A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.
A subunit of the interleukin-12 receptor. It plays a role in receptor signaling by associating with JANUS KINASE 2.
An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.

Control of cell cycle progression by c-Jun is p53 dependent. (1/114)

The c-jun proto-oncogene encodes a component of the mitogen-inducible immediate-early transcription factor AP-1 and has been implicated as a positive regulator of cell proliferation and G1-to-S-phase progression. Here we report that fibroblasts derived from c-jun-/- mouse fetuses exhibit a severe proliferation defect and undergo a prolonged crisis before spontaneous immortalization. The cyclin D1- and cyclin E-dependent kinases (CDKs) and transcription factor E2F are poorly activated, resulting in inefficient G1-to-S-phase progression. Furthermore, the absence of c-Jun results in elevated expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53 and its target gene, the CDK inhibitor p21, whereas overexpression of c-Jun represses p53 and p21 expression and accelerates cell proliferation. Surprisingly, protein stabilization, the common mechanism of p53 regulation, is not involved in up-regulation of p53 in c-jun-/- fibroblasts. Rather, c-Jun regulates transcription of p53 negatively by direct binding to a variant AP-1 site in the p53 promoter. Importantly, deletion of p53 abrogates all defects of cells lacking c-Jun in cell cycle progression, proliferation, immortalization, and activation of G1 CDKs and E2F. These results demonstrate that an essential, rate-limiting function of c-Jun in fibroblast proliferation is negative regulation of p53 expression, and establish a mechanistic link between c-Jun-dependent mitogenic signaling and cell-cycle regulation.  (+info)

Altered regulation of cyclin G in human breast cancer and its specific localization at replication foci in response to DNA damage in p53+/+ cells. (2/114)

Cyclin G, a recent addition to the cyclin family, was initially identified in screens for new src kinase family members and soon thereafter by differential screening for transcriptional targets of the tumor suppressor gene, p53. We have identified cyclin G as being overexpressed in breast and prostate cancer cells using differential display polymerase chain reaction screening. We demonstrate here that cyclin G is overexpressed in human breast and prostate cancer cells and in cancer cells in situ from tumor specimens. Cyclin G expression was tightly regulated throughout the cell cycle in normal breast cells, peaking at the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle with lower levels in G1. The cell cycle-dependent expression was absent in breast cancer cells. Following DNA damage in normal p53+/+ cells, cyclin G is triggered to cluster in discrete nuclear DNA replication foci that contain replication-associated proteins such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). While p53-/- cells displayed a faint cyclin G nuclear staining pattern, there was no increased expression and no change in distribution of the staining pattern after DNA damage. The specific subcellular localization of cyclin G at DNA replication foci provides an additional link between p53-mediated growth arrest and cell cycle regulation and suggests that cyclin G may act as an effector of p53-mediated events by functional association with replication foci protein(s).  (+info)

A G1 cyclin is necessary for maintenance of filamentous growth in Candida albicans. (3/114)

Candida albicans undergoes a dramatic morphological transition in response to various growth conditions. This ability to switch from a yeast form to a hyphal form is required for its pathogenicity. The intractability of Candida to traditional genetic approaches has hampered the study of the molecular mechanism governing this developmental switch. Our approach is to use the more genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to yield clues about the molecular control of filamentation for further studies in Candida. G1 cyclins Cln1 and Cln2 have been implicated in the control of morphogenesis in S. cerevisiae. We show that C. albicans CLN1 (CaCLN1) has the same cell cycle-specific expression pattern as CLN1 and CLN2 of S. cerevisiae. To investigate whether G1 cyclins are similarly involved in the regulation of cell morphogenesis during the yeast-to-hypha transition of C. albicans, we mutated CaCLN1. Cacln1/Cacln1 cells were found to be slower than wild-type cells in cell cycle progression. The Cacln1/Cacln1 mutants were also defective in hyphal colony formation on several solid media. Furthermore, while mutant strains developed germ tubes under several hypha-inducing conditions, they were unable to maintain the hyphal growth mode in a synthetic hypha-inducing liquid medium and were deficient in the expression of hypha-specific genes in this medium. Our results suggest that CaCln1 may coordinately regulate hyphal development with signal transduction pathways in response to various environmental cues.  (+info)

G1 checkpoint protein and p53 abnormalities occur in most invasive transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. (4/114)

The G1 cell cycle checkpoint regulates entry into S phase for normal cells. Components of the G1 checkpoint, including retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, cyclin D1 and p16INK4a, are commonly altered in human malignancies, abrogating cell cycle control. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined 79 invasive transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder treated by cystectomy, for loss of Rb or p16INK4a protein and for cyclin D1 overexpression. As p53 is also involved in cell cycle control, its expression was studied as well. Rb protein loss occurred in 23/79 cases (29%); it was inversely correlated with loss of p16INK4a, which occurred in 15/79 cases (19%). One biphenotypic case, with Rb+p16- and Rb-p16+ areas, was identified as well. Cyclin D1 was overexpressed in 21/79 carcinomas (27%), all of which retained Rb protein. Fifty of 79 tumours (63%) showed aberrant accumulation of p53 protein; p53 staining did not correlate with Rb, p16INK4a, or cyclin D1 status. Overall, 70% of bladder carcinomas showed abnormalities in one or more of the intrinsic proteins of the G1 checkpoint (Rb, p16INK4a and cyclin D1). Only 15% of all bladder carcinomas (12/79) showed a normal phenotype for all four proteins. In a multivariate survival analysis, cyclin D1 overexpression was linked to less aggressive disease and relatively favourable outcome. In our series, Rb, p16INK4a and p53 status did not reach statistical significance as prognostic factors. In conclusion, G1 restriction point defects can be identified in the majority of bladder carcinomas. Our findings support the hypothesis that cyclin D1 and p16INK4a can cooperate to dysregulate the cell cycle, but that loss of Rb protein abolishes the G1 checkpoint completely, removing any selective advantage for cells that alter additional cell cycle proteins.  (+info)

Recovery of the yeast cell cycle from heat shock-induced G(1) arrest involves a positive regulation of G(1) cyclin expression by the S phase cyclin Clb5. (5/114)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, heat shock stress induces a variety of cellular responses including a transient cell cycle arrest before G(1)/S transition. Previous studies have suggested that this G(1) delay is probably attributable to a reduced level of the G(1) cyclin gene (CLN1 and CLN2) transcripts. Here we report our finding that the G(1) cyclin Cln3 and the S cyclin Clb5 are the key factors required for recovery from heat shock-induced G(1) arrest. Heat shock treatment of G(1) cells lacking either CLN3 or CLB5/CLB6 functions leads to prolonged cell cycle arrest before the initiation of DNA synthesis, concomitant with a severe deficiency in bud formation. The inability of the clb5 clb6 mutant to resume normal budding after heat shock treatment is unanticipated, since the S phase cyclins are generally thought to be required mainly for initiation of DNA synthesis and have no significant roles in bud formation in the presence of functional G(1) cyclins. Further studies reveal that the accumulation of G(1) cyclin transcripts is markedly delayed in the clb5 clb6 mutant following heat shock treatment, indicating that the CLN gene expression may require Clb5/Clb6 to attain a threshold level for driving the cell cycle through G(1)/S transition. Consistent with this assumption, overproduction of Clb5 greatly enhances the transcription of at least two G(1) cyclin genes (CLN1 and CLN2) in heat-shocked G(1) cells. These results suggest that Clb5 may positively regulate the expression of G(1) cyclins during cellular recovery from heat shock-induced G(1) arrest. Additional evidence is presented to support a role for Clb5 in maintaining the synchrony between budding and DNA synthesis during normal cell division as well.  (+info)

Ectopic expression of Cdc25A accelerates the G(1)/S transition and leads to premature activation of cyclin E- and cyclin A-dependent kinases. (6/114)

Human Cdc25 phosphatases play important roles in cell cycle regulation by removing inhibitory phosphates from tyrosine and threonine residues of cyclin-dependent kinases. Three human Cdc25 isoforms, A, B, and C, have been discovered. Cdc25B and Cdc25C play crucial roles at the G(2)/M transition. In the present study, we have investigated the function of human Cdc25A phosphatase. Cell lines that express human Cdc25A in an inducible manner have been generated. Ectopic expression of Cdc25A accelerates the G(1)/S-phase transition, indicating that Cdc25A controls an event(s) that is rate limiting for entry into S phase. Furthermore, we carried out a detailed analysis of the expression and activation of human Cdc25A. Activation of endogenous Cdc25A occurs during late G(1) phase and increases in S and G(2) phases. We further demonstrate that Cdc25A is activated at the same time as cyclin E- and cyclin A-dependent kinases. In vitro, Cdc25A dephosphorylates and activates the cyclin-Cdk complexes that are active during G(1). Overexpression of Cdc25A in the inducible system, however, leads to a premature activation of both cyclin E-Cdk2 and cyclin A-Cdk2 complexes, while no effect of cyclin D-dependent kinases is observed. Furthermore, Cdc25A overexpression induces a tyrosine dephosphorylation of Cdk2. These results suggest that Cdc25A is an important regulator of the G(1)/S-phase transition and that cyclin E- and cyclin A-dependent kinases act as direct targets.  (+info)

A role of cyclin G in the process of apoptosis. (7/114)

Cyclin G was previously identified as a target gene of the p53 tumor suppresser protein, and levels of cyclin G are increased after induction of p53 by DNA damage. However, the function of cyclin G has not been established. To determine the effect of increased expression of cyclin G, retroviruses encoding cyclin G were constructed and used to infect three different murine cell lines. Cyclin G protein levels induced by the retroviruses were within the range seen after DNA damage induction of p53. In each case we observed that such over-expression of cyclin G augments the apoptotic process. TNF-alpha induction of apoptosis is increased by expression of cyclin G in NIH3T3 fibroblasts which express p53, as well as in 10.1 fibroblasts which contain no p53 allele. Additionally, we observed that while cyclin G expression is markedly reduced upon aggregate formation in embryonic carcinoma P19 cells, retrovirus-mediated over-expression of cyclin G enhances apoptotic cell death in aggregated P19 cells, and increases the extent of apoptosis caused by retinoic acid or serum starvation of these cells. These data demonstrate that cyclin G plays a facilitating role in modulating apoptosis induced by different stimuli. Moreover, we have discovered that cyclin G expression is rapidly induced in P19 cells after exposure to Bone Morphogenic Protein-4 (BMP-4), suggesting that cyclin G may mediate apoptotic signals generated by BMP-4.  (+info)

Interferon-alpha inhibits proliferation in human T lymphocytes by abrogation of interleukin 2-induced changes in cell cycle-regulatory proteins. (8/114)

IFN-alpha exerts prominent regulatory functions on the immune system. One such effect is the inhibition of proliferation of in vitro stimulated T lymphocytes. The exact physiological function of this activity is not known, but it has been implicated in the antiviral effects of IFN, its antitumor action in T-cell malignancies, and the regulation of the in vivo T-cell response. Here, we have investigated the mechanism underlying the IFN-alpha-mediated growth inhibition of normal human PHA- and IL-2-stimulated T lymphocytes by an analysis of how IFN-alpha treatment influences known molecular events that normally accompany the transition from quiescence to proliferation in these cells. IFN-alpha treatment was found to profoundly block S-phase entry of stimulated T lymphocytes. This correlated with a strong inhibition of IL-2-induced changes in G1-regulatory proteins, including the prevented up-regulation of G1 cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases as well as an abrogation of mitogen-induced reduction of p27Kip1 levels. This latter effect was due to a maintained stability of the p27Kip1 protein in the IFN-alpha-treated cells. In line with these findings, phosphorylation of the pocket proteins was abrogated in IFN-alpha-treated cells. Furthermore, our data indicate that IFN-alpha has selective effects on the pathways that emerge from the IL-2 receptor because IFN-alpha treatment does not block IL-2-induced up-regulation of c-myc or Cdc25A.  (+info)

Cyclin G1, 0.1 mg. Cyclins are the regulatory subunits of Cdc2 p34 and related cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) which play critical roles in the control of cell cycle progression.
Top performende anti-Schwein Cyclin G1 Antikörper für Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)) vergleichen & kaufen.
J:171486 Rutter M, Wang J, Huang Z, Kuliszewski M, Post M, Gli2 influences proliferation in the developing lung through regulation of cyclin expression. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010 May;42(5):615-25 ...
The adaptive trial design of this advanced Phase II study incorporates (i) a dosing schedule based on the patients estimated tumor burden and not on standard dosing per kilogram body weight or body surface area, and (2) a tumor response evaluation process that is unique to the manner in which osteosarcoma responds favorably to therapy, i.e., with necrosis and increasing calcification in metastatic tumors and decreased glucose utilization using PET-CT imaging studies.. Twenty to thirty patients will receive Rexin-G at either Dose Level 1 or 2. Patients will be assigned a dose level based on the estimated tumor burden as measured by PET-CT imaging studies. Estimated tumor burden is measured by multiplying the sum of the longest diameters of target lesions in cm by 10e9 cancer cells. If the tumor burden is less than 10 billion cells, the patient will be assigned to Dose Level 1, if the tumor burden is greater than 10 billion cells, the patient will be assigned to Dose Level 2.. *Treatment Cycle ...
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CCNG2 gene was initially identified in 1996 and encodes for a protein that belongs to a family of cyclins homologous to CCNG1 (7). Previous studies have reported that CCNG2 participates in carcinogenesis and is a known tumor suppressor gene (15-17,20-26). CCNG2 gene expression is downregulated in thyroid (20), oral (21), ovarian (22), breast (23,24), gastric (16), esophageal (17), prostate (25), kidney (26) and colorectal (15) cancer cells.. Several aspects of CCNG2 behavior are associated with antitumor effects. Antitumor agents induce CCNG2 expression, which results in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation (8-10). In breast cancer, CCNG2 knockdown induces multidrug resistance (8). In colorectal cancer, CCNG2 expression correlates with the tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage, histological grade and overall survival (15). In gastric cancer, CCNG2 expression correlates with the extent of differentiation: CCNG2 expression is high in well-differentiated adenocarcinomas and low ...
Cyclins are key regulators of the cell cycle in all eukaryotes. We have previously isolated two B-type cyclin genes, cycMs1 and cycMs2, from alfalfa that are primarily expressed during the G2-to-M phase transition and are most likely mitotic cyclin genes. Here, we report the isolation of a novel alfalfa cyclin gene, termed cycMs3 (for cyclin Medicago sativa), by selecting for mating type alpha-pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest suppression in yeast. The central region of the predicted amino acid sequence of the cycMs3 gene is most similar to the cyclin box of yeast B-type and mammalian A- and B-type cyclins. In situ hybridization showed that cycMs3 mRNA can be detected only in proliferating cells and not in differentiated alfalfa cells. When differentiated G0-arrested cells were induced to reenter the cell cycle in the G1 phase and resume cell division by treatment with plant hormones, cycMs3 transcript levels increased long before the onset of DNA synthesis. In contrast, histone H3-1 mRNA and ...
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Remaja putri pelaku sex pranikah pasti bingung bin kelabakan kalo udah telat menstruasi, masalahnya selama ini telat menstruasi selalu identik dengan kehamilan, padahal belum tentu lho, apalagi kalo gak berhubungan sex sama sekali, masak gak ngapa-ngapain tiba-tiba hamil? (sumber: juraganmedis.com). Telat menstruasi atau bahasa kerennya amenorrhea sering terjadi pada banyak wanita, terutama pada remaja putri…
As of late, individuals are turning into increasingly health aware. Jadhav, U. & Jameson, J. L. Steroidogenic issue-1 (sf-1)-driven differentiation of murine embryonic stem (es) cells right into a gonadal lineage. Any steered medical therapies must be discussed with your physician. 1: Differentiation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into Leydig-like cells (iPSC-LCs) based on molecular compounds.. People on a ketogenic diet eat 50 grams or fewer of carbohydrates per day and as an alternative eat greater-than-regular amounts of fats and protein. Ge, R. S. & Hardy, M. P. Decreased cyclin a2 and increased cyclin g1 levels coincide with loss of proliferative capability in rat leydig cells throughout pubertal growth.. The main focus of public well being interventions is to forestall and manage ailments, accidents and different health conditions through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy conduct , communities , and (in points relevant to human well being) environments Its aim is ...
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ... CDK4, CMM3, PSK-J3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin dependent kinase 4. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5[edit]. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a kinase that has been previously hypothesized to ...
Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are a group of several different kinases involved in regulation of the cell cycle. They ... Lim, S.; Kaldis, P. (16 July 2013). "Cdks, cyclins and CKIs: roles beyond cell cycle regulation". Development. 140 (15): 3079- ... Different combinations of specific CDKs and cyclins mark different parts of the cell cycle. Additionally, the phosphorylation ... Harper, J. W.; Adams, P. D. (August 2001). "Cyclin-Dependent Kinases". Chemical Reviews. 101 (8): 2511-2526. doi:10.1021/ ...
Members of this protein family contain a cyclin box motif and have structural similarity to the cyclins. The encoded protein ... Cyclin M2 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CNNM2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ancient conserved domain ... provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]. "Entrez Gene: Cyclin M2". Retrieved 2013-02-23. ...
Cyclins are proteins that play a key role in regulating the cell-division cycle. Hunt found that cyclins begin to be ... He and others subsequently showed that cyclins bind and activate a family of protein kinases, now called the cyclin-dependent ... the protein cyclin which is a component of cyclin dependent kinases, demonstrating his ability to grasp the significance of the ... He showed that cyclins are degraded periodically at each cell division, a mechanism proved to be of general importance for cell ...
The mitotic cyclins can be grouped as cyclins A & B. These cyclins have a nine residue sequence in the N-terminal region called ... Cyclin, a regulatory subunit. The cyclins are necessary for the kinase subunit to function with the appropriate substrate. ... As the concentration of Cyclin B/CDK1 increases, the heterodimer promotes APC to polyubiquitinate Cyclin B/CDK1. Smith, L. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), the cyclin-dependent kinase subunit. It uses ATP to phosphorylate specific serine and ...
Cyclin-L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNL2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to cyclin family. ... 2004). "Cyclin L2, a novel RNA polymerase II-associated cyclin, is involved in pre-mRNA splicing and induces apoptosis of human ... 2004). "Characterization of cyclin L2, a novel cyclin with an arginine/serine-rich domain: phosphorylation by DYRK1A and ... CCNL2 cyclin L2". Human CCNL2 genome location and CCNL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Maruyama K, Sugano S ( ...
p16 inhibits cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6) and thereby activates the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of proteins ... "CDKN2A cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-10-11. ... CDKN2A, also known as cyclin-dependent kinase Inhibitor 2A, is a gene which in humans is located at chromosome 9, band p21.3. ... "CDKN2A - Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDKN2A gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2016- ...
2004). "Characterization of cyclin L2, a novel cyclin with an arginine/serine-rich domain: phosphorylation by DYRK1A and ... "Entrez Gene: CCNL1 cyclin L1". Human CCNL1 genome location and CCNL1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Zhang QH, Ye ... Cyclin-L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNL1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163660 - Ensembl, May ... 2006). "Cyclin L1 (CCNL1) gene alterations in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma". Br. J. Cancer. 94 (7): 1041-4. doi: ...
He holds a US and international patent on Activators of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (ACDK) and has mentored many doctoral scholars ... 19-. ISBN 978-94-007-0265-3. She, Jin-Xiong; Wang, Cong-Yi; Kumar, G. Pradeep (2017-12-20). "Activators of cyclin-dependent ...
Also involved in the phosphorylation and regulation of the RPB1 CTD is cyclin T1 (CCNT1). Cyclin T1 tightly associates and ... CDK8 and cyclin C (CCNC) are components of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme that phosphorylate the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD ... 2002). "A kinase-cyclin pair in the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme". Nature. 374 (6518): 193-6. doi:10.1038/374193a0. PMID ... TFIIH is a large protein complex that contains among others the CDK7/cyclin H kinase complex and a DNA helicase. TFIIH has ...
... cyclin box.' In mammalian cells, 9 cyclin species have been identified, and they are referred to as cyclins A through I. Cyclin ... Cyclin G-associated kinase received its name because it immunoprecipitated with cyclin G though it now appears to not be ... Cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK) is a serine/threonine kinase that in humans is encoded by the GAK gene. In all eukaryotes, the ... Cyclin G-associated kinase is a two domain cystolic protein. The domain of interest is the C-terminal domain which consists of ...
"Entrez Gene: RUNX1T1 runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1 (cyclin D-related)". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T ...
Jain SK, Bharate SB, Vishwakarma RA (2012). "Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition by flavoalkaloids". Mini Rev Med Chem. 12 (7): ... Bose P, Simmons GL, Grant S (2013). "Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor therapy for hematologic malignancies". Expert Opin ...
... has been shown to interact with: CDC45-related protein and CDC6, Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase, Cyclin- ... Laman H, Peters G, Jones N (Dec 2001). "Cyclin-mediated export of human Orc1". Experimental Cell Research. 271 (2): 230-7. doi: ... "Human CDC6/Cdc18 associates with Orc1 and cyclin-cdk and is selectively eliminated from the nucleus at the onset of S phase". ... "Human CDC6/Cdc18 associates with Orc1 and cyclin-cdk and is selectively eliminated from the nucleus at the onset of S phase". ...
Cyclin D-bound cdks 4 and 6 are activated by cdk-activating kinase and drive the cell towards the restriction point. Cyclin D, ...
doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90028-W. Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathan (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors ... "Human cyclin A is adenovirus E1A-associated protein p60 and behaves differently from cyclin B". Nature. 346 (6286): 760-763. ... Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1991). "Cyclins and cancer". Cell. 66 (6): 1071-1074. ...
This discovery was essential to the subsequent cloning of Xenopus cyclins and kept the Hunt lab at the forefront of cyclin ... Subsequently he cloned and characterised the first human cyclins with Tony Hunter. This was crucial to recognising that cyclins ... doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90028-W. Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors ... and identified the first link between cyclins and oncoproteins by showing that cyclin A bound to adenovirus E1A, thus linking ...
cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ... p21Cip1 (alternatively p21Waf1), also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin- ... CDKN1A, CAP20, CDKN1, CIP1, MDA-6, P21, SDI1, WAF1, p21CIP1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)".. *^ Gartel AL, Radhakrishnan SK (May 2005). "Lost in ...
Cyclin D is the first cyclin produced in the cell cycle, in response to extracellular signals (e.g. growth factors). Cyclin D ... cyclins have no catalytic activity and CDKs are inactive in the absence of a partner cyclin. When activated by a bound cyclin, ... cyclin A, DNA polymerase, thymidine kinase, etc. Cyclin E thus produced binds to CDK2, forming the cyclin E-CDK2 complex, which ... Two key classes of regulatory molecules, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), determine a cell's progress through the ...
It has also been shown that Cdk2 complexes with both cyclin A and cyclin E and this complex is critical for centrosome ... by cyclin-dependent kinase 2-cyclin E and its role in centrosome duplication". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (24): ... This link between the cell cycle and the centrosome cycle is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2). There has been ample ... Hinchcliffe, EH; Li, C; Thompson, EA; Maller, JL; Sluder, G (Feb 5, 1999). "Requirement of Cdk2-cyclin E activity for repeated ...
"Cyclin C is a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor". Nature Cell Biology. 16 (11): 1080-91. doi:10.1038/ncb3046. PMC 4235773 . ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase 12 is a protein kinase that in humans is encoded by the CDK12 gene. This enzyme is a member of ... "Entrez Gene: CDK12 cyclin-dependent kinase 12". Human CDK12 genome location and CDK12 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... cyclin-dependent kinase protein family. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167258 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release ...
The degradation of cyclins is the key step that governs the exit from mitosis and progress into the next cell cycle. Cyclins ... The cyclins are removed via a ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic pathway. Caspases are an important group of proteases involved in ... Cyclins are a group of proteins that activate kinases involved in cell division. ... Glotzer M, Murray AW, Kirschner MW (1991). "Cyclin is degraded by the ubiquitin pathway". Nature. 349 (6305): 132-8. doi: ...
First, cyclin must bind to the Cdk. In the second step, CAK must phosphorylate the cyclin-Cdk complex on the threonine residue ... In budding yeast, activating phosphorylation by CAK can take place before cyclin binding. In both humans and yeast, cyclin ... Since Cdks need to be free of Cdk inhibitor proteins (CKIs) and associated with cyclins in order to be activated, CAK activity ... Lolli G, Johnson LN (April 2005). "CAK-Cyclin-dependent Activating Kinase: a key kinase in cell cycle control and a target for ...
In the late G2 phase, it is present as an inactive complex of tyrosine-phosphorylated p34cdc2 and unphosphorylated cyclin ... Meijer L, Azzi L, Wang JY (1991). "Cyclin B targets p34cdc2 for tyrosine phosphorylation". EMBO J. 10 (6): 1545-54. PMC 452818 ...
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Xu W, Ji JY (2011). "Dysregulation of CDK8 and Cyclin C in tumorigenesis". J ... Another example of structural variability is seen in vertebrates, in which 3 paralogues of subunits of the cyclin-dependent ...
Metaphase ends with the destruction of B cyclin. B cyclin is marked with ubiquitin which flags it for destruction by ... proteasomes, which is required for the function of metaphase cyclin-dependent kinases (M-Cdks). Interphase Prophase ...
Zhou BB, Li H, Yuan J, Kirschner MW (Jun 1998). "Caspase-dependent activation of cyclin-dependent kinases during Fas-induced ... APC catalyzes the formation of cyclin B-ubiquitin conjugate that is responsible for the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of B- ... D'Angiolella V, Mari C, Nocera D, Rametti L, Grieco D (Oct 2003). "The spindle checkpoint requires cyclin-dependent kinase ... type cyclins. This protein and 3 other members of the APC complex contain the TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat), a protein domain ...
... by maintaining high levels of proteins that control cell cycle progression such as the cyclins and their associated cyclin- ... dependent kinases (cdk). The complex Cyclin B/CDK1 a.k.a. MPF (maturation promoting factor) promotes entry into mitosis. The ...
cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ... cyclin D (Cdk4) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ...
Source for information on cyclin: A Dictionary of Biology dictionary. ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. Cyclin A is also produced, which ... Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... Cyclin Dependent Kinases in the Cell Cycle. Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene ...
... like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. Thanks. Mike * ... Cyclin E-Fix. micro-mike micro-mike at cox.net Sun Mar 3 16:33:22 EST 2002 *Previous message: THE SECRET the IRS is TERRIFIED ... But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the ...
CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... Cyclin I: a new cyclin encoded by a gene isolated from human brain. Nakamura T, et al. Exp Cell Res, 1995 Dec. PMID 7493655 ...
Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does ... cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha ... Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box ... The structural results indicate a role for the cyclin-box fold both as a template for the cyclin family and as a generalised ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
... Charles Yang cyang at jhunix.hcf.jhu.edu Fri Oct 6 15:33:24 EST 1995 *Previous message: luciferase ... My problem: I cant find the nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the Cyclin H gene (the human counterpart to CCL1) and its ...
Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ...
Protein levels of cyclin B1 and cdc2 for each selected population are shown in Fig. 4B. Levels of cyclin B1 protein in cyclin ... Cyclin A regulates the initiation and maintenance of DNA synthesis whereas B cyclins control mitosis (32, 33). Cyclin B mRNA ... Cyclin B1/cdc2 kinase activity is shown in Fig. 4C. Cyclin B1 rescues the p53-dependent drop in cdc2 kinase activity in Ts- ... Cyclin B1 Expression Rescues p53-Mediated G2 Arrest.. To determine whether the decrease in cyclin B1 mRNA was the primary ...
Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis. W Meikrantz, S Gisselbrecht, S W Tam, and R Schlegel ... These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent ... Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. Stable ... to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. ...
... the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its ... the cyclin), led to a simple model for cell cycle control. Modulation of cyclin accumulation, and thereby Cdk activation, was ... CDK CKI Zellzyklus biochemistry biology cancer cell cell cycle cellular differentiation cellular growth cyclin-dependent kinase ... More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell ...
E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins ... However, endoreplication of trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes is severely impaired in the absence of cyclin E. Cyclin ... Cyclin E ablation in the mouse.. Geng Y., Yu Q., Sicinska E., Das M., Schneider J.E., Bhattacharya S., Rideout W.M., Bronson R. ... These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for ...
Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, ... Bienvenu et al. have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated ... Endogenous cyclin D1 associated with STAT3 in cells treated for 2 hours after treatment with interleukin 6 (IL-6), an activator ... F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. ...
Cyclin D1 governs microRNA processing in breast cancer Cyclin D1 controls cell cycle progression and microRNA biogenesis ... Cyclin D1 governs microRNA processing in breast cancer. Thomas Jefferson University. Journal. Nature Communications. Keywords. ... regulates expression of cyclin D1. Furthermore, the group showed that many cancer patients encode a form of cyclin D1 that ... Because the cyclin D1 gene has been implicated in a variety of other human cancers these findings may have broad implications ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
... balczonr at my-dejanews.com balczonr at my-dejanews.com Tue Sep 22 13:25:16 EST 1998 ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase synonyms, Cyclin-dependent kinase pronunciation, Cyclin-dependent kinase translation, English ... dictionary definition of Cyclin-dependent kinase. n. Any of various enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group ... Targeting cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in cancer: lessons from mice, hopes for therapeutic applications in human.. The ... STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS: DYNAMICS AND FLEXIBILITY ARE THE STORY.. STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF CYCLIN ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B regulates efferocytosis and atherosclerosis. Yoko Kojima, Kelly Downing, Ramendra Kundu, ... We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), ... See the related article at Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B regulates efferocytosis and atherosclerosis. ...
We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), ...
... Carmela Rinaldi,1 Natalia Maria Malara,2 Rosalia DAngelo,1 ... Carmela Rinaldi, Natalia Maria Malara, Rosalia DAngelo, et al., "Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer," ...
The results obtained suggest that the increment of the levels of cyclin D1 in intra-ductal breast tumors in older woman that we ... have examined is significantly associated with a lower proliferation rate.Conclusion: Cyclin D1, which characterizes tumor in ... Cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) plays pivotal roles in the development of several human cancers, including breast cancer, functioning as ... Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer. Carmela Rinaldi. ,1 Natalia Maria Malara. ,2 Rosalia DAngelo. ,1 ...
These thresholds are sequentially triggered as cyclin increases, yielding reliable order and timing. In many biological ... We conclude that mitotic events are regulated by discrete cyclin-CDK thresholds. ... Rising cyclin-CDK levels order cell cycle events PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e20788. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020788. Epub 2011 Jun ... Background: Diverse mitotic events can be triggered in the correct order and time by a single cyclin-CDK. A single regulator ...
... Nature. 1993 Dec 16;366(6456):701-4. doi: 10.1038/366701a0. ... We find that p21 inhibits the activity of each member of the cyclin/CDK family. Furthermore, overexpression of p21 inhibits the ... Our results indicate that p21 may be a universal inhibitor of cyclin kinases. ... cyclin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the p21 protein. However, in many transformed cells, proliferating cell nuclear ...
Download the full report: https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/5190761 Summary Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase ... This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found ... The latest report Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Cyclin ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cyclin T1 antibody validated for WB, IP, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 10 ... Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation ... Anti-Cyclin T1 antibody (ab2098) at 1/10000 dilution + HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cell line) Whole Cell Lysate at 10 µg. ... ab2098 (2µg/ml) staining Cyclin T1 in human lymph node using an automated system (DAKO Autostainer Plus). Using this protocol ...
Compare Anti-Cyclin K Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... Anti-Cyclin K Antibody Products. Anti-Cyclin K antibodies are available from several suppliers. In humans, this protein is ...
Mouse polyclonal Cyclin A1 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding ... All lanes : Anti-Cyclin A1 antibody (ab172317) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Cyclin A1 transfected 293T cell line lysate. Lane 2 : Non- ... Full length protein corresponding to Human Cyclin A1 aa 1-464. (ABM85414.1).. Sequence: ...
  • For example, in all eukaryotes mitosis (M phase) is initiated by high levels of cyclin B, which combines with a protein kinase to form the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF). (encyclopedia.com)
  • To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G 2 , we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G 2 arrest at 32°C. We have found that p53 prevents G 2 /M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. (pnas.org)
  • To study G 2 regulation by p53, we have established a human cell line, Ts-SKOV3, that stably expresses a temperature-sensitive p53 allele and undergoes G 2 arrest at 32°C. Using this cell line we have found that p53 arrests cell cycle in G 2 by lowering intracellular levels of cyclin B1, a protein absolutely required for mitotic initiation. (pnas.org)
  • The more aggressive basal-like subtype of breast cancers, however, exhibited lower levels of cyclin D1 and Dicer, which would in turn globally reduce the level of mature miRNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study involved cancer samples from 264 Taiwanese male oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and the results showed that increased levels of cyclin D1 were linked with later stage cancer and increased chance of the tumor spreading, as well as a reduced chance of survival. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • More research is needed, but assessing levels of cyclin D1 at diagnosis could help to personalize treatment. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Of the seven patients who had a recurrence, six had high levels of cyclin E activity. (scienceblog.com)
  • RESULTS- Mice treated with exendin-4 showed increased β-cell proliferation, elevated islet protein levels of cyclin A2 with unchanged D-type cyclins, elevated PDX-1 and Skp2 levels, and reduced p27 levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cyclin A is also produced, which binds to CDK2 and stimulates DNA replication. (news-medical.net)
  • Analysis of residues that are conserved throughout the A, B, and E cyclins identifies two exposed clusters of residues, one of which has recently been shown to be involved in the association with human CDK2. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does not undergo any significant conformational changes on complex formation. (nih.gov)
  • Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. (pnas.org)
  • However, their research also showed that treating breast cancer cells with a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) inhibitor can reverse letrozole resistance. (scienceblog.com)
  • After confirming that the LMW forms of cyclin E suppress the anti-proliferative effects of letrozole, the researchers examined whether a CDK2 inhibitor could reverse the drug resistance in the unresponsive breast cancer cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • We challenged the aromatase-overexpressing cells with either the wild-type or the low forms of cyclin E and then treated them with the CDK2 inhibitor roscovitine," Keyomarsi said. (scienceblog.com)
  • Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and interacting with viral proteins (Giordano et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2005). Human cyclin A1 interacts with CDK2 in vitro and in vivo (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2001). Moreover the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex regulates DNA double-strand break repair following radiation damage (Müller-Tidow et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2004) by competing with CDK2-cyclin A2 for the binding to Ku70, a pivotal player in the non-homologous end-joining double strand break repair pathway, and inhibiting apoptosis through modulating RB functions in leukemia cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, and is essential for cell cycle G1⁄S phase transition. (fishersci.ca)
  • Cyclin E forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK2, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cyclin A binds to S phase Cdk2 and is required for the cell to progress through the S phase. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Cyclin A/ Cdk2 is inhibited by the complex p21CIP. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Cyclin E binds to the G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle that determines cell division. (rockland-inc.com)
  • The Cyclin E/CDK2 complex phosphorylates p27Kip1, tagging it for degradation, thus promoting expression of Cyclin A, allowing progression to S phase. (rockland-inc.com)
  • There are currently no images for Cyclin C Antibody (NB120-2950). (novusbio.com)
  • Western Blot: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-02902] - Cyclin A1 western with U2OS cells. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-02902] - Human testis after heat-induced antigen retrieval. (novusbio.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Cyclin E1 Monoclonal Antibody (4H7) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # BSM-52048R. (thermofisher.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Cyclin B1 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 55004-1-AP. (thermofisher.com)
  • WB analysis of extracts from various cell lines using Cyclin H antibody. (genetex.com)
  • ICC/IF analysis of HeLa cells using Cyclin H antibody (green) and DAPI (blue). (genetex.com)
  • Cyclin B1 antibody detects Cyclin B1 protein at cytoplasm on mouse ovary by immunohistochemical analysis. (genetex.com)
  • TMA slides and traditional large section slides of these 200 tumours were stained with cyclin A antibody and analysed by two independent readers. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cyclins themselves have no enzymatic activity but have binding sites for some substrates and target the Cdks to specific subcellular locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cyclins oscillate, increasing and decreasing at different stages, binding to CDKs and driving the cell cycle forward. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition to cyclin levels, this provides and additional way to control the activity of CDKs. (news-medical.net)
  • Cyclins also determine the subcellular location and substrate specificity of CDKs. (nih.gov)
  • More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its control. (springer.com)
  • For example, although Cdks appear to be highly conserved phylogenetically, cyclins are much less so. (springer.com)
  • In normal cells, CDKs exist predominantly in multiple quaternary complexes, each containing a CDK, cyclin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the p21 protein. (nih.gov)
  • The temporal expression of cyclins is tightly regulated and subsequently plays a critical role in controlling the enzymatic activity of cdks. (fishersci.com)
  • Multiple cyclins activate CDKs in all eukaryotes, but it is unclear whether multiple cyclins are really required for cell cycle progression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dowejko, Bauer, Bauer, Müller-Richter, Reichert: The human HECA interacts with cyclins and CDKs to antagonize Wnt-mediated proliferation and chemoresistance of head and neck cancer cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene expression, which binds to CDK4. (news-medical.net)
  • Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) usually functions to inhibit the transcription factor E2F, however, when cyclin-D-CDK4 phosphorylates the Rb protein, this relinquishes inhibition of E2F and leads to the production of genes required for entering the S phase. (news-medical.net)
  • These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. (news-medical.net)
  • have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of the cell cycle-driving molecule, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), in HCC was significantly reduced by the treatments with vitamin K2, K3 and K5. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Overexpression of cyclin D1 results in dysregulated CDK (zeige CDK4 Proteine ) activity, rapid cell growth under conditions of restricted mitogenic signaling, bypass of key cellular checkpoints, and ultimately, neoplastic growth. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Cyclin D1 forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell cycle G 1 /S transition. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) enzymes . (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the amino-terminal regions of S and M cyclins contain short destruction-box motifs that target these proteins for proteolysis in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Once bound to a cyclin they act to phosphorylate many target proteins on serine or threonine amino acid residues. (news-medical.net)
  • Each interacts with a different cyclin at a different phase, stimulating various target proteins and ensuring that vital stages of each phase are carried out before a cell moves onto the next phase. (news-medical.net)
  • I wonder if the cytoplasmic staining we are getting is real or whether the methacarn is modifying other cytoplasmic proteins (like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. (bio.net)
  • Threading analysis shows that the cyclin-box fold is consistent with the sequences of the transcription factor TFIIB and other functionally related proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular analyses revealed that cells lacking cyclin E fail to normally incorporate MCM proteins into DNA replication origins during G(0)-->S progression. (uniprot.org)
  • The work supports the idea that cancer-causing proteins like cyclin D1 may drive cancer progression in part via miRNA biogenesis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dr Bill Wickstead, who along with his master's student Alexander Douglass characterised cyclin-like genes across Apicomplexa, said: "Cyclins are a really diverse class of proteins comprising many different types in different organisms. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cyclin E is one of the proteins that regulates the cell cycle, influencing how rapidly a cell passes through the four phases and divides. (scienceblog.com)
  • This cyclin was found to bind to important cell cycle regulators, such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • Transcription of these particular cyclins is proposed to monitor the growth factor signal and the encoded proteins participate in G1 progression. (bl.uk)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cyclin H Antibodies (129) and Cyclin H Proteins (15) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cyclin K Kits (12) and Cyclin K Proteins (7) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • There are 14939 Cyclin_C domains in 14900 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. (embl.de)
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing Cyclin_C domain. (embl.de)
  • The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with Cyclin_C domain is also avaliable . (embl.de)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing Cyclin_C domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • 4 However, we have recently demonstrated that cyclin A1 associates with the retinoblastoma gene product (Rb) and E2F-1 in leukemia cells in vivo and the interaction can change functional properties of the involved proteins. (bloodjournal.org)
  • But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the literature I have read. (bio.net)
  • Anti-Cyclin K antibodies are available from several suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 117 Cyclin K Antibodies across 20 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 1 cyclin Q Antibodies across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • Anti-Cyclin Antibodies are ideal for investigators involved in Cell Signaling, cell biology and Signal Transduction research. (rockland-inc.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 17 Cyclin H (CCNH) ELISA Kits from 4 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Tumor samples were immunostained for cyclin B using commercial antibodies. (kb.se)
  • Overexpression of cyclin D1 reduced STAT3-dependent gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • HOUSTON - Overexpression of low-molecular-weight (LMW-E) forms of the protein cyclin E renders the aromatase inhibitor letrozole ineffective among women with estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers, researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center report in Clinical Cancer Research . (scienceblog.com)
  • Cyclin A2 overexpression in primary islets increased proliferation and reduced p27. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Various studies examined the relationship between cyclin E overexpression with the clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer but yielded conflicting results. (springer.com)
  • A meta-analysis was conducted with eligible studies which quantitatively evaluated the relationship between cyclin E overexpression and survival of patients with breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • We conducted a final analysis of 7,759 patients from 23 eligible studies and evaluated the correlation between cyclin E overexpression and survival in patients with breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Cyclin E overexpression is associated with poor OS and BCSS in breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Berglund P, Landberg G. Cyclin E overexpression reduces infiltrative growth in breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Conclusions Overexpression of cyclins B and A, rather than D1 seems to characterize psoriasis. (wiley.com)
  • To investigate the frequency of cyclin A overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its relationship with clinical significance and HBx gene integration. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • overexpression of cyclin A mRNA and protein was found in 16 of 35, 21 of 35 patients, respectively. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Overexpression of cyclin A protein was correlated with patient's age, tumor size and HBx integration. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Overexpression of cyclin A occurs in the early stage of HCC carcinogenesis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cyclin A overexpression was significantly associated with poor metastasis-free survival both on TMA and large sections. (diva-portal.org)
  • Western blotting was used to measure cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27 that arrest cell cycle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • p27(KIP1) is a member of the CIP1/KIP1 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and is a potential tumor suppressor gene. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of the non-biological drugs, known as Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, are currently being tested for use in cancer treatment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Altered prostatic epithelial proliferation and apoptosis, prostatic development and serum testosterone in mice lacking cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors," Biology of Reproduction 73(5): 951-958. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • in opposition to this idea, it has been argued that cyclins might target the activated CDK to particular substrates or inhibitors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • AIMS: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) play a critical role in negatively regulating the proliferation of cardiomyocytes, although their role in cardiac differentiation remains largely undetermined. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Click on the product name to view detailed information such as the chemical structure and specific chemical properties for each of our cyclin E Inhibitors. (scbt.com)
  • In stock cyclin E Inhibitors are available for immediate shipping. (scbt.com)
  • Pituitary cyclin E/E2F1 signaling is a previously unappreciated molecular mechanism underlying neuroendocrine regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, providing a subcellular therapeutic target for small molecule cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitors of pituitary ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism, ie, Cushing disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In thisreview, we focus our attention on cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase complexes,cyclin kinase inhibitors, genes of the retinoblastoma family, p53 and N-Myc, and we aim to summarize the latest evidence indicating their involvement in thecontrol of the cell cycle and induction of differentiation in different celltypes of the peripheral and central nervous systems. (embl.de)
  • Cell changes in the cell cycle like the assembly of mitotic spindles and alignment of sister-chromatids along the spindles are induced by M cyclin- Cdk complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cyclin/cdk complexes are essential for passage through specific stages in the cell cycle. (fishersci.com)
  • Cyclin B1 complexes with p34 (cdc2) to form the maturation-promoting factor (MPF). (thermofisher.com)
  • SETD1A and cyclin K complexes may represent a therapeutic opportunity for acute myeloid leukemia and, potentially, for other cancers. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin K-containing kinase complexes maintain self-renewal in murine embryonic stem cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • It is known that the cell cycle and cell proliferation are regulated by the sequential activation of cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin complexes. (wiley.com)
  • This cyclin and its kinase partner are components of TFIIH, as well as RNA polymerase II protein complexes. (genetex.com)
  • Cyclin/CDK complexes were typically diluted to a final concentration of 50 μg/mL in a kinase reaction buffer containing 50 mmol/L Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 10 mmol/L MgCl 2 , 1 mmol/L DTT, and 0.1 mmol/L sodium orthovanadate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This cyclin shows the highest similarity with cyclin G. The transcript of this gene was found to be expressed constantly during cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin I is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), in mice promotes vascular SMC apoptosis and aneurysm progression. (jci.org)
  • The role of cyclins in controlling G1 progression in mammalian cells was tested by construction of fibroblasts that constitutively overexpress human cyclin E. This was found to shorten the duration of G1, decrease cell size, and diminish the serum requirement for the transition from G1 to S phase. (sciencemag.org)
  • These observations show that cyclin levels can be rate-limiting for G1 progression in mammalian cells and suggest that cyclin synthesis may be the target of physiological signals that control cell proliferation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cyclin A1 primarily functions in the meiotic cell cycle, but it also seems to contribute to G1/S cell cycle progression in somatic cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Because cyclin A2 was stimulated by cAMP, we assessed the role of cylcin A2 in cell cycle progression in Min6 and isolated islet β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cyclin E is an important regulator of cell cycle progression. (springer.com)
  • Destruction of Cyclin B1 is required for cell cycle progression. (thermofisher.com)
  • We hypothesized that intrapituitary cyclin E signaling regulates corticotroph tumor POMC transcription independently of cell cycle progression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 9q34.1 that encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase, which regulates cell cycle progression. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyclin D2, a positive regulator of G1 progression, shows a unique localization within radial glial (RG) cells (i.e., the neural progenitor in the developing neocortex). (wiley.com)
  • Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus ( KSHV ) encodes a D-type cyclin (ORF72) that binds CDK6 and is likely to contribute to KSHV-related cancers [9] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, cyclin B binds to CDK-1 to drive the cycle forward into M phase, stimulating mitosis. (news-medical.net)
  • In budding yeast, commitment occurs when the catalytic subunit of a protein kinase, encoded by the CDC28 gene (the homolog of the fission yeast cdc2+ gene), binds to a positively acting regulatory subunit, a cyclin. (sciencemag.org)
  • It binds to cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) and enhances its kinase activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we have investigated a series of 110 primary malignant gliomas and 8 glioma cell lines for amplification and expression of the D‐type cyclin genes CCND1 (11q13), CCND2 (12p13), and CCND3 (6p21). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Our genome-wide analysis identified 52 expressed cyclin genes in tomato. (mdpi.com)
  • Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicates that the expression patterns of tomato cyclin genes were significantly different in vegetative and reproductive stages. (mdpi.com)
  • Transcription of most cyclin genes can be enhanced or repressed by exogenous application of gibberellin, which implies that gibberellin maybe a direct regulator of cyclin genes. (mdpi.com)
  • Cyclin C was originally identified by a genetic screen for human and Drosophila cDNAs that complement a triple knock-out of the CLN genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (novusbio.com)
  • The treatment of quiescent cells with growth factors results in the transcriptional activation of the D-type cyclin genes during G1. (bl.uk)
  • Comparison of these results with those for the cyclin D1 and D2 genes should elucidate how transcription of these genes is co-ordinately regulated by growth factors. (bl.uk)
  • It is normally activated by cyclin C and is required for transcription elongation of the serum response genes (immediate early genes [IEGs]) FOS, EGR1, and cJUN. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • RV-cyclin does not control CDK8 specificity but instead enhances CDK8's effects on regulated genes, an important distinction for its use to delineate natural CDK8 targets. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae C-type cyclin and its cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk8p) repress the transcription of several stress response genes. (genetics.org)
  • In prior work, they showed that cyclin D1 regulates the non coding genome, and that the non-coding genome, in turn, regulates expression of cyclin D1. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the current study, the group sought to investigate the mechanism by which cyclin D1 regulates the biogenesis of non coding miRNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • Finally, two results suggest that cyclin C regulates programmed cell death independently of its function as a transcriptional repressor. (genetics.org)
  • Unlike other cyclins that positively regulate the cell cycle, cyclin G2 (CCNG2) regulates cell proliferation as a tumor suppressor gene. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Our earlier studies have shown that Cyclin E is proteolytically cleaved to generate p18-Cyclin E (p18CycE) in hematopoietic tumor cells upon treatment with genotoxic agents, such as ionizing radiation and regulates apoptosis by displacing Bax from Ku70 and thus providing the first step of Bax activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A cyclin forms a complex with Cdk, which begins to activate but the complete activation requires phosphorylation, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination of cyclin E by the SCFFbw7 ubiquitin ligase. (addgene.org)
  • The cyclin H / cdk7 (show CDK7 ELISA Kits )/ Mat1 (show MAT1A ELISA Kits ) kinase activity is regulated by CK2 (show CSNK2A1 ELISA Kits ) phosphorylation of cyclin H . (antibodies-online.com)
  • Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. (mdpi.com)
  • RV-cyclin does not increase activating phosphorylation events in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and does not inhibit decay of IEG mRNAs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Using antisense RNA, Dr. Pestell's group was the first to show that cyclin D1 drives mammary tumor growth in vivo. (eurekalert.org)
  • In conclusion, the findings of this study show that cyclin D1 has separate roles, and proliferation is driven by different mechanisms in ER positive and negative breast cancers. (kb.se)
  • This supports results from earlier studies that suggest that cyclin D1 could be used as a prognostic biomarker. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • We suggest that cyclin B might be a potent prognostic factor in this low-risk patient group. (kb.se)
  • This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin T2 has been shown to interact with CDK9 and Retinoblastoma protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) - Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. (medindia.net)
  • This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found to interact with CDK9 and cyclin T, which suggested a possible involvement of this protein in AIDS. (medindia.net)
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) pipeline Target constitutes close to 26 molecules. (medindia.net)
  • It also reviews key players involved in Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (medindia.net)
  • Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation factor B (P-TEFb), which is proposed to facilitate the transition from abortive to productive elongation by phosphorylating the CTD (carboxy-terminal domain) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). (abcam.com)
  • Cyclin K interacts with CDK12 and CDK13 but not CDK9 in cells, and is required to maintain self-renewal in ES cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin K inhibits HIV-1 gene expression and replication by interfering with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)-cyclin T1 interaction in Nef-dependent manner. (antibodies-online.com)
  • These results reveal an unexpectedly direct role for CDK9-cyclin K in checkpoint pathways that maintain genome integrity in response to replication stress. (antibodies-online.com)
  • P-TEFb containing cyclin K and Cdk9 can activate transcription via RNA. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. (mdpi.com)
  • HIV-1 Tat protein interacts with CDK9 and cyclin T, suggesting CDK9 may have a role in AIDS. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Study TPI-ALV-201 is examining the efficiency of alvocidib, an investigational inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), in combination with the authorized agents cytarabine and mitoxantrone in relapsed/refractory AML patients whose leukemia depends on MCL-1. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Biopharmaceutical company Probiodrug AG revealed on Friday the transfer of its experimental cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) inhibitor programme to AstraZeneca (LSE:AZN)(NYSE:AZN) for an undisclosed amount. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. (pnas.org)
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 7 (39 kDa Protein Kinase or CDK Activating Kinase 1 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 7 or TFIIH Basal Transcription Factor Complex Kinase Subunit or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 or CDK7 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) - Cell division protein kinase 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 7 (39 kDa Protein Kinase or CDK Activating Kinase 1 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 7 or TFIIH Basal Transcription Factor Complex Kinase Subunit or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 or CDK7 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) pipeline Target constitutes close to 11 molecules. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • In tumor cells, cyclin E is converted to low-molecular weight forms, an event that does not occur in normal cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. (harvard.edu)
  • Cyclin E and E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection was performed in murine corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells to elucidate mechanisms for drug action. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • R-roscovitine inhibits human pituitary corticotroph tumor ACTH by targeting the cyclin E/E2F1 pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • PCR, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the gene, mRNA and protein level of cyclin A in the tumor and nontumorous tissue. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Expression of human cyclins through the cell cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] ) The oscillations of the cyclins, namely fluctuations in cyclin gene expression and destruction by the ubiquitin mediated proteasome pathway, induce oscillations in Cdk activity to drive the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Expression of cyclins detected immunocytochemically in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase), [7] or in relation to initiation and termination of DNA replication during S-phase, can be measured by flow cytometry . (wikipedia.org)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of cyclins in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase) is often measured by flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their expression is also being measured by flow cytometry concurrently with the initiation and termination of DNA replication during S-phase Cyclins are generally very different from each other in primary structure, or amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differences at each stage are due to a balance between the gene expression of each cyclin and the ubiquitin-proteasome system which breaks them down. (news-medical.net)
  • Expression of a novel isoform of cyclin I in human testis. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Pestell and colleagues developed transgenic mice that could induce cyclin D1 expression in the breast and examined cells with cyclin D1 gene deleted. (eurekalert.org)
  • They found that patients with the luminal A subtype of breast cancer had increased levels of expression of both cyclin D1 and Dicer. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ruiling Zhang and team from Xinxiang Medical University explored the correlation between cyclin-dependent kinase 5 expression in the hippocampus and neurological impairments following prenatal ethanol exposure, and found that prenatal ethanol exposure could affect cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and its activator p35 in the hippocampus of offspring rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We titrated the budding yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 within its endogenous expression range to a stable, fixed level and measured time to occurrence of three mitotic events: growth depolarization, spindle formation, and spindle elongation, as a function of fixed Clb2 level. (nih.gov)
  • That in itself tells us there is a huge difference between the two groups of patients based on the pattern of expression of normal versus low forms of cyclin E. (scienceblog.com)
  • This approach -- using cyclin A2 expression via gene transfer -- yielded improved myocardial function. (rxpgnews.com)
  • 1997). The cyclin A1 promoter does not possess a TATA box, whereas the region upstream of the transcriptional start site region contains four GC boxes, with multiple Sp1-binding sites important for the regulation of cyclin A1 expression (Müller et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • SNIP1 itself is induced upon serum stimulation immediately prior to cyclin D1 expression. (nature.com)
  • These results define both a new function for SNIP1 and identify a previously unrecognized regulator of the cell cycle and cyclin D1 expression. (nature.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS- Cyclin A2 is required for β-cell proliferation, exendin-4 stimulates cyclin A2 expression via the cAMP pathway, and exendin-4 stimulation of cAMP requires PDX-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mutation or disruption of normal cyclin A expression causes cells to arrest in G2-phase. (fishersci.com)
  • Expression of cell cycle regulators p27Kip1 and cyclin E, alone and in combination, correlate with survival in young breast cancer patients. (springer.com)
  • We show here that accumulation of the wild-type p53 protein in either human or murine cells markedly increases expression of cyclin D1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of the members of this family of cyclins, D1, 2 and 3, is spatially and temporally regulated with respect to growth factor receptor ligation. (bl.uk)
  • The expression of cyclin H and CDK7 (show CDK7 ELISA Kits ) protein in proliferating hemangiomas was significantly higher than that in involuting hemangiomas and normal skin tissues. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin D1 expression is assoc. (kb.se)
  • High cyclin E expression is common in hormone receptor negative and high grade aggressive breast cancer, whereas cyclin D1 in hormone receptor positive and low grade breast cancer. (kb.se)
  • To test this hypotheses in large breast cancer material and to clarify the histopathological correlations of cyclin E and D1, especially the association with proliferation, we analyzed cyclin E and D1 immunohistochemical expression on breast tumour microarrays consisting of 1348 invasive breast cancers. (kb.se)
  • We found that low-risk node negative patients with high expression of cylin B had a significantly worse outcome than patients with low expression of cyclin B. Cyclin B could separate patients with poor survival from those with good survival with 80% accuracy. (kb.se)
  • Here we show that constitutive expression of RV-cyclin in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line significantly increases the level of IEG expression in response to serum stimulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • At the EGR1 gene locus, RV-cyclin increases and maintains RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy after serum stimulation, in conjunction with increased and extended EGR1 gene expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Both of RV-cyclin's functional domains, i.e., the cyclin box and the activation domain, are necessary for the overall enhancement of IEG expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Aim We evaluated epidermal cell turnover and thickness, as well as the expression of cyclins D1, B and A in psoriatic skin before and after therapy with cyclosporin. (wiley.com)
  • Cyclin A1 differs from other cyclins in its highly restricted expression pattern. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Besides its expression during spermatogenesis, cyclin A1 is also expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells and in acute myeloid leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We investigated mechanisms that might contribute to cyclin A1 expression in hematopoietic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Coexpression of a c-myb expression vector with the cyclin A1 promoter constructs significantly increased the reporter activity in adherent CV-1 as well as in myeloid U937 cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In addition, transfection of primary human embryonic fibroblasts with a c-myb expression vector led to induction of the endogenous cyclin A1 gene. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Taken together, c-myb can directly transactivate the promoter of cyclin A1, and c-myb might be involved in the high-level expression of cyclin A1 observed in acute myeloid leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Recently, we cloned the promoter of the cyclin A1 gene to elucidate the mechanisms of expression of this gene. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In addition, forced expression of c-myb in human embryonic fibroblasts induces the endogenous cyclin A1 gene. (bloodjournal.org)
  • For this reason, we wanted to compare cyclin A expression on TMA and on traditional large sections. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cyclin specificity: how many wheels do you need on a unicycle? (biomedsearch.com)
  • The sensitivity and specificity of cyclin B was 65% and 92%, respectively. (kb.se)
  • The p-TEFb complex containing this cyclin was reported to interact with, and act as a negative regulator of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single regulator could confer order and timing on multiple events if later events require higher cyclin-CDK than earlier events, so that gradually rising cyclin-CDK levels can sequentially trigger responsive events: the "quantitative model" of ordering. (nih.gov)
  • They did this by expressing the cell-cycle regulator, a protein called cyclin A2. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. (curehunter.com)
  • Cln3 cyclin of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key regulator of Start, a cell cycle event in G1 phase at which cells become committed to division. (asm.org)
  • For all of the apoptosis-inducing agents tested, the appearance of condensed chromatin was accompanied by 2- to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. (pnas.org)
  • E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. (uniprot.org)
  • It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins are critically required for proliferation of all cell types. (uniprot.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that E type cyclins are largely dispensable for mouse development. (uniprot.org)
  • These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for cyclin E in normal versus oncogenic proliferation. (uniprot.org)
  • CBP-S436A islets exhibited elevated cyclin A2, reduced p27, and no changes in D-type cyclins, PDX-1, or Skp2. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • C-, H- and J18 types only contain a cyclin-C domain, and U-type cyclins contain another potential cyclin domain. (mdpi.com)
  • NMB or NMBR silencing inhibited M-CSF (zeige CSF1R Proteine )/ c-Fms (zeige CSF1R Proteine )-mediated downstream signaling pathways like activation of ERK (zeige EPHB2 Proteine ) and Akt (zeige AKT1 Proteine ) and induction of D-type cyclins, cyclin D1 and D2. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • In contrast to mammalian cells, these yeast cells had only one CDK which interacted with various cyclins. (news-medical.net)
  • Mammalian cyclin A1 is primarily localized in the nuclei of spermatocytes in mouse and human (Liu et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Human cdk8-cyclin C might be functionally associated with the mammalian transcription apparatus, perhaps involved in relaying growth-regulatory signals. (novusbio.com)
  • In mammalian somatic cells, cyclin A is required for S-phase and passage through G2-phase. (fishersci.com)
  • Cyclin K is highly expressed in mammalian testes in a developmentally regulated manner. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Here, we discuss our findings and the Cyclin D2 function in mammalian brain development and evolution. (wiley.com)
  • Cyclin A2 ( Ccna2 ), normally silenced after birth in the mammalian heart, can induce cardiac repair in small-animal models of myocardial infarction. (sciencemag.org)
  • The structural results indicate a role for the cyclin-box fold both as a template for the cyclin family and as a generalised adaptor molecule in the regulation of transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, suggesting a mechanism whereby STAT3-dependent transcription could be immediately attenuated. (sciencemag.org)
  • Moreover, SNIP1 depletion results in inhibition of cyclin D1 promoter activity in a manner dependent upon a previously characterized binding site for the AP-1 transcription factor family. (nature.com)
  • PDX-1 knockdown reduced exendin-4-stimulated cAMP synthesis and cyclin A2 transcription. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • I have been defining the cis -acting elements and trans -acting factors that control transcription of the human cyclin D3 gene in T-cells. (bl.uk)
  • The minimal cyclin D3 promoter sequence was identified as a region 173bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. (bl.uk)
  • The protein encoded by CCNK is a member of the transcription cyclin family. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Retroviral cyclin controls cyclin-dependent kinase 8-mediated transcription elongation and reinitiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Previous work showed that the retroviral cyclin (RV-cyclin), encoded by WDSV, has separable cyclin box and transcription activation domains. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and nuclear run-on assays provide evidence that RV-cyclin does not alter the initiation of IEG transcription but does enhance the overall rate of transcription elongation and maintains transcription reinitiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Second, the human cyclin C, which does not repress transcription in yeast, does regulate ROS sensitivity. (genetics.org)
  • Gel-shift assays demonstrated that c-myb could bind to the cyclin A1 promoter at a binding site located near the transcription start site. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Dmtf1 is a MYB -like transcription factor isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a mouse T lymphocyte library with cyclin D2 bait. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Cyclin H is implicated in the regulation of the transcriptional machinery during midblastula transition and is therefore an essential gene in early zebrafish larval development. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin E-Mediated Human Proopiomelanocortin Regulation as a Therapeutic Target for Cushing Disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cyclin E and E2F1 exhibit reciprocal positive regulation in corticotroph tumors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Alvocidib is an investigational small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 , a protein important to the regulation of Myc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyclin A, cyclin E and Ki-67 are all markers for proliferation and involved in the regulation of the cell cycle. (diva-portal.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Changes in islet protein levels of cyclins and of two critical cell cycle regulators cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) were assessed in mice treated with exendin-4 and in a mouse model with specific upregulation of nuclear cAMP signaling exhibiting increased β-cell proliferation (CBP-S436A mouse). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In Min6 cells, cyclin A2 knockdown prevented exendin-4-stimulated proliferation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Experimental data has suggested that cyclin D1 and E mediate cell proliferation by different mechanisms in estrogen receptor (ER) positive and negative breast cancer. (kb.se)
  • Cyclins positively regulate cell proliferation to a large extent. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, all members of the cyclin family are similar in 100 amino acids that make up the cyclin box. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the protein the cyclin box is a region of protein sequence homology that is common to all members of the cyclin family and is required for interaction with the CDK partner. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • We have solved the crystal structure, at 2.0 A resolution, of an active recombinant fragment of bovine cyclin A, cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha helices. (nih.gov)
  • Recombinant human Cyclin E1 protein, around 100-200aa. (thermofisher.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Cyclin B1. (genetex.com)
  • Recombinant cyclin/CDK holoenzymes were purified from Sf9 cells engineered to produce baculoviruses that express a specific cyclin or CDK. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box. (nih.gov)
  • It recognizes a protein of 54kDa, which is identified as cyclin A. Its epitope is located amino acids 144-148 of human Cyclin A2. (fishersci.com)
  • The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231-280. (mdpi.com)
  • Exendin-4 stimulated cyclin A2 promoter activity via the cAMP-cAMP response element binding protein pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The human cyclin D3 gene has a TATA-less promoter and a single dominant initiation site. (bl.uk)
  • Transient transfections using CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) reporter constructs containing sequential deletions of the cyclin D3 promoter defined positively and negatively regulated regions. (bl.uk)
  • Comparison of cyclin A1 and cyclin A promoter activity in adherent and myeloid leukemia cell lines showed that the cyclin A1 promoter is preferentially active in myeloid cell lines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This preferential activity was present in a small, 335-bp cyclin A1 promoter fragment that contained several potential c-myb binding sites. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 15 We show here that the cyclin A1 promoter is preferentially active in myeloid leukemia cell lines and is transactivated by c-myb. (bloodjournal.org)
  • p34Cdc28-mediated control of Cln3 cyclin degradation. (asm.org)
  • 6-Gingerol induces cell-cycle G1-phase arrest through AKT-GSK 3β-cyclin D1 pathway in renal-cell carcinoma. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Hemodynamic forces modulate EC proliferative phenotype through the miR (show MLXIP ELISA Kits )-23b/ CAK/cyclin H pathway. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This destruction pathway is important as deleting cyclin C suppresses the hypersensitivity of slt2 mutants to oxidative damage. (genetics.org)
  • The aim was to investigate whether R-roscovitine inhibits human ACTH in corticotroph tumors by targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase 2/cyclin E signaling pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We find that p21 inhibits the activity of each member of the cyclin/CDK family. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin A is a member of the cyclin family. (rockland-inc.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. (wikidoc.org)
  • The mechanism behind this is that the low forms of cyclin E increase the activity of the cyclin E complex, and this complex is what mediates the negative effects. (scienceblog.com)
  • This study suggests that TMA technique could be useful to study histological correlations and prognostic significance of cyclin A on breast cancer on a large scale. (diva-portal.org)
  • G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in that the concentrations increase gradually (with no oscillation), throughout the cell cycle based on cell growth and the external growth-regulatory signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D2 accumulates at the very basal tip of the RG cell (i.e., the basal endfoot) via a unique cis -regulatory sequence found in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of its mRNA. (wiley.com)
  • We found that we could negate the growth inhibitory effects of letrozole with the low forms of cyclin E but not with the wild-type cyclin E," said Keyomarsi, the study's senior author. (scienceblog.com)
  • Of those, 100 expressed normal levels of wild-type cyclin E, and 28 overexpressed the low forms," Keyomarsi said. (scienceblog.com)
  • When we looked at recurrence, three of the hundred with wild-type cyclin E had experienced a recurrence compared to four of the twenty-eight with the low forms. (scienceblog.com)
  • Graf L, Webel R, Wagner S, Hamilton ST, Rawlinson WD, Sticht H, Marschall M. The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins. (mdpi.com)
  • Cyclins can be divided into four classes based on their behavior in the cell cycle of vertebrate somatic cells and yeast cells: G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyclins also promote other activities to progress the cell cycle, such as centrosome duplication in vertebrates or spindle pole body in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, the group showed that many cancer patients encode a form of cyclin D1 that evades negative feedback from the non coding genome. (eurekalert.org)
  • We also found that cyclin E-deficient cells are relatively resistant to oncogenic transformation. (uniprot.org)