A ubiquitously found basic protein that binds to phosphatidylethanolamine and NUCLEOTIDES. It is an endogenous inhibitor of RAF KINASES and may play a role in regulating SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein is the precursor of hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide, which is cleaved from the N-terminal region of the protein.
Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A potent inhibitor of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES in G1 PHASE and S PHASE. In humans, aberrant expression of p57 is associated with various NEOPLASMS as well as with BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.

Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. (1/296)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mating pheromones activate two MAP kinases (MAPKs), Fus3p and Kss1p, to induce G1 arrest prior to mating. Fus3p is known to promote G1 arrest by activating Far1p, which inhibits three Clnp/Cdc28p kinases. To analyze the contribution of Fus3p and Kss1p to G1 arrest that is independent of Far1p, we constructed far1 CLN strains that undergo G1 arrest from increased activation of the mating MAP kinase pathway. We find that Fus3p and Kss1p both control G1 arrest through multiple functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. Fus3p and Kss1p together promote G1 arrest by repressing transcription of G1/S cyclin genes (CLN1, CLN2, CLB5) by a mechanism that blocks their activation by Cln3p/Cdc28p kinase. In addition, Fus3p and Kss1p counteract G1 arrest through overlapping and distinct functions. Fus3p and Kss1p together increase the expression of CLN3 and PCL2 genes that promote budding, and Kss1p inhibits the MAP kinase cascade. Strikingly, Fus3p promotes proliferation by a novel function that is not linked to reduced Ste12p activity or increased levels of Cln2p/Cdc28p kinase. Genetic analysis suggests that Fus3p promotes proliferation through activation of Mcm1p transcription factor that upregulates numerous genes in G1 phase. Thus, Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest through a balance of arrest functions that inhibit the Cdc28p machinery and proliferative functions that bypass this inhibition.  (+info)

Effects of phosphorylation of threonine 160 on cyclin-dependent kinase 2 structure and activity. (2/296)

We have prepared phosphorylated cyclin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CDK2) for crystallization using the CDK-activating kinase 1 (CAK1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and have grown crystals using microseeding techniques. Phosphorylation of monomeric human CDK2 by CAK1 is more efficient than phosphorylation of the binary CDK2-cyclin A complex. Phosphorylated CDK2 exhibits histone H1 kinase activity corresponding to approximately 0.3% of that observed with the fully activated phosphorylated CDK2-cyclin A complex. Fluorescence measurements have shown that Thr160 phosphorylation increases the affinity of CDK2 for both histone substrate and ATP and decreases its affinity for ADP. By contrast, phosphorylation of CDK2 has a negligible effect on the affinity for cyclin A. The crystal structures of the ATP-bound forms of phosphorylated CDK2 and unphosphorylated CDK2 have been solved at 2.1-A resolution. The structures are similar, with the major difference occurring in the activation segment, which is disordered in phosphorylated CDK2. The greater mobility of the activation segment in phosphorylated CDK2 and the absence of spontaneous crystallization suggest that phosphorylated CDK2 may adopt several different mobile states. The majority of these states are likely to correspond to inactive conformations, but a small fraction of phosphorylated CDK2 may be in an active conformation and hence explain the basal activity observed.  (+info)

A Cdc24p-Far1p-Gbetagamma protein complex required for yeast orientation during mating. (3/296)

Oriented cell growth requires the specification of a site for polarized growth and subsequent orientation of the cytoskeleton towards this site. During mating, haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells orient their growth in response to a pheromone gradient overriding an internal landmark for polarized growth, the bud site. This response requires Cdc24p, Far1p, and a heterotrimeric G-protein. Here we show that a two- hybrid interaction between Cdc24p and Gbeta requires Far1p but not pheromone-dependent MAP-kinase signaling, indicating Far1p has a role in regulating the association of Cdc24p and Gbeta. Binding experiments demonstrate that Cdc24p, Far1p, and Gbeta form a complex in which pairwise interactions can occur in the absence of the third protein. Cdc24p localizes to sites of polarized growth suggesting that this complex is localized. In the absence of CDC24-FAR1-mediated chemotropism, a bud site selection protein, Bud1p/Rsr1p, is essential for morphological changes in response to pheromone. These results suggest that formation of a Cdc24p-Far1p-Gbetagamma complex functions as a landmark for orientation of the cytoskeleton during growth towards an external signal.  (+info)

Rbx1, a component of the VHL tumor suppressor complex and SCF ubiquitin ligase. (4/296)

The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene is mutated in most human kidney cancers. The VHL protein is part of a complex that includes Elongin B, Elongin C, and Cullin-2, proteins associated with transcriptional elongation and ubiquitination. Here it is shown that the endogenous VHL complex in rat liver also includes Rbx1, an evolutionarily conserved protein that contains a RING-H2 fingerlike motif and that interacts with Cullins. The yeast homolog of Rbx1 is a subunit and potent activator of the Cdc53-containing SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase required for ubiquitination of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 and for the G1 to S cell cycle transition. These findings provide a further link between VHL and the cellular ubiquitination machinery.  (+info)

Exit from mitosis is triggered by Tem1-dependent release of the protein phosphatase Cdc14 from nucleolar RENT complex. (5/296)

Exit from mitosis in budding yeast requires a group of essential proteins--including the GTPase Tem1 and the protein phosphatase Cdc14--that downregulate cyclin-dependent kinase activity. We identified a mutation, net1-1, that bypasses the lethality of tem1 delta. NET1 encodes a novel protein, and mass spectrometric analysis reveals that it is a key component of a multifunctional complex, denoted RENT (for regulator of nucleolar silencing and telophase), that also contains Cdc14 and the silencing regulator Sir2. From G1 through anaphase, RENT localizes to the nucleolus, and Cdc14 activity is inhibited by Net1. In late anaphase, Cdc14 dissociates from RENT, disperses throughout the cell in a Tem1-dependent manner, and ultimately triggers mitotic exit. Nucleolar sequestration may be a general mechanism for the regulation of diverse biological processes.  (+info)

Cdc4, a protein required for the onset of S phase, serves an essential function during G(2)/M transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/296)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Cdc4 and Cdc20 contain WD40 repeats and participate in proteolytic processes. However, they are thought to act at two different stages of the cell cycle: Cdc4 is involved in the proteolysis of the Cdk inhibitor, Sic1, necessary for G(1)/S transition, while Cdc20 mediates anaphase-promoting complex-dependent degradation of anaphase inhibitor Pds1, a process necessary for the onset of chromosome segregation. We have isolated three mutant alleles of CDC4 (cdc4-10, cdc4-11, and cdc4-16) which suppress the nuclear division defect of cdc20-1 cells. However, the previously characterized mutation cdc4-1 and a new allele, cdc4-12, do not alleviate the defect of cdc20-1 cells. This genetic interaction suggests an additional role for Cdc4 in G(2)/M. Reexamination of the cdc4-1 mutant revealed that, in addition to being defective in the onset of S phase, it is also defective in G(2)/M transition when released from hydroxyurea-induced S-phase arrest. A second function for CDC4 in late S or G(2) phase was further confirmed by the observation that cells lacking the CDC4 gene are arrested both at G(1)/S and at G(2)/M. We subsequently isolated additional temperature-sensitive mutations in the CDC4 gene (such as cdc4-12) that render the mutant defective in both G(1)/S and G(2)/M transitions at the restrictive temperature. While the G(1)/S block in both cdc4-12 and cdc4Delta mutants is abolished by the deletion of the SIC1 gene (causing the mutants to be arrested predominantly in G(2)/M), the preanaphase arrest in the cdc4-12 mutant is relieved by the deletion of PDS1. Collectively, these observations suggest that, in addition to its involvement in the initiation of S phase, Cdc4 may also be required for the onset of anaphase.  (+info)

Pds1 and Esp1 control both anaphase and mitotic exit in normal cells and after DNA damage. (7/296)

The separation of sister chromatids in anaphase is followed by spindle disassembly and cytokinesis. These events are governed by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which triggers the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of key regulatory proteins: anaphase requires the destruction of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1, whereas mitotic exit requires the destruction of mitotic cyclins and the inactivation of Cdk1. We find that Pds1 is not only an inhibitor of anaphase, but also blocks cyclin destruction and mitotic exit by a mechanism independent of its effects on sister chromatid separation. Pds1 is also required for the mitotic arrest and inhibition of cyclin destruction that occurs after DNA damage. Even in anaphase cells, where Pds1 levels are normally low, DNA damage stabilizes Pds1 and prevents cyclin destruction and mitotic exit. Pds1 blocks cyclin destruction by inhibiting its binding partner Esp1. Mutations in ESP1 delay cyclin destruction; overexpression of ESP1 causes premature cyclin destruction in cells arrested in metaphase by spindle defects and in cells arrested in metaphase and anaphase by DNA damage. The effects of Esp1 are dependent on Cdc20 (an activating subunit of the APC) and on several additional proteins (Cdc5, Cdc14, Cdc15, Tem1) that form a regulatory network governing mitotic exit. We speculate that the inhibition of cyclin destruction by Pds1 may contribute to the ordering of late mitotic events by ensuring that mitotic exit is delayed until after anaphase is initiated. In addition, the stabilization of Pds1 after DNA damage provides a mechanism to delay both anaphase and mitotic exit while DNA repair occurs.  (+info)

SGT1 encodes an essential component of the yeast kinetochore assembly pathway and a novel subunit of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. (8/296)

We have identified SGT1 as a dosage suppressor of skp1-4, a mutation causing defects in yeast kinetochore function. Sgt1p physically associates with Skp1p in vivo and in vitro. SGT1 is an essential gene, and different sgt1 conditional mutants arrest with either a G1 or G2 DNA content. Genetic and phenotypic analyses of sgt1-3 (G2 allele) mutants support an essential role in kinetochore function. Sgt1p is required for assembling the yeast kinetochore complex, CBF3, via activation of Ctf13p. Sgt1p also associates with SCF (Skp1p/Cdc53p/F box protein) ubiquitin ligase. sgt1-5 (G1 allele) mutants are defective in Sic1p turnover in vivo and Cln1p ubiquitination in vitro. Human SGT1 rescues an sgt1 null mutation, suggesting that the function of SGT1 is conserved in evolution.  (+info)

During grain (L. Orysa;CycB2;2 usually do not present binding to Orysa;KRP3. Orysa;KRP3 could rescue fungus premature cell department because of the dominant positive appearance of mutant grain CDKA;1 indicating that Orysa;KRP3 inhibited grain CDK. These data claim that Orysa;KRP3 is involved with cell routine control of syncytial endosperm. L.) endosperm comprises a considerable proportion from the mature seed possesses a great 1428535-92-5 deal of carbohydrates. It really is a significant source of calories from fat for human beings and animals and in addition provides recycleables for items and biofuels. Comprehensive research provides been fond of enhancing the grain size, quality, and produce. A number of the restrictions of conventional grain breeding could be get over by biotechnological anatomist. Nevertheless, significant improvements need an understanding from the molecular procedures controlling endosperm advancement. Rice seed advancement begins with dual fertilization where the ...
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1OIT: Imidazo[1,2-A]Pyridines: A Potent and Selective Class of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors Identified Through Structure-Based Hybridisation
ICK (Human) Cell-Based ELISA Kit is an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for qualitative determination of ICK expression in cultured cells. (KA2780) - Products - Abnova
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Disruption of the cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitory domain of p27 enhances growth of mice. Growth is attributed to an increase in cell number, due to increased cell proliferation, most obviously in tissues that ordinarily express p27 at the highest levels. Disruption of p27 function leads to nodula …
Recombinant human CDKN1B protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional chromatography. MW: 24.2 kDa.
The p57(Kip2) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKi) has been implicated in embryogenesis, stem-cell senescence and pathologies, but little is known of its role in cell cycle control. Here, we show that p57(Kip2) is ...
The cortactin oncoprotein is frequently overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), often due to amplification of the encoding gene (CTTN). While cortactin overexpression enhances invasive potential, recent research indicates that it also promotes cell proliferation, but how cortactin regulates the cell cycle machinery is unclear. In this article we report that stable short hairpin RNA-mediated cortactin knockdown in the 11q13-amplified cell line FaDu led to increased expression of the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) and inhibition of S-phase entry. These effects were associated with increased binding of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) to cyclin D1- and E1-containing complexes and decreased retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. Cortactin regulated expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, respectively. The direct roles of p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) ...
Despite its potential role as a tumor suppressor, p27 gene, a member of the Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes, has never been found mutated in human tumors. We investigated p27 protein expression in a series of 108 non-small cell lung cancers (57.4% stage 1, 16.7% stage 2, and 25.9% stage 3) to determine whether the lack or altered expression of this protein correlates with neoplastic transformation and/or progression. We performed immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of each specimen. We found that tumors expressing low to undetectable levels of p27 contained high p27 degradation activity. When we evaluated the outcome of the patients in relationship to p27 expression, we found p27 to be a prognostic factor correlating with the overall survival times (P = 0.0012).. The possibility of a simple assay, such as the immunohistochemical analysis of p27 expression on routinely formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens, has considerable value for the prognosis of ...
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein is a protein which inhibits the enzyme cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK). Several ... Seven cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins have thus far been identified. They are named by the small letter "p" followed ... Cyclin-Dependent+Kinase+Inhibitor+Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e ( ... "Crystal structure of the p27Kip1 cyclin-dependent-kinase inhibitor bound to the cyclin A-Cdk2 complex". Nature. 382 (6589): 325 ...
DP00016 corresponds to the Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 protein. It featured a new web interface based on Angular.JS. ... DisProt 7 (2016): more than 800 protein entries and 1000 publications annotated. Each protein entry in DisProt is characterized ... DisProt 8 (2019): more than 1400 protein entries and over 3000 disordered protein regions. DisProt 8 also introduced the ... Intrinsically Disordered Proteins Ontology: used to annotate the following types of evidence, 1. structural state (i.e. ...
This protein belongs to the CDKN2 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor family. p16 comprises four ankyrin repeats, each spanning a ... "CDKN2A - Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDKN2A gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2016- ... p16 inhibits cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6) and thereby activates the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of proteins ... "CDKN2A cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-10-11. ...
PMID 31212132 Structure-based discovery of cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitors. Martin MP, Endicott JA, Noble MEM. ... to conduct research into cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs). She was awarded a Royal Society University Research ... Protein kinase inhibitors: insights into drug design from structure. Science. 2004 Mar 19;303(5665):1800-5. According to Google ... inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases. Nature cell biology. 1999 May;1(1):60-7. According to Google Scholar, this article has been ...
It is regulated by cyclins, more specifically by Cyclin D proteins and Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins. The protein ... Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3, P16, PPM1B, and PPP2CA. Cell cycle Cyclin-dependent kinase Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 Mitosis The ... "Both p16 and p21 families of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors block the phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases by ... 2003). "Expression of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6, but Not Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4, Alters Morphology of Cultured Mouse ...
The p16 protein is a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDK) inhibitor and it activates Rb tumor suppressor. p16 binds to CDK 4 ... p16Ink4a also activates pRB, but through inactivation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk 4) and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk 6 ... p53 activates p21 which deactivates cyclin-dependent kinase 2(Cdk 2). Without Cdk 2, retinoblastoma protein (pRB) remains in ... Rivera-Torres J, José ES (2019). "Src Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: New Perspectives on Their Immune, Antiviral, and ...
It encodes a protein which belongs to the Cip/Kip family of cyclin dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor proteins. The encoded ... CDKN1B has been shown to interact with: AKT1, CKS1B, Cyclin D3, Cyclin E1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 ... "Assembly of cyclin D-dependent kinase and titration of p27Kip1 regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1)". ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is an enzyme inhibitor that in humans is encoded by the CDKN1B gene. ...
... notably the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 - for ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. CDC34 is required for ... CDC34 is a gene that in humans encodes the protein Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 R1. This protein is a member of the ... a novel protein that associates with serine/threonine kinase PRK1 in vivo". Gene. 256 (1-2): 113-21. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(00) ... Semplici F, Meggio F, Pinna LA, Oliviero S (June 2002). "CK2-dependent phosphorylation of the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme ...
"The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases". Cell. 75 (4): 805-816. doi:10.1016/ ... Yue Xiong and David Beach as a cyclin-CDK-PCNA interacting protein (p21), and as a senescence derived inhibitor by Noda. ... "p21 is a universal inhibitor of cyclin kinases". Nature. 366 (6456): 701-704. Bibcode:1993Natur.366..701X. doi:10.1038/366701a0 ... In 2013, his group reported a TRAIL-inducing compound TIC10 as a novel cancer therapeutic and dual inhibitor of ERK and Akt. ...
... can be induced by the combination of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor SCH727965 and a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor. In ... cultures by the combination of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor SCH727965 and a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor". Cell ... a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, is dependent on p53 signaling". PLOS ONE. 8 (3): e59588. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...859588D. doi: ... Fu W, Ma L, Chu B, Wang X, Bui MM, Gemmer J, Altiok S, Pledger WJ (Jun 2011). "The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor SCH 727965 ...
... also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) ... p21 is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI). The p21 (CIP1/WAF1) protein binds to and inhibits the activity of ... "The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases". Cell. 75 (4): 805-16. doi:10.1016/ ... "Mechanism of inhibition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent DNA synthesis by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDKN3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... 1993). "The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases". Cell. 75 (4): 805-16. doi: ... It was identified as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate CDK2 kinase ... "The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases". Cell. 75 (4): 805-16. doi:10.1016/ ...
... as well as cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor proteins. The human genome encodes over 600 putative E3 ligases, allowing for ... and an F-box protein, which varies. Around 70 human F-box proteins have been identified. F-box proteins contain an F-box, which ... The ligases must simultaneously distinguish their protein substrate from thousands of other proteins in the cell, and from ... recognizes a protein substrate, and assists or directly catalyzes the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 to the protein ...
... serum amyloid A-activating factor 1 inhibits cell proliferation by the induction of cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor ... Myc-associated zinc finger protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAZ gene. MAZ (gene) has been shown to ... a myc-associated zinc finger protein, are regulated by casein kinase II". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 262 (1): 198-205. doi: ... protein interacts with the Myc-associated zinc finger protein (ZF87/MAZ) and alters its transcriptional activity". Biochemistry ...
The suspected mechanism is dependent on p27Kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. p27Kip1 protein levels are elevated in ... Cyclins are proteins that control progression through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases. Destruction of a ... a peak of cyclin E protein would indicate the G1/S transition, a cyclin A peak would indicate late G2 phase, and a cyclin B ... Driving this conversion is Cdc7 and S-phase cyclin-dependent kinases, which are both upregulated after the G1/S transition. ...
"The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases". Cell. 75 (4): 805-16. doi:10.1016/ ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. This protein ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, also known as cell division protein kinase 2, or Cdk2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ...
IATA airport code Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ...
... a type of toxin delivery between bacteria which requires direct contact Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein, a protein ... which inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase Contexts and Dependency Injection, a Java standard for the inversion of control design ...
... the CDKN2A gene which encodes cyclin-dependent kinase Inhibitor 2A, a protein that regulates cell proliferation and the CDKN2B ... This gene encodes CREB-binding protein, a protein that activates various transcription factors some of which are implicated in ... This gene encodes SET domain containing 2, a protein that acts to reduce the occurrence of gene deletions and tumor formation. ... TP53 encodes tumor suppressor p53, a protein that regulates cell proliferation, death, and tumor formation. Mutations in JAK- ...
Congenital insensitivity to pain Critical illness polyneuropathy CIP/KIP family of Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins ...
... which leads to the increase in the synthesis of the selective cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor proteins, p12 and p16. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for opioid growth factor (OGF), also known as [Met(5)]-enkephalin. The ... Opioid growth factor receptor, also known as OGFr or the ζ-opioid receptor, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the OGFR ... Retinoblastoma protein becomes inactivated through phosphorylation by CDKs, and leads to the progression of the cell cycle from ...
... are specific inhibitors of the cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 15 (5): 2672-81. doi: ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ... Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... "Cyclin D- and E-dependent kinases and the p57(KIP2) inhibitor: cooperative interactions in vivo". Molecular and Cellular ...
... cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (Cdkn), pocket proteins of the retinoblastoma (Rb) family, ... hESCs show that the activities of Cyclin E/Cdk2 and Cyclin A/Cdk2 complexes are cell cycle-dependent and the Rb checkpoint in ... Rather, the Cyclin E/Cdk2 complex is constitutively active throughout the cycle, keeping retinoblastoma protein (pRb) ... while Cyclin E and Cdk2 are active during the late G1 phase and S phase; and Cyclin A and Cdk2 are active in the S phase and G2 ...
... (p57, Kip2), also known as CDKN1C, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CDKN1C ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C is a tight-binding inhibitor of several G1 cyclin/Cdk complexes and a negative regulator ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN1C cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (p57, Kip2)". Matsuoka S, Edwards MC, Bai C, Parker S, Zhang P, ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C has been shown to interact with: LIMK1, MYBL2, MyoD, and PCNA. ENSG00000129757 GRCh38: ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B also known as multiple tumor suppressor 2 (MTS-2) or p15INK4b is a protein that is ... This gene encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, also known as p15Ink4b protein, which forms a complex with CDK4 or CDK6 ... "Evidence for different modes of action of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: p15 and p16 bind to kinases, p21 and p27 bind to ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN2B cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (p15, inhibits CDK4)". Tu Q, Hao J, Zhou X, Yan L, Dai H, Sun B, et al ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been ... 1995). "Novel INK4 proteins, p19 and p18, are specific inhibitors of the cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6". Mol. Cell. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor D is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDKN2D gene. ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN2D cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2D (p19, inhibits CDK4)". Dehkordi, Shiva Kazempour; Walker, Jamie; Sah, ...
This protein is reported to be involved in the degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1B/p27Kip1. It is also ... Tomoda K, Kubota Y, Kato J (March 1999). "Degradation of the cyclin-dependent-kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 is instigated by Jab1". ... The protein encoded by this gene is one of the eight subunits of COP9 signalosome, a highly conserved protein complex that ... April 1998). "A novel protein complex involved in signal transduction possessing similarities to 26S proteasome subunits". ...
Inactivation of cyclin D is triggered by several cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein (CKIs) like the INK4 family (e.g. ... Cyclins are eukaryotic proteins that form holoenzymes with cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdk), which they activate. The ... activate cyclin D gene in response to integrin. p27kip1 and p21cip1 are cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) which ... two more cyclin D proteins have been identified. The three homologues, called cyclin D1, cyclin D2, and cyclin D3 are expressed ...
1995). "Novel INK4 proteins, p19 and p18, are specific inhibitors of the cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6". Mol. Cell. ... "Entrez Gene: CDK4 cyclin-dependent kinase 4". "CDK4 - Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDK4 gene & protein". ... 1995). "Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... "The nuclear protein p34SEI-1 regulates the kinase activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 in a concentration-dependent manner". ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, CDKN2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and numerous other synonyms), is a protein that slows ... "The nuclear protein p34SEI-1 regulates the kinase activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 in a concentration-dependent manner". ... p16 is also known as: p16INK4A p16Ink4 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) CDKN2 CDK 4 Inhibitor Multiple Tumor ... Hannon and David Beach discovered p16 in 1993 and correctly characterized the protein as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. ...
Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the ... which targets and degrades S and M cyclins (but not G1/S cyclins); and a high concentration of Cdk inhibitors is found during ... it is generally because gene regulatory proteins of the E2F family have become unrestrained and increase G1/S cyclin gene ... During G1 phase, the G1/S cyclin activity rises significantly near the end of the G1 phase. Complexes of cyclin that are active ...
Nigg EA (June 1995). "Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle". BioEssays. 17 (6): 471-80 ... CDK interacting protein/Kinase inhibitory protein) family and the INK4a/ARF (Inhibitor of Kinase 4/Alternative Reading Frame) ... Two key classes of regulatory molecules, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), determine a cell's progress through the ... Norbury C (1995). "Cdk2 protein kinase (vertebrates)". In Hardie DG, Hanks S (eds.). Protein kinase factsBook. Boston: Academic ...
DP2 and DP1 are G protein-coupled receptors, with the DP2 receptor coupled to Gi alpha subunit-dependent depression of cellular ... "Anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone prostaglandins are direct inhibitors of IkappaB kinase". Nature. 403 (6765): 103-8. Bibcode: ... Cyclin D1, Cdk4, and Insulin-like growth factor 1; and e) regulating agents such as HSP70, GPR78, Gadd153, Ubiquitin B, and ... 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 forms an adduct with the IKK-β subunit of IκB kinase thereby inhibiting the kinases activity thereby ...
"Hsc70 regulates accumulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin D1-dependent protein kinase". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 23 (5): 1764 ... "Heat shock protein 72 suppresses apoptosis by increasing the stability of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in renal ... Heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 also known as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein or Hsc70 or Hsp73 is a heat shock protein that in ... This protein binds to nascent polypeptides to facilitate correct protein folding. In order to properly fold non-native proteins ...
Hennigan RF, Stambrook PJ (August 2001). "Dominant negative c-jun inhibits activation of the cyclin D1 and cyclin E kinase ... "Selective activator protein-1 inhibitor T-5224 prevents lymph node metastasis in an oral cancer model". Cancer Science. 107 (5 ... leading to the phosphorylation of Jun proteins and enhanced transcriptional activity of AP-1 dependent genes. Increases in the ... Navas TA, Baldwin DT, Stewart TA (November 1999). "RIP2 is a Raf1-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase". The ...
... cyclin - cyclin A - cyclin B - cyclin E - cyclin-dependent kinase - cycloleucine - cyclosporin - cyclosporine - cystatin - ... inhibitor - inhibitory gi G-protein - Inorganic chemistry - insect protein - Insulin - insulin receptor - insulin-like growth ... protein subunit - protein synthesis - protein targeting - protein translocation - protein-tyrosine kinase - protein-tyrosine- ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ...
... phosphoinositide-3-kinase interacting protein 1), resulted in higher activity of the growth promoting enzyme, phosphoinositide ... Cux transcription factor by cyclin A-Cdk1 modulates its DNA binding activity in G(2)". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (49): 45780-90. doi: ... attachment region upstream of the T cell receptor beta gene enhancer binds Cux/CDP and SATB1 and modulates enhancer-dependent ... the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute reported that the mutation of CUX1 reduces the inhibitory effects of a biological inhibitor ...
"Calmodulin is essential for cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity and nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1-Cdk4 during G1". ... Interferon alpha-inducible protein 27 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFI27 gene. ENSG00000275214 GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Sequence organization and matrix attachment regions of the human serine protease inhibitor gene cluster at 14q32.1". Mammalian ... March 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human ...
... a well-studied cyclin-dependent protein kinase. Cdc14 antagonizes Cdk1 by stimulating proteolysis of its cyclin partner (cyclin ... Furthermore, Cdc14 dephosphorylates the stoichiometric inhibitor of the mitotic cyclins, Sic1, stabilizing Sic1 protein. Cdc14 ... April 1999). "Exit from mitosis is triggered by Tem1-dependent release of the protein phosphatase Cdc14 from nucleolar RENT ... "A global protein kinase and phosphatase interaction network in yeast". Science. 328 (5981): 1043-1046. Bibcode:2010Sci... ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ... "Neuronal Cdc2-like protein kinase (Cdk5/p25) is associated with protein phosphatase 1 and phosphorylates inhibitor-2". The ... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK5R2 gene. The protein encoded by this ...
"Distinct roles for cyclin-dependent kinases in cell cycle control." Science 262.5142 (1993): 2050-2054. Harlow, E. D., et al. " ... "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases." The EMBO Journal 11.8 (1992): 2909. Whyte, Peter, Nicola M. Williamson, and E ... LaBaer, J (1997). "New functional activities for the p21 family of CDK inhibitors". Genes Dev. 11: 847-62. doi:10.1101/gad.11.7 ... Tsai, L (1994). "p35 is a neural-specific regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 5". Nature. 371: 419-23. doi:10.1038/ ...
TGF-β signaling induces transcription of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p15Ink4B or p21Cip1, which, as a ... MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus protein EVI1 (MECOM) also known as ecotropic virus integration site 1 protein homolog (EVI-1) or ... c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a MAP kinase activated by extracellular stress signals such as gamma-radiation, ultraviolet ... "Retroviral activation of a novel gene encoding a zinc finger protein in IL-3-dependent myeloid leukemia cell lines". Cell. 54 ( ...
SKP2 targets p27Kip-1, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDKs2/4 partner with the cyclins E/D, respectively, ... coordinating the cellular localization of proteins, activating and inactivating proteins, and modulating protein-protein ... When cyclin E is partnered with CDK2 and gets phosphorylated, an SCF-associated F-box protein Fbw7 recognizes the complex and ... Moreover, ubiquitination can also act to turn on/off the kinase activity of a protein. The critical role of phosphorylation is ...
Cdk1-cyclin complexes are also governed by direct binding of Cdk inhibitor proteins (CKIs). One such protein, already discussed ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that ... Cdk1 is comprised mostly by the bare protein kinase motif, which other protein kinases share. Cdk1, like other kinases, ... like other cyclin-dependent kinases, contains a T-loop, which, in the absence of an interacting cyclin, prevents substrate ...
"Successful treatment of animal models of rheumatoid arthritis with small-molecule cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors". J. ... Protein kinase inhibitors, Orphan drugs, All stub articles, Antineoplastic and immunomodulating drug stubs). ... Alvocidib (INN; also known as flavopiridol) is a flavonoid alkaloid CDK9 kinase inhibitor under clinical development by Tolero ...
... cyclin family proteins: Cyclin D, Cyclin E transcriptional regulators: Myc, E2f1, p130 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs ... Schwob, E (1994-10-21). "The B-type cyclin kinase inhibitor p40SIC1 controls the G1 to S transition in S. cerevisiae". Cell. 79 ... Instead, FBP affinity for protein substrates is regulated through cyclin-CDK-mediated phosphorylation of target proteins. Skp1 ... Beta-transducin repeat-containing protein (βTRCP) is an FBP that targets emi1-an APC/C-Cdh1 inhibitor-and wee1 for degradation ...
The cell cycle is driven by proteins called cyclin dependent kinases that associate with cyclin regulatory proteins at ... p53 regulates the function of the Cdk2 inhibitor p21 and the 14-3-3 proteins that phosphorylate (and thereby inactivate) and ... Accumulation of cyclin B increases the activity of the cyclin dependent kinase Cdk1 human homolog Cdc2 as cells prepare to ... Chk1 is an effector protein kinase that maintains mitotic cyclin in an inactive state and is phosphorylated by rad3 between S ...
"Genome-wide review of transcriptional complexity in mouse protein kinases and phosphatases". Genome Biol. 7 (1): R5. doi: ... TGFβ1 is a growth inhibitor in human keratinocytes. Stimulation of the cultured human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, with TGFβ1 ... soluble version of the receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa stimulates neurite outgrowth via a Grb2/MEK1-dependent ... cyclin D1 and c-myc. Expression of ful-length PTPkappa in melanoma cells that normally lack its expression results in reduced ...
... phosphorylates hSPT5 and RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain independently of cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase ... In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1. Tat is a regulatory protein that ... October 2005). "4-Phenylcoumarins as HIV transcription inhibitors". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15 (20): 4447-50. doi:10.1016/j. ... 2001). "Protein Transduction Domain of HIV-1 Tat Protein Promotes Efficient Delivery of DNA into Mammalian Cells". Journal of ...
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is induced by both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms and can arrest the ... Checkpoint Proteins can be separated into four groups: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-like protein kinase, proliferating ... ISBN 978-1-58829-500-2.[page needed] Gartel AL, Tyner AL (June 2002). "The role of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in ... cell cycle at the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints by deactivating cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. The SOS response is the ...
At this point, E2F 1-3 proteins bind to DNA and transcribe Cyclin A and Cdc 6. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B), ... The G1 phase cyclin-dependent kinase works together with S phase cyclin-dependent kinase targeting p27 for degradation. In turn ... Progression through these checkpoints is largely determined by the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases by regulatory protein ... checkpoints is through the regulation of the activities of a family of protein kinases known as the cyclin-dependent kinases ( ...
Clare, PM; Poorman, RA; Kelly, LC; Watenpaugh, KD; Bannow, CA; Leach, KL (2001). "The Cyclin-dependent Kinases cdk2 and cdk5 ... Leach, K.L., Powers, E.A., Ruff, V.A., Jaken, S. and Kaufmann, S. Type 3 protein kinase C localization to the nuclear envelope ... Her research at Pfizer continued to focus on in vitro predictions of compound safety, for kinase inhibitors as well as other ... Leach, K L; Powers, E A; Ruff, V A; Jaken, S; Kaufmann, S (1989-08-01). "Type 3 protein kinase C localization to the nuclear ...
Inhibition through the cell cycle is maintained by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) of the Ink and Cip/Kip families ... cyclin D is synthesized and binds to Cdk4/6, which in turn phosphorylates retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and induces the release ... Park, D.S., Morris, E.J., Padmanabhan, J., Shelanski, M.L., Geller, H.M., and Greene, L. a. (1998). Cyclin-dependent kinases ... through the cell cycle from one phase to the next are regulated by cyclins binding their respective cyclin dependent kinases ( ...
"Neuron-specific phosphorylation of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein by cyclin-dependent kinase 5". Journal of ... Grüninger-Leitch F, Schlatter D, Küng E, Nelböck P, Döbeli H (Feb 2002). "Substrate and inhibitor profile of BACE (beta- ... The encoded protein, a member of the peptidase A1 protein family, is a type I integral membrane glycoprotein and aspartic ... "In vitro phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of the amyloid precursor protein by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta". Journal ...
... and shares sequence elements with the PCNA-binding regions of FEN-1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21". J. Biol. Chem. ... The protein is a member of the XPG/RAD2 endonuclease family and is one of ten proteins essential for cell-free DNA replication ... and shares sequence elements with the PCNA-binding regions of FEN-1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21". J. Biol. Chem. ... Henneke G, Koundrioukoff S, Hübscher U (Jul 2003). "Phosphorylation of human Fen1 by cyclin-dependent kinase modulates its role ...
Studies of gene expression show that a specific complement of genes, such as follistatin and multiple cyclin kinase inhibitors ... gradient of pituitary morphogenesis is dependent on neuroectodermal signals from the infundibular bone morphogenetic protein 4 ... Other essential proteins necessary for pituitary cell proliferation are Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), Wnt4, and Wnt5. ... An assortment of genes and proteins - such as WNT4, RSPO1, FOXL2, and various estrogen receptors - have been shown to prevent ...
"Mitogen-stimulated TIS21 protein interacts with a protein-kinase-Calpha-binding protein rPICK1". The Biochemical Journal. 354 ( ... S progression by the p53-inducible gene PC3 is Rb dependent and relies on the inhibition of cyclin D1 transcription". Molecular ... In fact, BTG2 activates proneural genes by associating with the promoter of Id3, a key inhibitor of proneural gene activity, ... Protein BTG2 also known as BTG family member 2 or NGF-inducible anti-proliferative protein PC3 or NGF-inducible protein TIS21, ...
When the APC/C is inhibited, cyclin B levels are kept high by the SAC and it ultimately protects cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1 ... A spindle poison, also known as a spindle toxin, is a poison that disrupts cell division by affecting the protein threads that ... Some spindle poisons: Mebendazole Colchicine Griseofulvin Vinca Alkaloids Paclitaxel (Taxol) Taxane Mitotic inhibitor Wood KW, ... High cyclin B levels are also maintained through inhibition of an E3 ubiquitin ligase that normally seeks out cyclin B for ...
... Published: 08th May 2020 ... This is dependent on the charge/electron density of the inhibitor molecule, the character and charge of the steel surface area ... Even so, from the plot as the focus of both equally inhibitors method, the corrosion fee raised linearly. The corrosion price ... The knowledge of the mechanism of corrosion inhibition by natural and organic corrosion inhibitors is predicated on the ...
MIB-1 (KI-67) Proliferation Index and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27Kip1 Protein Expression in Nephroblastoma. In: ... MIB-1 (KI-67) Proliferation Index and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27Kip1 Protein Expression in Nephroblastoma. Clinical ... Dive into the research topics of MIB-1 (KI-67) Proliferation Index and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27Kip1 Protein ... MIB-1 (KI-67) Proliferation Index and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27Kip1 Protein Expression in Nephroblastoma. / Ghanem ...
Novel INK4 proteins, p19 and p18, are specific inhibitors of the cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. *H. Hirai, M. ... A small peptide inhibitor of DNA replication defines the site of interaction between the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ... Structure of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19Ink4d. *F. Luh, S. Archer, +8 authors. E. Laue ... Selective in vivo and in vitro effects of a small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4.. *R. Soni, T. Oreilly, +6 ...
Two tumor suppressor proteins, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A ... Induction of p21CIP1 protein and cell cycle arrest after inhibition of Aurora B kinase is attributed to aneuploidy and reactive ... Total RNA, DNA and protein were extracted using the AllPrep DNA/RNA/Protein Mini kit (Qiagen) according to the manufacturers ... d) Knockdown of BUB1 and (e) SMC1A at the protein level (EV = Empty vector infected cells). TUB4A was used as loading control ...
... encodes a protein that is a CDK4-dependent cyclin kinase inhibitor and a P53 stabilizing protein, • PTEN - encodes a protein ... TP53 - encodes a protein involved in, among others, a mechanism of controlling cell arrest in the cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA ... In the case of the PTEN gene, there was a change of the reading frame, resulting in truncated protein, while in the TP53 gene ... Genomic profiling of malignant phyllodes tumors reveals aberrations in FGFR1 and PI-3 kinase/RAS signaling pathways and ...
... by activities of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins p16Ink4a and p21Cip1/Waf1, encoded by the Cdkn2a and Cdkn1a loci, ... The protein-coding region is indicated as well as the ATG start codon (brown arrow). Transcription starts at +1 for p21var1 and ... Thus, variant 2 is a novel and more sensitive marker than variant 1 or total p21Cip1/Waf1 protein for assessing the senescent ... In mice, the p21Cip1/Waf1 encoding locus, Cdkn1a, is known to generate two transcripts that produce identical proteins, but one ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) are proteins that bind to and inhibit the activity of CDKs. Two major classes of CDK ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor A, CDK4I, p16-INK4, p16-INK4a, p16INK4A, CDKN-2A, CDKN2, Multiple tumor suppressor 1, MTS1 ... Lyophilized Cyclin-dependent kinase although stable at room temperature for 3 weeks, should be stored desiccated below -18°C. ... It is recommended to reconstitute the lyophilized Cyclin-dependent kinase in sterile water not less than 100µg/ml, which can ...
cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, isoforms 1/2. *cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor A. *cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16, inhibits CDK4) ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A. *cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, isoform 3 ... Hepatitis B virus X protein via the p38MAPK pathway induces E2F1 release and ATR kinase activation mediating p53 apoptosis. J ...
Nucleolar GTP-binding Protein-1 (NGP-1) Promotes G1 to S Phase Transition by Activating Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 ... The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is an important player in stress pathways exhibiting both tumor-suppressive and ... Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors provide an effective treatment for these diseases, they generally do not kill leukemic stem ... RNA-binding Protein PCBP2 Regulates p73 Expression and p73-dependent Antioxidant Defense. Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
... cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor proteins, cell death, receptors cytokine, drug resistance neoplasm, angiogenesis inducing ... protein-coding genes corresponding to TFs (from TransmiR), and signaling proteins (from TransmiR). The triangle denotes the ... Mir-146a is considered to function as a tumor suppressor [30, 31] in a tissue-dependent context [32], while BRCA1/2 are well ... The circle-ended dashed edge in black represents a TF binding to the miRNA promoter, or denotes an upstream signaling protein ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor FAR1 Chain: C Molecule details › Chain: C. Length: 13 amino acids. Theoretical weight: 1.43 ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase FUS3. > Protein kinase domain * Occurring in:. *Mitogen-activated protein kinase FUS3. > ... Sequence domains: Protein kinase domain Structure domains: * Transferase(Phosphotransferase) domain 1 * Phosphorylase Kinase; ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase FUS3 Chain: A Molecule details › Chain: A. Length: 353 amino acids. Theoretical weight: 40.81 ...
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is regulated by RNA-binding protein PCBP4 via mRNA stability Chen, X, Cho, SJ, ... p53-Dependent G1/S DNA damage checkpoint (Homo sapiens) * p53-Dependent G1 DNA Damage Response (Homo sapiens) * Transcriptional ... Transcriptional activation of cell cycle inhibitor p21 (Homo sapiens) * PCBP4 binds the CDKN1A mRNA (Homo sapiens) * PCBP4: ...
Subcellular localization and protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 independently predict for survival in ... in patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia previously treated with 2 or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors including ...
Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins Cyclin Kinase Inhibitor Proteins Cyclin-Kinase Inhibitor Proteins Inhibitor Proteins ... INK4 Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitors Inhibitors of Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4 Proteins Inhibitors of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase ... Inhibitor Proteins, Cyclin-Kinase. Inhibitors of Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4 Proteins. Inhibitors of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 ... CKI Proteins, INK4. Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins. Cyclin Kinase Inhibitor Proteins. Cyclin-Kinase Inhibitor ...
Finally, HPV-positive tumors show increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor proteins, such as p16, p14, ... a decreased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins, such as p16, p14, and p27, and alterations in PTEN, p53, ... PI3K/mTOR inhibitors and tyrosine kinases inhibitors (dasatinib) may improve the response rate in these patients. ... Immunohistochemical assay of p53, cyclin D1, c-erbB2, EGFR and Ki-67 proteins in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cancers ...
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 3 (aa 1-212) Protein, tagged with His tag. ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 3 (aa 1-212) Protein, tagged with His tag. ... The coronavirus genome encodes a spike protein, an envelope protein, a membrane protein, and a nucleoprotein. Among them, spike ... Recombinant CDKN3 Protein (aa 1-212) [His] Human origin (CAT#: VCoS-Wyb934) CAT. Size. Price. Quantity. ...
Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A) (Portwine et al., 2000), TP63 (tumor protein p63) (Bougeard et al., 2001), CHEK2 ( ... TP53 (tumor protein 53) (eg, Li-Fraumeni syndrome) gene analysis; targeted sequence analysis (eg, 4 oncology) ... Palmero, E. I., Achatz, M. I., Ashton-Prolla, P., Olivier, M., & Hainaut, P. (2010). Tumor protein 53 mutations and inherited ... TP53 (tumor protein 53) (eg, Li-Fraumeni syndrome) gene analysis; full gene sequence ...
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism * DNA-Binding Proteins * Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology ... G1 or G2 phase blockers and spindle inhibitors. In addition, we observed no cell growth in soft agar and detected no tumour ...
Papillomavirus E7 Proteins 38% * Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins 37% * Proteins 33% ...
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins 74% * E2F Transcription Factors 65% * Tumor Suppressor Proteins 59% ...
... p21 Protein is a cyclin-dependant kinase inhibitor which inhibits cyclin D1, A and E. The inhibition of p21 leads to cell cycle ... Apoptosis, downregulation of protein kinases, histone deacetylases and heat-shock proteins. (41). ... receptor tyrosine kinase signalling, histone deacetylases (HDAC1-4, 6-8 and 11), protein kinases, phosphatases, growth factors ... Induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt and mitogen-activated protein ...
... inhibitors, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitors, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, indoleamine 2,3 - ... inhibitors, hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitors, HCV polymerase inhibitors, HCV NS4A inhibitors, HCV NS5A inhibitors, ... checkpoint inhibitors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitors, topoisomerase II inhibitors, smoothen ... 10:67-70; ALIGNMENT SCORING SYSTEMS: Dayhoff, M.O., et al., "A model of evolutionary change in proteins." in Atlas of Protein ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), c-JUN, RELA, and tumor protein p53 (TP53). CB-Dock analysis indicated that ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A; CDKN1B, Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1B; CXCL8, C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 8; DC, ... including cyclin D1, and inactivated by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs).20 Thus, triptolide could influence the G2/M ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B), 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase (HMGCR), Janus Kinase 1 (JAK1), etc. ( ...
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. GO:0005515. protein binding. ... cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. GO:0030332. cyclin binding. GO:0031625. ubiquitin protein ligase ...
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. 1. GO:0005634. nucleus. 1. ...
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. GO:0005515. protein binding. ...
protein kinase inhibitor activity. IEP. Neighborhood. MF. GO:0004861. cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. IEP. Neighborhood. MF. GO:0016746. transferase activity, ... protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. IEP. Neighborhood. MF. GO:0050660. flavin adenine dinucleotide binding. IEP ... protein kinase regulator activity. IEP. Neighborhood. MF. GO:0022803. passive transmembrane transporter activity. IEP. ...
Negatively Regulates Osteoclast Differentiation by Controlling Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors. Watanabe, H., Okada, H., ... Transcription factor protein expression patterns by neural or neuronal progenitor cells of adult monkey subventricular zone. ... Transcriptional blockade induces p53-dependent apoptosis associated with translocation of p53 to mitochondria. Arima, Y., Nitta ... Transcription-associated mutagenesis increases protein sequence diversity more effectively than does random mutagenesis in ...
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity(GO:0004861). 0.1. 3.5. GO:0030898. actin-dependent ATPase ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (p15, inhibits CDK4). chr11_+_120110863. 1.90. ENST00000543440.2. POU2F3. POU class 2 ... MAP kinase kinase kinase activity(GO:0004709). 0.0. 0.1. GO:0004082. bisphosphoglycerate mutase activity(GO:0004082) ... WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 2. chr3_-_133748913. 0.62. ENST00000310926.4. SLCO2A1. solute carrier organic anion ...
This protein is reported to be involved in the degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1B/p27Kip1. It is also ... The protein encoded by this gene is one of the eight subunits of COP9 signalosome, a highly conserved protein complex that ... Purified from mouse ascites fluids or tissue culture supernatant by affinity chromatography (protein A/G). ... Full length human recombinant protein of human COPS5(NP_006828) produced in HEK293T cell.. ...
  • The cell cycle in mammalian cells is regulated by a series of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) are proteins that bind to and inhibit the activity of CDKs. (prospecbio.com)
  • The eukaryotic cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) whose activities are regulated by cyclins and CDK inhibitors. (fishersci.no)
  • The eukaryotic cell cycle comprises an ordered series of events, orchestrated by the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), leading from chromosome replication during S phase to their segregation in mitosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • PFTAIRE-2 shares sequence similarity with Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDKs), which belong to a large family of STKs that are regulated by their cognate cyclins. (umbc.edu)
  • Together, CDKs and cyclins are involved in the control of cell-cycle progression, transcription, and neuronal function. (umbc.edu)
  • Fascaplysin will prove to be a useful tool in studying the consequence of Cdk4 inhibition, especially in cells containing inactivated p16, and caused G1 arrest and prevented pRb phosphorylation at sites implicated as being specific for Cdk 4 kinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Phosphorylation of the cohesin subunit Scc1 by Polo/Cdc5 kinase regulates sister chromatid separation in yeast. (vt.edu)
  • This effect was accompanied by the decreased expression of G1-associated proteins, including cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4, CDC25A, and retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser780, Ser795, and Ser807/811. (cdc.gov)
  • The inhibition of PI3K activity also inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT and p70S6K1, but not extracellular regulated kinase 1/2. (cdc.gov)
  • The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin had similar inhibitory effects on G1 cell cycle progression and on the expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDC25A, and retinoblastoma phosphorylation. (cdc.gov)
  • Protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation of Sox9 enhances Sox9-dependent transcription by increasing the DNA-binding affinity of Sox9. (heightquest.com)
  • The various markers that enable assessment of the progression of preneoplastic lesions to spindle cell carcinoma include the p16 protein, which halts the cell cycle and induces apoptosis by pRb-mediated phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). (bvsalud.org)
  • this enzyme catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of 5-InsP7 to at least one 1,5-InsP8. (immune-source.com)
  • One component of the oral combination was palbociclib, which inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase CDK4. (newswise.com)
  • Dual function of CDC6: a yeast protein required for DNA replication also inhibits nuclear division. (vt.edu)
  • CHIR 99021 is a small organic molecule that inhibits GSK3α and GSK3β by competing for their ATP-binding sites.In vitro kinase assays reveal that CHIR 99021 specifically inhibits GSK3β (IC50=~5 nM) and GSK3α (IC50=~10 nM), with little effect on other kinases[2]. (dcchemicals.com)
  • furthermore, at 10 M, neither substance inhibits IP6K2, a structurally-unrelated PP-InsP kinase. (immune-source.com)
  • Crystal structures of catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in complex with isoquinolinesulfonyl protein kinase inhibitors H7, H8, and H89. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Recent studies demonstrated that the gene encoding the p110a catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is frequently amplified in ovarian cancer cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Sox9 interacts with the Med12/Trap230 subunit of the mediator complex to stimulate RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription in chondrocytes. (heightquest.com)
  • The structure of the p19Ink4d protein, determined by NMR spectroscopy, indicates that most mutations to the p16Ink 4a gene, which result in loss of function, are due to incorrectly folded and/or insoluble protein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Finally, the structure provides a basis for rationalizing the effects of kinase mutations in FGF receptors that lead to developmental disorders in nematodes and humans. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene are not highly prevalent among subjects with sporadic pituitary adenomas. (cdc.gov)
  • Assessment of p27 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) genes in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1) syndrome patients without any detectable MEN1 gene mutations. (cdc.gov)
  • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) mutations occur rarely in sporadic parathyroid adenomas. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of these mutations lead to production of little or no functional p16(INK4A) protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The CDKN2A gene mutations found in melanoma result in a nonfunctional p16(INK4A) protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Together, the germline and somatic mutations impair the function of proteins that regulate division and senescence, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and the formation of a melanoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The adenomatous polyposis coli ( APC ) gene is a tumor suppressor gene, and mutations resulting in loss of APC protein function are associated with carcinogenesis. (cdc.gov)
  • 2.1 Combos with targeted therapy The introduction of molecular targeted therapy for melanoma stemmed through the 910462-43-0 IC50 observation that approximately 50% of most of cutaneous melanomas harbored activating mutations in the serine/threonine kinase BRAF. (baxkyardgardener.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is one of the eight subunits of COP9 signalosome, a highly conserved protein complex that functions as an important regulator in multiple signaling pathways. (origene.com)
  • Our data show that MMP12 is up-regulated at the gene and protein levels in three distinct adult lung disease models following in utero SHS exposures, suggesting that MMP12 is central to in utero SHS-aggravated lung responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we evaluated NPM1 gene and protein expression in gastric tumors and in corresponding non-neoplastic gastric samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin family and contains the cyclin box. (fishersci.no)
  • Transcriptional activation of this gene can be induced by tumor protein p53. (fishersci.no)
  • Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. (fishersci.no)
  • We down-modulated AP-2α expression in GN-11 neurons by RNA interference and observe reduced neuron migration following the activation of a specific genetic programme including the Adhesion Related Kinase ( Axl ) gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CDKN2A gene provides instructions for making several proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A different type of alteration involving the CDKN2A gene can result in reduced amounts or an absence of the p16(INK4A) or p14(ARF) protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Palbociclib targets a protein called cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), a trigger that normally enhances the G1 to S phase, thereby enabling the suppressor gene Rb to act as an inhibitor (see diagram left). (caperay.com)
  • Elivaldogene autotemcel is a one-time gene therapy designed to add functional copies of the ABCD1 gene into a patient's own hematopoietic stem cells, resulting in the production of the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP). (medscape.com)
  • Up to now, research in to the biology of inositol phosphate kinases continues to be well-served by hereditary research, including gene knock-outs both in microorganisms and cultured cells. (immune-source.com)
  • This protein is reported to be involved in the degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1B/p27Kip1. (origene.com)
  • The human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 controls cellular proliferation through regulation of p27Kip1 protein levels. (novartis.com)
  • Ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 was shown to be required for the activation of key cyclin-dependent kinases, thereby triggering the onset of DNA replication and cell cycle progression. (novartis.com)
  • Elevation of p27Kip1 protein level is found to be the sole requirement for the inhibition of cellular proliferation induced upon downregulation of Cdc34. (novartis.com)
  • The disclosure provides proteasome inhibitors that can be used to halt cell division of rapidly dividing cells by preventing the degradation of cell cycle-regulating proteins, such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, and p53. (justia.com)
  • Anaphase initiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controlled by the APC-dependent degradation of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1p. (vt.edu)
  • Mitotic exit becomes irreversible only after longer periods of cyclin degradation, owing to activation of a double-negative feedback loop involving the Cdk inhibitor Sic1 (refs 4, 5). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Transduced p16INK4a peptides inhibit hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein and cell cycle progression prior to activation of Cdk2 complexes in late G1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Aging published " Cdkn1a transcript variant 2 is a marker of aging and cellular senescence " which reported that cellular senescence is a cell fate response characterized by a permanent cell cycle arrest driven primarily the by cell cycle inhibitor and tumor suppressor proteins p16Ink4a and p21Cip1/Waf1. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dr. Judith Campisi from The Buck Institute for Research on Aging as well as The University of California said, " The stringent cell growth arrest associated with cellular senescence is determined, among other mechanisms, by activities of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins p16Ink4a and p21Cip1/Waf1, encoded by the Cdkn2a and Cdkn1a loci, respectively. (eurekalert.org)
  • Expression of the cyclin kinase inhibitor p16INK4a was induced by the PI3K inhibitor, whereas steady-state levels of p21CIP1/WAF1 were decreased in the same experiment. (cdc.gov)
  • A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Selective in vivo and in vitro effects of a small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Wang Z, Zhang M, Quereda V, Frydman SM, Ming Q, Luca VC, Duckett DR, Ji H. Discovery of an Orally Bioavailable Small-Molecule Inhibitor for the β-Catenin/B-Cell Lymphoma 9 Protein-Protein Interaction. (moffitt.org)
  • 39] Combos of checkpoint inhibitors with agonistic antibodies such as for example Compact disc40 or Compact disc137 antibodies ("type":"clinical-trial","attrs":"text message":"NCT02253992″,"term_id":"NCT02253992″NCT02253992, "type":"clinical-trial","attrs":"text message":"NCT01103635″,"term_id":"NCT01103635″NCT01103635) may also be ongoing. (baxkyardgardener.com)
  • The knowledge of the mechanism of corrosion inhibition by natural and organic corrosion inhibitors is predicated on the comprehending of the adsorption actions of inhibitor molecules on the metal floor. (articlealley.com)
  • Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) by fascaplysin, a marine natural product. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that genetically proxied long-term ACE inhibition was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, warranting comprehensive evaluation of the safety profiles of ACE inhibitors in clinical trials with adequate follow-up. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1. Koh J., Enders G.H., Dynlacht B.D., and Harlow E. (1995) Tumour-derived p16 allels encoding proteins defective in cell cycle inhibition. (exalpha.com)
  • no significant inhibition on 26 other kinases. (dcchemicals.com)
  • 4] Early experimental research confirmed that mutant was a melanoma oncogene which its inhibition through little molecule inhibitors was connected with decreased tumor growth. (baxkyardgardener.com)
  • Residues in the activation loop of FGFR1K appear to interfere with substrate peptide binding but not with ATP binding, revealing a second and perhaps more general autoinhibitory mechanism for receptor tyrosine kinases. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • There are two main subdivisions within the superfamily: the protein-serine/threonine kinases and the protein-tyrosine kinases. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • It interacts with 2 tyrosine kinases: fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, Flt-1 (VEGFR-1), and kinase domain-containing region, Flk-1/KDR (VEGFR-2) [2]. (who.int)
  • The PFTAIRE-2 subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. (umbc.edu)
  • Cdc6 cooperates with Sic1 and Hct1 to inactivate mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases. (vt.edu)
  • Here we have experimentally examined the contribution of cyclin proteolysis to the irreversibility of mitotic exit, the transition from high mitotic Cdk activity back to low activity in G1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We show that forced cyclin destruction in mitotic budding yeast cells efficiently drives mitotic exit events. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, these remain reversible after termination of cyclin proteolysis, with recovery of the mitotic state and cyclin levels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We performed a microarray analysis to identify the genetic programme activated by AP-2α and observed the modulation of a master regulator of GnRH + neuron migration, the Adhesion Related Kinase ( Ark ) also called Axl . (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is dependent on the charge/electron density of the inhibitor molecule, the character and charge of the steel surface area and the bio-chemical attributes of the corroding surroundings, which also decides the extent of area protection of the inhibitor on the electrode. (articlealley.com)
  • Using in vitro reconstitution and single-molecule imaging, we demonstrate that Kif18b, MCAK and the plus-end tracking protein EB3 (also known as MAPRE3) act in an integrated manner to potently promote microtubule depolymerization at very low concentrations. (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite this hurdle, in this study, two selective small molecule inhibitors of the Skp2 SCF complex were discovered via an in silico screen that disrupt two places: the Skp1/Skp2 interaction site and the p27 binding site via targeting hot-spot residues. (tmc.edu)
  • It is concluded that cyclin D:Cdk4/6 activity is required for early G1 phase cell cycle progression up to, but not beyond, activation of cyclin E:C DK2 complexes at the restriction point and is thus nonredundant with cyclin Cdk2 in late G1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The p21 family (p21, p27, p28 and p57) can bind to broad range of CDK-cyclin complexes and inhibit their activities. (prospecbio.com)
  • A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN /CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. (bvsalud.org)
  • They dissociate cyclin-CDK complexes and regulate a CELL CYCLE checkpoint in early G1 PHASE. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results show that Skp2 is a promising target on which protein-protein interaction disruptors can be designed, and consideration of the dynamics of protein complexes is required to understand ligand binding. (tmc.edu)
  • Structure of the FGF receptor tyrosine kinase domain reveals a novel autoinhibitory mechanism. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • PAPbeta, a protein that binds to and is phosphorylated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase PYK2, contains several modular signaling domains including a pleckstrin homology domain, an SH3 domain, ankyrin repeats and an ARF-GAP domain. (embl.de)
  • However, the relative role of histone tails and regulatory proteins in the simultaneous coordination of DNMT3A activity remains obscure. (jbc.org)
  • NPM1 is a member of the nucleoplasmin family of histone chaperones that favor DNA-histone and nucleosome assembly in vitro and also interact with a wide range of unfolded proteins, inducing proper folding in the active state [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the BMP-2 inhibitor Noggin represses Sox9 expression in limb bud chondrogenic precursors while inducing the ligament/tendon-specific transcription factor Scx" "the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p300 has the potential to facilitate transcriptional activity by modulating the chromatin structure. (heightquest.com)
  • Sodium phenylbutyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor shown to upregulate heat-shock proteins and act as a small molecular chaperone, thereby ameliorating toxicity from endoplasmic reticulum stress. (medscape.com)
  • 2004. Rapamycin causes activation of protein phosphatase-2A1 and nuclear translocation of PCNA in CD4+ T cells. . (cornell.edu)
  • 2014. Regulation of protein phosphatase 1I by Cdc25C-associated kinase 1 (C-TAK1) and PFTAIRE protein kinase. . (cornell.edu)
  • 2007. Regulation of protein phosphatase inhibitor-1 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5. . (cornell.edu)
  • The p16(INK4A) protein attaches (binds) to two other proteins called CDK4 and CDK6. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cell cycle-dependent regulation of chromosome is a dynamic event. (bvsalud.org)
  • Of these, the H series protein kinase inhibitors (1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), N-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H8) N-[2-(p-Bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H89)) are frequently used to block signaling pathways in studies of cellular regulation. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • A classification scheme can be founded on a kinase domain phylogeny, which reveals families of enzymes that have related substrate specificities and modes of regulation. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Regulation of B-type cyclin proteolysis by Cdc28-associated kinases in budding yeast. (vt.edu)
  • Feedback regulation of the MBF transcription factor by cyclin Cig2. (vt.edu)
  • Cell cycle regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae polo-like kinase Cdc5p. (vt.edu)
  • Conclusion: p63, p16, MIB, Cal A, Cys A are markedly expressed and p16 is strongly suppressed in oral cavity tumors, which suggests that the latter protein may play a role in negative regulation of cell cycle progression. (bvsalud.org)
  • Another protein, calgranulin A (Cal A), is involved in the regulation of several cell processes, including the cell cycle and cell differentiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Currently, the three classes of commonly used drugs for adjuvant endocrine therapy are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, e.g., tamoxifein), selective estrogen receptor down-regulators (SERDs, e.g., fulvestrant), and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The GSK3β Inhibitor XIX, IM-12 is a selective GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 53 nM, and also enhances canonical Wnt signalling. (dcchemicals.com)
  • SB 216763 is a potent and selective cell permeable ATP-competitive inhibitor of GSK3α with an IC50 value of 34 nM (similar potency for GSK3β). (dcchemicals.com)
  • CP21R7 is a potent and selective GSK-3β inhibitor. (dcchemicals.com)
  • The protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of the triptolide targets and thyroid cancer targets were constructed with Cytoscape software. (dovepress.com)
  • Molecular docking analysis showed that triptolide directly reacted with four core targets: cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), c-JUN, RELA, and tumor protein p53 (TP53). (dovepress.com)
  • Using the nucleotide-binding sites of proteins TNR kinases specifically at heart as drug-targets, several chemical libraries have already been curated that consist of substances either knownor forecasted and purified to homogeneity [8]. (immune-source.com)
  • The proteasome inhibitor compounds can be used to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. (justia.com)
  • Specific interactions between the enzyme and the inhibitors include the isoquinoline ring nitrogen ligating to backbone amide of Val-123 and an inhibitor side chain amide bonding to the backbone carbonyl of Glu-170. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Skp2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2), one component of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, directly interacts with Skp1 and indirectly associates with Cullin1 and Rbx1 to bridge the E2 conjugating enzyme with its protein substrate to execute its E3 ligase activity. (tmc.edu)
  • Aromatase inhibitors work by blocking the enzyme aromatase, which turns the hormone androgen into small amounts of estrogen in the body. (vsyl.net)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (1elisakits.com)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (1elisakits.com)
  • In mice, the p21Cip1/Waf1 encoding locus, Cdkn1a , is known to generate two transcripts that produce identical proteins, but one of these transcript variants is poorly characterized. (eurekalert.org)
  • Triptolide increased the protein levels of CDKN1A and phospho-p53 but reduced those of phospho-c-JUN and phospho-NF-κB p65, as shown by Western blotting. (dovepress.com)
  • MTS-1) protein is an inhibitor of Cyclin-Dependent-Kinases 4 and 6 (cdk4/cdk6). (exalpha.com)
  • Aromatase inhibitors stop the production of estrogen in postmenopausal women. (vsyl.net)
  • The discovery of several hundred different protein kinases involved in highly diverse cellular signaling pathways is in stark contrast to the much smaller number of known modulators of cell signaling. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Further study revealed that TRIM14 knockdown increased PTEN protein levels, which in turn inactivated AKT and STAT3 pathways. (aging-us.com)
  • ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are members of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins, are critical components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. (embl.de)
  • Among the key pathways are those controlling cell proliferation , which coordinate a response to the cellular environment, with the mTOR kinase as a critical node. (axonmedchem.com)
  • Following his fellowship, Dr. Duckett was a Senior Research Scientist at DuPont Pharmaceuticals and then served as a Research Investigator for GlaxoSmithKline from 2000 to 2005, where he directed several clinical kinase inhibitor campaigns, including two that entered Phase I trials. (moffitt.org)
  • A family of cell cycle proteins containing ANKYRIN REPEATS that are specific inhibitors of cyclin D-dependent kinases. (bvsalud.org)
  • Crystal structure of the ARF-GAP domain and ankyrin repeats of PYK2-associated protein beta. (embl.de)
  • In a multivariate analysis, blastemal MIB-1 and p27 Kip1 protein expression proved to be an independent prognostic for clinical progression besides stage. (ui.ac.id)
  • The Skp1/Skp2 inhibitor disruption resulted in restoring p27 levels in the nucleus and blocks cancer progression and cancer stem cell traits. (tmc.edu)
  • G1 cell cycle progression and the expression of G1 cyclins are regulated by PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling in human ovarian cancer cells. (cdc.gov)
  • These results indicate that PI3K mediates G1 progression and cyclin expression through activation of an AKT/mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling pathway in the ovarian cancer cells. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) activity is modulated by several regulatory proteins, including p53 and thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG). (jbc.org)
  • These beautiful behaviors of chromosomes observed through the microscope have fascinated people since more than 100 years ago, and now we can sketch the dynamics of regulatory proteins and their posttranscriptional modifications through the fluorescent microscope. (bvsalud.org)
  • They are related by virtue of their kinase domains (also known as catalytic domains), which consist of approximately 250-300 amino acid residues. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Two specific residues on Skp2 were predicted to bind to this Skp1/Skp2 inhibitor: Trp97 and Asp98. (tmc.edu)
  • When these residues were mutated to alanine, the inhibitor lost its ability to bind to Skp2. (tmc.edu)
  • STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. (umbc.edu)
  • Conclusions: It was concluded that both MIB-1-based proliferative activity and p27 Kip1 protein expression in the blastema have prognostic impact in Wilms' tumor. (ui.ac.id)
  • Quantitative modelling suggests that feedback is required to maintain low Cdk activity and to prevent cyclin resynthesis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Like Ras, ARFs are active in their GTP-bound form, and their duration of activity is controlled by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which assist ARFs in hydrolyzing GTP to GDP. (embl.de)
  • CHIR-99021 is a glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta inhibitor that has antiproliferative activity in vitro and in vivo. (dcchemicals.com)
  • Nucleus accumbens-associated protein 1 (NACC1), one of several transcription factors, is constitutively expressed in the urothelium, wherein it regulates cell growth, senescence, autophagy, epithelial-mesenchymal transition. (esmo.org)
  • Several transcription factors and coactivators, such as Scleraxis/E47 and p300, cooperatively modulate the Sox9-dependent transcription by interacting with Sox9. (heightquest.com)
  • Moreover, blocking AKT or STAT3 pathway with a specific inhibitor could partially reverse the promotion of melanoma malignancy mediated by TRIM14 overexpression. (aging-us.com)
  • BIO (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime) is a specific inhibitor of GSK-3 with IC50 of 5 nM for GSK-3α/β, shows >16-fold selectivity over CDK5, also a pan-JAKinhibitor. (dcchemicals.com)
  • The p53 protein is an important tumor suppressor that is essential for regulating cell division, senescence, and self-destruction (apoptosis). (medlineplus.gov)
  • and (iv) the ASK1 apoptosis kinase. (moffitt.org)
  • Taurursodiol recovers mitochondrial bioenergetics deficits through several mechanisms, including by preventing translocation of the Bax protein into the mitochondrial membrane, thus reducing mitochondrial permeability and increasing the cell's apoptotic threshold. (medscape.com)
  • The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain structure and classification. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The kinase domains that define this group of enzymes contain 12 conserved subdomains that fold into a common catalytic core structure, as revealed by the 3-dimensional structures of several protein-serine kinases. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, PFTAIRE-2 kinase. (umbc.edu)
  • Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), PFTAIRE-2 subfamily, catalytic (c) domain. (umbc.edu)
  • Our selection of a collection was influenced with the recognition the fact that substrate binding storage compartments of inositol phosphate kinases are extremely electropositive buy Protopanaxatriol [7,8,21,22]. (immune-source.com)
  • The eukaryotic protein kinases make up a large superfamily of homologous proteins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Purpose: A number of studies have indicated that the tumor proliferation marker MIB-1 and cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1 expression are of prognostic importance in a variety of cancers. (ui.ac.id)
  • Role of cell cycle control and cyclin-dependent kinases in breast cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus, variant 2 is a novel and more sensitive marker than variant 1 or total p21Cip1/Waf1 protein for assessing the senescent cell burden and clearance in mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • We report here that at twice the normal number of population doublings, telomerase-expressing human skin fibroblasts (BJ-hTERT) and retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE-hTERT) retain normal growth control in response to serum deprivation, high cell density, G1 or G2 phase blockers and spindle inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Full length human recombinant protein of human COPS5(NP_006828) produced in HEK293T cell. (origene.com)
  • Fluorescence immunostaining targeting specific phosphorylations of proteins at critical cell cycle steps will provide further improved analysis via high-throughput capacity of flow or imaging cytometer. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mechanisms that help the yeast cell cycle clock tick: G2 cyclins transcriptionally activate G2 cyclins and repress G1 cyclins. (vt.edu)
  • Closing the cell cycle circle in yeast: G2 cyclin proteolysis initiated at mitosis persists until the activation of G1 cyclins in the next cycle. (vt.edu)
  • A kinase is a type of protein in the body that helps control cell division. (vsyl.net)
  • In the CYTOPLASM , I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Both proteins are also involved in stopping cell division in older cells (senescence). (medlineplus.gov)
  • These proteins help regulate the cell cycle, which is the cell's way of replicating itself in an organized, step-by-step fashion. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The p14(ARF) and p53 proteins are often made in cells that are unable to undergo cell division. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cytoskeleton offers several reagents for live-cell research including fluorescent proteins, cell permeable protein activators and inhibitors, as well as our recent addition of live cell imaging probes. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Intro Inositol phosphate kinases (IP3K, IPMK, ITPK1, IP5K, IP6K and PPIP5K) perform several biological procedures through their involvement inside a carefully-regulated, metabolic network that changes phospholipase C-derived Ins(1,4,5)P3 into a range of even more extremely phosphorylated cell-signaling substances [1C3]. (immune-source.com)
  • it interacts with Skp1 through the Fbox domain and binds to an accessory protein called Cks1 to bind to p27. (tmc.edu)
  • Two different models of cyclin Clb2 proteolysis during mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (vt.edu)
  • The spindle checkpoint of budding yeast depends on a tight complex between the Mad1 and Mad2 proteins. (vt.edu)
  • The increased expression of these proteins is a major hallmark of senescence in most cells, and therefore have become markers of senescence both in culture and in vivo. (eurekalert.org)
  • CDKIs are capable of suppressing growth, and several lines of evidence strongly suggest that at least some CDKIs may be tumor suppressor proteins. (prospecbio.com)
  • The encoded protein lacks the protein destabilizing (PEST) sequence that is present in other family members. (fishersci.no)
  • Crystal structure of human CDK2 in complex with the inhibitor olomoucine. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • 5] BRAF inhibitor monotherapy advanced rapidly through clinical advancement, using the first BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, getting FDA approval in 2011 (Table 1). (baxkyardgardener.com)