignant (4 of 4) oral keratinocyte cell lines. Immunohistochemistry analysis done on oral cancers showed that normal oral mucosa (100%, 12 of 12) and 69.1% (47 of 68) of dysplastic oral epithelia expressed readily detectable hCG2 in the nuclei. However, only 11.1% of oral cancer epithelia (14 of 126) showed mild hCG2 nuclear staining. Interestingly, of the oral cancers devoid of nuclear hCG2 (112 cases), 58 cases (52%) showed cytoplasmic hCG2 immunostaining, whereas the other 54 cases (48%) exhibited neither nuclear nor cytoplasmic hCG2 staining. In vitro functional study by ectopic restoration of hCG2 expression in the human malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) line SCC15 resulted in a significant inhibition of cellular proliferation (P < 0.001) and colony formation (P < 2 x 10(-5)) with increased population of G(1) phase and decreased in S phase (P < 0.01). Furthermore, stable down-regulation of hCG2 by short interference RNA-based gene silencing in immortalized normal oral keratinocytes resulted in enhanced cell growth with increase in S and prominently in G(2) phase. Because hCG2 has been implicated as a negative regulator in cell cycle progression, our results support that hCG2 dysregulation may play an important role in epithelial transformation and the early stages of human oral cancer development.  (+info)

Cellular and gene expression responses involved in the rapid growth inhibition of human cancer cells by RNA interference-mediated depletion of telomerase RNA. (5/25)

Inhibition of the up-regulated telomerase activity in cancer cells has previously been shown to slow cell growth but only after prior telomere shortening. Previously, we have reported that, unexpectedly, a hairpin short interfering RNA specifically targeting human telomerase RNA rapidly inhibits the growth of human cancer cells independently of p53 or telomere length and without bulk telomere shortening (Li, S., Rosenberg, J. E., Donjacour, A. A., Botchkina, I. L., Hom, Y. K., Cunha, G. R., and Blackburn, E. H. (2004) Cancer Res. 64, 4833-4840). Here we have demonstrated that such telomerase RNA knockdown in cancer cells does not cause telomere uncapping but rather induces changes in the global gene expression profile indicative of a novel response pathway, which includes suppression of specific genes implicated in angiogenesis and metastasis, and is distinct from the expression profile changes induced by telomere-uncapping mutant template telomerase RNAs. These cellular responses to depleting telomerase in human cancer cells together suggest that cancer cells are "telomerase-addicted" and uncover functions of telomerase in tumor growth and progression in addition to telomere maintenance.  (+info)

FOXO transcription factors cooperate with delta EF1 to activate growth suppressive genes in B lymphocytes. (6/25)

Forkhead transcription factors regulate many aspects of lymphocyte development and function. The FOXO subgroup of Forkhead factors opposes proliferation and survival, and FOXO inactivation is an important outcome of Ag receptor signaling. FOXO activity at target promoters is modulated by other transcription factors in a manner dependent on cell type and external stimulus. We have investigated the mechanisms by which FOXO proteins activate the promoters of two target genes in murine B lymphocytes, Ccng2 (encoding cyclin G2) and Rbl2 (p130), each of which has been implicated in cell cycle arrest. FOXO proteins bound directly to both promoters in vitro and in vivo, augmented transcriptional activity in reporter assays, and increased expression of the endogenous genes. Each of the promoter sequences has consensus binding sites for the deltaEF1 transcription factor, previously shown to either repress or activate different promoters. deltaEF1 bound to the Ccng2 and Rbl2 promoters in vitro and in vivo and increased reporter activity as well as endogenous mRNA levels for these genes. Strikingly, deltaEF1 synergized with FOXO proteins to strongly activate transcription from both promoters. Coexpression of deltaEF1 enhanced FOXO-induced cell cycle arrest in B lymphoma cells. These findings establish a novel mechanism of FOXO function at target promoters: cooperation with deltaEF1.  (+info)

Estrogen-occupied estrogen receptor represses cyclin G2 gene expression and recruits a repressor complex at the cyclin G2 promoter. (7/25)

Estrogens, acting through their nuclear receptors have a broad impact on target cells, eliciting a transcriptional response program that involves gene repression as well as gene stimulation. While much is known about the mechanisms by which the estrogen-occupied estrogen receptor (ER) stimulates gene expression, the molecular events that lead to gene repression by the hormone-ER complex are largely unknown. Because estradiol represses expression of the cyclin G2 gene, which encodes a negative regulator of the cell cycle, our aim was to understand the mechanism by which cyclin G2 is repressed by estrogen. We show that cyclin G2 is a primary ER target gene in MCF-7 breast cancer cells that is rapidly and robustly down-regulated by estrogen. Promoter analysis reveals a responsive region containing a half-estrogen response element and GC-rich region that interact with ER and Sp1 proteins. Mutation of the half-ERE abrogates hormone-mediated repression. Mutational mapping of receptor reveals a requirement for its N-terminal region and DNA binding domain to support cyclin G2 repression. Following estradiol treatment of cells, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses reveal recruitment of ER to the cyclin G2 regulatory region, dismissal of RNA polymerase II, and recruitment of a complex containing N-CoR and histone deacetylases, leading to a hypoacetylated chromatin state. Our study provides evidence for a mechanism by which the estrogen-occupied ER is able to actively repress gene expression in vivo and indicates a role for nuclear receptor corepressors and associated histone deacetylase activity in mediating negative gene regulation by this hormone-occupied nuclear receptor.  (+info)

Cyclin G2 is a centrosome-associated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that influences microtubule stability and induces a p53-dependent cell cycle arrest. (8/25)

Cyclin G2 is an atypical cyclin that associates with active protein phosphatase 2A. Cyclin G2 gene expression correlates with cell cycle inhibition; it is significantly upregulated in response to DNA damage and diverse growth inhibitory stimuli, but repressed by mitogenic signals. Ectopic expression of cyclin G2 promotes cell cycle arrest, cyclin dependent kinase 2 inhibition and the formation of aberrant nuclei [Bennin, D. A., Don, A. S., Brake, T., McKenzie, J. L., Rosenbaum, H., Ortiz, L., DePaoli-Roach, A. A., and Horne, M. C. (2002). Cyclin G2 associates with protein phosphatase 2A catalytic and regulatory B' subunits in active complexes and induces nuclear aberrations and a G(1)/S-phase cell cycle arrest. J Biol Chem 277, 27449-67]. Here we report that endogenous cyclin G2 copurifies with centrosomes and microtubules (MT) and that ectopic G2 expression alters microtubule stability. We find exogenous and endogenous cyclin G2 present at microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) where it colocalizes with centrosomal markers in a variety of cell lines. We previously reported that cyclin G2 forms complexes with active protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and colocalizes with PP2A in a detergent-resistant compartment. We now show that cyclin G2 and PP2A colocalize at MTOCs in transfected cells and that the endogenous proteins copurify with isolated centrosomes. Displacement of the endogenous centrosomal scaffolding protein AKAP450 that anchors PP2A at the centrosome resulted in the depletion of centrosomal cyclin G2. We find that ectopic expression of cyclin G2 induces microtubule bundling and resistance to depolymerization, inhibition of polymer regrowth from MTOCs and a p53-dependent cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we determined that a 100 amino acid carboxy-terminal region of cyclin G2 is sufficient to both direct GFP localization to centrosomes and induce cell cycle inhibition. Colocalization of endogenous cyclin G2 with only one of two GFP-centrin-tagged centrioles, the mature centriole present at microtubule foci, indicates that cyclin G2 resides primarily on the mother centriole. Copurification of cyclin G2 and PP2A subunits with microtubules and centrosomes, together with the effects of ectopic cyclin G2 on cell cycle progression, nuclear morphology and microtubule growth and stability, suggests that cyclin G2 may modulate the cell cycle and cellular division processes through modulation of PP2A and centrosomal associated activities.  (+info)

CCNG2 gene was initially identified in 1996 and encodes for a protein that belongs to a family of cyclins homologous to CCNG1 (7). Previous studies have reported that CCNG2 participates in carcinogenesis and is a known tumor suppressor gene (15-17,20-26). CCNG2 gene expression is downregulated in thyroid (20), oral (21), ovarian (22), breast (23,24), gastric (16), esophageal (17), prostate (25), kidney (26) and colorectal (15) cancer cells.. Several aspects of CCNG2 behavior are associated with antitumor effects. Antitumor agents induce CCNG2 expression, which results in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation (8-10). In breast cancer, CCNG2 knockdown induces multidrug resistance (8). In colorectal cancer, CCNG2 expression correlates with the tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage, histological grade and overall survival (15). In gastric cancer, CCNG2 expression correlates with the extent of differentiation: CCNG2 expression is high in well-differentiated adenocarcinomas and low ...
Rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against a human CCNG1 peptide using ARM Technology. A synthetic peptide of human CCNG1 is used for rabbit immunization.Customer or Abnova will decide on the preferred peptide sequence. (H00000900-K) - Products - Abnova
79 ccng2 TaqMan 5-nuclease assay chemistry provides a fast and simple way to get single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping results.
Transcriptional regulator which directly modulates PDPK1 expression, thus promoting survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Also regulates expression of NDFIP1, BNIP3, and CCNG1.
An Integrated Bioinformatics Approach Identifies Elevated Cyclin E2 Expression and E2F Activity as Distinct Features of Tamoxifen Resistant Breast Tumors. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) reported to be associated with pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and miR-122 expression is down regulated in HCC. Previous studies reported miR-122 targets cyclin G1 (CCNG1) expression and this in turn abolishes p53-mediated inhibition of HBV replication. Here we investigated the involvement of HBx protein in the modulation of miR-122 expression in hepatoblastoma cells. Expression of miR-122 was measured in HepG2 cells transfected with HBx plasmid (HBx-HepG2), full length HBV genome (HBV-HepG2) and in constitutively HBV synthesizing HepG2.2.15 cells. CCNG1 mRNA (a direct target of miR-122) and protein expressions were also measured in both HBx-HepG2, HBV-HepG2 cells and in HepG2.2.15 cells. miR-122 expressions were analyzed in HBx-HepG2, HBV-HepG2 and in HepG2.2.15 cells after treatment with HBx mRNA specific siRNA. Expressions of p53 mRNA and protein which is negatively regulated by CCNG1 were analyzed in HBx transfected HepG2 cells; X silenced HBx
Complete information for CNOT4 gene (Protein Coding), CCR4-NOT Transcription Complex Subunit 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CNOT6 gene (Protein Coding), CCR4-NOT Transcription Complex Subunit 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
This is in keeping with the theory that neuronal cell death associated with AD has, as its root cause, an ectopic re-entrance into the cell cycle (121), which results in the hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated tau proteins characteristic of AD neurofibrillary tangles. D1 and G1, and opposing tumor suppressor proteins, such as p53, pRb, p16INK4A and p21WAF1, which are commonly dysregulated in malignancy. While progress has been made in identifying several enzymes and molecular relationships associated with cell cycle checkpoint control, the designated complexity, particularly the functional redundancy, of these cell cycle control enzymes in mammalian systems, presents a major challenge CRT-0066101 in discerning an ideal locus for restorative treatment in the medical management of malignancy. Recent improvements in genetic engineering, practical genomics and medical oncology converged in identifying cyclin G1 (CCNG1 gene) like a pivotal component of a commanding cyclin G1/Mdm2/p53 axis ...
Despite the importance of placenta in mediating rapid physiological changes in pregnancy, data on temporal dynamics of placental gene expression are limited. We completed the first transcriptome profiling of human placental gene expression dynamics (GeneChips, Affymetrix®; ∼47,000 transcripts) from early to mid-gestation (n = 10; gestational weeks 5-18) and report 154 genes with significant transcriptional changes (ANOVA, FDR P|0.1). TaqMan RT-qPCR analysis (n = 43; gestational weeks 5-41) confirmed a significant (ANOVA and t-test, FDR P|0.05) mid-gestational peak of placental gene expression for BMP5, CCNG2, CDH11, FST, GATM, GPR183, ITGBL1, PLAGL1, SLC16A10 and STC1, followed by sharp decrease in mRNA levels at term (t-test, FDR P|0.05). We hypothesized that normal course of late pregnancy may be affected when genes characteristic to mid-gestation placenta remain highly expressed until term, and analyzed their expression in term placentas from normal and complicated pregnancies [preeclampsia (PE),
CNOT4 - CNOT4 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 4 (CNOT4), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
CNOT4 - CNOT4 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 4 (CNOT4), transcript variant 3 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Visit Stack Exchange ...
Objective: Light blood cell (WBC) count to mean platelet volume (MPV) percentage (WMR) is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEMI). the tertiles. Results: WMR was significantly higher in the CCNG2 patient group compared to the control group (p 0,001). WMR among low, intermediate and high score tertiles were determined to be 89026, 1090042 and 150065, respectively (p 0,001). In receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, WMR 960 3-Hydroxydodecanoic acid expected a SYNTAX score 23 with 80.6% level of sensitivity and 67.6% specificity (AUC: 0.756; 95% CI: 0.685 - 0.818; p 0.0001) and a WMR 1360 predicted a SYNTAX score 33 with 71.4% level of sensitivity and 93% specificity (AUC: 0.840; 95%CI: 0.777 - 0.892; p 0.0001). Conclusions: WMR value was significantly elevated in NSTEMI individuals, compared to settings. Higher WMR was associated with higher SYNTAX score in individuals with NSTEMI. WMR 3-Hydroxydodecanoic ...
G2 is commenced by E2F-mediated transcription of cyclin A, which forms the cyclin A-Cdk2 complex. In order to proceed into ... saw that untagged cyclin B migrated with the cyclin B influenced by iRap. The untagged cyclin is insentive to the treatment, ... Many factors including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), ubiquitin ligases, inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, and ... Phosphorylation of cyclin B promotes translocation to the nucleus, and cyclin B in the nucleus is much more likely to be ...
Cyclin A and Cyclin E localize to the fusome in female germline cysts and are required for the correct number of mitotic ... Myt1 kinase inhibits CycA/Cdk1 in males during G2. Without Myt1 regulation, fusome and centrosome behavior is abnormal, ... Abnormal cyclin levels result in too few or too many divisions. Cyclin E at the fusome is phosphorylated for degradation by the ... 2000). Cyclin A associates with the fusome during germline cyst formation in the Drosophila ovary. Developmental Biology 218: ...
2002). "Interaction of p58(PITSLRE), a G2/M-specific protein kinase, with cyclin D3". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (38): 35314-22. doi: ... 2004). "Cyclin L2, a novel RNA polymerase II-associated cyclin, is involved in pre-mRNA splicing and induces apoptosis of human ... 2004). "Characterization of cyclin L2, a novel cyclin with an arginine/serine-rich domain: phosphorylation by DYRK1A and ... a G2/M-specific protein kinase, with cyclin D3". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (38): 35314-22. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202179200. ISSN 0021-9258 ...
During the transition of G2 to M phase, cdk1 is de-phosphorylated by CDC25. The CDK1 subunit is now free and can bind to cyclin ... The mitotic cyclins can be grouped as cyclins A & B. These cyclins have a nine residue sequence in the N-terminal region called ... Cyclin, a regulatory subunit. The cyclins are necessary for the kinase subunit to function with the appropriate substrate. ... As the concentration of Cyclin B/CDK1 increases, the heterodimer promotes APC to polyubiquitinate Cyclin B/CDK1. Smith LD, ...
The nucleotide sequence of cyclin G1 and cyclin G2 are 53% identical. Unlike cyclin G1, cyclin G2 contains a C-terminal PEST ... "Cyclin G1 and cyclin G2 comprise a new family of cyclins with contrasting tissue-specific and cell cycle-regulated expression ... "Estrogen-occupied estrogen receptor represses cyclin G2 gene expression and recruits a repressor complex at the cyclin G2 ... Cyclin-G2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNG2 gene. The eukaryotic cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent ...
Cyclin B1, essential in the entry into mitosis, is targeted by SCFNIPA in interphase. Phosphorylation of NIPA occurs in G2 ... at G2/M involves cyclin B1/Cdk1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (22): 15965-72. doi:10.1074/jbc.M610819200. PMID ... Oscillating ubiquitination of nuclear cyclin B1 driven by the SCFNIPA complex contributes to the timing of mitotic entry. NIPA ... phase, results in dissociation of NIPA from the SCF core, and has been proven critical for proper G2/M transition. ...
2007). "Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein regulates G2/M transition through stabilization of cyclin A2 mRNA". Proc. Natl. Acad ...
During G1 phase, the G1/S cyclin activity rises significantly near the end of the G1 phase. Complexes of cyclin that are active ... There are three checkpoints in the cell cycle: the G1/S Checkpoint or the Start checkpoint in yeast; the G2/M checkpoint; and ... which targets and degrades S and M cyclins (but not G1/S cyclins); and a high concentration of Cdk inhibitors is found during ... At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. These ...
"Cyclin G1 and cyclin G2 comprise a new family of cyclins with contrasting tissue-specific and cell cycle-regulated expression ... "Cyclin G1 overcomes radiation-induced G2 arrest and increases cell death through transcriptional activation of cyclin B1". Cell ... Bennin DA, Don AS, Brake T, McKenzie JL, Rosenbaum H, Ortiz L, DePaoli-Roach AA, Horne MC (2002). "Cyclin G2 associates with ... Cyclin-G1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNG1 gene. The eukaryotic cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent ...
G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNF gene. This gene encodes a member of the cyclin ... "Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". The EMBO Journal. 19 (6): 1378- ... Cyclin F differs from other cyclins by its ability to monitor and regulate cell cycle without the need for cyclin-dependent ... D'Angiolella V, Esencay M, Pagano M (March 2013). "A cyclin without cyclin-dependent kinases: cyclin F controls genome ...
Cyclin D1, Cyclin O, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4, Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C, DNMT1, EP300, Establishment of Sister ... Kawabe T, Suganuma M, Ando T, Kimura M, Hori H, Okamoto T (March 2002). "Cdc25C interacts with PCNA at G2/M transition". ... "Association of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins in normal and transformed human T ... Webb G, Parsons P, Chenevix-Trench G (1991). "Localization of the gene for human proliferating nuclear antigen/cyclin by in ...
During G2 phase of the cell cycle, Cdk1 and cyclin B1 makes a complex and forms maturation promoting factor (MPF). The complex ... Cdc25C phosphatase is present in the cytoplasm and in late G2 phase it is translocated into the nucleus by signaling such as ... The system cannot be stable at intermediate levels of Cyclin B1, and the transition between the two stable states is abrupt ... Exhibiting hysteresis, for different levels of Cyclin B1, the switches from low to high and high to low states vary. However, ...
Therefore, cancer cells with uncontrolled growth and improper G2/M checkpoints lack KAT5 regulation by cyclin dependent kinase ... KAT5 catalytic activity is regulated by the phosphorylation of its histones during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. ...
In the late G2 phase, it is present as an inactive complex of tyrosine-phosphorylated p34cdc2 and unphosphorylated cyclin ... As cells leave the S phase and enter the G2 phase, a massive tyrosine phosphorylation of p34cdc2 occurs. Regulation with ... Meijer L, Azzi L, Wang JY (1991). "Cyclin B targets p34cdc2 for tyrosine phosphorylation". EMBO J. 10 (6): 1545-54. doi:10.1002 ...
"Down-regulation of cyclin G2 by insulin, IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor 1) and X10 (AspB10 insulin): role in mitogenesis". ...
1993). "G2 delay induced by nitrogen mustard in human cells affects cyclin A/cdk2 and cyclin B1/cdc2-kinase complexes ... Absence of a consensus sequence for the p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (46): 27653-60. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.46. ...
2008). "Cyclin G2 is degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and mediates the antiproliferative effect of activin ...
It also interacts with CRIF, which causes the inhibition of Cdc2-cyclin B1 and Cdk-cyclin E. GADD45 also works with the cyclin- ... inhibits cell growth and induces cell cycle G2/M arrest for hepatoma Hep-G2 cell lines". Mol. Biol. Rep. 30 (4): 249-53. doi: ... GADD45G prevents the kinase ability of the cyclin b1/Cdk1 complex in a fashion that does not break apart the complex. It plays ... "GADD45b and GADD45g are cdc2/cyclinB1 kinase inhibitors with a role in S and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints induced by genotoxic ...
Emi1 association with Cdc20 allows for the stabilization of various cyclins throughout S and G2 phase, but Emi1's removal is ... Securin and M cyclins (cyclin A and cyclin B) are then targeted by APC/CCdc20 for degradation. Once degraded, separin is ... In this manner, cyclin A can be degraded while cyclin B and securin are degraded only once sister chromatids have achieved bi- ... Cyclin A is degraded early in mitosis, supporting the theory, but cyclin B and securin are not degraded until metaphase. The ...
The gene is also mapped to 6 G2-G3 on the mouse chromosome, and 4q43 distal-q4 on the rat chromosome respectively.[13] BHLHE41 ... Breast cancer tumors that show high expression of BHLHE41 and CyclinG2 are believed to have a lower metastatic risk.[37][38] ...
It was shown using human cancer cell lines, that the G2/M checkpoint is regulated by CaMKII and MAPK crosstalk. Here, CaMKII ... One possible mechanism is that cyclin A synthesis is inhibited, preventing cdk2 activity which is required for initiation of ... Further, recent work has shown mechanically induced rapid entry into mitosis of cells paused in G2. Further, progression ... for converting the Ca2+ influx signal into inhibition of CSF and activation of cyclin degradation machinery to degrade cyclin B ...
"Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle in G2 by inhibiting the activation of p34cdc2-cyclin B". J. ... Zheng XF, Ruderman JV (1993). "Functional analysis of the P box, a domain in cyclin B required for the activation of Cdc25". ... It directs dephosphorylation of cyclin B-bound CDC2 (CDK1) and triggers entry into mitosis. It is also thought to suppress p53- ... 1991). "Dephosphorylation and activation of a p34cdc2/cyclin B complex in vitro by human CDC25 protein". Nature. 351 (6323): ...
... of human Myt1 kinase induces a G2 cell cycle delay by interfering with the intracellular trafficking of Cdc2-cyclin B1 ... Since almost all cyclin B1-Cdk 1 complexes are found in the cytoplasm, Myt 1 may be the most important inhibitory kinase for ... In vertebrates, the Cdc25 enzymes are Cdc25A which controls the checkpoints of G1/S and G2/M as well as Cdc25B and Cdc25C which ... June 2004). "Keratinocyte G2/M growth arrest by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is caused by Cdc2 phosphorylation through Wee1 and ...
"Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle in G2 by inhibiting the activation of p34cdc2-cyclin B". J. ... Elder RT, Yu M, Chen M, Zhu X, Yanagida M, Zhao Y (2001). "HIV-1 Vpr induces cell cycle G2 arrest in fission yeast ( ... Elder RT, Yu M, Chen M, Edelson S, Zhao Y (2000). "Cell cycle G2 arrest induced by HIV-1 Vpr in fission yeast ( ... a cellular factor linked to the G2/M phase transition of the mammalian cell cycle". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (7): 3419- ...
For example, a peak of cyclin E protein would indicate the G1/S transition, a cyclin A peak would indicate late G2 phase, and a ... This can actually be used to destroy phase-specific cyclins beyond just G2 - for instance, destruction of cyclin D1 mRNA by ... G2: Fission yeast expressing some mutant forms of CDC2 unable to arrest in G2 in response to DNA damage, indicating the gene ... Different classes of cyclins are up- and down-regulated at different parts of the cell cycle. Measurement of the cyclins from ...
The G2/M phase transition is regulated by the formation of the Cdk1/cyclin B complex. Inhibition through the cell cycle is ... BDNF prevents the G2/M transition through its receptor TrkB and their capacity to decrease cyclin B and Cdk1. The mechanism by ... Transitions through the cell cycle from one phase to the next are regulated by cyclins binding their respective cyclin ... S phase is then driven by the binding of cyclin A with Cdk2. In late S phase, cyclin A binds with Cdk1 to promote late ...
APC catalyzes the formation of cyclin B-ubiquitin conjugate that is responsible for the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of B- ... a protein essential for cell cycle progression through the G2/M transition. This protein is a component of anaphase-promoting ... type cyclins. This protein and 3 other members of the APC complex contain the TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat), a protein domain ...
Activation of Chk1 holds the cell in the G2 phase until ready to enter the mitotic phase. This delay allows time for DNA to ... The degradation has an inhibitory effect on the formation of cyclin-dependent kinase complexes, which are key drivers of the ... Chk1 impacts various stages of the cell cycle including the S phase, G2/M transition and M phase. In addition to mediating cell ... Phosphorylation of WEE1 kinase inhibits cdk1 which results in cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase. Chk1 has a role in the spindle ...
In 1987, Nurse identified the homologous gene in human, Cdk1, which codes for a cyclin dependent kinase. Working in fission ... and G2 to M, when the cell divides. With his postdoc Melanie Lee, Nurse also found the corresponding gene, CDK1, in humans. ... These genes stop and start cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) by adding or removing phosphate groups. In 1984, Nurse joined the ... This gene controls the progression of the cell cycle from G1 phase to S phase and the transition from G2 phase to mitosis. ...
In the context of endoreplication these events are facilitated by an oscillation in cyclin E-Cdk2 activity. Cyclin E-Cdk2 ... Endoreplication can be understood simply as a variant form of the mitotic cell cycle (G1-S-G2-M) in which mitosis is ... de Nooij JC; Graber KH; Hariharan IK (2001). "Expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dacapo is regulated by cyclin E ... Post-transcriptional regulation of cyclin E-Cdk2 activity involves Ago/Fbw7-mediated proteolytic degradation of cyclin E and ...
SLBP are marked for degradation by phosphorylation at two threonine residues by cyclin dependent kinases, possibly cyclin A/ ... for example in pericentric heterochromatin of cells during G2. H3S10 phosphorylation has also been linked to DNA damage caused ... NPAT activates histone gene expression only after it has been phosphorylated by the G1/S-Cdk cyclin E-Cdk2 in early S phase.[ ... NPAT is also a substrate of cyclin E-Cdk2, which is required for the transition between G1 phase and S phase. ...
The cell cycle is divided into four distinct phases, G1, S, G2, and M. The G phases - which is the cell growth phase - makes up ... The cell cycle is regulated by a series of signalling factors and complexes such as cyclin-dependent kinases and p53, to name a ...
Regulation of cyclin A-Cdk2 by SCF component Skp1 and F-box protein Skp2. „Mol. Cell. Biol.". 19 (1), s. 635-45, 1999. PMID: ... Identification of a functional domain in a GADD45-mediated G2/M checkpoint. „J. Biol. Chem.". 275 (47), s. 36892-8, 2000. DOI: ... Li Y, Jenkins CW, Nichols MA, Xiong Y. Cell cycle expression and p53 regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. „ ... Watanabe H, Pan ZQ, Schreiber-Agus N, DePinho RA, Hurwitz J, Xiong Y. Suppression of cell transformation by the cyclin- ...
positive regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle. • response to toxic substance. • positive regulation of cell ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ...
Arif A, Jia J, Moodt RA, DiCorleto PE, Fox PL (January 2011). "Phosphorylation of glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase by cyclin- ...
cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ... G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle. • positive regulation of B cell proliferation. • negative regulation of cell growth. • ... p21Cip1 (alternatively p21Waf1), also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin- ... CDKN1A, CAP20, CDKN1, CIP1, MDA-6, P21, SDI1, WAF1, p21CIP1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ...
All these phases in the cell cycle are highly regulated by cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and other cell cycle proteins. ... Mitotic cells irradiated in the G2 phase repair such damages preferentially by sister-chromatid recombination.[72] Mutations in ...
regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • G2/M ... cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • protein ... cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex. • nucleus. • nucleoplasm. • cytosol. • intracellular membrane-bounded ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1). Structure of the C-terminal region of p21(WAF1/CIP1) complexed with human ...
"CDK-dependent Hsp70 Phosphorylation controls G1 cyclin abundance and cell-cycle progression". Cell. 151 (6): 1308-18. doi ...
HIV-1 expression induces tubular cell G2/M arrest and apoptosis.[94] The progression from HIV to AIDS is not immediate or even ... Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... "HIV-1 Expression Induces Tubular Cell G2/M Arrest and ...
Rakutsükkel M-mitoosifaas;raku jagunemine, G0-puhkefaas;rakk ei jagune, G1-valmistumine DNA sünteesiks,S-replikatsioonifaas, G2 ... Intracellular Control of Cell-Cycle Events: S-Phase Cyclin-Cdk Complexes (S-Cdks) Initiate DNA Replication Once Per Cycle. ...
... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases". Oncogene. 15 (2): 143-57. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201252. PMID 9244350.. ... mitotic G2/M transition checkpoint. • regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • negative regulation of G0 ... signal transduction involved in G2 DNA damage checkpoint. • regulation of signal transduction by p53 class mediator. ... "BRCA1 phosphorylation by Aurora-A in the regulation of G2 to M transition". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (19): 19643-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Wee1 acts to keep Cdc2 inactive during early G2 when cells are still small. When cells have reached sufficient size during G2, ... These transitions are controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1.[6] Though the proteins that control Cdk1 are well ... It is not until the cells grow into late G2, when Pom1 is confined to the cell ends that Cdr2 in the medial cortical nodes is ... A cell is unable to get too small because the later cell cycle events, such as S, G2, and M, are delayed until mass increases ...
G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle. • regulation of actin polymerization or depolymerization. • Golgi organization. • ... Liu H, Di Cunto F, Imarisio S, Reid LM (Jan 2003). "Citron kinase is a cell cycle-dependent, nuclear protein required for G2/M ...
... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases». Oncogene. 15 (2): 143-57. PMID 9244350. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201252. !CS1 manut: Nomes ... Durante a fase S/G2 do ciclo celular BRCA1 é liberado formando o complexo BRCA1-CtIP-MRN, que retira 53BP1 da região de quebra ... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases». Oncogene. 15 (2): 143-57. PMID 9244350. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201252. A referência emprega ... mitotic G2/M transition checkpoint. • regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • negative regulation of G0 ...
G2/M cyclins - essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G2/M transition (mitosis). G2/M cyclins accumulate steadily ... cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ... cyclin D (Cdk4) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) ...
G2. pośrednio zróżnicowany nowotwór - niski stopień złośliwości histologicznej. G3. źle zróżnicowany nowotwór - wysoki stopień ... The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor SCH 727965 (dinacliclib) induces the apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells. „Mol Cancer Ther". ...
cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity. • protein binding. • transcription factor binding. • protein kinase binding ... regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle. • negative regulation of cell growth. • negative regulation of B cell ... negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity. • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent. • ...
Zhao L, Samuels T, Winckler S, Korgaonkar C, Tompkins V, Horne MC, Quelle DE (January 2003). "Cyclin G1 has growth inhibitory ... "The MDM2 C-terminal region binds to TAFII250 and is required for MDM2 regulation of the cyclin A promoter". The Journal of ...
제2간기인 G2 단계가 지나 전기가 되면 방추체와 미세소관이 형성되고 유전체는 염색질을 이루어 뭉치게 된다. 염색질은 DNA가 여러 차례 꼬여져 만들어진 보다 굵고 단단한 실과 같은 형태이다. 염색질은 다시 염색체를 형성하게 ... 사이클린이 특정 농도 이상이 되면 사이클린 의존성 키나아제(Cyclin-dependent Kinase, Cdk)와 결합하여 사이클린-Cdk 복합체를 만든다. Cdk는 여러 종류가 있으며 각각 Cdk-1, Cdk-2 와 같은 ... 간기를 세분하면 평상적인 생장과 대사를 하는 제1간기(G1), 유전체를 복제하여 세포 분열을 준비하는 합성기(S), 미세소관을 만드는 데 필요한 단백질을 형성하는 제2간기(G2)의 세 기긴으로 다시 나뉠 수 있다.[27] ...
... including several cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase molecules as they correspond to the S, M, G1 and G2 phases of the cell ... partially corresponding to G1 and G2) in which mass, via a stable point, controls cyclin levels, and phases (S and M phases) in ... Tech and Institut de Génétique et Développement de Rennes produced a simplified model of the cell cycle using only one cyclin/ ...
Cells undergoing cell division exhibit hysteresis in that it takes a higher concentration of cyclins to switch them from G2 ...
Nguyen VQ, Co C, Li JJ (June 2001). "Cyclin-dependent kinases prevent DNA re-replication through multiple mechanisms". Nature ... incluíndo o bloqueo da reiniciación na fase G2/fase M.[5][15][16][17] ... "Binding of cyclin-dependent kinases to ORC and Cdc6p regulates the chromosome replication cycle". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ...
cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ... G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle. • positive regulation of B cell proliferation. • negative regulation of cell growth. • ... CDKN1A, CAP20, CDKN1, CIP1, MDA-6, P21, SDI1, WAF1, p21CIP1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ... cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex. • PCNA-p21 complex. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • клітинне ядро. • ...
... forming the cyclin E-CDK2 complex, which pushes the cell from G1 to S phase (G1/S, which initiates the G2/M transition). Cyclin ... In response to this trigger, cyclin D binds to existing CDK4/6, forming the active cyclin D-CDK4/6 complex. Cyclin D-CDK4/6 ... cyclins have no catalytic activity and CDKs are inactive in the absence of a partner cyclin. When activated by a bound cyclin, ... Mitotic cyclin-CDK complexes, which are synthesized but inactivated during S and G2 phases, promote the initiation of mitosis ...
Assembly of the pre-replication complex only occurs during late M phase and early G1 phase of the cell cycle when cyclin- ... In S. cerevisiae, CDKs prevent formation of the replication complex during late G1, S, and G2 phases by excluding MCM2-7 and ... Metazoans have a fourth mechanism to prevent re-replication; during S and G2 geminin binds to Cdt1 and inhibits Cdt1 from ... Nguyen, Van Q.; Co, Carl; Li, Joachim J. (2001). "Cyclin-dependent kinases prevent DNA re-replication through multiple ...
... a well-studied cyclin-dependent protein kinase. Cdc14 antagonizes Cdk1 by stimulating proteolysis of its cyclin partner (cyclin ... Wolfe, BA; Gould, KL (2004). "Fission yeast Clp1p phosphatase affects G2/M transition and mitotic exit through Cdc25p ... It is possible that Cdc14 acts as a phosphatase on all Clb-Cdk1 targets, acting to reverse the effects of the mitotic cyclins. ... Furthermore, Cdc14 dephosphorylates the stoichiometric inhibitor of the mitotic cyclins, Sic1, stabilizing Sic1 protein. Cdc14 ...
This peptide works as to prevent the progression of cancer by arresting the cell cycle at the G2/M phase, resulting in an ... it travels to the nucleus via phosphorylation at the Thr-108 position via the mitogenic cyclin dependent kinase (CDK2).[ ... The first way NS1 propagates cell death through cytolysis is by interrupting the cell cycle at the S/G2 junction, causing a ...
We interviewed CNS "graduate" Ray Ydoyaga about his personal experiences at BORP. Ray started out riding recumbent cycles with the CNS group, has become a regular independent rider, and just this month successfully got back on a two-wheel cycle.. BORP: What do you enjoy about BORP?. Ray Ydoyaga: Its great to be able to have a regular and fun outdoor athletic workout after a major physical injury. This wouldnt be possible for me without BORPs special adaptive bikes. BORP is also ideally located at the juncture of multiple bike trails ranging from the very easy loop around Aquatic Park Lake, to hidden paths around Berkeley marina, and to challenging and serious rides up to either the Bay Bridge bike path or, going the other direction, Richmond, and all offering stupendous views. Pre-accident, I was a daily cyclist, so now post-accident, being able to do something physical again that i love has given me a lot of hope and improved my mental well-being.. BORP: Have you noticed a specific impact on ...
When compared to other countries The Netherlands has a unique cycling culture. Three years ago I showed you some typically Dutch cycling traits. Mannerisms you certainly wont see in countries with a more racing type of cycling culture. Even in Denmark or Germany, however, the countries with a culture that comes closest to the Dutch,…
by Holly Seear , Mar 10, 2016. Most riders are obsessed with numbers in this Strava crazy world! We are always checking the data, the power, heart rate, time or speed for a session and obviously physical training is vitally important to becoming a successful road racer, but what about the other elements of racing that are often neglected?. Psychology. Can you manage your emotions, your thoughts, your pre race nerves, your confidence levels?. Professor Steve Peters rose to fame with his Chimp Paradox Mind Model and is credited with much of the success of British riders in the past few years. Mental skills, like physical skills need time and effort to develop, how much time do you spend on them?. Simple things such as positive self talk to increase confidence and maintain focus, focused breathing techniques to control nerves and using imagery to visualise successful performances can make a significant difference.. Confidence also comes from setting SMARTER goals that include process goals. It is ...
This adjustment period is commonly referred to as a fat adaptation phase. I learned about these methods from Dr. Mauro Di Pasquales excellent book: The Metabolic Diet. I learned about "Dr. Di" at a Charles Poliquin training seminar and I later saw him lecture at the SWIS weight training symposium in Toronto, Canada many many years ago.. The Metabolic Diet starts you off on a very low carb "assessment phase" which is what I am describing here.. Why do you need this?. Well, when excessive amounts of poor quality carbohydrates have been over consumed (i.e. diabetes epidemic), insulin levels are chronically elevated which leads to insulin resistance.. Heres an analogy: You walk into a bar (no, this isnt a one liner joke…) and there is a live band playing. You cant hear a thing! Then, eventually, you become kind of numb to the music and it doesnt seem as loud anymore.. Well, thats what happens to the insulin receptors of your cells when you consume an abundance of over processed carbs. Your ...
You are instructed not to make use of or mix it with another GABA boosters including alcohol as mixing these elements with Phenibut may cause several serious
Boulder is a wonderful town in a beautiful setting, with lots of great rides easily accessible from town. Ive lived in Boulder more than half my life so perhaps Im a little biased - but I dont think so. Ive done many more rides in the area than I describe here because Im mainly only…
Protein levels of cyclin B1 and cdc2 for each selected population are shown in Fig. 4B. Levels of cyclin B1 protein in cyclin ... Cyclin A regulates the initiation and maintenance of DNA synthesis whereas B cyclins control mitosis (32, 33). Cyclin B mRNA ... Cyclin B1/cdc2 kinase activity is shown in Fig. 4C. Cyclin B1 rescues the p53-dependent drop in cdc2 kinase activity in Ts- ... Cyclin B1 Expression Rescues p53-Mediated G2 Arrest.. To determine whether the decrease in cyclin B1 mRNA was the primary ...
... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity, protein kinase binding, mitotic cell cycle phase ... transition, regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity ... cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex, cytoplasm, nucleus, ... IPR039361 Cyclin. IPR013763 Cyclin-like. IPR036915 Cyclin-like_sf. IPR006671 Cyclin_N. ...
Cyclins are positive regulatory subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and thereby play an essential role in the ... IPR013763. Cyclin-like. IPR036915. Cyclin-like_sf. IPR015452. Cyclin_B3. IPR004367. Cyclin_C-dom. IPR006671. Cyclin_N. ... IPR013763. Cyclin-like. IPR036915. Cyclin-like_sf. IPR015452. Cyclin_B3. IPR004367. Cyclin_C-dom. IPR006671. Cyclin_N. ... Cluster: G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B3. 16. Q8WWL7-2. G3RQC9. A0A2I3SM53. A0A2I3H8Y1. F7AMH3. Gorilla gorilla gorilla (Western ...
Compare Cyclin G2 ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com. ... Order Cyclin G2 ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. ... The nucleotide sequence of cyclin G1 and cyclin G2 are 53% identical. Unlike cyclin G1, cyclin G2 contains a C-terminal PEST ... Human Cyclin G2 (CCNG2) interaction partners * This study demonstrates that cyclin G2 suppresses Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and ...
... is a key regulator of the G2/M cell cycle transition. Cyclin B1 accumulates in the cytoplasm through S and G2 phases and ... resulted in nuclear accumulation of cyclin B1 in G2 phase. Disruption of an NES which has been identified in cyclin B1 here ... Nuclear export of cyclin B1 and its possible role in the DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint.. Toyoshima F1, Moriguchi T, Wada A, ... These results suggest a role of nuclear exclusion of cyclin B1 in the DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint. ...
Cyclin G2 (CCNG2; encoded by CCNG2 gene) belongs to a family of cyclins homologous to CCNG1 (7). Cyclins positively regulate ... Choi MG, Noh JH, An JY, Hong SK, Park SB, Baik YH, Kim KM, Sohn TS and Kim S: Expression levels of cyclin G2, but not cyclin E ... Unlike other cyclins that positively regulate the cell cycle, cyclin G2 (CCNG2) regulates cell proliferation as a tumor ... i] CCNG2, cyclin G2; NS, not significant; Ph/Pb/Pt, pancreatic head/body/tail; (+/-), yes/no; well/mod/poor, well/moderately/ ...
Thus, during G2 PP2A activity is high and cyclin B-Cdc2 activity low, thereby preventing phosphorylation of mitotic substrates ... These data are most likely a result of the G2 arrest, although a partial degradation of cyclin B was also observed, probably as ... Loss of human Greatwall results in G2 arrest and multiple mitotic defects due to deregulation of the cyclin B-Cdc2/PP2A balance ... Loss of human Greatwall results in G2 arrest and multiple mitotic defects due to deregulation of the cyclin B-Cdc2/PP2A balance ...
This is the first study of the expression of cyclin G2, a novel cyclin having a role opposite to that of conventional cyclins, ... However, little is known about the cyclin G2 expression in human carcinomas. We thus investigated cyclin G2 expression in human ... retained cyclin G2 expression than carcinomas.. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that lack of cyclin G2 plays an important role ... Cyclin G2 is a novel cyclin negatively regulating the cell cycle progression, contrary to the characteristics of conventional ...
Whereas many components regulating the progression from S phase through G2 phase into mitosis have been identified, the ... Here we show that depletion of Cyclin A or inhibition of Cdk2 during late S/early G2 phase maintains the G2 phase arrest by ... Thus, a normal role for Cyclin A/Cdk2 during early G2 phase is to increase the level of Cdh1 which destabilises Claspin which ... This mechanism links S phase exit with G2 phase transit into mitosis, provides a novel insight into the roles of Cyclin A/Cdk2 ...
Cyclin G1 and TASCC regulate kidney epithelial cell G2-M arrest and fibrotic maladaptive repair ... Cyclin G1 (CG1), an atypical cyclin, promoted G2-M arrest in PTCs and up-regulated TASCC formation. PTC TASCC formation was ... Cyclin G1 regulates G2-M arrest in proximal tubular cells, promoting a TASCC-induced secretory phenotype, fibrosis, and kidney ... Cyclin G1 regulates G2-M arrest in proximal tubular cells, promoting a TASCC-induced secretory phenotype, fibrosis, and kidney ...
Mitotic G2-G2/M phases (Caenorhabditis elegans) * G2/M Transition (Caenorhabditis elegans) * Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events ... Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events during G2/M transition Stable Identifier ... Phosphorylation of Cyclin B1 in the CRS domain (Caenorhabditis elegans) * Translocation of CRS phosphorylated Cyclin B1:Cdc2 ... Formation of Cyclin B:Cdc2 complexes (Caenorhabditis elegans) * Myt-1 mediated phosphorylation of Cyclin B:Cdc2 complexes ( ...
Tong W,Pollard JW,Progesterone inhibits estrogen-induced cyclin D1 and cdk4 nuclear translocation, cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 ... Cyclin B1 binds to Cdc2 at the beginning of G2 phase forming an activated cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex and then phosphorylates its ... Cyclin B1 / biosynthesis, physiology*. Endometrium / cytology*. Female. Flow Cytometry. G2 Phase / physiology*. Humans. Indoles ... cyclin D1 and cyclin E was detected in endometrial carcinomas, which indicated that cyclins might be the major cell cycle ...
Cell cycle control in mammalian cells: role of cyclins, cyclin dependant kinases (CDKs), growth suppressor genes, and cyclin- ... P276-00, a novel cyclin-dependent inhibitor induces G1-G2 arrest, shows antitumor activity on cisplatin-resistant cells and ... Cdk4/6-cyclin D, Cdk2-cyclin E, and the transcription complex that includes pRb and E2F are pivotal in controlling progression ... Hall M, Peters G. genetic alterations of cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases, and Cdk inhibitors in human cancer. Adv Cancer Res ...
Antitumor Imidazolyl Disulfide IV-2 Causes Irreversible G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest without Hyperphosphorylation of Cyclin-Dependent ... Antitumor Imidazolyl Disulfide IV-2 Causes Irreversible G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest without Hyperphosphorylation of Cyclin-Dependent ... Antitumor Imidazolyl Disulfide IV-2 Causes Irreversible G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest without Hyperphosphorylation of Cyclin-Dependent ... Antitumor Imidazolyl Disulfide IV-2 Causes Irreversible G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest without Hyperphosphorylation of Cyclin-Dependent ...
Zhao RY, Elder RT (2005). "Viral infections and cell cycle G2/M regulation". Cell Res. 15 (3): 143-149. doi:10.1038/sj.cr. ... E2F.2FpRb complexes Hyperphosphorylation cdc25 Maturation promoting factor CDK cyclin A cyclin B cyclin D cyclin E Wee (cell ... "Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378-1388. doi: ... Cyclin binding alters access to the active site of Cdk1, allowing for Cdk1 activity; furthermore, cyclins impart specificity to ...
During G1 phase, the G1/S cyclin activity rises significantly near the end of the G1 phase. Complexes of cyclin that are active ... There are three checkpoints in the cell cycle: the G1/S Checkpoint or the Start checkpoint in yeast; the G2/M checkpoint; and ... which targets and degrades S and M cyclins (but not G1/S cyclins); and a high concentration of Cdk inhibitors is found during ... At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. These ...
Posts about cycling written by carmelcacopardo
Posts about cycling written by Andy Kumar
The Big Mountain Enduro Series is an authentic multi-stage, multi-day annual Enduro series throughout the most picturesque vacation destinations in Colorado, Utah and New Mexico. This much anticipated competition offers some of the biggest and most challenging terrain in and around these mountainous landscapes. With many of the top-ranked trails in the country, races will… [Read More]. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consect adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco labo.. ...
Cycling - After cycling from Prague to Magdeburg last year we continue on the Elbe Cycle Path towards the North Sea.
Read this page first for a lot of background information about cycling in the French mountains - in particular the Alps and Pyrenees. Map showing the location of the rides in France described in the pages below. Cycling in the French Alps Cycling in the Maurienne Valley Cycling around Briançon Cycling around Le Bourg-dOisans Cycling around Barcelonnette…
The word extreme has been over-used in association with outdoor sports till it has become hackneyed. The Brits (who else?) poke fun at this with their Extreme Ironing website! You can even get adventurous and order Extreme Pizza! Here, we do not mean extreme in terms of cycling acrobatics (as in BMX or MTB); but…
You know youre experiencing a clothing crisis when your focus shifts from the trail, the traffic or your route sheet to your increasingly cold and numb hands and feet. Fall and winter cycling poses some challenges yet it can be equally as fun as summer riding given you have the right cycling apparel, you know how to dress for…
High Quality Material - resin and alloy Construction: For bike pedals with clips and straps, we use durable engineering resin and alloy which are considered for safe prblems. Excellent Control on Pedaling: Good metal grips on the bottom and nylon type straps on the top will keep your feet positioned just right on the p
  • p53 inhibits G 1 /S transition in cells exposed to DNA-damaging agents by causing accumulation of p21 CIP1/WAF1 ( 6 , 15 ), a protein that binds to and inactivates the cyclin-dependent kinases necessary for initiating DNA synthesis ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cyclins are positive regulatory subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and thereby play an essential role in the control of the cell cycle, notably via their destruction during cell division. (uniprot.org)
  • The eukaryotic cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) whose activities are regulated by cyclins and CDK inhibitors. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Briefly, cyclin B-Cdc2 is inhibited during G2 by inhibitory phosphorylations on threonine 14 and tyrosine 15 by Wee1 and Myt1 kinases. (pnas.org)
  • P276-00, a flavone that inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases, has been identified by us recently as a novel antineoplastic agent. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This process is dependent on the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) that are sequentially regulated by cyclins D, E, and A ( 1 - 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell cycle progression requires precise expression and activation of several cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. (ovid.com)
  • Wang, Mei 2015-05-07 00:00:00 Cyclin-dependent protein kinases are involved in many crucial cellular processes and aspects of plant growth and development, but their precise roles in abiotic stress responses are largely unknown. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cyclin A2 participates in feedback loops that activate mitotic kinases in G2 phase, but why active Cyclin A2-CDK2 during the S phase does not trigger mitotic kinase activation remains unclear. (scilifelab.se)
  • The PITSLRE kinases belong to the large family of cyclin-dependent protein kinases. (nih.gov)
  • We show that these kinases can readily be distinguished by such inhibitors when cyclin-free, but not when cyclin-bound. (rcsb.org)
  • In addition to this catalytic core, Cdk1, like other cyclin-dependent kinases, contains a T-loop, which, in the absence of an interacting cyclin, prevents substrate binding to the Cdk1 active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • D-type cyclins associate with partner cyclin-dependent kinases, CDK4 and CDK6, and promote phosphorylation and subsequent inactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product, RB and RB-related proteins. (nature.com)
  • CLN1, CLN2 and CLN3 associated kinases are absent in early G1, reach peak levels at the G1-S transition, and decline as cells enter G2. (slideserve.com)
  • These kinases not only promote budding and DNA synthesis, but also inactivate CLB cyclin proteolysis. (slideserve.com)
  • Therefore, levels of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and their regulatory proteins involved in S-G2/M transition were investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell cycle is under sophisticated regulation through the interactions of different cyclins with their specific kinases, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • THE eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) bound to cyclins ( Bloom and Cross 2007 ). (genetics.org)
  • Cyclins bind to and regulate the activity of the Cyclin dependent protein kinases (CDKs). (thermofisher.com)
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. (pnas.org)
  • M-phase-promoting factor (MPF), a complex of cdc2 and a B-type cyclin, is a key regulator of the G2/M cell cycle transition. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that the functional human ortholog of Greatwall protein kinase (Gwl) is the microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase-like protein, MAST-L. This kinase promotes mitotic entry and maintenance in human cells by inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a phosphatase that dephosphorylates cyclin B-Cdc2 substrates. (pnas.org)
  • More complete depletion correlates with the premature dephosphorylation of cyclin B-Cdc2 substrates, inactivation of the SAC, and subsequent exit from mitosis with severe cytokinesis defects. (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest that the balance between cyclin B-Cdc2 and PP2A must be tightly regulated for correct mitotic entry and exit and that Gwl is crucial for mediating this regulation in somatic human cells. (pnas.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells, the mitotic state is maintained by the mitotic kinase cyclin B-Cdc2. (pnas.org)
  • Historically, mitotic entry and exit was thought to be the direct consequence of cyclin B-Cdc2 activation and inactivation, respectively ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Specifically, recent evidence indicates that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is responsible for dephosphorylation of cyclin B-Cdc2 substrates and that the regulation of this dephosphorylation is required in mitotic entry and exit ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • This finding suggests a previously unexplored model in which the balance between cyclin B-Cdc2 and PP2A controls mitotic entry and exit. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, during G2 PP2A activity is high and cyclin B-Cdc2 activity low, thereby preventing phosphorylation of mitotic substrates, whereas at mitotic entry the balance flips, allowing entry into mitosis. (pnas.org)
  • The mechanisms controlling cyclin B-Cdc2 activity have been largely described ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Finally, at mitotic exit cyclin B-Cdc2 is inhibited by the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of its regulatory subunit cyclin B ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Unlike cyclin B-Cdc2 regulation, very little is known about the mechanisms controlling PP2A activity during mitosis, and therefore our understanding of G2 and mitosis is incomplete. (pnas.org)
  • Work done in Xenopus egg extracts suggested that Gwl promoted mitotic entry by controlling the auto-amplification loop of cyclin B/Cdc2 ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, it has been recently demonstrated that the main role of this kinase is not the regulation of cyclin B-Cdc2 activity but the inhibition of PP2A, the phosphatase that de-phosphorylates cyclin B-Cdc2 substrates ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • To determine the effects of progesterone on the proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of hECs and to test if cyclin B1 is involved in these effects, progesterone and/or Alsterpaullone (Alp, a specific inhibitor of Cyclin B1/Cdc2) were added to primary hECs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • GA decreased the expression of Cdc2 and cyclin B1 in U87MG cells. (ovid.com)
  • In U251MG cells, the cell cycle was arrested at M phase in addition to G2 by GA. Next, we analyzed the mechanism of the GA-induced regulation of Cdc2 and cyclin B1 in U87MG cells. (ovid.com)
  • Cdc2 and cyclin B1 were ubiquitinated by GA. MG132 abrogated the GA-induced decrease of Cdc2 and cyclin B1 indicating that these proteins were degraded by proteasomes. (ovid.com)
  • In conclusion, GA controls the stability of Cdc2 and cyclin B1 in glioblastomas cell species-dependently. (ovid.com)
  • Cdc2 and cyclin B1 might be responsible for the different responses of glioblastoma cell lines to GA. (ovid.com)
  • In uninfected cells the G 2 /M transition is regulated by cyclin kinase complex containing cdc2 and, initially, cyclin A, followed by cyclin B. cdc2 is downregulated through phosphorylation by wee-1 and myt-1 and upregulated by cdc-25C phosphatase. (asm.org)
  • The activity of cdc2 was higher in infected cell lysates than those of corresponding proteins present in lysates of mock-infected cells even though cyclins A and B were not detectable in lysates of infected cells. (asm.org)
  • vi) The decrease in the levels of cyclins A and B, the increase in activity of cdc2, and the hyperphosphorylation of cdc-25C were mediated by U L 13 and α22/U S 1.5 gene products. (asm.org)
  • The meiotic maturation of Xenopus oocytes has proved useful for understanding the regulation of Cdc2-cyclin-B, a key activator of G2/M progression. (nih.gov)
  • Enhanced radiosensitivity by cyclin G1 was correlated with increased cyclin B1, CDC2/cyclin B1 complex, and MPM2. (elsevier.com)
  • Real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting showed that growth arrest by SmE directly correlates with the reduction of cyclin E, CDK2, CDC25C and CDC2 expression, and up-regulation of p27Kip. (iegt-rostock.de)
  • Cyclin B2 also binds to transforming growth factor beta RII and thus cyclin B2/cdc2 may play a key role in transforming growth factor beta-mediated cell cycle control. (genecards.org)
  • Cyclin B1 complexes with p34 (cdc2) to form the maturation-promoting factor (MPF). (thermofisher.com)
  • Western blot analysis revealed the increases of cyclin B1 and Cdc2 kinase levels, alone with the decrease of phosphorylated Cdc2 kinase, after treating these cells with the extracts. (hindawi.com)
  • Whereas many components regulating the progression from S phase through G2 phase into mitosis have been identified, the mechanism by which these components control this critical cell cycle progression is still not fully elucidated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cyclin A/Cdk2 has been shown to regulate the timing of Cyclin B/Cdk1 activation and progression into mitosis although the mechanism by which this occurs is only poorly understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, a normal role for Cyclin A/Cdk2 during early G2 phase is to increase the level of Cdh1 which destabilises Claspin which in turn down regulates Chk1 activation to allow progression into mitosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This mechanism links S phase exit with G2 phase transit into mitosis, provides a novel insight into the roles of Cyclin A/Cdk2 in G2 phase progression, and identifies a novel role for APC/C(Cdh1) in late S/G2 phase cell cycle progression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These data indicate that the cyclin D3-Cdk4 activity is necessary for cell cycle progression through G2 phase into mitosis and that the increased binding of p16 blocks this activity and G2 phase progression after UV exposure. (garvan.org.au)
  • Essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G2/M (mitosis) transition. (mybiosource.com)
  • G2/M cyclins accumulate steadily during G2 and are abruptly destroyed at mitosis. (mybiosource.com)
  • Involved in the reorganization of the cytoskeleton on transition from G2 to mitosis. (mybiosource.com)
  • Essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G2/M and G1/S (mitosis) transition. (mybiosource.com)
  • 2/mitotic-specific cyclin essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G2/M (mitosis) transition. (mybiosource.com)
  • The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 (Gap1) phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 (Gap2) phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis). (wikibooks.org)
  • After S phase or replication cell then enters the G2 phase, which lasts until the cell enters mitosis. (wikibooks.org)
  • Inhibition of protein synthesis during G2 phase prevents the cell from undergoing mitosis. (wikibooks.org)
  • May be involved in the control of the cell cycle at the G1/S (start) and G2/M (mitosis) transitions. (abcam.com)
  • This destruction of M cyclins leads to the final events of mitosis (e.g., spindle disassembly, mitotic exit). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many G2/M phase-specific genes in plants contain mitosis-specific activator (MSA) elements, which act as G2/M phase-specific enhancers and bind with R1R2R3-Myb transcription factors. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In plants, many G2/M phase-specific genes contain a common cis-acting element, the so-called mitosis-specific activator (MSA) elements ( Ito, 2000 , 2005 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cyclin B1 or CCNB1 is a regulatory protein involved in mitosis. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cyclin B1 is not ubiquitinated during G2/M phase, resulting in its steady accumulation during G2 phase, followed by abrupt APC dependent destruction at the end of mitosis. (thermofisher.com)
  • G1 phase together with the S phase and G2 phase comprise the long growth period of the cell cycle cell division called interphase that takes place before cell division in mitosis (M phase). (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G 2 , we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G 2 arrest at 32°C. We have found that p53 prevents G 2 /M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. (pnas.org)
  • To study G 2 regulation by p53, we have established a human cell line, Ts-SKOV3, that stably expresses a temperature-sensitive p53 allele and undergoes G 2 arrest at 32°C. Using this cell line we have found that p53 arrests cell cycle in G 2 by lowering intracellular levels of cyclin B1, a protein absolutely required for mitotic initiation. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that depletion of Cyclin A or inhibition of Cdk2 during late S/early G2 phase maintains the G2 phase arrest by reducing Cdh1 transcript and protein levels, thereby stabilizing Claspin and maintaining elevated levels of activated Chk1 which contributes to the G2 phase observed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Involvement of cyclin B1 in progesterone-mediated cell growth inhibition, G2/M cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in human endometrial cell. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Progesterone may inhibit cell proliferation, mediate G2/M cell cycle arrest and induce apoptosis in hECs via down-regulating Cyclin B1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • GA-induced G2 or M arrest in glioblastoma cells in a cell line-dependent manner. (ovid.com)
  • This cell line showed G2 arrest after GA treatment. (ovid.com)
  • Here, we report that HDAC10 regulates the cell cycle via modulation of cyclin A2 expression, and cyclin A2 overexpression rescues HDAC10 knockdown-induced G 2 /M transition arrest. (asm.org)
  • Unlike conventional cyclins that promote cell cycle progression, cyclin G2 induces G1/S cell cycle arrest even though it possesses a conserved 'cyclin-fold' domain [ 25 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Expression of predominately cytoplasmic Cyclin A2 or phospho-mimicking PLK1 T210D can partially rescue a G2 arrest caused by Cyclin A2 depletion. (scilifelab.se)
  • While it is now well established that inhibition of cyclin/CDK complexes by p21 can result in G1 cell cycle arrest, the consequences of p21/PCNA interaction on cell cycle progression have not yet been determined. (mendeley.com)
  • Here, we show, using a tetracycline-regulated system, that expression of wild-type p21 in p53-deficient DLD1 human colon cancer cells inhibits DNA synthesis and causes G1 and G2 cell cycle arrest. (mendeley.com)
  • Our results suggest that p21 might inhibit cell cycle progression by two independent mechanisms, inhibition of cyclin/CDK complexes, and inhibition of PCNA function resulting in both G1 and G2 arrest. (mendeley.com)
  • Therefore, our data suggest that cyclin G1 enhanced radiation sensitivity by overriding radiation-induced G2 arrest through transcriptional upregulation of cyclin B1. (elsevier.com)
  • Consistently, SmE overexpression leads to inhibition of DNA synthesis and G2 arrest as shown by BrdU-incorporation and MPM2-staining. (iegt-rostock.de)
  • causes a G2 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting CDK1 activity through the regulation of cyclin B1, GADD45A, and BTG2. (viraquest.com)
  • Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) promotes G2/M phase arrest via p53 expression and induces apoptosis through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent signaling pathways in human prostate cancer DU 145 cells. (qxmd.com)
  • Induction of G2 /M phase arrest and apoptosis of MCF-7 cells by novel benzofuran lignan via suppressing cell cycle proteins]. (qxmd.com)
  • Theaflavins induce G2/M arrest by modulating expression of p21waf1/cip1, cdc25C and cyclin B in human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells. (qxmd.com)
  • 6-Gingerol induces cell-cycle G1-phase arrest through AKT-GSK 3β-cyclin D1 pathway in renal-cell carcinoma. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The drug decreased the EWS-FLI1-dependent expression of microtubule stability proteins and of a ubiquitin ligase, which increased the amount of the cell cycle arrest protein cyclin B1, thus promoting mitotic arrest. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we show that cyclin D2 is the cyclin that is predominantly expressed in GSCs and suppression of its expression by RNA interference causes G1 arrest in vitro and growth retardation of GSCs xenografted into immunocompromised mice in vivo . (nature.com)
  • Further flow cytometric analysis showed that 6-gingerol induced significant G2/M phase arrest and had slight influence on sub-G1 phase in LoVo cells. (hindawi.com)
  • These findings indicate that exposure of 6-gingerol may induce intracellular ROS and upregulate p53, p27 Kip1 , and p21 Cip1 levels leading to consequent decrease of CDK1, cyclin A, and cyclin B1 as result of cell cycle arrest in LoVo cells. (hindawi.com)
  • CLB3 ∆ db cells show no cell cycle arrest response to mating pheromone, and CLB3 ∆ db completely bypasses the requirement for CLN G 1 cyclins, even in the absence of the early expressed B-type cyclins CLB5 , 6 . (genetics.org)
  • Determination of DNA content by flow cytometry demonstrated S and G2/M phase arrest of MCF-7 cell, correlated to Cdk1 downregulation, S phase arrest in MDA-MB-231 which is p53 and Cdk1 -dependent, sub-G0 cell cycle arrest in HeLa aligned with Cdk1 downregulation, G0/G1, S, G2/M phase arrest in HepG2 which is p53-dependent. (frontiersin.org)
  • We propose that cyclin A-cdk2 phosphorylation results in destruction of any Cdc6 not assembled into replication complexes, but that assembled proteins remain, in the phosphorylated state, in the nucleus. (biologists.org)
  • Further studies led to the observation that ICP0 and cyclin D3 colocalize in the infected cell nuclei and that ICP0 does not interfere with the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by cyclin D3-cdk4 complex. (asm.org)
  • Mechanistically, cyclin G2 could negatively regulate tyrosine-10 phosphorylation of a critical glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase A, through direct interaction. (ijbs.com)
  • We find that Cyclin A2-CDK2 can activate the mitotic kinase PLK1 through phosphorylation of Bora, and that only cytoplasmic Cyclin A2 interacts with Bora and PLK1. (scilifelab.se)
  • We also show that phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of the canonical initiation factor eIF-2 is increased at G2/M. Interestingly, phosphorylation of eIF-2alpha has a permissive effect on the efficiency of both the PITSLRE IRES and the ornithine decarboxylase IRES, two cell cycle-dependent IRESs, in mediating internal initiation of translation, whereas this was not observed with the viral EMCV (encephalomyocarditis virus) and HRV (human rhinovirus) IRESs. (nih.gov)
  • When bound to its cyclin partners, Cdk1 phosphorylation leads to cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, phosphorylation by M cyclins (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdk1 phosphorylation also leads to the activation of the ubiquitin-protein ligase APCCdc20, an activation which allows for chromatid segregation and, furthermore, degradation of M-phase cyclins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to regulation by cyclins, Cdk1 is regulated by phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since no cyclin is available to activate cdc28, no CDK activity (e.g. histone phosphorylation activity) is present. (slideserve.com)
  • In mammals, cyclin B associates with inactive p34cdc2, which facilitates phosphorylation of p34cdc2 at aa 14Thr and 15Tyr. (fishersci.com)
  • CDKs activity is closely associated with specific cyclin co-factors and at least 12 separate genetic loci are known to code for the CDKs. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cyclin G2 is a novel cyclin negatively regulating the cell cycle progression, contrary to the characteristics of conventional cyclins. (nih.gov)
  • Cdk4/6-cyclin D, Cdk2-cyclin E, and the transcription complex that includes pRb and E2F are pivotal in controlling progression through the late G 1 restriction point ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell cycle progression in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controlled by the Cdc28 protein kinase, which is sequentially activated by different sets of cyclins. (mysciencework.com)
  • Taken together, these results indicate that cyclin G2 acts as a tumour suppressor in glioma by repressing glycolysis and tumour progression through its interaction with LDHA. (ijbs.com)
  • Taken together, our results demonstrate that cyclin D2 has a critical role in cell cycle progression and the tumorigenicity of GSCs. (nature.com)
  • D-type cyclins are known to have critical roles in cell cycle progression. (nature.com)
  • The ability of mitotic B-type cyclins to both induce mitotic entry and block mitotic exit may tightly couple many aspects of cell cycle progression to once-per-CDK-cycle ( Nasmyth 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • Destruction of Cyclin B1 is required for cell cycle progression. (thermofisher.com)
  • We have used biophysical measurements and X-ray crystallography to investigate the ATP-competitive inhibitor binding properties of cyclin-free and cyclin-bound CDK1 and CDK2. (rcsb.org)
  • We conclude that there is a subtle but profound difference between the conformational energy landscapes of cyclin-free CDK1 and CDK2. (rcsb.org)
  • Previously, we found that eIF4A interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase A (CDKA), the plant ortholog of mammalian CDK1. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that functions as a serine/threonine kinase, and is a key player in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdk1 also contains a PSTAIRE helix, which, upon cyclin binding, moves and rearranges the active site, facilitating Cdk1 kinase activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, when phosphorylated by Cln3-Cdk1, Whi5 is ejected from the nucleus, allowing for transcription of the G1/S regulon, which includes the G1/S cyclins Cln1,2. (wikipedia.org)
  • G1/S cyclin-Cdk1 activity leads to preparation for S phase entry (e.g., duplication of centromeres or the spindle pole body), and a rise in the S cyclins (Clb5,6 in S. cerevisiae). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most obviously, Cdk1 is regulated by its binding with its cyclin partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • furthermore, cyclins impart specificity to Cdk1 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, cyclins can target Cdk1 to particular subcellular locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdk1-cyclin complexes are also governed by direct binding of Cdk inhibitor proteins (CKIs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D associates with Cdk4/Cdk6 and the catalytic activities of the assembled holoenzymes are first manifested by mid-G 1 , increase to a maximum at the G 1 -S transition, and contribute to G 1 exit ( 5 - 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cdk2 associates with either cyclin E or cyclin A, and the resultant kinase activities increase at the G 1 -S transition or in the early S phase, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin A2 localises in the cytoplasm at the S/G2 transition to activate PLK1. (scilifelab.se)
  • We find no evidence that such mechanisms involve G2 feedback loops and suggest that cytoplasmic appearance of Cyclin A2 at the S/G2 transition functions as a trigger for mitotic kinase activation. (scilifelab.se)
  • Collectively, these findings establish WTAP as an essential factor for the stabilization of cyclin A2 mRNA, thereby regulating G 2 /M cell-cycle transition. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, cyclins are considered to be the gears that are changed to aid the transition between cycle phases. (omicsonline.org)
  • R-MMU-2565942 (Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Among its related pathways are Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition . (genecards.org)
  • This mitotic kinase complex remains active until the metaphase/anaphase transition when cyclin B is degraded. (fishersci.com)
  • So, cyclin B-p34cdc2 plays a critical role in G2 to M transition. (fishersci.com)
  • Data (from studies using BeWo cells, a choriocarcinoma cell line, as model of placentation) suggest that miR-378a-5p (microRNA 378a) inhibits cell differentiation in syncytiotrophoblasts, in part, by down-regulating CCNG2 (cyclin G2) expression. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Unlike other cyclins that positively regulate the cell cycle, cyclin G2 (CCNG2) regulates cell proliferation as a tumor suppressor gene. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • encoded by CCNG2 gene) belongs to a family of cyclins homologous to CCNG1 ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Ccng2 −/− mice were generated to further confirm the inhibitory effect of cyclin G2 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cellular lysate from G 2 -M phase TonB210.1 cells growing without doxycycline ( Lane 5 ) or with doxycycline ( Lane 6 ) was probed with antibody against cyclin D2 and actin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin B1 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Cyclin B1 in Human, Mouse samples. (fishersci.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Cyclin B1 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 55004-1-AP. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cyclin A/Cdk2 regulates Cdh1 and claspin during late S/G2 phase of the cell cycle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • HDAC10 regulates cyclin A2 expression by deacetylating histones near the let-7 promoter, thereby repressing transcription. (asm.org)
  • CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE G2 regulates salinity stress response and salt mediated flowering in. (deepdyve.com)
  • Spliceosomal protein E regulates neoplastic cell growth by modulating expression of cyclin E/CDK2 and G2/M checkpoint proteins. (iegt-rostock.de)
  • Cyclins positively regulate cell proliferation to a large extent. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the present study, we show, in addition, that these cyclins negatively regulate G1- and G2-specific functions. (mysciencework.com)
  • The cell cycle is the process by which mammalian cells regulate proliferation and has S, M, G2 and G1 phase. (omicsonline.org)
  • What happens during G2 to regulate cell cycle? (brainscape.com)
  • We have previously shown that miR-122 can regulate the expression of cyclin G1, whose high levels have been reported in several human cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cyclin subunit imparts substrate specificity to the complex. (genecards.org)
  • Here we report hitherto unknown mechanism by which cyclin G1 increases radiation sensitivity by regulating the level of cyclin B1. (elsevier.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cyclin G2 Antibodies (47) and Cyclin G2 Proteins (3) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cdc 20 recognizes specific amino acid sequences on M-cyclin and other target proteins. (brainscape.com)
  • One of the up-regulated genes, NtE2C , encoding for cyclin-specific ubiquitin carrier proteins, contained a single functional MSA-like motif, which specifically controlled the expression of a reporter gene in the G2/M phase in BY-2 cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Myb proteins in these organisms are present in conserved multiprotein complexes called dREAM or Myb-MuvB, which are involved in the activation of various target genes, including many G2/M phase-specific genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Interestingly, the Cyclin A/Cdk2 regulated APC/C(Cdh1) activity is selective for only a subset of Cdh1 targets including Claspin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recombinant cyclin A-cdk2 can completely substitute for the nucleus in promoting destruction of soluble Xenopus and human Cdc6. (biologists.org)
  • Cyclin E and cdk2 form G1/S-cdk. (brainscape.com)
  • Neisseria meningitidis caused changes in the abundance of several cell cycle regulatory mRNAs, including the cell cycle inhibitors p21(WAF1/CIP1) and cyclin G2 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Loss of HDAC1 and -2 induces expression of these cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, leading to a cell cycle block in G 1 . (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, GSK-3β inhibitors were utilized to explore the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the suppression effect of cyclin G2 on gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, GSK-3β inhibitors abolished the cyclin G2-induced suppression of cell proliferation and migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A unique feature of p21 that distinguishes it from the other cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors is its ability to associate with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), an auxiliary factor for DNA polymerases delta and epsilon. (mendeley.com)
  • Dysregulation of the cell cycle characterizes many cancer subtypes, providing a rationale for developing cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. (rcsb.org)
  • This negative regulation of CLNs may occur via the transcription factor SWI4, because CLBs are necessary for G2 repression of SCB-regulated genes like CLN1 and CLN2 but not for repression of MCB-regulated genes like DNA polymerase and CLB5. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 5 Three D-type cyclins, cyclin D1, D2 and D3, are encoded by distinct genes, but show significant amino-acid similarity. (nature.com)
  • On the other hand, deletion of many cyclin genes leads to, at most, minor defects. (genetics.org)
  • Combined microarray data from transgenic lines and synchronized cells revealed that overexpression of the truncated hyperactive form of NtmybA2, but not its full-length form, preferentially up-regulated many G2/M phase-specific genes in BY-2 cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Therefore, we propose that the transcription of many G2/M phase-specific genes in tobacco is positively regulated by NtmybA2, in most cases through direct binding to the MSA elements. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In contrast to the E2F-dependent regulation of G1/S phase-specific genes, less is known about the transcriptional regulation of genes expressed at the G2/M phase. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The myb3r1 myb3r4 double mutant showed decreased expression of G2/M phase-specific genes, including CYCB2;1 , CDC20.1 , and KNOLLE ( KN ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Consistent with the requirement for mitotic cyclin degradation for mitotic exit, precise genomic removal of the D box and KEN boxes from the budding yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 caused a first-cycle block to mitotic exit ( Wäsch and Cross 2002 ). (genetics.org)
  • upon B-type cyclin degradation, no further mitotic entry events occur, but mitotic exit is allowed ( Nasmyth 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • Cyclin B1 accumulates in the cytoplasm through S and G2 phases and translocates to the nucleus during prophase. (nih.gov)
  • Degraded by skp1, pop1 and pop2 in the G2 and M phases of the cell cycle. (mybiosource.com)
  • In budding yeast, G1 cyclins such as CLN1 and CLN2 are expressed in G1 and S phases, while mitotic cyclins such as CLB1 and CLB2 are expressed in G2 and M phases. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Expression increases in early G1 phase and reaches highest levels during the S and G2/M phases. (abcam.com)
  • Complexes of cyclin that are active during other phases of the cell cycle are kept inactivated to prevent any cell-cycle events from occurring out of order. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study demonstrates that cyclin G2 suppresses Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and inhibits gastric cancer cell growth and migration through Dapper1. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Regulation of cyclin G2 is a key mechanism whereby insulin, insulin analogues and IGF-I stimulate cell proliferation. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cellular proliferation was evaluated with MTT test, cell cycle with propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry, apoptosis with FITC-Annexin V and the expression of cyclin B1 with Western blotting. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previously, we have shown that following treatment with low doses of UV radiation, cell lines that express wild-type p16 and Cdk4 responded with a G2 phase cell cycle delay. (garvan.org.au)
  • The studies described in this report stemmed from the observation that the infected cell protein No.0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) binds to and stabilizes cyclin D3 ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • We also found that, cyclin G2 could suppress cell proliferation, initiate cell apoptosis and reduce aerobic glycolysis, suggesting that cyclin G2 plays a tumour suppressive role in glioma. (ijbs.com)
  • Indeed, we found that cyclin G2 negatively regulated gastric cell proliferation [ 27 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • The effects of ectopic and endogenous cyclin G2 on the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells were assessed using the MTS assay, colony formation assay, cell cycle assay, wound healing assay and transwell assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We previously showed that overexpression of cyclin G2 inhibited gastric cancer cell growth in liquid cultures and in soft agar [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclin A2 is a key regulator of the cell cycle, implicated both in DNA replication and mitotic entry. (scilifelab.se)
  • p21 binding to PCNA causes G1 and G2 cell. (mendeley.com)
  • We have previously shown that the open reading frame of the p110(PITSLRE) transcript contains an IRES (internal ribosome entry site) that allows the expression of a smaller p58(PITSLRE) isoform during the G2/M stage of the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • In line with these observations, we demonstrate that the PITSLRE IRES interacts with the Unr protein, which is more prominently expressed at the G2/M stage of the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • New insights have been made recently into the signalling mechanisms that induce G2-arrested oocytes to resume and complete the meiotic cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Irradiation of human lung cells with cyclin G1 overexpression resulted in increased cell death and γ-H2AX foci suggesting that cyclin G1 rendered the cells more susceptible to DNA damage. (elsevier.com)
  • Cell cycle synchronization clearly showed coexpression of cyclin G1 and cyclin B1 in G2/M phase. (elsevier.com)
  • Depletion of cyclin G1 by interference RNA revealed that cyclin G1 regulated transcription of cyclin B1 in a p53-independent manner, and confirmed that the increased mitotic cells and cell death by cyclin G1 were dependent upon cyclin B1. (elsevier.com)
  • A , immunoblot of D-type cyclins in hematopoietic cell lines transformed by BCR/ABL . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Total protein lysates from parental and BCR/ABL-transformed hematopoietic cell lines were probed with antibodies against cyclins D1, D2, and D3, as indicated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mechanisms that help the yeast cell cycle clock tick: G2 cyclins transcriptionally activate G2 cyclins and repress G1 cyclins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cyclin A1 transfected 293T cell line lysate. (abcam.com)
  • The B-type cyclins, B1 and B2, associate with p34cdc2 and are essential components of the cell cycle regulatory machinery. (genecards.org)
  • Unlike cyclin G1, cyclin G2 contains a C-terminal PEST protein destabilization motif, suggesting that cyclin G2 expression is tightly regulated through the cell cycle. (thermofisher.com)
  • Thus, regulated mitotic proteolysis of Clb3 is specifically required to make passage of Start in the succeeding cell cycle "memoryless"-dependent on conditions within that cycle, and independent of events such as B-type cyclin accumulation that occurred in the preceding cycle. (genetics.org)
  • Two alternative transcripts have been found, a constitutively expressed transcript and a cell cycle-regulated transcript, that is expressed predominantly during G2/M phase. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cyclin B1 is overexpressed in various cancers, including breast, prostate, and non-small cell lung cancer. (thermofisher.com)
  • We proved that, by modulating cyclin G1, miR-122 influences p53 protein stability and transcriptional activity and reduces invasion capability of HCC-derived cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cell cycle of these extract-treated cells (TCCSUP cells) was arrested at the G2/M phase as determined by flow cytometry. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that the Florin leaf methanol extracts inhibit growth of these bladder carcinoma cells by arresting cell cycle at the G2/M phase and inducing apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that cyclin G2 levels were decreased in gastric cancer tissues and were associated with tumor size, migration and poor differentiation status. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HMGA2 loss resulted in enrichment of the transcriptional repressor E4F at the cyclin A2 promoter. (asm.org)
  • Taken together, our novel findings demonstrate that cyclin G2 has potent tumor-suppressive effects in Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) by inhibiting EMT through attenuating Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Moreover, overexpression of cyclin G2 attenuated tumor growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • WTAP knockdown induced G 2 accumulation, which is partially rescued by adenoviral overexpression of cyclin A2. (elsevier.com)
  • Overexpression of cyclin G1 was observable in lung carcinoma tissues. (elsevier.com)
  • Treatment of HeLa cells with leptomycin B (LMB), a specific inhibitor of the NES-dependent transport, resulted in nuclear accumulation of cyclin B1 in G2 phase. (nih.gov)
  • Disruption of an NES which has been identified in cyclin B1 here abolished the nuclear export of this protein, and consequently the NES-disrupted cyclin B1 when expressed in cells accumulated in the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, we show that expression of the NES-disrupted cyclin B1 or LMB treatment of the cells is able to override the DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint when combined with caffeine treatment. (nih.gov)
  • The complete depletion of Gwl by siRNA arrests human cells in G2. (pnas.org)
  • Normal thyroids expressed cyclin G2 in more than 5% of follicular cells. (nih.gov)
  • Of 30 papillary carcinomas including 6 microcarcinoma, cyclin G2 expression was not, or only occasionally, observed in carcinoma cells, indicating its expression decreased in all these cases. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, in 16 of the 24 follicular adenomas (66.7%) and 5 of the 23 follicular carcinomas (21.7%), cyclin G2 expression was retained (more than 5% of neoplastic cells were positive), and adenomas more frequently (p = 0.0032) retained cyclin G2 expression than carcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report that in UV-irradiated HeLa and A2058 cells, p16 bound Cdk4 and Cdk6 complexes with increased avidity and inhibited a cyclin D3-Cdk4 complex normally activated in late S/early G2 phase. (garvan.org.au)
  • Finally, overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of Cdk4 blocked cells in G2 phase. (garvan.org.au)
  • Thus, substitution of aspartic acid 199 with alanine in ICP0 abolished stabilization of cyclin D3, reduced the yields of virus from resting cells, and reduced the capacity of the virus to invade the mouse central nervous system from a peripheral site. (asm.org)
  • The consequences of this negative regulation were most apparent in clb6 mutants, which had a shorter pre-Start G1 phase as well as a shorter G2 phase than congenic wild-type cells. (mysciencework.com)
  • Furthermore, specific inactivation of SmE by shRNA significantly increased the percentage of cells in S phase, whereas the amount of G2/M arrested cells was reduced. (iegt-rostock.de)
  • B , time course of induction of cyclin D2 protein by BCR/ABL in TonB210.1 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The numbers in parentheses for Lanes 5 and 6 indicate the fold change in cyclin D2 in G 2 -M cells in the uninduced ( Lane 5 ) and induced states ( Lane 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A , normalized percentage of positive wells after infection with BCR/ABL of bone marrow cells from cyclin D2 wild-type ( CycD2 +/+ ), heterozygous ( CycD2 +/− ), and homozygous null ( CycD2 −/− ) mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • b ) The mRNA levels of D-type cyclins in undifferentiated (stem) or differentiated (diff) GB1-3 and 5 cells were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. (nature.com)
  • These cells do not express any G1 cyclins (clns). (slideserve.com)
  • a. start with cdk 4/6 (inactive) with inhibitor phosphate b. mitogen through Ras activated cyclin D c. cyclin D binds to cdk 4/6 d. add cak with activating phosphate e. lose inhibitor phosphate f. (brainscape.com)
  • Previous work in many organisms has indicated that B-type cyclin-dependent inhibition of mitotic exit imposes a requirement for mitotic destruction of B-type cyclins. (genetics.org)
  • Cyclin D-Cdk4 complexes have a demonstrated role in G1 phase, regulating the function of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (Rb). (garvan.org.au)
  • abstract = "Although cyclin G1 has been implicated in certain p53-related biological phenomena, other aspects of its function remain unclear. (elsevier.com)
  • siRNA-mediated WTAP knockdown down-regulated the stability of cyclin A2 mRNA through a nine-nucleotide essential sequence in cyclin A2 mRNA 3′ UTR. (elsevier.com)
  • They can accumulate cyclin B mRNA in response to galactose. (slideserve.com)
  • Although cyclin B mRNA can be made, cyclin B protein cannot be made - cyclin B protein continues to be degraded. (slideserve.com)
  • Genetic evidence suggested that the inhibition of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase activities was dependent on and possibly mediated through the CDC6 gene product. (mysciencework.com)
  • Decreased expression of cyclin G2 is significantly linked to the malignant transformation of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. (nih.gov)
  • However, little is known about the cyclin G2 expression in human carcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • We thus investigated cyclin G2 expression in human thyroid neoplasms. (nih.gov)
  • We immunohistochemically examined cyclin G2 expression in 40 normal thyroids and 80 thyroid neoplasms. (nih.gov)
  • This is the first study of the expression of cyclin G2, a novel cyclin having a role opposite to that of conventional cyclins, in human carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • METHODS: To investigate the role of cyclin B1 in proliferation and differentiation of hECs in menstrual cycle, the expression of cyclin B1 throughout the menstrual cycle was evaluated in hECs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and in silico assay were used to determine the expression of cyclin G2 in gastric cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TCGA datasets were used to evaluate the association between cyclin G2 expression and the prognostic landscape of gastric cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effects of cyclin G2 expression on Wnt/β-catenin signaling were explored using a TOPFlash luciferase reporter assay, and the molecular mechanisms involved were investigated using immunoblots assay, yeast two-hybrid screening, immunoprecipitation and Duolink in situ PLA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dpr1 was identified as a cyclin G2-interacting protein which was required for the cyclin G2-mediated inhibition of β-catenin expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We evaluated the role of miR-122 and cyclin G1 expression in hepatocarcinogenesis and in response to treatment with doxorubicin and their relevance on survival and time to recurrence (TTR) of HCC patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, in a therapeutic perspective, we assayed the effects of a restored miR-122 expression in triggering doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and we proved that miR-122, as well as cyclin G1 silencing, increases sensitivity to doxorubicin challenge. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In patients resected for HCC, lower miR-122 levels were associated with a shorter TTR, whereas higher cyclin G1 expression was related to a lower survival, suggesting that miR-122 might represent an effective molecular target for HCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activation of this complex was correlated with the caffeine-induced release from the UV-induced G2 delay and a decrease in the level of p16 bound to Cdk4. (garvan.org.au)
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that cyclin B1 is a critical factor in proliferation and differentiation of hECs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Activation of the mitotic kinase during G2 causes repression of CLN1, CLN2 and CLN3 synthesis and onset of M phase and ultimately leads to the reactivation of CLB proteolysis. (slideserve.com)
  • The inactive cyclin B-p34cdc2 complex continues to accumulate in the cytoplasm until the completion of DNA synthesis, when Cdc25, a specific protein phosphatase, dephosphorylates aa 14Thr and 15Tyr of p34cdc2 rendering the complex active at the G2/M boundary. (fishersci.com)
  • The UV-responsive lines contained elevated levels of p16 post-treatment, and the accumulation of p16 correlated with the G2 delay. (garvan.org.au)
  • Nevertheless, both Clb5 and Clb6 were shown to be responsible for down-regulation of the protein kinase activities associated with Cln2, a G1 cyclin, and Clb2, a mitotic cyclin, in vivo. (mysciencework.com)
  • Thus, the in vitro cellular potency, together with in vivo antitumor activity, confirms the potential of P276-00, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor as an anticancer molecule. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Total cellular lysate was made at different time points, and the blot was probed with antibodies against cyclin D2, BCR/ABL, and actin ( Lanes 1-4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin G2 has been shown to be associated with the development of multiple types of tumors, but its underlying mechanisms in gastric tumors is not well-understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the role and the underlying mechanisms of cyclin G2 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in gastric cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, a xenograft model and a metastasis model of nude mice was used to determine the influence of cyclin G2 on gastric tumor growth and migration in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, there are few reports on the identity of pathways and the precise mechanisms that mediate the roles of cyclin G2 in gastric tumorigenesis and other cancers. (biomedcentral.com)

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