Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RGS Proteins: A large family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that function as negative regulators of HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. RGS PROTEINS act by increasing the GTPase activity of the G alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein, causing it to revert to its inactive (GDP-bound) form.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.BooksReceptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Computer Storage Devices: Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Head Injuries, Penetrating: Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.Pupil Disorders: Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Cyclin G1: A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.Cyclin G: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32: A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Globus Pallidus: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Control of cell cycle progression by c-Jun is p53 dependent. (1/114)The c-jun proto-oncogene encodes a component of the mitogen-inducible immediate-early transcription factor AP-1 and has been implicated as a positive regulator of cell proliferation and G1-to-S-phase progression. Here we report that fibroblasts derived from c-jun-/- mouse fetuses exhibit a severe proliferation defect and undergo a prolonged crisis before spontaneous immortalization. The cyclin D1- and cyclin E-dependent kinases (CDKs) and transcription factor E2F are poorly activated, resulting in inefficient G1-to-S-phase progression. Furthermore, the absence of c-Jun results in elevated expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53 and its target gene, the CDK inhibitor p21, whereas overexpression of c-Jun represses p53 and p21 expression and accelerates cell proliferation. Surprisingly, protein stabilization, the common mechanism of p53 regulation, is not involved in up-regulation of p53 in c-jun-/- fibroblasts. Rather, c-Jun regulates transcription of p53 negatively by direct binding to a variant AP-1 site in the p53 promoter. Importantly, deletion of p53 abrogates all defects of cells lacking c-Jun in cell cycle progression, proliferation, immortalization, and activation of G1 CDKs and E2F. These results demonstrate that an essential, rate-limiting function of c-Jun in fibroblast proliferation is negative regulation of p53 expression, and establish a mechanistic link between c-Jun-dependent mitogenic signaling and cell-cycle regulation. (+info)
Altered regulation of cyclin G in human breast cancer and its specific localization at replication foci in response to DNA damage in p53+/+ cells. (2/114)Cyclin G, a recent addition to the cyclin family, was initially identified in screens for new src kinase family members and soon thereafter by differential screening for transcriptional targets of the tumor suppressor gene, p53. We have identified cyclin G as being overexpressed in breast and prostate cancer cells using differential display polymerase chain reaction screening. We demonstrate here that cyclin G is overexpressed in human breast and prostate cancer cells and in cancer cells in situ from tumor specimens. Cyclin G expression was tightly regulated throughout the cell cycle in normal breast cells, peaking at the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle with lower levels in G1. The cell cycle-dependent expression was absent in breast cancer cells. Following DNA damage in normal p53+/+ cells, cyclin G is triggered to cluster in discrete nuclear DNA replication foci that contain replication-associated proteins such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). While p53-/- cells displayed a faint cyclin G nuclear staining pattern, there was no increased expression and no change in distribution of the staining pattern after DNA damage. The specific subcellular localization of cyclin G at DNA replication foci provides an additional link between p53-mediated growth arrest and cell cycle regulation and suggests that cyclin G may act as an effector of p53-mediated events by functional association with replication foci protein(s). (+info)
A G1 cyclin is necessary for maintenance of filamentous growth in Candida albicans. (3/114)Candida albicans undergoes a dramatic morphological transition in response to various growth conditions. This ability to switch from a yeast form to a hyphal form is required for its pathogenicity. The intractability of Candida to traditional genetic approaches has hampered the study of the molecular mechanism governing this developmental switch. Our approach is to use the more genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to yield clues about the molecular control of filamentation for further studies in Candida. G1 cyclins Cln1 and Cln2 have been implicated in the control of morphogenesis in S. cerevisiae. We show that C. albicans CLN1 (CaCLN1) has the same cell cycle-specific expression pattern as CLN1 and CLN2 of S. cerevisiae. To investigate whether G1 cyclins are similarly involved in the regulation of cell morphogenesis during the yeast-to-hypha transition of C. albicans, we mutated CaCLN1. Cacln1/Cacln1 cells were found to be slower than wild-type cells in cell cycle progression. The Cacln1/Cacln1 mutants were also defective in hyphal colony formation on several solid media. Furthermore, while mutant strains developed germ tubes under several hypha-inducing conditions, they were unable to maintain the hyphal growth mode in a synthetic hypha-inducing liquid medium and were deficient in the expression of hypha-specific genes in this medium. Our results suggest that CaCln1 may coordinately regulate hyphal development with signal transduction pathways in response to various environmental cues. (+info)
G1 checkpoint protein and p53 abnormalities occur in most invasive transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. (4/114)The G1 cell cycle checkpoint regulates entry into S phase for normal cells. Components of the G1 checkpoint, including retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, cyclin D1 and p16INK4a, are commonly altered in human malignancies, abrogating cell cycle control. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined 79 invasive transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder treated by cystectomy, for loss of Rb or p16INK4a protein and for cyclin D1 overexpression. As p53 is also involved in cell cycle control, its expression was studied as well. Rb protein loss occurred in 23/79 cases (29%); it was inversely correlated with loss of p16INK4a, which occurred in 15/79 cases (19%). One biphenotypic case, with Rb+p16- and Rb-p16+ areas, was identified as well. Cyclin D1 was overexpressed in 21/79 carcinomas (27%), all of which retained Rb protein. Fifty of 79 tumours (63%) showed aberrant accumulation of p53 protein; p53 staining did not correlate with Rb, p16INK4a, or cyclin D1 status. Overall, 70% of bladder carcinomas showed abnormalities in one or more of the intrinsic proteins of the G1 checkpoint (Rb, p16INK4a and cyclin D1). Only 15% of all bladder carcinomas (12/79) showed a normal phenotype for all four proteins. In a multivariate survival analysis, cyclin D1 overexpression was linked to less aggressive disease and relatively favourable outcome. In our series, Rb, p16INK4a and p53 status did not reach statistical significance as prognostic factors. In conclusion, G1 restriction point defects can be identified in the majority of bladder carcinomas. Our findings support the hypothesis that cyclin D1 and p16INK4a can cooperate to dysregulate the cell cycle, but that loss of Rb protein abolishes the G1 checkpoint completely, removing any selective advantage for cells that alter additional cell cycle proteins. (+info)
Recovery of the yeast cell cycle from heat shock-induced G(1) arrest involves a positive regulation of G(1) cyclin expression by the S phase cyclin Clb5. (5/114)In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, heat shock stress induces a variety of cellular responses including a transient cell cycle arrest before G(1)/S transition. Previous studies have suggested that this G(1) delay is probably attributable to a reduced level of the G(1) cyclin gene (CLN1 and CLN2) transcripts. Here we report our finding that the G(1) cyclin Cln3 and the S cyclin Clb5 are the key factors required for recovery from heat shock-induced G(1) arrest. Heat shock treatment of G(1) cells lacking either CLN3 or CLB5/CLB6 functions leads to prolonged cell cycle arrest before the initiation of DNA synthesis, concomitant with a severe deficiency in bud formation. The inability of the clb5 clb6 mutant to resume normal budding after heat shock treatment is unanticipated, since the S phase cyclins are generally thought to be required mainly for initiation of DNA synthesis and have no significant roles in bud formation in the presence of functional G(1) cyclins. Further studies reveal that the accumulation of G(1) cyclin transcripts is markedly delayed in the clb5 clb6 mutant following heat shock treatment, indicating that the CLN gene expression may require Clb5/Clb6 to attain a threshold level for driving the cell cycle through G(1)/S transition. Consistent with this assumption, overproduction of Clb5 greatly enhances the transcription of at least two G(1) cyclin genes (CLN1 and CLN2) in heat-shocked G(1) cells. These results suggest that Clb5 may positively regulate the expression of G(1) cyclins during cellular recovery from heat shock-induced G(1) arrest. Additional evidence is presented to support a role for Clb5 in maintaining the synchrony between budding and DNA synthesis during normal cell division as well. (+info)
Ectopic expression of Cdc25A accelerates the G(1)/S transition and leads to premature activation of cyclin E- and cyclin A-dependent kinases. (6/114)Human Cdc25 phosphatases play important roles in cell cycle regulation by removing inhibitory phosphates from tyrosine and threonine residues of cyclin-dependent kinases. Three human Cdc25 isoforms, A, B, and C, have been discovered. Cdc25B and Cdc25C play crucial roles at the G(2)/M transition. In the present study, we have investigated the function of human Cdc25A phosphatase. Cell lines that express human Cdc25A in an inducible manner have been generated. Ectopic expression of Cdc25A accelerates the G(1)/S-phase transition, indicating that Cdc25A controls an event(s) that is rate limiting for entry into S phase. Furthermore, we carried out a detailed analysis of the expression and activation of human Cdc25A. Activation of endogenous Cdc25A occurs during late G(1) phase and increases in S and G(2) phases. We further demonstrate that Cdc25A is activated at the same time as cyclin E- and cyclin A-dependent kinases. In vitro, Cdc25A dephosphorylates and activates the cyclin-Cdk complexes that are active during G(1). Overexpression of Cdc25A in the inducible system, however, leads to a premature activation of both cyclin E-Cdk2 and cyclin A-Cdk2 complexes, while no effect of cyclin D-dependent kinases is observed. Furthermore, Cdc25A overexpression induces a tyrosine dephosphorylation of Cdk2. These results suggest that Cdc25A is an important regulator of the G(1)/S-phase transition and that cyclin E- and cyclin A-dependent kinases act as direct targets. (+info)
A role of cyclin G in the process of apoptosis. (7/114)Cyclin G was previously identified as a target gene of the p53 tumor suppresser protein, and levels of cyclin G are increased after induction of p53 by DNA damage. However, the function of cyclin G has not been established. To determine the effect of increased expression of cyclin G, retroviruses encoding cyclin G were constructed and used to infect three different murine cell lines. Cyclin G protein levels induced by the retroviruses were within the range seen after DNA damage induction of p53. In each case we observed that such over-expression of cyclin G augments the apoptotic process. TNF-alpha induction of apoptosis is increased by expression of cyclin G in NIH3T3 fibroblasts which express p53, as well as in 10.1 fibroblasts which contain no p53 allele. Additionally, we observed that while cyclin G expression is markedly reduced upon aggregate formation in embryonic carcinoma P19 cells, retrovirus-mediated over-expression of cyclin G enhances apoptotic cell death in aggregated P19 cells, and increases the extent of apoptosis caused by retinoic acid or serum starvation of these cells. These data demonstrate that cyclin G plays a facilitating role in modulating apoptosis induced by different stimuli. Moreover, we have discovered that cyclin G expression is rapidly induced in P19 cells after exposure to Bone Morphogenic Protein-4 (BMP-4), suggesting that cyclin G may mediate apoptotic signals generated by BMP-4. (+info)
Interferon-alpha inhibits proliferation in human T lymphocytes by abrogation of interleukin 2-induced changes in cell cycle-regulatory proteins. (8/114)IFN-alpha exerts prominent regulatory functions on the immune system. One such effect is the inhibition of proliferation of in vitro stimulated T lymphocytes. The exact physiological function of this activity is not known, but it has been implicated in the antiviral effects of IFN, its antitumor action in T-cell malignancies, and the regulation of the in vivo T-cell response. Here, we have investigated the mechanism underlying the IFN-alpha-mediated growth inhibition of normal human PHA- and IL-2-stimulated T lymphocytes by an analysis of how IFN-alpha treatment influences known molecular events that normally accompany the transition from quiescence to proliferation in these cells. IFN-alpha treatment was found to profoundly block S-phase entry of stimulated T lymphocytes. This correlated with a strong inhibition of IL-2-induced changes in G1-regulatory proteins, including the prevented up-regulation of G1 cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases as well as an abrogation of mitogen-induced reduction of p27Kip1 levels. This latter effect was due to a maintained stability of the p27Kip1 protein in the IFN-alpha-treated cells. In line with these findings, phosphorylation of the pocket proteins was abrogated in IFN-alpha-treated cells. Furthermore, our data indicate that IFN-alpha has selective effects on the pathways that emerge from the IL-2 receptor because IFN-alpha treatment does not block IL-2-induced up-regulation of c-myc or Cdc25A. (+info)
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ... CDK4, CMM3, PSK-J3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin dependent kinase 4. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a kinase that has been previously hypothesized to ...
cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ... p21Cip1 (alternatively p21Waf1), also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin- ... CDKN1A, CAP20, CDKN1, CIP1, MDA-6, P21, SDI1, WAF1, p21CIP1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)".. *^ Gartel AL, Radhakrishnan SK (May 2005). "Lost in ...
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
ORF72 - vCyclin ORF73 - LANA, latency-associated nuclear antigen- tethers genome to chromosome during latency, also regulates ... cyclin-D, a G protein-coupled receptor, interferon regulatory factor and Flice inhibitory protein (FLIP), as well as DNA ...
Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are a group of several different kinases involved in regulation of the cell cycle. They ... Lim, S.; Kaldis, P. (16 July 2013). "Cdks, cyclins and CKIs: roles beyond cell cycle regulation". Development. 140 (15): 3079- ... Different combinations of specific CDKs and cyclins mark different parts of the cell cycle. Additionally, the phosphorylation ... Harper, J. W.; Adams, P. D. (August 2001). "Cyclin-Dependent Kinases". Chemical Reviews. 101 (8): 2511-2526. doi:10.1021/ ...
Members of this protein family contain a cyclin box motif and have structural similarity to the cyclins. The encoded protein ... Cyclin M2 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CNNM2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ancient conserved domain ... provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]. "Entrez Gene: Cyclin M2". Retrieved 2013-02-23. ...
Cyclins are proteins that play a key role in regulating the cell-division cycle. Hunt found that cyclins begin to be ... He and others subsequently showed that cyclins bind and activate a family of protein kinases, now called the cyclin-dependent ... the protein cyclin which is a component of cyclin dependent kinases, demonstrating his ability to grasp the significance of the ... He showed that cyclins are degraded periodically at each cell division, a mechanism proved to be of general importance for cell ...
Maturation promoting factor
The mitotic cyclins can be grouped as cyclins A & B. These cyclins have a nine residue sequence in the N-terminal region called ... Cyclin, a regulatory subunit. The cyclins are necessary for the kinase subunit to function with the appropriate substrate. ... As the concentration of Cyclin B/CDK1 increases, the heterodimer promotes APC to polyubiquitinate Cyclin B/CDK1. Smith, L. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), the cyclin-dependent kinase subunit. It uses ATP to phosphorylate specific serine and ...
RNA polymerase II holoenzyme
Also involved in the phosphorylation and regulation of the RPB1 CTD is cyclin T1 (CCNT1). Cyclin T1 tightly associates and ... "CCNT1 cyclin T1 [ Homo sapiens ]".. Missing or empty ,url=. (help). *^ Cho H, Kim TK, Mancebo H, Lane WS, Flores O, Reinberg D ... "CDK8 cyclin-dependent kinase 8 [Homo sapiens]".. *^ "CTDP1 CTD (carboxy-terminal domain, RNA polymerase II, polypeptide A) ... CDK8 and cyclin C (CCNC) are components of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme that phosphorylate the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD ...
Cyclin-L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNL2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to cyclin family. ... 2004). "Cyclin L2, a novel RNA polymerase II-associated cyclin, is involved in pre-mRNA splicing and induces apoptosis of human ... 2004). "Characterization of cyclin L2, a novel cyclin with an arginine/serine-rich domain: phosphorylation by DYRK1A and ... CCNL2 cyclin L2". Human CCNL2 genome location and CCNL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Maruyama K, Sugano S ( ...
p16 inhibits cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6) and thereby activates the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of proteins ... "CDKN2A cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-10-11. ... CDKN2A, also known as cyclin-dependent kinase Inhibitor 2A, is a gene which in humans is located at chromosome 9, band p21.3. ... "CDKN2A - Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDKN2A gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2016- ...
2004). "Characterization of cyclin L2, a novel cyclin with an arginine/serine-rich domain: phosphorylation by DYRK1A and ... "Entrez Gene: CCNL1 cyclin L1". Human CCNL1 genome location and CCNL1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Zhang QH, Ye ... Cyclin-L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNL1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163660 - Ensembl, May ... 2006). "Cyclin L1 (CCNL1) gene alterations in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma". Br. J. Cancer. 94 (7): 1041-4. doi: ...
G. Pradeep Kumar
He holds a US and international patent on Activators of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (ACDK) and has mentored many doctoral scholars ... 19-. ISBN 978-94-007-0265-3. She, Jin-Xiong; Wang, Cong-Yi; Kumar, G. Pradeep (2017-12-20). "Activators of cyclin-dependent ...
... cyclin box.' In mammalian cells, 9 cyclin species have been identified, and they are referred to as cyclins A through I. Cyclin ... Cyclin G-associated kinase received its name because it immunoprecipitated with cyclin G though it now appears to not be ... Cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK) is a serine/threonine kinase that in humans is encoded by the GAK gene. In all eukaryotes, the ... Cyclin G-associated kinase is a two domain cystolic protein. The domain of interest is the C-terminal domain which consists of ...
"Entrez Gene: RUNX1T1 runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1 (cyclin D-related)". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T ...
Jain SK, Bharate SB, Vishwakarma RA (2012). "Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition by flavoalkaloids". Mini Rev Med Chem. 12 (7): ... Bose P, Simmons GL, Grant S (2013). "Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor therapy for hematologic malignancies". Expert Opin ...
... has been shown to interact with: CDC45-related protein and CDC6, Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase, Cyclin- ... Laman H, Peters G, Jones N (Dec 2001). "Cyclin-mediated export of human Orc1". Experimental Cell Research. 271 (2): 230-7. doi: ... "Human CDC6/Cdc18 associates with Orc1 and cyclin-cdk and is selectively eliminated from the nucleus at the onset of S phase". ... "Human CDC6/Cdc18 associates with Orc1 and cyclin-cdk and is selectively eliminated from the nucleus at the onset of S phase". ...
Cyclin D-bound cdks 4 and 6 are activated by cdk-activating kinase and drive the cell towards the restriction point. Cyclin D, ...
cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • protein ... cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex. • nucleus. • nucleoplasm. • cytosol. • intracellular membrane-bounded ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1). Structure of the C-terminal region of p21(WAF1/CIP1) complexed with human ... regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • G2/M ...
Anthony R. Hunter
doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90028-W. Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathan (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors ... "Human cyclin A is adenovirus E1A-associated protein p60 and behaves differently from cyclin B". Nature. 346 (6286): 760-763. ... Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1991). "Cyclins and cancer". Cell. 66 (6): 1071-1074. ...
This discovery was essential to the subsequent cloning of Xenopus cyclins and kept the Hunt lab at the forefront of cyclin ... Subsequently he cloned and characterised the first human cyclins with Tony Hunter. This was crucial to recognising that cyclins ... doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90028-W. Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors ... and identified the first link between cyclins and oncoproteins by showing that cyclin A bound to adenovirus E1A, thus linking ...
Cdk2, la enciclopedia libre
de 2001). «Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and ... de 2002). «Reversal of growth suppression by p107 via direct phosphorylation by cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4». Mol. Cell ... de 1997). «Identification of a p130 domain mediating interactions with cyclin A/cdk 2 and cyclin E/cdk 2 complexes». Oncogene ( ... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases». Oncogene (ENGLAND) 15 (2): 143-57. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 9244350. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ...
Cyclin D is the first cyclin produced in the cell cycle, in response to extracellular signals (e.g. growth factors). Cyclin D ... cyclins have no catalytic activity and CDKs are inactive in the absence of a partner cyclin. When activated by a bound cyclin, ... cyclin A, DNA polymerase, thymidine kinase, etc. Cyclin E thus produced binds to CDK2, forming the cyclin E-CDK2 complex, which ... Two key classes of regulatory molecules, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), determine a cell's progress through the ...
It has also been shown that Cdk2 complexes with both cyclin A and cyclin E and this complex is critical for centrosome ... by cyclin-dependent kinase 2-cyclin E and its role in centrosome duplication". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (24): ... This link between the cell cycle and the centrosome cycle is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2). There has been ample ... Hinchcliffe, EH; Li, C; Thompson, EA; Maller, JL; Sluder, G (Feb 5, 1999). "Requirement of Cdk2-cyclin E activity for repeated ...
Cyclin G1, 0.1 mg. Cyclins are the regulatory subunits of Cdc2 p34 and related cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) which play critical roles in the control of cell cycle progression.
Top performende anti-Schwein Cyclin G1 Antikörper für Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)) vergleichen & kaufen.
J:171486 Rutter M, Wang J, Huang Z, Kuliszewski M, Post M, Gli2 influences proliferation in the developing lung through regulation of cyclin expression. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010 May;42(5):615-25 ...
The adaptive trial design of this advanced Phase II study incorporates (i) a dosing schedule based on the patients estimated tumor burden and not on standard dosing per kilogram body weight or body surface area, and (2) a tumor response evaluation process that is unique to the manner in which osteosarcoma responds favorably to therapy, i.e., with necrosis and increasing calcification in metastatic tumors and decreased glucose utilization using PET-CT imaging studies.. Twenty to thirty patients will receive Rexin-G at either Dose Level 1 or 2. Patients will be assigned a dose level based on the estimated tumor burden as measured by PET-CT imaging studies. Estimated tumor burden is measured by multiplying the sum of the longest diameters of target lesions in cm by 10e9 cancer cells. If the tumor burden is less than 10 billion cells, the patient will be assigned to Dose Level 1, if the tumor burden is greater than 10 billion cells, the patient will be assigned to Dose Level 2.. *Treatment Cycle ...
Clinical Studies Validate Cancer Gene Delivery Platform: Landmark Publication Confirms Rexin-G Effectively Targets Metastatic...
Health,...SAN MARINO Calif. June 22 /- Epeius Biotechnologies ( ... It took several years of painstaking safety studies followed by grad...,Clinical,Studies,Validate,Cancer,Gene,Delivery,Platform:,Landmark,Publication,Confirms,Rexin-G,Effectively,Targets,Metastatic,Cancers,and,Improves,Patient,Survival,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Hgc to high - My ultrasound only saw a sack my doctor called me and said my Hgc is to high above 4000 what does it mean? - Welcome to Circle of Moms!!
Rexin-G(TM), The World's First Tumor-Targeted Gene Therapy Vector, Stymies Metastatic Cancer | Send2Press Newswire
SAN MARINO, Calif. and MANILA, Philippines - Nov. 6 (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) -- Epeius Biotechnologies today announced the publication of clinical data from studies conducted at the University of the Philippines, Asian Hospital and Medical Center, Makati Medical Center, Manila, Philippines and Lutheran Medical Center, New York, USA, revealing the safety and single agent efficacy of Rexin-G(TM) for the treatment of a broad spectrum of chemotherapy-resistant cancers. - News from Epeius Biotechnologies Corporation, issued by Send2Press Newswire
Effects of different carbon fluxes on G1 phase duration, cyclin expression, and reserve carbohydrate metabolism in...
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cycMs3, a novel B-type alfalfa cyclin gene, is induced in the G0-to-G1 transition of the cell cycle. | Plant Cell
Cyclins are key regulators of the cell cycle in all eukaryotes. We have previously isolated two B-type cyclin genes, cycMs1 and cycMs2, from alfalfa that are primarily expressed during the G2-to-M phase transition and are most likely mitotic cyclin genes. Here, we report the isolation of a novel alfalfa cyclin gene, termed cycMs3 (for cyclin Medicago sativa), by selecting for mating type alpha-pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest suppression in yeast. The central region of the predicted amino acid sequence of the cycMs3 gene is most similar to the cyclin box of yeast B-type and mammalian A- and B-type cyclins. In situ hybridization showed that cycMs3 mRNA can be detected only in proliferating cells and not in differentiated alfalfa cells. When differentiated G0-arrested cells were induced to reenter the cell cycle in the G1 phase and resume cell division by treatment with plant hormones, cycMs3 transcript levels increased long before the onset of DNA synthesis. In contrast, histone H3-1 mRNA and ...
Sorry gan klo :repost moga-moga bisa bikin :ngakak PREMAN A: Eh, loe tau gak kenapa preman-preman sini pada nunduk tiap liat gue? B: Gak... Gak tau bang. (sambil ketakutan) A: Karena gue pendek tau!! :ngakaks DITILANG POLISI A: Mana surat-suratmu?? B: Maaf pak, saya sekarang udah gak pake surat, saya sekarang pake e-mail A: :capedes MIMPI A: Gue mimpi dikejar-kejar anjing B: Udahlah, cuma mimpi. A
As of late, individuals are turning into increasingly health aware. Jadhav, U. & Jameson, J. L. Steroidogenic issue-1 (sf-1)-driven differentiation of murine embryonic stem (es) cells right into a gonadal lineage. Any steered medical therapies must be discussed with your physician. 1: Differentiation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into Leydig-like cells (iPSC-LCs) based on molecular compounds.. People on a ketogenic diet eat 50 grams or fewer of carbohydrates per day and as an alternative eat greater-than-regular amounts of fats and protein. Ge, R. S. & Hardy, M. P. Decreased cyclin a2 and increased cyclin g1 levels coincide with loss of proliferative capability in rat leydig cells throughout pubertal growth.. The main focus of public well being interventions is to forestall and manage ailments, accidents and different health conditions through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy conduct , communities , and (in points relevant to human well being) environments Its aim is ...
Cyclin - Wikipedia
cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ... cyclin D (Cdk4) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin
Cyclin T2 - Wikipedia
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin_T2
cyclin | Encyclopedia.com
Source for information on cyclin: A Dictionary of Biology dictionary. ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cyclin
... like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. Thanks. Mike * ... Cyclin E-Fix. micro-mike micro-mike at cox.net Sun Mar 3 16:33:22 EST 2002 *Previous message: THE SECRET the IRS is TERRIFIED ... But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the ...http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/cellbiol/2002-March/014568.html
What are Cyclin-Dependent Kinases?
Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. Cyclin A is also produced, which ... Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... Cyclin Dependent Kinases in the Cell Cycle. Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene ...https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/What-are-Cyclin-Dependent-Kinases.aspx
Looking for Cyclin H.....
... Charles Yang cyang at jhunix.hcf.jhu.edu Fri Oct 6 15:33:24 EST 1995 *Previous message: luciferase ... My problem: I cant find the nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the Cyclin H gene (the human counterpart to CCL1) and its ...http://bio.net/bionet/mm/yeast/1995-October/003937.html
PHO85 cyclin-10 (P53124) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.https://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/P53124
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (P24941) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/P24941
CCNI cyclin I [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... Cyclin I: a new cyclin encoded by a gene isolated from human brain. Nakamura T, et al. Exp Cell Res, 1995 Dec. PMID 7493655 ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/10983
The crystal structure of cyclin A. - PubMed - NCBI
Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does ... cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha ... Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box ... The structural results indicate a role for the cyclin-box fold both as a template for the cyclin family and as a generalised ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8591034?dopt=Abstract
Cyclin D1 Attenuates STAT3 | Science Signaling
Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, ... Bienvenu et al. have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated ... Endogenous cyclin D1 associated with STAT3 in cells treated for 2 hours after treatment with interleukin 6 (IL-6), an activator ... F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. ...https://stke.sciencemag.org/content/2001/83/tw5
Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK) Inhibitors | SpringerLink
... the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its ... the cyclin), led to a simple model for cell cycle control. Modulation of cyclin accumulation, and thereby Cdk activation, was ... CDK CKI Zellzyklus biochemistry biology cancer cell cell cycle cellular differentiation cellular growth cyclin-dependent kinase ... More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell ...https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-642-71941-7
Cyclin E ablation in the mouse.
E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins ... However, endoreplication of trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes is severely impaired in the absence of cyclin E. Cyclin ... Cyclin E ablation in the mouse.. Geng Y., Yu Q., Sicinska E., Das M., Schneider J.E., Bhattacharya S., Rideout W.M., Bronson R. ... These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for ...http://www.uniprot.org/citations/12941272
CCNA1 (cyclin A1)
... cyclin A1), Authors: Immacolata Vocca, Gianmarco Muzi, Francesca Pentimalli, Antonio Giordano. Published in: Atlas Genet ... Cyclin A2, also known as cyclin A, is the major A-type cyclin in mammals. Cyclin A1 primarily functions in the meiotic cell ... Schematic diagram of human cyclin A1. The positions of the cyclin box (with the two cyclin box folds) and the polyalanine ... Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and ...http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/CCNA1ID949ch13q13.html
Anti-Cyclin T1 antibody (ab2098) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal Cyclin T1 antibody validated for WB, IP, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 10 ... Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation ... Anti-Cyclin T1 antibody (ab2098) at 1/10000 dilution + HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cell line) Whole Cell Lysate at 10 µg. ... ab2098 (2µg/ml) staining Cyclin T1 in human lymph node using an automated system (DAKO Autostainer Plus). Using this protocol ...http://www.abcam.com/cyclin-t1-antibody-ab2098.html
CYCLIN A EXPRESSION VECTOE FOR EUK CELLS
... balczonr at my-dejanews.com balczonr at my-dejanews.com Tue Sep 22 13:25:16 EST 1998 ...http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/cellbiol/1998-September/009607.html
Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan ... - VRBO
Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ...https://www.vrbo.com/589888
Anti-Cyclin A1 antibody (ab172317) | Abcam
Mouse polyclonal Cyclin A1 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding ... All lanes : Anti-Cyclin A1 antibody (ab172317) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Cyclin A1 transfected 293T cell line lysate. Lane 2 : Non- ... Full length protein corresponding to Human Cyclin A1 aa 1-464. (ABM85414.1).. Sequence: ...https://www.abcam.com/cyclin-a1-antibody-ab172317.html
RCSB PDB - Gene View - CDK12 - cyclin dependent kinase 12
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.https://www.rcsb.org/pdb/gene/CDK12
RCSB PDB - Gene View - CDK9 - cyclin dependent kinase 9
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/gene/CDK9?v=hg38
Cyclin D1 Down-Regulation | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action
60 Abstracts with Cyclin D1 Down-Regulation Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Kahweol-mediated cyclin D1 degradation may contribute to the inhibition of the proliferation in human colorectal cancer cells. ... Pharmacological Actions : Antiproliferative , Apoptotic, Cell cycle arrest, Cyclin D1 Down-Regulation. Additional Keywords : ... Pharmacological Actions : Antiproliferative , Apoptotic, Cell cycle arrest, Cyclin D1 Down-Regulation. Additional Keywords : ...https://www.greenmedinfo.com/pharmacological-action/cyclin-d1-down-regulation
Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017
Download the full report: https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/5190761 Summary Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase ... This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found ... The latest report Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Cyclin ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase ...https://www.medindia.net/health-press-release/Cyclin-Dependent-Kinase-9-Pipeline-Review-H2-2017-349010-1.htm
Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis | PNAS
Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis. W Meikrantz, S Gisselbrecht, S W Tam, and R Schlegel ... These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent ... Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. Stable ... to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. ...https://www.pnas.org/content/91/9/3754?ijkey=a111b4daa51fd5e7a8be36bf6ebca16e907a07da&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Function of a human cyclin gene as an oncogene. | PNAS
Construction of a Cyclin D1-Cdk2 Fusion Protein to Model the Biological Functions of Cyclin D1-Cdk2 Complexes ... Cyclin D1 Promotes Cell Cycle Progression through Enhancing NDR1/2 Kinase Activity Independent of Cyclin-dependent Kinase 4 ... D-Type Cyclins and Their Cyclin-dependent Kinases: G1 Phase Integrators of the Mitogenic Response ... Heat Shock Protein B8, a Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Independent Cyclin D1 Target Gene, Contributes to Its Effects on Radiation ...https://www.pnas.org/content/91/2/709?ijkey=97d31aa2daf68b3ccff9b8e0adee633fa52a113c&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
CDK2/Cyclin A Recombinant Human Protein
CDK2/cyclin A. Assays. CDK2/cyclin A was pre-diluted in enzyme dilution buffer and assayed in 20mM Tris (pH 7.5), 5mM MgCl2, ... CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, and is essential for cell cycle G1⁄S phase ...https://www.fishersci.ca/shop/products/cdk2-cyclin-a-recombinant-human-protein/PV3267
KinaseCDK2SubunitCdk9CDK4Show that cyclinFound that cyclinHighly conserved1998MitosisDependentComplexesGene expressionBindsCytoplasmicSaccharomycesCCND1MitoticIsoformRenal-cell carcReplicationBovineKnockout MiceSequenceExpressionBelongsMolecularPrognosticSubtypePhosphorylateCellsCell cycle arrestProliferationAbsenceComplex
- Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) enzymes . (wikipedia.org)
- This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, in all eukaryotes mitosis (M phase) is initiated by high levels of cyclin B, which combines with a protein kinase to form the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF). (encyclopedia.com)
- Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell cycle. (news-medical.net)
- Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) bound to the inhibitor ribociclib (detail view). (news-medical.net)
- have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated signaling. (sciencemag.org)
- Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation factor B (P-TEFb), which is proposed to facilitate the transition from abortive to productive elongation by phosphorylating the CTD (carboxy-terminal domain) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). (abcam.com)
- Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 126.96.36.199 or EC 188.8.131.52) - Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. (medindia.net)
- Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 184.108.40.206 or EC 220.127.116.11) pipeline Target constitutes close to 26 molecules. (medindia.net)
- It also reviews key players involved in Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 18.104.22.168 or EC 22.214.171.124) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (medindia.net)
- For all of the apoptosis-inducing agents tested, the appearance of condensed chromatin was accompanied by 2- to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. (pnas.org)
- CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, and is essential for cell cycle G1⁄S phase transition. (fishersci.ca)
- The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. (wikidoc.org)
- This protein forms a trimeric complex with cyclin H and MAT1 , which functions as a Cdk-activating kinase (CAK). (wikidoc.org)
- Cyclin A is also produced, which binds to CDK2 and stimulates DNA replication. (news-medical.net)
- Analysis of residues that are conserved throughout the A, B, and E cyclins identifies two exposed clusters of residues, one of which has recently been shown to be involved in the association with human CDK2. (nih.gov)
- Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does not undergo any significant conformational changes on complex formation. (nih.gov)
- Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and interacting with viral proteins (Giordano et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 2005). Human cyclin A1 interacts with CDK2 in vitro and in vivo (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 2001). Moreover the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex regulates DNA double-strand break repair following radiation damage (Müller-Tidow et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 2004) by competing with CDK2-cyclin A2 for the binding to Ku70, a pivotal player in the non-homologous end-joining double strand break repair pathway, and inhibiting apoptosis through modulating RB functions in leukemia cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. (pnas.org)
- Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene expression, which binds to CDK4. (news-medical.net)
- Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) usually functions to inhibit the transcription factor E2F, however, when cyclin-D-CDK4 phosphorylates the Rb protein, this relinquishes inhibition of E2F and leads to the production of genes required for entering the S phase. (news-medical.net)
- These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. (news-medical.net)
- F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. (sciencemag.org)
- Overexpression of cyclin D1 results in dysregulated CDK (zeige CDK4 Proteine ) activity, rapid cell growth under conditions of restricted mitogenic signaling, bypass of key cellular checkpoints, and ultimately, neoplastic growth. (antikoerper-online.de)
- The levels of S cyclins remain high, not only throughout S phase, but through G2 and early mitosis as well to promote early events in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
- M cyclin concentrations rise as the cell begins to enter mitosis and the concentrations peak at metaphase. (wikipedia.org)
- The destruction of M cyclins during metaphase and anaphase, after the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint is satisfied, causes the exit of mitosis and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Finally, cyclin B binds to CDK-1 to drive the cycle forward into M phase, stimulating mitosis. (news-medical.net)
- Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, suggesting a mechanism whereby STAT3-dependent transcription could be immediately attenuated. (sciencemag.org)
- Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer," Analytical Cellular Pathology , vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 179-185, 2012. (hindawi.com)
- ) The oscillations of the cyclins, namely fluctuations in cyclin gene expression and destruction by the ubiquitin mediated proteasome pathway, induce oscillations in Cdk activity to drive the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- The differences at each stage are due to a balance between the gene expression of each cyclin and the ubiquitin-proteasome system which breaks them down. (news-medical.net)
- But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the literature I have read. (bio.net)
- 2004). Cyclin A1 has an important role in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): its localization in normal hematopoietic cells is nuclear, whereas in leukemic cells from AML patients and cell lines, it is predominantly cytoplasmic (Ekberg et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- The cyclin D1 (PRAD1, CCND1) gene is affected by translocations and amplification in the genomes of a number of human tumors, suggesting that these changes confer growth advantage on developing tumor cell clones. (pnas.org)
- Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 24 Cyclin D1 (CCND1) Proteine von 9 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
- The Cdk- G1/S cyclin complex begins to induce the initial processes of DNA replication, primarily by arresting systems that prevent S phase Cdk activity in G1. (wikipedia.org)
- S cyclins bind to Cdk and the complex directly induces DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
- Expression of cyclins detected immunocytochemically in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase), or in relation to initiation and termination of DNA replication during S-phase, can be measured by flow cytometry . (wikipedia.org)
- This fold is repeated in the C-terminal region, although this region shares negligible sequence similarity with the cyclin box. (nih.gov)
- The positions of the cyclin box (with the two cyclin box folds) and the polyalanine sequence are shown. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Within the protein the cyclin box is a region of protein sequence homology that is common to all members of the cyclin family and is required for interaction with the CDK partner. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Expression of human cyclins through the cell cycle . (wikipedia.org)
- Expression of cyclins in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase) is often measured by flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
- In prior work, they showed that cyclin D1 regulates the non coding genome, and that the non-coding genome, in turn, regulates expression of cyclin D1. (eurekalert.org)
- Dr. Pestell and colleagues developed transgenic mice that could induce cyclin D1 expression in the breast and examined cells with cyclin D1 gene deleted. (eurekalert.org)
- They found that patients with the luminal A subtype of breast cancer had increased levels of expression of both cyclin D1 and Dicer. (eurekalert.org)
- From the determination of the structure of cyclin A, together with results from biochemical and genetic analyses, we can identify which parts of the cyclin molecular may contribute to cyclin A structure and function. (nih.gov)
- These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for cyclin E in normal versus oncogenic proliferation. (uniprot.org)
- Cyclins can be divided into four classes based on their behavior in the cell cycle of vertebrate somatic cells and yeast cells: G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. (wikipedia.org)
- In contrast to mammalian cells, these yeast cells had only one CDK which interacted with various cyclins. (news-medical.net)
- If the tight control over the CDK-cyclin system breaks down, then cells can proliferate uncontrollably. (news-medical.net)
- Endogenous cyclin D1 associated with STAT3 in cells treated for 2 hours after treatment with interleukin 6 (IL-6), an activator of STAT3. (sciencemag.org)
- However, endoreplication of trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes is severely impaired in the absence of cyclin E. Cyclin E-deficient cells proliferate actively under conditions of continuous cell cycling but are unable to reenter the cell cycle from the quiescent G(0) state. (uniprot.org)
- We show here that in cultured cells, a cDNA clone of the cyclin D1 gene can contribute to cell transformation by complementing a defective adenovirus E1A oncogene. (pnas.org)
- a new function for cyclin D1 in the control of redox metabolism and interactions of cyclin D1 -expressing multiple myeloma cells with their bone marrow microenvironment. (antikoerper-online.de)
- The researchers noticed that cells lacking cyclin D1 produced less of the miRNA-processing protein, Dicer, and therefore had reduced levels of mature miRNA. (eurekalert.org)
- The group also examined cells lacking Dicer, and noted many similarities between Dicer-lacking and cyclin D1-lacking cells, in addition to failure of miRNA processing, suggesting a deeper connection between these two processes. (eurekalert.org)