A ubiquitously found basic protein that binds to phosphatidylethanolamine and NUCLEOTIDES. It is an endogenous inhibitor of RAF KINASES and may play a role in regulating SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein is the precursor of hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide, which is cleaved from the N-terminal region of the protein.
Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A potent inhibitor of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES in G1 PHASE and S PHASE. In humans, aberrant expression of p57 is associated with various NEOPLASMS as well as with BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.

Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. (1/296)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mating pheromones activate two MAP kinases (MAPKs), Fus3p and Kss1p, to induce G1 arrest prior to mating. Fus3p is known to promote G1 arrest by activating Far1p, which inhibits three Clnp/Cdc28p kinases. To analyze the contribution of Fus3p and Kss1p to G1 arrest that is independent of Far1p, we constructed far1 CLN strains that undergo G1 arrest from increased activation of the mating MAP kinase pathway. We find that Fus3p and Kss1p both control G1 arrest through multiple functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. Fus3p and Kss1p together promote G1 arrest by repressing transcription of G1/S cyclin genes (CLN1, CLN2, CLB5) by a mechanism that blocks their activation by Cln3p/Cdc28p kinase. In addition, Fus3p and Kss1p counteract G1 arrest through overlapping and distinct functions. Fus3p and Kss1p together increase the expression of CLN3 and PCL2 genes that promote budding, and Kss1p inhibits the MAP kinase cascade. Strikingly, Fus3p promotes proliferation by a novel function that is not linked to reduced Ste12p activity or increased levels of Cln2p/Cdc28p kinase. Genetic analysis suggests that Fus3p promotes proliferation through activation of Mcm1p transcription factor that upregulates numerous genes in G1 phase. Thus, Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest through a balance of arrest functions that inhibit the Cdc28p machinery and proliferative functions that bypass this inhibition.  (+info)

Effects of phosphorylation of threonine 160 on cyclin-dependent kinase 2 structure and activity. (2/296)

We have prepared phosphorylated cyclin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CDK2) for crystallization using the CDK-activating kinase 1 (CAK1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and have grown crystals using microseeding techniques. Phosphorylation of monomeric human CDK2 by CAK1 is more efficient than phosphorylation of the binary CDK2-cyclin A complex. Phosphorylated CDK2 exhibits histone H1 kinase activity corresponding to approximately 0.3% of that observed with the fully activated phosphorylated CDK2-cyclin A complex. Fluorescence measurements have shown that Thr160 phosphorylation increases the affinity of CDK2 for both histone substrate and ATP and decreases its affinity for ADP. By contrast, phosphorylation of CDK2 has a negligible effect on the affinity for cyclin A. The crystal structures of the ATP-bound forms of phosphorylated CDK2 and unphosphorylated CDK2 have been solved at 2.1-A resolution. The structures are similar, with the major difference occurring in the activation segment, which is disordered in phosphorylated CDK2. The greater mobility of the activation segment in phosphorylated CDK2 and the absence of spontaneous crystallization suggest that phosphorylated CDK2 may adopt several different mobile states. The majority of these states are likely to correspond to inactive conformations, but a small fraction of phosphorylated CDK2 may be in an active conformation and hence explain the basal activity observed.  (+info)

A Cdc24p-Far1p-Gbetagamma protein complex required for yeast orientation during mating. (3/296)

Oriented cell growth requires the specification of a site for polarized growth and subsequent orientation of the cytoskeleton towards this site. During mating, haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells orient their growth in response to a pheromone gradient overriding an internal landmark for polarized growth, the bud site. This response requires Cdc24p, Far1p, and a heterotrimeric G-protein. Here we show that a two- hybrid interaction between Cdc24p and Gbeta requires Far1p but not pheromone-dependent MAP-kinase signaling, indicating Far1p has a role in regulating the association of Cdc24p and Gbeta. Binding experiments demonstrate that Cdc24p, Far1p, and Gbeta form a complex in which pairwise interactions can occur in the absence of the third protein. Cdc24p localizes to sites of polarized growth suggesting that this complex is localized. In the absence of CDC24-FAR1-mediated chemotropism, a bud site selection protein, Bud1p/Rsr1p, is essential for morphological changes in response to pheromone. These results suggest that formation of a Cdc24p-Far1p-Gbetagamma complex functions as a landmark for orientation of the cytoskeleton during growth towards an external signal.  (+info)

Rbx1, a component of the VHL tumor suppressor complex and SCF ubiquitin ligase. (4/296)

The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene is mutated in most human kidney cancers. The VHL protein is part of a complex that includes Elongin B, Elongin C, and Cullin-2, proteins associated with transcriptional elongation and ubiquitination. Here it is shown that the endogenous VHL complex in rat liver also includes Rbx1, an evolutionarily conserved protein that contains a RING-H2 fingerlike motif and that interacts with Cullins. The yeast homolog of Rbx1 is a subunit and potent activator of the Cdc53-containing SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase required for ubiquitination of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 and for the G1 to S cell cycle transition. These findings provide a further link between VHL and the cellular ubiquitination machinery.  (+info)

Exit from mitosis is triggered by Tem1-dependent release of the protein phosphatase Cdc14 from nucleolar RENT complex. (5/296)

Exit from mitosis in budding yeast requires a group of essential proteins--including the GTPase Tem1 and the protein phosphatase Cdc14--that downregulate cyclin-dependent kinase activity. We identified a mutation, net1-1, that bypasses the lethality of tem1 delta. NET1 encodes a novel protein, and mass spectrometric analysis reveals that it is a key component of a multifunctional complex, denoted RENT (for regulator of nucleolar silencing and telophase), that also contains Cdc14 and the silencing regulator Sir2. From G1 through anaphase, RENT localizes to the nucleolus, and Cdc14 activity is inhibited by Net1. In late anaphase, Cdc14 dissociates from RENT, disperses throughout the cell in a Tem1-dependent manner, and ultimately triggers mitotic exit. Nucleolar sequestration may be a general mechanism for the regulation of diverse biological processes.  (+info)

Cdc4, a protein required for the onset of S phase, serves an essential function during G(2)/M transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/296)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Cdc4 and Cdc20 contain WD40 repeats and participate in proteolytic processes. However, they are thought to act at two different stages of the cell cycle: Cdc4 is involved in the proteolysis of the Cdk inhibitor, Sic1, necessary for G(1)/S transition, while Cdc20 mediates anaphase-promoting complex-dependent degradation of anaphase inhibitor Pds1, a process necessary for the onset of chromosome segregation. We have isolated three mutant alleles of CDC4 (cdc4-10, cdc4-11, and cdc4-16) which suppress the nuclear division defect of cdc20-1 cells. However, the previously characterized mutation cdc4-1 and a new allele, cdc4-12, do not alleviate the defect of cdc20-1 cells. This genetic interaction suggests an additional role for Cdc4 in G(2)/M. Reexamination of the cdc4-1 mutant revealed that, in addition to being defective in the onset of S phase, it is also defective in G(2)/M transition when released from hydroxyurea-induced S-phase arrest. A second function for CDC4 in late S or G(2) phase was further confirmed by the observation that cells lacking the CDC4 gene are arrested both at G(1)/S and at G(2)/M. We subsequently isolated additional temperature-sensitive mutations in the CDC4 gene (such as cdc4-12) that render the mutant defective in both G(1)/S and G(2)/M transitions at the restrictive temperature. While the G(1)/S block in both cdc4-12 and cdc4Delta mutants is abolished by the deletion of the SIC1 gene (causing the mutants to be arrested predominantly in G(2)/M), the preanaphase arrest in the cdc4-12 mutant is relieved by the deletion of PDS1. Collectively, these observations suggest that, in addition to its involvement in the initiation of S phase, Cdc4 may also be required for the onset of anaphase.  (+info)

Pds1 and Esp1 control both anaphase and mitotic exit in normal cells and after DNA damage. (7/296)

The separation of sister chromatids in anaphase is followed by spindle disassembly and cytokinesis. These events are governed by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which triggers the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of key regulatory proteins: anaphase requires the destruction of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1, whereas mitotic exit requires the destruction of mitotic cyclins and the inactivation of Cdk1. We find that Pds1 is not only an inhibitor of anaphase, but also blocks cyclin destruction and mitotic exit by a mechanism independent of its effects on sister chromatid separation. Pds1 is also required for the mitotic arrest and inhibition of cyclin destruction that occurs after DNA damage. Even in anaphase cells, where Pds1 levels are normally low, DNA damage stabilizes Pds1 and prevents cyclin destruction and mitotic exit. Pds1 blocks cyclin destruction by inhibiting its binding partner Esp1. Mutations in ESP1 delay cyclin destruction; overexpression of ESP1 causes premature cyclin destruction in cells arrested in metaphase by spindle defects and in cells arrested in metaphase and anaphase by DNA damage. The effects of Esp1 are dependent on Cdc20 (an activating subunit of the APC) and on several additional proteins (Cdc5, Cdc14, Cdc15, Tem1) that form a regulatory network governing mitotic exit. We speculate that the inhibition of cyclin destruction by Pds1 may contribute to the ordering of late mitotic events by ensuring that mitotic exit is delayed until after anaphase is initiated. In addition, the stabilization of Pds1 after DNA damage provides a mechanism to delay both anaphase and mitotic exit while DNA repair occurs.  (+info)

SGT1 encodes an essential component of the yeast kinetochore assembly pathway and a novel subunit of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. (8/296)

We have identified SGT1 as a dosage suppressor of skp1-4, a mutation causing defects in yeast kinetochore function. Sgt1p physically associates with Skp1p in vivo and in vitro. SGT1 is an essential gene, and different sgt1 conditional mutants arrest with either a G1 or G2 DNA content. Genetic and phenotypic analyses of sgt1-3 (G2 allele) mutants support an essential role in kinetochore function. Sgt1p is required for assembling the yeast kinetochore complex, CBF3, via activation of Ctf13p. Sgt1p also associates with SCF (Skp1p/Cdc53p/F box protein) ubiquitin ligase. sgt1-5 (G1 allele) mutants are defective in Sic1p turnover in vivo and Cln1p ubiquitination in vitro. Human SGT1 rescues an sgt1 null mutation, suggesting that the function of SGT1 is conserved in evolution.  (+info)

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1OIT: Imidazo[1,2-A]Pyridines: A Potent and Selective Class of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors Identified Through Structure-Based Hybridisation
ICK (Human) Cell-Based ELISA Kit is an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for qualitative determination of ICK expression in cultured cells. (KA2780) - Products - Abnova
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Recombinant human CDKN1B protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional chromatography. MW: 24.2 kDa.
The p57(Kip2) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKi) has been implicated in embryogenesis, stem-cell senescence and pathologies, but little is known of its role in cell cycle control. Here, we show that p57(Kip2) is ...
The cortactin oncoprotein is frequently overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), often due to amplification of the encoding gene (CTTN). While cortactin overexpression enhances invasive potential, recent research indicates that it also promotes cell proliferation, but how cortactin regulates the cell cycle machinery is unclear. In this article we report that stable short hairpin RNA-mediated cortactin knockdown in the 11q13-amplified cell line FaDu led to increased expression of the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) and inhibition of S-phase entry. These effects were associated with increased binding of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) to cyclin D1- and E1-containing complexes and decreased retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. Cortactin regulated expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, respectively. The direct roles of p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) ...
Despite its potential role as a tumor suppressor, p27 gene, a member of the Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes, has never been found mutated in human tumors. We investigated p27 protein expression in a series of 108 non-small cell lung cancers (57.4% stage 1, 16.7% stage 2, and 25.9% stage 3) to determine whether the lack or altered expression of this protein correlates with neoplastic transformation and/or progression. We performed immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of each specimen. We found that tumors expressing low to undetectable levels of p27 contained high p27 degradation activity. When we evaluated the outcome of the patients in relationship to p27 expression, we found p27 to be a prognostic factor correlating with the overall survival times (P = 0.0012).. The possibility of a simple assay, such as the immunohistochemical analysis of p27 expression on routinely formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens, has considerable value for the prognosis of ...
This protein belongs to the CDKN2 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor family. p16 comprises four ankyrin repeats, each spanning a ... "CDKN2A - Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDKN2A gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2016- ... p16 inhibits cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6) and thereby activates the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of proteins ... "CDKN2A cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-10-11. ...
For example, DP00016 refers to the Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 protein. DisProt has been widely used to train software ... Release 7 of DisProt contains information on more than 800 proteins. Each protein entry in DisProt is characterised by a ... Users can also browse through the entries (proteins or regions) by their identifier, detection method or PubMed ID. The entire ... Historically, the study of disordered proteins has been hampered by the lack of an organised resource collecting them and their ...
It encodes a protein which belongs to the Cip/Kip family of cyclin dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor proteins. The encoded ... CDKN1B has been shown to interact with: AKT1, CKS1B, Cyclin D3, Cyclin E1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 ... "Assembly of cyclin D-dependent kinase and titration of p27Kip1 regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1)". ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is an enzyme inhibitor that in humans is encoded by the CDKN1B gene. ...
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • protein kinase binding. • ... also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A. External IDs. OMIM: 116899 MGI: 104556 HomoloGene: ... protein binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • ...
... as well as cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor proteins. The human genome encodes over 600 putative E3 ligases, allowing for ... and an F-box protein, which varies. Around 70 human F-box proteins have been identified. F-box proteins contain an F-box, which ... protein N-ubiquityllysine The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, ubiquitin, and a lysine residue on a protein, whereas its 3 ... recognizes a protein substrate, and assists or directly catalyzes the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 to the protein ...
... can be induced by the combination of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor SCH727965 and a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor. ... cultures by the combination of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor SCH727965 and a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor". Cell ... a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, is dependent on p53 signaling". PLOS ONE. 8 (3): e59588. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059588 ... Fu W, Ma L, Chu B, Wang X, Bui MM, Gemmer J, Altiok S, Pledger WJ (Jun 2011). "The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor SCH 727965 ...
The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. „Cell". 75 (4), s. 805-816, 1993. ... Li Y, Jenkins CW, Nichols MA, Xiong Y. Cell cycle expression and p53 regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. „ ... a b Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1). ... proteasome inhibitors overcome Bcl-2 protective function and selectively accumulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 ...
"The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases". Cell. 75 (4): 805-816. ISSN 0092- ... Yue Xiong and David Beach as a cyclin-CDK-PCNA interacting protein (p21), and as a senescence derived inhibitor by Noda. ... "p21 is a universal inhibitor of cyclin kinases". Nature. 366 (6456): 701-704. doi:10.1038/366701a0. ISSN 1476-4687. Noda, Asao ... In 2013, his group reported a TRAIL-inducing compound TIC10 as a novel cancer therapeutic and dual inhibitor of ERK and Akt. ...
As cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, CIP/KIP proteins have been classically viewed as tumor suppressors; however, the exact ... "Crystal structure of the p27Kip1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor bound to the cyclin A-cdk2 complex". Nature. 382: 325-331. ... "Increased proteasome-dependent degredation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in aggressive colorectal carcinomas". ... Toyoshima H, Hunter T (1994). "p27, a novel inhibitor of G1 cyclin/cdk protein kinase activity, is related to p21". Cell. 78: ...
... serum amyloid A-activating factor 1 inhibits cell proliferation by the induction of cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor ... Myc-associated zinc finger protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAZ gene. MAZ (gene) has been shown to ... a myc-associated zinc finger protein, are regulated by casein kinase II". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 262 (1): 198-205. doi: ... protein interacts with the Myc-associated zinc finger protein (ZF87/MAZ) and alters its transcriptional activity". Biochemistry ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDKN3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... 1993). "The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases". Cell. 75 (4): 805-16. doi: ... It was identified as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate CDK2 kinase ... "The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases". Cell. UNITED STATES. 75 (4): 805-16 ...
... or Kinase Inhibitor Protein 1, a member of the Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins Know India ...
... which leads to the increase in the synthesis of the selective cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor proteins, p12 and p16. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for opioid growth factor (OGF), also known as [Met(5)]-enkephalin. The ... Opioid growth factor receptor, also known as OGFr or the ζ-opioid receptor, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the OGFR ... Retinoblastoma protein becomes activated through the phosphorylation from CDKs, and leads to the progression of the cell cycle ...
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • protein kinase binding. • GO: ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A. Зовнішні ІД. OMIM: 116899 MGI: 104556 HomoloGene: ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • cyclin binding. • ... protein stabilization. • positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity. • regulation of transcription from ...
Gap-43 protein, fatty acid binding protein, calmodulin, Alpha crystallin, IFN-gamma, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein ... by introducing several proteins into the chemical environment of these cells. Some of these known proteins that induce axon ... beta-hemoglobin, 60s-ribosomal protein, GAP-DH, and ADP-ribosylation factor. The second approach involves improving visual ...
... also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1 The p21/ras protein, part of the RAt Sarcoma ... P21, p21 or P-21 may refer to: The p21/waf1 protein, ... family of proteins LÉ Emer (P21), a patrol vessel of the Irish ...
This protein is reported to be involved in the degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1B/p27Kip1. It is also ... Tomoda K, Kubota Y, Kato J (1999). "Degradation of the cyclin-dependent-kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 is instigated by Jab1". Nature ... The protein encoded by this gene is one of the eight subunits of COP9 signalosome, a highly conserved protein complex that ... Seeger M, Kraft R, Ferrell K, Bech-Otschir D, Dumdey R, Schade R, Gordon C, Naumann M, Dubiel W (1998). "A novel protein ...
Inactivation of cyclin D is triggered by several cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein (CKIs) like the INK4 family (e.g. ... Cyclins are eukaryotic proteins that form holoenzymes with cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdk), which they activate. The ... activate cyclin D gene in response to integrin. p27kip1 and p21cip1 are cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) which ... two more cyclin D proteins have been identified. The three homologues, called cyclin D1, cyclin D2, and cyclin D3 are expressed ...
Hannon and David Beach discovered p16 in 1993 and correctly characterized the protein as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. ... p21 p53 Cyclin-dependent kinase Cyclin D "Entrez Gene: CDKN2A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits ... "The nuclear protein p34SEI-1 regulates the kinase activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 in a concentration-dependent manner". ... p16 is also known as: p16Ink4A p16Ink4 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) CDKN2 CDK 4 Inhibitor Multiple Tumor ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B also known as multiple tumor suppressor 2 (MTS-2) or p15INK4b is a protein that is ... This gene encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, also known as p15Ink4b protein, which forms a complex with CDK4 or CDK6 ... "Evidence for different modes of action of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: p15 and p16 bind to kinases, p21 and p27 bind to ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN2B cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (p15, inhibits CDK4)". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane- ...
It is regulated by cyclins, more specifically by Cyclin D proteins and Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins. The protein ... "Both p16 and p21 families of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors block the phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases by ... 2003). "Expression of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6, but Not Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4, Alters Morphology of Cultured Mouse ... A Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 interacts with: CDKN2C, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3, P16, PPM1B, and PPP2CA. Cell cycle, Mitosis, CDK, ...
... has been shown to interact with: CDK9, CREB-binding protein, Cyclin A1, Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C EP300, PARP1 ... The encoded protein is phosphorylated by cyclin A/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 during the S-phase of the cell cycle and possesses ... Joaquin M, Watson RJ (Nov 2003). "The cell cycle-regulated B-Myb transcription factor overcomes cyclin-dependent kinase ... Myb-related protein B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYBL2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene, a member of ...
... are specific inhibitors of the cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 15 (5): 2672-81. PMC ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ... Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... "Cyclin D- and E-dependent kinases and the p57(KIP2) inhibitor: cooperative interactions in vivo". Molecular and Cellular ...
... (p57, Kip2), also known as CDKN1C, is protein which in humans is encoded by the CDKN1C ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C is a tight-binding inhibitor of several G1 cyclin/Cdk complexes and a negative regulator ... Lee MH, Reynisdóttir I, Massagué J (Mar 1995). "Cloning of p57KIP2, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with unique domain ... Fink JR, LeBien TW (Apr 2001). "Novel expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in human B-cell precursors". ...
The eukaryotic cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) whose activities are regulated by cyclins and ... CDK inhibitors. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin family and contains the cyclin box. The encoded ... "p53-dependent association between cyclin G and the B' subunit of protein phosphatase 2A". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (11): 6593-602. ... "p53-dependent association between cyclin G and the B' subunit of protein phosphatase 2A". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (11): 6593-602. ...
1995). "Novel INK4 proteins, p19 and p18, are specific inhibitors of the cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6". Mol. Cell. ... 1995). "Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... "The nuclear protein p34SEI-1 regulates the kinase activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 in a concentration-dependent manner". ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 also known as cell division protein kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK4 gene ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been ... 1995). "Novel INK4 proteins, p19 and p18, are specific inhibitors of the cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6". Mol. Cell. ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN2D cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2D (p19, inhibits CDK4)". Hirai H, Roussel MF, Kato JY, et al. ( ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor D is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDKN2D gene. ...
de 1993). «The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases». Cell (UNITED STATES) 75 ... de 2000). «p12(DOC-1) is a novel cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein». Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 20 (17): 6300- ... de 2000). «Dephosphorylation of human cyclin-dependent kinases by protein phosphatase type 2C alpha and beta 2 isoforms». J. ... de 2003). «Abolishment of the interaction between cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and Cdk-associated protein phosphatase by a ...
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein is a protein which inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase. Several function as tumor ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... "Crystal structure of the p27Kip1 cyclin-dependent-kinase inhibitor bound to the cyclin A-Cdk2 complex". Nature. 382 (6589): 325 ... suppressor proteins. Cell cycle progression is negatively controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (called CDIs, CKIs ...
cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 activator activity. • lipid binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cyclin-dependent ... "Neuronal Cdc2-like protein kinase (Cdk5/p25) is associated with protein phosphatase 1 and phosphorylates inhibitor-2". J. Biol ... positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • ... CDK5R2, NCK5AI, P39, p39nck5ai, cyclin-dependent kinase 5, regulatory subunit 2 (p39), cyclin dependent kinase 5 regulatory ...
Cell cycle progression is controlled by ordered action of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), activated by specific cyclins that ... the ATP-dependent proteolytic complex that was responsible for ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation was discovered and was ... or to result from the differential activity of the pro-apoptotic kinase JNK.[89] The ability of proteasome inhibitors to induce ... is one of the 19S subcomponents that also tightly binds the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK4 and plays a key role in recognizing ...
"Novel INK4 proteins, p19 and p18, are specific inhibitors of the cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6". Mol. Cell. Biol ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • macromolecular ... "Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. ...
"Phosphorylation of glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 dictates transcript-selective translational ... McClain WH (November 1993). "Rules that govern tRNA identity in protein synthesis". Journal of Molecular Biology. 234 (2): 257- ... For instance, one can start with the gene for a protein that binds a certain sequence of DNA, and, by directing an unnatural ... Both classes of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are multidomain proteins. In a typical scenario, an aaRS consists of a catalytic ...
Cyclin. *Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein. *Cyclin-dependent kinase. *Cyclin. Lipid. *Phosphoinositide phospholipase C ... Inhibitors[edit]. Another class of regulatory proteins, the Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), bind to the ... GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. Small GTPases act as molecular switches in ... and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). ...
All these phases in the cell cycle are highly regulated by cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and other cell cycle proteins. ... CDK inhibitor. *INK4a/ARF (p14arf/p16, p15, p18, p19). *cip/kip (p21, p27, p57) ... Generation of pressure is dependent on formin-mediated F-actin nucleation[71] and Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated myosin II ... Motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite sides of the cell. Although centrosomes help ...
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. • protein binding. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase ... protein complex binding. • metal ion binding. Cellular component. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex. • ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1). Structure of the C-terminal region of p21(WAF1/CIP1) complexed with human ... regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • G2/M ...
... phosphorylates hSPT5 and RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain independently of cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase" ... In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1.[1][2] Tat is a regulatory protein that ... October 2005). "4-Phenylcoumarins as HIV transcription inhibitors". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15 (20): 4447-50. doi:10.1016/j. ... Protein transduction domain[edit]. Tat contains a protein transduction domain, which is therefore known as a cell-penetrating ...
The encoded protein is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein composed of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a ... "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... protein binding. • ankyrin binding. • gamma-catenin binding. • beta-catenin binding. • GTPase activating protein binding. • ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ...
Cyclin. *Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein. *Cyclin-dependent kinase. *Cyclin. Lipid. *Phosphoinositide phospholipase C ... protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase activity. • GTPase binding. • G-protein ... 1omw: Crystal Structure of the complex between G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 and Heterotrimeric G Protein beta 1 and ... protein heterotrimerization. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • protein folding. • G-protein coupled ...
GTP-dependent protein binding. • GTPase activity. • mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase binding. • protein binding. ... Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase activity. • apolipoprotein A-I receptor binding. • ... Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... "The MAP kinase kinase kinase MLK2 co-localizes with activated ... protein kinase binding. • nucleotide binding. • GTP binding. • identical protein binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • ...
... and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors P27 and P21.». Leuk. Lymphoma 43 (1): 51-7. PMID 11908736. doi:10.1080/ ... Functional network of interactive proteins.». J. Biol. Chem. 274 (27): 18843-6. PMID 10383378. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.27.18843. ... de 1998). «The type II transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor-interacting protein TRIP-1 acts as a modulator of the TGF ... de 1998). «Decorin core protein fragment Leu155-Val260 interacts with TGF-beta but does not compete for decorin binding to type ...
... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases". Oncogene. 15 (2): 143-57. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201252. PMID 9244350.. ... "BRCA1 interacts with and is required for paclitaxel-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3". ... "miR-182-mediated downregulation of BRCA1 impacts DNA repair and sensitivity to PARP inhibitors". Mol. Cell. 41 (2): 210-20. ... "BRCA1 is phosphorylated at serine 1497 in vivo at a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 phosphorylation site". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (7): ...
Cyclin. *Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein. *Cyclin-dependent kinase. *Cyclin. Lipid. *Phosphoinositide phospholipase C ... Types of G protein signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside ... Heterotrimeric G proteins[edit]. Main article: Heterotrimeric G proteins. Different types of heterotrimeric G proteins share a ...
These transitions are controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1.[6] Though the proteins that control Cdk1 are well ... TOR is a serine/threonine kinase that can directly phosphorylate and inactivate a general inhibitor of eIF4E, named 4E-binding ... Wee1 protein is a tyrosine kinase that normally phosphorylates the Cdc2 cell cycle regulatory protein (the homolog of CDK1 in ... The protein kinase Cdr2 (which negatively regulates Wee1) and the Cdr2-related kinase Cdr1 (which directly phosphorylates and ...
CDK抑制因子(英语:Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein). *INK4a/ARF(p14arf/p16、p15、p18、p19) ... Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. BioEssays. June 1995, 17 (6): 471-80. PMID ... 細胞週期的進行是由不同的週期素(Cyclin)所調控。週期素意味著這些蛋白質的表現量會隨著細胞週期的進行而有所變化,進而確認週期素原來是扮演細胞
Liu H, Di Cunto F, Imarisio S, Reid LM (Jan 2003). "Citron kinase is a cell cycle-dependent, nuclear protein required for G2/M ... protein kinase activity. • PDZ domain binding. • SH3 domain binding. • scaffold protein binding. • metal ion binding. • kinase ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • ATP binding. • Rho GTPase binding. ...
"cAMP-dependent protein kinase" redirects here. It is not to be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase or cyclin-dependent ... "Primary-structure requirements for inhibition by the heat-stable inhibitor of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase". PNAS. 83: ... Protein kinase A, more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by ... Protein Kinase A is directed to specific sub cellular locations after tethering to Protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs ...
Yik JH, Chen R, Nishimura R, Jennings JL, Link AJ, Zhou Q (October 2003). "Inhibition of P-TEFb (CDK9/Cyclin T) kinase and RNA ... The existence of an RNAP III-dependent ncRNA transcriptome that regulates its RNAP II-dependent counterpart was supported by a ... binds and inhibits the CREB binding protein and p300 histone acetyltransferease activities on a repressed gene target, cyclin ... Liu WM, Chu WM, Choudary PV, Schmid CW (May 1995). "Cell stress and translational inhibitors transiently increase the abundance ...
Cyclin. *Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein. *Cyclin-dependent kinase. *Cyclin. Lipid. *Phosphoinositide phospholipase C ... Guanylyl cyclase activator (protein). References[edit]. *^ Sakurai K.; Chen J.; Kefalov V. (2011). "Role of guanylate cylcase ... Indirect/downstream NO modulators: ACE inhibitors/AT-II receptor antagonists (e.g., captopril, losartan) ... Guanylate cyclase is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase (EC 2.7.11.11). *Protein kinase A. *PRKACG. *PRKACB ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ...
... an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1. Sustained D1 receptor activity is kept in check by Cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Dopamine ... receptor activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II can be cAMP dependent or independent.[15] ... D2 receptor signaling may mediate protein kinase B, arrestin beta 2, and GSK-3 activity, and inhibition of these proteins ... Dopamine receptors can also transactivate Receptor tyrosine kinases.[17] Beta Arrestin recruitment is mediated by G-protein ...
... leading to an accumulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, and to subsequent G1-phase arrest, as seen in ... In vitro formation of a triketide lactone using a genetically modified protein derived from 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase has ... Lovastatin is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), an enzyme that catalyzes the ... The first breakthrough in efforts to find a potent, specific, competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase occurred in 1976, when ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase and DREAM complex. When it is time for a cell to enter S phase, complexes of cyclin-dependent kinases ( ... Furthermore, triple knockout, p16 addition, and Cdk 4/6 inhibitor addition experiments confirmed that Cyclin D- Cdk 4/6 is the ... cyclin E and cyclin A), which push the cell through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases, and a molecule ... negative regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • negative regulation of tau-protein kinase activity. • ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4,[30][31]. *Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C,[32] ... MyoD, also known as myoblast determination protein 1[5], is a protein in animals that plays a major role in regulating muscle ... MyoD is inhibited by cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). CDKs are in turn inhibited by p21. Thus MyoD enhances its own activity in ... protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • enzyme binding. • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II ...
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. • protein kinase binding. المكونات الخلوية. • سيتوبلازم. • ... CDKN2C, INK4C, p18, p18-INK4C, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C. ... CDKN2C‏ (Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين CDKN2C في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN2C cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4)". مؤرشف من الأصل في 05 ديسمبر 2010.. الوسيط , ...
"Predominant suppression of apoptosome by inhibitor of apoptosis protein in non-small cell lung cancer H460 cells: therapeutic ... Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... CDK-activating kinase. CDK inhibitor. *INK4a/ARF (p14arf/p16, ... by BCL-2 family proteins". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1762 (2): 191-201. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2005.07.002. PMID 16055309.. Unknown ... "Sequential degradation of proteins from the nuclear envelope during apoptosis". Journal of Cell Science. 114 (20): 3643-53. ...
Cyclin. *Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein. *Cyclin-dependent kinase. *Cyclin. Lipid. *Phosphoinositide phospholipase C ... function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein ... an enzyme called protein kinase A (PKA).[12]. The PKA enzyme is also known as cAMP-dependent enzyme because it gets activated ... "Multiple pathway signal transduction by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase". FASEB J. 8 (15): 1227-36. doi:10.1096/fasebj.8.15. ...
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein is a protein which inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase. Several function as tumor ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... "Crystal structure of the p27Kip1 cyclin-dependent-kinase inhibitor bound to the cyclin A-Cdk2 complex". Nature. 382 (6589): 325 ... suppressor proteins. Cell cycle progression is negatively controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (called CDIs, CKIs ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Potent inhibitor of cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK2 complexes. Forms a complex with cyclin type D-CDK4 complexes and is involved in ... Inhibits the kinase activity of CDK2 bound to cyclin A, but has little inhibitory activity on CDK2 bound to SPDYA (PubMed: ... Acts either as an inhibitor or an activator of cyclin type D-CDK4 complexes depending on its phosphorylation state and/or ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Binds to and inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase activity, preventing phosphorylation of critical cyclin-dependent kinase ... Functions in the nuclear localization and assembly of cyclin D-CDK4 complex and promotes its kinase activity towards RB1. At ... inhibits the kinase activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 complex. Inhibits DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase delta by competing with ...
Potent inhibitor of cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK2 complexes. Forms a complex with cyclin type D-CDK4 complexes and is involved in ... Acts either as an inhibitor or an activator of cyclin type D-CDK4 complexes depending on its phosphorylation state and/or ... Inhibits the kinase activity of CDK2 bound to cyclin A, but has little inhibitory activity on CDK2 bound to SPDYA. Involved in ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity Source: UniProtKB. *protein-containing complex binding ...
The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases.. Harper JW1, Adami GR, Wei N, ... The cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2 associates with cyclins A, D, and E and has been implicated in the control of the G1 to S ... tight-binding inhibitor of Cdks and can inhibit the phosphorylation of Rb by cyclin A-Cdk2, cyclin E-Cdk2, cyclin D1-Cdk4, and ... CIP1 encodes a novel 21 kd protein that is found in cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and Cdk2 immunoprecipitates. p21CIP1 is a ...
cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity Source: Ensembl. *cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,A0A2Y9ENU9,A0A2Y9ENU9_PHYMC cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 OS=Physeter macrocephalus OX=9755 GN=CDKN1A PE=3 SV=1 ... Protein kinase inhibitorARBA annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, ...
... we have employed an improved two-hybrid system to isolate human genes encoding Cdk-interacting proteins (Cips … ... The cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2 associates with cyclins A, D, and E and has been implicated in the control of the G1 to S ... The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases Cell. 1993 Nov 19;75(4):805-16. doi: ... The cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2 associates with cyclins A, D, and E and has been implicated in the control of the G1 to S ...
Cooperative repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 gene expression by hepatitis B virus X protein and hepatitis C ... and HCV core protein additively repress the universal cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 gene at the transcription level. ... virus core protein.. Han HJ1, Jung EY, Lee WJ, Jang KL. ... hepatitis B virus X protein. *nucleocapsid protein, Hepatitis C ... we demonstrated that HBV X protein (HBx) ... Proteins*BioSystems. *BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) ...
Cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) are central to the appropriate regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and gene ... A Novel pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine Is a Potent Inhibitor of Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinases 1, 2, and 9, Which Demonstrates ... Cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) are central to the appropriate regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and gene ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 / antagonists & inhibitors* * Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9 / antagonists & inhibitors* ...
The Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibitor Set controls the biological activity of Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase. This ... small molecule/inhibitor is primarily used for Phosphorylation & Dephosphorylation applications. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, ... Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibitor Set - Calbiochem. 219428 Sigma-AldrichCyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibitor Set ... The Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibitor Set controls the biological activity of Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase. This ...
... is a specific inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. CDK4 is a subunit of the protein kinase complex that is ... cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor D; INK4D; p19; CDK inhibitor p19INK4d; inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4d; cyclin- ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2D (p19, inhibits CDK4). Background. Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor D (CDKN2D) is a ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity, protein binding, protein kinase binding. Some of the ...
cyclin-dependent protein kinase / protein phosphorylation / substrate specificity / enzyme inhibitor. Research Abstract. Cdc2 ... Development and application of specific inhibitors for cyclin-dependent protein kinases on the basis of their substrate ... kinase or cdk5, a member of cyclin-dependent protein kinases, phosphorylates a Ser/Thr site immediately followed by a proline ... activation of inhibitor 1 by cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun.220. 777-783 (1996). *. Description. 「研 ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Interacts with CDK4 (both T-172-phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms); the interaction inhibits cyclin D-CDK4 kinase ... This inhibits their ability to interact with cyclins D and to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein. UniProt ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q96B52 - Homo sapiens 0 * A5X2G7 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ...
View or download the Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibitor Set - Calbiochem MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) or SDS for ... Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibitor Set - Calbiochem SDS. Safety Data Sheet for Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibitor ... Material Safety Data Sheet or SDS for Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibitor Set - Calbiochem 219428 from MilliporeSigma for ... Product Name Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibitor Set - Calbiochem Select Language Select Language. Australia ...
ProteoGenix provides you the best Kinases proteins.Shop now from our 200 000 + products. ... Recombinant Human Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A TAT from Prospec cat# pka-337. ... Proteins>Kinases proteins>Recombinant Human Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A TAT Protein ... Buy Recombinant Human Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A TAT Protein now. Add to cart ...
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins. Antineoplastic Agents. Protein Kinase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular ... A Study Of Oral Palbociclib (PD-0332991), A Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, In Patients With Advanced Cancer. The safety and ... PD-0332991 is in a new class of drugs called cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitors). This research study is the first time ... A Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, In Patients With Advanced Cancer. ...
Structural studies with inhibitors of the cell cycle regulatory kinase cyclin-dependent protein kinase 2. Lookup NU author(s): ... Conference Name: Pharmacology & Therapeutics: 2nd International Confernce on Inhbitors of Protein Kinases ...
Assessment of p27 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) genes in ... aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein. *Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Grant support. *G0701307/Medical ...
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (p21WAF1/Cip1) is a multifunctional protein known. * Post author By cellsignaling ... The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (p21WAF1/Cip1) is a multifunctional protein known to promote cell cycle arrest and ... survival in response to p53-dependent and p53 independent stimuli. from the pro-apoptotic BH3-just proteins Puma. Under these ... Intro p21cip1/Waf1 (herein after called p21) can be a member from the Cip/Kip family members inhibitors of cell routine ...
The only exception, in the latter group, was patients with tumours expressing high levels of cyclin D1, who did as well as the ... When the combined expression of p27 and cyclin D1 was related to survival, patients with high levels of p27, regardless of ... There was a statistically significant association between the expression of p27 and both cyclin D1 and the retinoblastoma gene ... protein have been demonstrated using immunohistochemistry in 189 cases of primary breast carcinoma with long-term follow-up. ...
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins [D12.776.624.776.355]. *Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 [D12.776.624.776. ... "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase ... A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21*Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. *Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 ...
1993) The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Cell 75(4):805-16. ... The cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2 associates with cyclins A, D, and E and has been implicated in the control of the G1 to S ... CIP1 encodes a novel 21 kd protein that is found in cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and Cdk2 immunoprecipitates. p21CIP1 is a ... tight-binding inhibitor of Cdks and can inhibit the phosphorylation of Rb by cyclin A-Cdk2, cyclin E-Cdk2, cyclin D1-Cdk4, and ...
Arabidopsis Proteins Cell Cycle Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins In Situ Hybridization Microscopy, Confocal Models, ... Targeted degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK4/KRP6 by RING-type E3 ligases is essential for mitotic cell ... Targeted degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK4/KRP6 by RING-type E3 ligases is essential for mitotic cell ... We demonstrate that RHF1a directly interacts with and targets a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK4/KRP6 (for Interactors of ...
Keywords : Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein; Cyclin-dependent Kinases; Melanoma; Neoplasm metastasis. ... We suggest the research on the mutation in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) (INK4a) in such cases. We also ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins; Cyclin D1; Protooncogene proteins c-bcl-2; Tumor suppressor protein p53. ... Tumor suppressor genes and cell proliferation regulatory proteins play a role in the progression of actinic cheilitis to ...
Substrate and inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent; protein kinase Cdc28p (Swiss Prot. accession number; P38634); ; L9449.7; GAL2 ... osmosensing protein kinase; Hog1 (Swiss Prot. accession number P32485). Note that the; protein predicted to be encoded by this ... L8004.4; L8004.5; L8004.6; KIN2; Probable Serine/Threonine protein kinase (Swiss; Prot. accession number P13186); ; L8004.7; ... Membrane protein involved in endocytosis (PIR; accession number S45053); ; L9449.15; XDJ1; DnaJ protein homolog (Swiss Prot. ...
0 (Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins); 0 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21); 0 (DNA-Binding Proteins); 0 (TP53 protein, human ... ZNF509 protein, human); 9007-49-2 (DNA); EC 2.3.1.48 (E1A-Associated p300 Protein); EC 2.3.1.48 (EP300 protein, human). ... Expression of the POK family protein ZNF509L, and -its S1 isoform, is induced by p53 upon exposure to genotoxic stress. Due to ... Similarly, all protein-coding genes were under predominant negative selection constraints. We directly and indirectly assessed ...
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • protein kinase binding. • ... also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A. External IDs. OMIM: 116899 MGI: 104556 HomoloGene: ... protein binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • ...
Protein Coding), Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... Protein Symbol:. P42772-CDN2B_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B Protein Accession:. P42772. ... annotations related to this gene include protein kinase binding and cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor ... CDKN2B (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CDKN2B include Scrotal ...
Protein Coding), Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... protein kinase inhibitor activity. IMP. 8684460. GO:0004861. cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor ... Truncated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (A7KMP4_HUMAN). *cDNA FLJ51923, highly similar to Cyclin-dependent kinase ... Protein Symbol:. P46527-CDN1B_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B. Protein Accession:. P46527. ...
  • Acts either as an inhibitor or an activator of cyclin type D- CDK4 complexes depending on its phosphorylation state and/or stoichometry. (rcsb.org)
  • the interaction is inhibited by CDK2 -dependent phosphorylation on Thr-187. (rcsb.org)
  • Binds to and inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase activity, preventing phosphorylation of critical cyclin-dependent kinase substrates and blocking cell cycle progression. (rcsb.org)
  • p21CIP1 is a potent, tight-binding inhibitor of Cdks and can inhibit the phosphorylation of Rb by cyclin A-Cdk2, cyclin E-Cdk2, cyclin D1-Cdk4, and cyclin D2-Cdk4 complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Cell-based studies showed inhibition of the phosphorylation of CDK substrates, Rb and the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain, down-regulation of cyclins A, E, and D1, and cell cycle block in the S and G₂/M phases. (nih.gov)
  • This small molecule/inhibitor is primarily used for Phosphorylation & Dephosphorylation applications. (merckmillipore.com)
  • In addition, we observed that cdk5 has a stronger preference for a proline and basic residues on the carboxyl-terminal side of the phosphorylation site when compared to the preference exhibited by cdc2 kinase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Ando, S.: 'Keratin 8 phosphorylation in vitro by cAMP-dependent protein kinase occurs within the amino-and carboxyl-terminal end domains. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Ando, S: 'Keratin 8 phosphorylation in vitro by cAMP-dependent protein kinase occurs within the amino-and carboxyl-terminal end domains' Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The degradation of this protein, which is triggered by its CDK dependent phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination by SCF complexes, is required for the cellular transition from quiescence to the proliferative state. (genecards.org)
  • p16 INK4a controls cell cycle progression by inhibiting phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), while ARF prevents MDM2-mediated degradation of p53. (nature.com)
  • 25 This inhibitory effect on cyclin D/CDK4(6) complexes prevents phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and the subsequent release of transcription factors that are required for passage into and through S phase, in particular members of the E2F transcription factor family. (nature.com)
  • It binds to CDK4/6 inhibiting its kinase activity and prevents Rb phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate how sequential phosphorylation of p19 INK4d at two sites first destabilizes and then unfolds the N-terminal half of the protein, which dissociates its cyclin-dependent protein kinase-inhibitory complex and primes p19 INK4d for cellular degradation. (pnas.org)
  • Our results define a structural mechanism by which phosphorylation-induced protein unfolding controls a key step in cell cycle progression. (pnas.org)
  • We delineate how the stepwise phosphorylation of p19 INK4d Ser66 and Ser76 by cell cycle-independent (p38) and -dependent protein kinases (CDK1), respectively, leads to local unfolding of the three N-terminal ankyrin repeats of p19 INK4d . (pnas.org)
  • Phosphorylation of E2F-1 by cyclin A-cdk2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Chemical synthesis of phosphopeptides using arylthio group for protection of phosphate : Application to identification of cdc2 kinase-phosphorylation sites. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The interaction of E2F with pRB and p107 are regulated via the phosphorylation of pRB and p107 by cyclin-dependent kinase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Taya, Y.: 'Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor RB protein. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cryptolepine induced DNA damage activated DNA damage response proteins as demonstrated by increased phosphorylation of ATM/ATR, BRCA1, Chk1/Chk2 and γH2AX. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cryptolepine induced post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation of p53, and inhibition of mdm2 protein expression resulted in activation and accumulation of p53 in SCC-13 and A431 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events. (curehunter.com)
  • Nuclear translocation of Mig1 is regulated by differential phosphorylation of the protein in response to glucose availability, and recruitment of the general repression complex Ssn6-Tup1 to the DNA-bound Mig1 is required for the repression ( 5 , 17 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Mutated alleles of p16INK4a present in these tumors have lost their capacity to block cyclin D-CDK4 activity and to prevent RB phosphorylation during the cell cycle. (humpath.com)
  • Furthermore, hinokitiol augmented p53 protein phosphorylation and subsequently led to enhanced p53 activity. (termedia.pl)
  • Phosphorylation of a number of nuclear proteins by the complex of CDK1 and CCNB1 is needed for G2/M transition (Chan et al. (wikipathways.org)
  • 2003). PLK2 is involved in the regulation of centrosome duplication through phosphorylation of centrosome-related proteins CENPJ (Chang et al. (wikipathways.org)
  • Phosphorylation of a canonical Thr residue in the T-loop of the kinases is required for high enzyme activity in animals and yeast. (plantcell.org)
  • CDK inhibitors), and positive and negative phosphorylation events (i.e., at the Thr and/or Tyr residues of the T- and P-loops, respectively) ( Pines, 1995 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Phosphorylation on Ser-10 is the major site of phosphorylation in resting cells, takes place at the G(0)-G(1) phase and leads to protein stability. (abcam.com)
  • Phosphorylation on Thr-198 is required for interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. (abcam.com)
  • Phosphorylation on Thr-187, by CDK2 leads to protein ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. (abcam.com)
  • Phosphorylation by PKB/AKT1 can be suppressed by LY294002, an inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of PI3K. (abcam.com)
  • Results from this system showed the functional importance of ATM kinase activity and phosphorylation in the response to DSBs and supported a model in which ordered chromatin structure changes that occur after DNA breakage and that depend on functional NBS1 and ATM facilitate DNA DSB repair. (aacrjournals.org)
  • FGF-2 stimulates cell proliferation of rabbit corneal endothelial cells (rCECs) by degrading the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 Kip1 (p27) through its phosphorylation mechanism. (arvojournals.org)
  • However, the downstream mechanism involved in cell cycle progression in hCECs is identical to that of rCECs: phosphorylation of p27 at Ser10 was mediated by kinase-interacting stathmin (KIS), confirmed with siRNA to KIS, and phosphorylation of p27 at Thr187 was mediated by cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A), confirmed using Cdc25A inhibitor. (arvojournals.org)
  • The present invention relates to compounds useful as inhibitors of the PAR-2 signaling pathway. (patents.com)
  • the interaction is prevented by competitive binding of C10orf90 /FATS to HDAC1 facilitating acetylation and protein stabilization of CDKN1A /p21 (By similarity). (rcsb.org)
  • Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D- CDK4 - CDKN1A . (rcsb.org)
  • This gene encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which shares a limited similarity with CDK inhibitor CDKN1A/p21. (genecards.org)
  • Among the many factors involved in these defense processes against DNA damage, p21 CDKN1A protein - known also as p21 (WAF1/CIP1/SDI1) - plays a key role in several fundamental biological processes, such as cell cycle control, DNA replication/repair, gene transcription, apoptosis, and cell motility [ 3 - 6 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • all these names have been substituted by a new terminology including all CDK inhibitors, and p21 is now named CDKN1A. (intechopen.com)
  • The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (CIP1, WAF1, CDKN1A ) is thought to be the main executor of p53-induced growth arrest ( 1 - 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Binding of the zinc finger protein ZNF385A (HZF), which is a transcriptional target of TP53, stimulates transcription of cell cycle arrest genes, such as CDKN1A (Das et al. (wikipathways.org)
  • The most prominent TP53 target involved in G1 arrest is the inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases CDKN1A (p21). (wikipathways.org)
  • 1993). CDKN1A binds and inactivates CDK2 in complex with cyclin A (CCNA) or E (CCNE), thus preventing G1/S transition (Harper et al. (wikipathways.org)
  • For instance, in case of an irreversible damage, TP53 can induce transcription of an RNA binding protein PCBP4, which can bind and destabilize CDKN1A mRNA, thus alleviating G1 arrest and directing the affected cell towards G2 arrest and, possibly, apoptosis (Zhu and Chen 2000, Scoumanne et al. (wikipathways.org)
  • Inhibits the kinase activity of CDK2 bound to cyclin A, but has little inhibitory activity on CDK2 bound to SPDYA (PubMed:28666995). (rcsb.org)
  • Potent inhibitor of cyclin E- and cyclin A- CDK2 complexes. (rcsb.org)
  • CDKN1B inhibits the kinase activity of CDK2 through conformational rearrangements. (rcsb.org)
  • A peptide sequence containing only AA 28-79 retains substantial Kip1 cyclin A/CDK2 inhibitory activity. (rcsb.org)
  • Binding to CDK2 leads to CDK2 /cyclin E inactivation at the G1-S phase DNA damage checkpoint, thereby arresting cells at the G1-S transition during DNA repair (PubMed:19445729). (rcsb.org)
  • The cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2 associates with cyclins A, D, and E and has been implicated in the control of the G1 to S phase transition in mammals. (nih.gov)
  • To identify potential Cdk2 regulators, we have employed an improved two-hybrid system to isolate human genes encoding Cdk-interacting proteins (Cips). (nih.gov)
  • CIP1 encodes a novel 21 kd protein that is found in cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and Cdk2 immunoprecipitates. (nih.gov)
  • For example, the G1/S transition is regulated by Cdk2/cyclin E, Cdk3/unknown cyclin, Cdk4/cyclin D1-3, Cdk6/cyclin D1, and Cdk8/cyclin C. The frequent deregulation of Cdks and their regulators in cancer has stimulated the search for potent and selective inhibitors of Cdks for both research and therapeutic use. (merckmillipore.com)
  • p21 Cip1 (alternatively p21 Waf1 ), also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1 , is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) that is capable of inhibiting all cyclin/CDK complexes, [5] though is primarily associated with inhibition of CDK2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The p21 (CIP1/WAF1) protein binds to and inhibits the activity of cyclin - CDK2 , - CDK1 , and - CDK4 /6 complexes, and thus functions as a regulator of cell cycle progression at G 1 and S phase . (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein was reported to be specifically cleaved by CASP3 -like caspases , which thus leads to a dramatic activation of CDK2, and may be instrumental in the execution of apoptosis following caspase activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • also found that γ-irradiation of fibroblasts induced a p53 and p21 dependent cell cycle arrest, here p21 was found bound to inactive cyclin E / CDK2 complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein binds to and prevents the activation of cyclin E-CDK2 or cyclin D-CDK4 complexes, and thus controls the cell cycle progression at G1. (genecards.org)
  • In contrast with the negative cell-cycle regulation, p21 may also serve as an assembly factor for cyclin D-CDK4/6 complexes, thus promoting cyclin D-dependent events, and downstream activation of cyclin E-CDK2 [ 7 , 8 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Activation of p16 and p21 proteins downregulated expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin A, cyclin D1 and cyclin E and thus induced S-phase cell cycle arrest in NMSC cells with reduced expression of cell division proteins Cdc25a and Cdc25b. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transcriptionally induced by p53, the p21 protein binds and inhibits the cdk2-cyclin B/E complexes but increases stability and nuclear localization of cyclin D, stimulating assembly of the cdk4-cyclin D complex ( 3 , 5 - 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • An inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (proteins often involved in regulating the cell cycle), CYC065 targets two such kinases: CDK2 and CDK9. (dana-farber.org)
  • One of the ways that cancer cells circumvent CDK4/6 inhibitors is by activating CDK2, which is inhibited by CYC065. (dana-farber.org)
  • The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. (nih.gov)
  • The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (p21WAF1/Cip1) is a multifunctional protein known to promote cell cycle arrest and survival in response to p53-dependent and p53 independent stimuli. (cell-signaling-pathways.com)
  • Berberine enhances posttranslational protein stability of p21/cip1 in breast cancer cells via down-regulation of Akt. (harvard.edu)
  • This article is about the p21 Cip1 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with lenalidomide significantly inhibited CLL-cell proliferation, an effect that was associated with the p53-independent upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/Cip1 (p21). (slideshare.net)
  • Another potent CDK inhibitor, p21 WAF1/CIP1 , is a downstream effector of p53 and controls cell cycle progression by inhibiting the activity of a broader range of CDKs. (nature.com)
  • STAT5-induced expression of pim-1 , p21 WAF/Cip1 , and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1/STAT-induced STAT inhibitor-1/Janus kinase binding protein is responsible for induction of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, respectively. (jimmunol.org)
  • On constitutive expression of the c-JunAla(63,73) protein, a dominant-negative inhibitor of c-Jun, in A549 cells, nur77 expression and apoptosis induction by AHPN/CD437 were impaired, whereas p21 WAF1/CIP1 induction and G 0 /G 1 arrest were not affected. (asm.org)
  • Liver mRNA levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-β, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 kip (p27), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 WAF1/CIP1 (p21) were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Immunoblotting was utilized to determine the protein level of p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p-Akt, p-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), p-Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), p-p53, and p21 Cip1 . (termedia.pl)
  • Cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) are central to the appropriate regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • The eight cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdks) that have been identified to date play an essential role in the regulation of the cell cycle. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Cell cycle progression is tightly regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (pnas.org)
  • Cell cycle progression may be also regulated, independently of cyclins and CDKs, thanks to the strong affinity binding to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) [ 14 - 17 ], a protein playing a central role in DNA replication and repair, as well as in other processes of DNA metabolism [ 18 , 19 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • One contributing factor may be the sequestration of cyclins A, E, D1, and D3, as well as their cdk partners (cdks 1,2, 4 and 6), in the cytoplasm in quiescent adult human β-cells ( 9 - 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Forced overexpression of cyclins/cdks permits induction of cell cycle entry associated with nuclear translocation of cyclins and cdks, suggesting that trafficking and proliferative events are linked ( 9 - 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Therefore, identification of any factor or signal in human β-cells to increase cyclins/cdks and their nuclear trafficking may provide a useful hint to promote human β-cell proliferation and expansion for diabetes therapy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The central convergence point of these regulatory pathways are cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and only if a certain threshold of CDK activity is reached will the entry into the next cell cycle phase be promoted. (plantcell.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor D (CDKN2D) is a specific inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. (creativebiomart.net)
  • p16 inhibits cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6) and thereby activates the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of proteins, which block traversal from G1 to S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the benefits of CYC065 are borne out in subsequent trials, the drug could be particularly valuable for patients whose tumors don't respond to drugs that target two other cyclin-dependent kinases, CDK4 and CDK6, investigators say. (dana-farber.org)
  • Alvocidib is an investigational small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 , a protein important to the regulation of Myc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The expression status of hormone and growth factor receptors dictates the options for chemo‑endocrine and/or pathway selective small molecule inhibitor‑based treatments. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The identification of molecular subtypes dictates specific chemo-endocrine therapy and pathway selective small molecule inhibitor-based treatment options. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Upon administration, ALX148 binds to CD47 expressed on tumor cells and prevents the interaction of CD47 with its ligand SIRPa, a protein expressed on phagocytic cells. (cancer.gov)
  • Molecular cloning of a human protein that binds to the retinoblastoma protein and chromosomal mapping. (nii.ac.jp)
  • cDNA sequence, chromosomal localization of a novel human protein RBQ-1 which binds to the retinoblastoma gene product. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The NRG1 gene encodes a 25-kDa C 2 H 2 zinc finger protein which specifically binds to two regions in the upstream activation sequence of the STA1 gene, as judged by gel retardation and DNase I footprinting analyses. (asm.org)
  • The Mig1 glucose repressor is a zinc finger protein and binds to the GC-rich motif identified in the promoters of several glucose-repressed genes, including the GAL1 , GAL4 , SUC2 , and MAL genes ( 10 , 13 , 28 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Further biochemical analysis revealed that p19 INK4d directly binds to Raf kinase inhibitor PEBP1 and that p19 INK4d knockdown increased the expression of PEBP1 that in turn led to reduced ERK activation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Rapamycin binds intracellularly to FK506 (tacrolimus)-binding proteins (FKBPs). (aspetjournals.org)
  • p16INK4a binds to cyclin D-CDK4 and promotes the inhibitory effects of RB. (humpath.com)
  • For example, PHF20 binds to TP53 dimethylated on lysine residues K370 and K382 by unidentified protein lysine methyltransferase(s) and interferes with MDM2 binding, resulting in prolonged TP53 half-life (Cui et al. (wikipathways.org)
  • 2004). GADD45A binds Aurora kinase A (AURKA), inhibiting its catalytic activity and preventing AURKA-mediated G2/M transition (Shao et al. (wikipathways.org)
  • Intro p21cip1/Waf1 (herein after called p21) can be a member from the Cip/Kip family members inhibitors of cell routine progression that affiliates using the BKM120 (NVP-BKM120) cyclin/CDK complexes and with PCNA a processivity element for replication polymerase resulting in the inhibition of CDK actions and DNA replication [1]. (cell-signaling-pathways.com)
  • identified a protein p21 (WAF1) which was present in cells expressing wild type p53 but not those with mutant p53, moreover constitutive expression of p21 led to cell cycle arrest in a number of cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In turn, activated p53 enhanced protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p16 and p21. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell cycle progression is negatively controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (called CDIs, CKIs or CDKIs). (wikipedia.org)
  • CDK4 is a subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Targeted degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK4/KRP6 by RING-type E3 ligases is essential for mitotic cell cycle progression during Arabidopsis gametogenesis. (nextbio.com)
  • Tumor suppressor genes and cell proliferation regulatory proteins play a role in the progression of actinic cheilitis to squamous cell carcinoma and in its biological behavior. (scielo.br)
  • This gene encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which forms a complex with CDK4 or CDK6, and prevents the activation of the CDK kinases, thus the encoded protein functions as a cell growth regulator that controls cell cycle G1 progression. (genecards.org)
  • These results indicate that lenalidomide can directly inhibit proliferation of CLL cells in a CRBN/p21-dependent, but p53-independent, manner at concentrations achievable in vivo, potentially contributing to the capacity of this drug to inhibit disease- progression in patients with CLL. (slideshare.net)
  • A gene on chromosome 9q34.1 that encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase, which regulates cell cycle progression. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae initiation and progression through the mitotic cell cycle are determined by the sequential activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28. (genetics.org)
  • The role of this kinase in entry and progression through the meiotic cycle is unclear, since all cdc28 temperature-sensitive alleles are leaky for meiosis. (genetics.org)
  • Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. (curehunter.com)
  • As in other eukaryotes, progression through the cell cycle in plants is governed by cyclin-dependent kinases. (plantcell.org)
  • Even though the theme of CDK-cyclin-regulated cell cycle progression appears to be conserved, there are also pronounced differences between animal and plant cell cycle controls. (plantcell.org)
  • Forms a complex with cyclin type D- CDK4 complexes and is involved in the assembly, stability, and modulation of CCND1 - CDK4 complex activation. (rcsb.org)
  • These Cdk/cyclin complexes reportedly regulate each step of the cell cycle. (merckmillipore.com)
  • [12] [13] The binding of p21 to CDK complexes occurs through p21's N-terminal domain, which is homologous to the other CIP/KIP CDK inhibitors p27 and p57 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The main role of p21 is cell-cycle regulation, performed by inhibiting the activity of cyclin-CDK complexes thanks to direct interaction through specific sequences (termed CDK and Cy motifs) in the N-terminal domain of the protein [ 10 - 13 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • P14ARF induces cell cycle arrest in G2 phase and subsequent apoptosis in a P53-dependent and P53-independent manner, and thus is regarded as a tumor suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using these constitutively active forms of STAT5, we found that activation of STAT5 induced cytokine-independent growth of IL-3-dependent cells ( 8 , 9 ), and that STAT5 manifested a variety of biological functions including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of Ba/F3 cells through up-regulation of a variety of target genes of STAT5 ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Interestingly, a second p53-induced transcript from the p21 gene, p21B ( Fig. 1 ) was recently identified and found to encode a protein expressing proapoptotic activity ( 14 ), suggesting a role for the p21 gene in both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inhibitor of apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP) is required for neuronal survival after axonal injury. (wikipathways.org)
  • p53-dependent NDRG1 expression induces inhibition of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation but not apoptosis after polyamine depletion. (wikipathways.org)
  • p53DINP1, a p53-inducible gene, regulates p53-dependent apoptosis. (wikipathways.org)
  • Regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by Zac1, a novel zinc finger protein expressed in the pituitary gland and the brain. (wikipathways.org)
  • Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 phosphorylates p53 at Ser 46 and mediates apoptosis. (wikipathways.org)
  • Cytotoxic drugs commonly used in cancer therapy promote tumor cell death by inducing apoptosis, but the cell death pathway(s) is likely dependent on the mechanism of drug action. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We also observed that neither MEN 10755 nor DXR were able to induce apoptosis in A2780 cells deprived of the nucleus but retaining an intact mitochondrial function (cytoplasts) and that apoptosis induced by either anthracycline was inhibited by cycloheximide, indicating that it is an active process requiring new protein synthesis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Both the caspases inhibitors, ZVAD-fmk and DEVD-cho, inhibited at similar extent apoptosis induced by either DXR or MEN 10755, suggesting an involvement of caspase-3 in this response. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We conclude that, in a tumor cell line of epithelial origin, the apoptosis following exposure to anthracyclines is an active process requiring protein synthesis and drug interaction with nuclear structures. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Assessment of p27 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) genes in multiple endocrine neopla. (cdc.gov)
  • The embryonic development of anterior and intermediate lobes is initiated by formation of a rudimentary Rathke's pouch, followed by development of a definitive pouch, which is critically dependent on expression of LIM homeobox genes Lhx3 and Lhx4 ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Subsequent to DNA binding at sites termed E-boxes (CANNTG), activation domains within the dimerized E-proteins stimulate transcription of their target genes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although drug-dependent microtubule disruption results in the up-regulation of p53 expression, the relationship between p53-driven genes and drug sensitivity remains controversial as the response is drug and cell type dependent. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One of the candidate genes that satisfied all these requirements encodes inhibitor of DNA-binding (Id) proteins, a family of helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcriptional regulatory proteins 11 . (nature.com)
  • In the absence of glucose, the Snf1 kinase inhibits the function of Mig1 protein directly or indirectly, leading to derepression of glucose-repressed genes ( 3 , 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Consistent with this role in cell fate determination and differentiation, many bHLH genes are expressed in a tissue-specific manner (class B bHLH proteins). (biologists.org)
  • A sub-class of HLH genes, which lack the basic DNA-binding domain, is known as Inhibitors of DNA binding or ID genes. (biologists.org)
  • 1993 ) Tumor suppressor genes encoding proteins required for cell interactions and signal transduction. (biologists.org)
  • Stockinger, Eric 2005-05-02 00:00:00 The Arabidopsis CBF proteins activate expression of a set of genes whose upstream regulatory sequences typically harbor one or more copies of the CRT/DRE low temperature cis-acting DNA regulatory element. (deepdyve.com)
  • The Arabidopsis CBF proteins activate expression of a set of genes whose upstream regulatory sequences typically harbor one or more copies of the CRT/DRE low temperature cis-acting DNA regulatory element. (deepdyve.com)
  • Murray, J.A.H. 2004-10-03 00:00:00 Mammalian E2F transcription factors are composed of E2F and DP subunits, and with their negative regulators, Rb-related proteins, govern expression of cell-division-related genes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Consensus E2F-binding sites were identified in promoters of several cell cycle related genes, including the D-type cyclin CycD3 and the Arabidopsis homologue of the replication origin protein CDC6. (deepdyve.com)
  • Mammalian E2F transcription factors are composed of E2F and DP subunits, and with their negative regulators, Rb-related proteins, govern expression of cell-division-related genes. (deepdyve.com)
  • This reconstitution makes use of chimeric genes which express hybrid proteins. (google.es)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 expression and interaction with other cell cycle-associated proteins in mammary carcinoma. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Consistent with its localization, we show by yeast two-hybrid analysis that Corolla strongly interacts with Cona, a central element protein, demonstrating the first direct interaction between two inner-synaptonemal complex proteins in Drosophila . (genetics.org)
  • 70-kDa heat shock cognate protein directly interacts with N-terminal region of the retinoblastoma gene product pRb-identification of a novel region of pRb mediating protein interaction. (nii.ac.jp)
  • HIV-1 Tat protein interacts with CDK9 and cyclin T, suggesting CDK9 may have a role in AIDS. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We have recently shown that menin, the MEN1 protein product, interacts with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) family proteins in a histone methyltransferase complex including Ash2, Rbbp5, and WDR5. (pnas.org)
  • Menin interacts with proteins involved in DNA repair such as replication protein A and FANCD2, suggesting that menin plays a role in maintaining chromosomal stability ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • We suggest the research on the mutation in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) (INK4a) in such cases. (scielo.br)
  • In HPV-transformed cells, the downstream p16 ink4a -CDK4-pRB pathway is blocked by the inactivation of pRB through the HPV E7 protein, and it results in the nuclear and cellular accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 ink4a [ 2 , 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CDKN2A, also known as cyclin-dependent kinase Inhibitor 2A, is a gene which in humans is located at chromosome 9, band p21.3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A ( CDKN2A ), located on chromosome 9p21 encodes proteins that act as tumor suppressors. (bcidaho.com)
  • This inhibits their ability to interact with cyclins D and to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein. (sdsc.edu)
  • p27, cyclin D1, and retinoblastoma (Rb) protein have been demonstrated using immunohistochemistry in 189 cases of primary breast carcinoma with long-term follow-up. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There was a statistically significant association between the expression of p27 and both cyclin D1 and the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb), corresponding to their close interactions in regulating the G1/S transition in the cell cycle. (ox.ac.uk)
  • At higher stoichiometric ratios, inhibits the kinase activity of the cyclin D- CDK4 complex. (rcsb.org)
  • Here, we demonstrated that HBV X protein (HBx) and HCV core protein additively repress the universal cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 gene at the transcription level. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, P14ARF could down-regulate E2F-dependent transcription and plays a role in the control of the G1 to S phase transition as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroid transcription factor 1 is a nuclear protein of the NKx2 family of homeodomain transcription factors. (redorbit.com)
  • The Medicago CDKC;1-CYCLINT;1 kinase complex phosphorylates the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and promotes transcription. (umu.se)
  • The role of the Arabidopsis E2FB transcription factor in regulating auxin-dependent cell division. (umu.se)
  • Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family E-protein transcription factors have been implicated in the regulation of both differentiation and proliferation during T cell development. (jimmunol.org)
  • Similarly, there was no evidence of cellular protection, or of effects on p53-dependent gene transcription, or on translation of MDM-2 or p21 following UV treatment of these human tumor cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To determine why, we explored the human PRL-prolactin receptor (hPRLR)-Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5)-cyclin-cdk signaling cascade in human β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • DNA-bound LexA-Nrg1 represses transcription of a target gene 10.7-fold in a glucose-dependent manner, and this repression is abolished in both ssn6 and tup1 mutants. (asm.org)
  • The plasmid bears the TPK2 gene, encoding a yeast cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, whose level of transcription is modulated by upstream regulatory elements ( 1 , 41 ) of the STA1 promoter. (asm.org)
  • Consistent with this, we show that AtE2F1 and AtE2F3 activate transcription in yeast cells and bind a plant Rb protein, but AtE2F2 cannot activate transcription or bind Rb. (deepdyve.com)
  • Binding of ASPP family proteins PPP1R13B (ASPP1) or TP53BP2 (ASPP2) to TP53 stimulates transcription of pro-apoptotic TP53 targets (Samuels-Lev et al. (wikipathways.org)
  • These findings suggest that regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor transcription by cooperative interaction between menin and MLL plays a central role in menin's activity as a tumor suppressor. (pnas.org)
  • Studies on these interacting proteins suggest that menin exerts its effects predominantly through inhibitory effects on transcription. (pnas.org)
  • the interaction is required for cyclin D and CDK4 complex assembly, induces nuclear translocation and activates the CDK4 kinase activity. (rcsb.org)
  • the interaction promotes the assembly of the cyclin D- CDK4 complex, its nuclear translocation and promotes the cyclin D-dependent enzyme activity of CDK4 (PubMed:9106657). (rcsb.org)
  • the interaction inhibits cyclin D- CDK4 kinase activity. (sdsc.edu)
  • A method and kit are provided for detecting the interaction between a first test protein and a second test protein, in vivo, using reconstitution of the activity of a transcriptional activator. (google.es)
  • wherein binding of the first test protein and the second test protein in the host cell results in measurably greater expression of the detectable gene than the simultaneous presence of the DNA-binding domain and the transcriptional activation domain in the absence of an interaction between the first test protein and the second test protein. (google.es)
  • A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. (harvard.edu)
  • Studies of p53 dependent cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage identified p21 as the primary mediator of downstream cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • P16/Rb pathway collaborates with the mitogenic signaling cascade for the induction of reactive oxygen species, which activates the protein kinase C delta, leading to an irreversible cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neither compound had any effect on p53, p21, or MDM-2 protein expression following ionizing radiation exposure and there was no evidence of any abrogation of p53-dependent, ionizing radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore treatment with a panel of HDAC inhibitors showed clustering of activities for a subset of inhibitors, causing G2 cell cycle arrest, Sp1 acetylation, p21 and Bak over-expression, all with very similar EC 50 concentrations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1997) and contributes to G2 arrest by binding to the complex of CDK1 and CCNB1 (cyclin B1) and preventing its translocation to the nucleus. (wikipathways.org)
  • 1994 ) A gain-of-function mutation in Drosophila MAP kinase activates multiple receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways. (biologists.org)
  • 1992 ) Signalling by the sevenless protein tyrosine kinase is mimicked by Ras1 activation. (biologists.org)
  • Li Y, Jenkins CW, Nichols MA, Xiong Y. Cell cycle expression and p53 regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathway maps illustrate protein interactions and regulation to provide a comprehensive picture of signaling and disease processes. (bio-rad.com)
  • Mitotic exit and onset of endoreduplication do not correlate with an up-regulation of known cell cycle inhibitors but are the result of reduced levels of DP-E2F-LIKE1/E2Fe and UV-B-INSENSITIVE4, both inhibitors of the developmental transition from mitosis to endoreduplication by modulating anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activity, which are down-regulated rapidly after DELLA stabilization. (plantphysiol.org)
  • cdkn2d has several biochemical functions, for example, cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity, protein binding, protein kinase binding. (creativebiomart.net)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include protein kinase binding and cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity . (genecards.org)
  • 1996 ) Oncogenic Ras activation of Raf/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-idependent pathways is sufficient to cause tumorgenic transformation. (biologists.org)
  • Group 2: the examination of mechanisms of signaling by Met, (the HGF/SF receptor), ErbB family members and other receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) in epithelial tumors. (yale.edu)
  • FGF-2 stimulates proliferation of hCECs through PI 3-kinase and its downstream target ERK1/2 pathways. (arvojournals.org)
  • This gene encodes two proteins, p16 and p14ARF, which are transcribed from the same second and third exons but alternative first exons: p16 from exon 1α and ARF from exon 1β. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16INK4 gene encodes a specific inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). (humpath.com)
  • Forms a ternary complex composed of cyclin D, CDK4 and CDKN1B . (rcsb.org)
  • CDKN1B (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1B) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The cell type-dependent different EBV latent gene expression patterns appear to be determined by the cellular epigenetic machinery and similarly viral oncoproteins recruit epigenetic regulators in order to deregulate the cellular gene expression profile resulting in several human cancers. (mdpi.com)
  • CDK inhibitors: cell cycle regulators and beyond. (springer.com)
  • The four major regulatory inputs affecting CDK activity are the binding of positive cofactors (i.e., cyclins), negative regulators (i.e. (plantcell.org)
  • Furthermore, LNO(2) triggered nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and activation of the antioxidant-responsive element-driven transcriptional activity via impairing Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1 (Keap1)-mediated negative control of Nrf2 activity in VSMCs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2012). Long noncoding RNAs can contribute to p53-dependent transcriptional responses (Huarte et al. (wikipathways.org)
  • 2012). Two polo-like kinases, PLK2 and PLK3, are direct transcriptional targets of TP53. (wikipathways.org)
  • The first hybrid contains the DNA-binding domain of a transcriptional activator fused to the first test protein. (google.es)
  • The second hybrid protein contains a transcriptional activation domain fused to the second test protein. (google.es)
  • If the two test proteins are able to interact, they bring into close proximity the two domains of the transcriptional activator. (google.es)
  • Surprisingly, mouse (but not human) Stat5a overexpression led to upregulation of cyclins D1-3 and cdk4, as well as their nuclear translocation, all of which are associated with β-cell cycle entry. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Functions in the nuclear localization and assembly of cyclin D- CDK4 complex and promotes its kinase activity towards RB1 . (rcsb.org)
  • The Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibitor Set controls the biological activity of Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Recent work exploring p21 activation in response to DNA damage at a single-cell level have demonstrated that pulsatile p53 activity leads to subsequent pulses of p21, and that the strength of p21 activation is cell cycle phase dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the physiological inhibitor of MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase controlling the activity and stability of P53, and loss of P14ARF activity may have a similar effect as loss of P53. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods and Results- Balloon injury of rat carotid arteries resulted in a sustained increase in arginase activity in the vessel wall and the induction of arginase I protein in both the media and neointima of injured vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Substantial arginase I protein and arginase activity was also detected in rat cultured aortic VSMCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • CASP-3 cleavage of RAD51 results in a functional decrease in RAD51 strand exchange activity and inhibition of caspase 3 activity increases RAD51 protein levels. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Interestingly, hinokitiol induced promoter activity of p21 and p21 protein expression in VSMCs. (termedia.pl)
  • A phospho-mimicry T161D substitution restored the primary defect of cdka;1 mutants, and although the T161D substitution displayed a dramatically reduced kinase activity with a compromised ability to bind substrates, homozygous mutant plants were recovered. (plantcell.org)
  • This effect appears to depend on its kinase activity, as kinase-defective mutant colorectal cancer cell lines have an exaggerated apoptotic response and reduced proliferative capacity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results gave useful information for developing spesific substrates and competitive inhibitors for each kinase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To obtain substrates/inhibitors which are resistant to enzymatic proteolysis, we undertook a synthesis of cyclic or retro-inverso peptides. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cdc2 kinase or cdk5, a member of cyclin-dependent protein kinases, phosphorylates a Ser/Thr site immediately followed by a proline which acts as the substrate specificity determinant. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the lung, it regulates the expression of surfactant protein A, surfactant protein B, surfactant protein C, and Clara cell secretory protein. (redorbit.com)
  • 2017. Cdc25A phosphatase: a key cell cycle protein that regulates neuron death in disease and development. (springer.com)
  • Publications] Tokui, T.: 'Enhancement of smooth muscle contraction with protein phosphatase inhibitor 1 :activation of inhibitor 1 by cGMP-dependent protein kinase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • [6] Specifically it contains a Cy1 motif in the N-terminal half, and weaker Cy2 motif in the C-terminal domain that allow it to bind CDK in a region that blocks its ability to complex with cyclins and thus prevent CDK activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of an alfalfa cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor by calmodulin-like domain protein kinase. (umu.se)
  • We have previously discovered the naturally occurring antitussive alkaloid noscapine as a tubulin-binding agent that attenuates microtubule dynamics and arrests mammalian cells at mitosis via activation of the c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1996 ) Stimulation of membrane ruffling and MAP kinase activation by distinct effectors of RAS. (biologists.org)
  • Apoptotic cell death induced by activation of the Fas/Fas-L system requires a multistep cascade of biochemical events: the trimerization of Fas receptor induced by Fas-L stimulates the formation of a death-inducing signaling complex, which consists of the adapter protein FADD and the protease FLICE/caspase-8. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Expression and activation of protein were analyzed by immunoblotting. (arvojournals.org)
  • blocking of ERK1/2 activation by LY294002 indicated that in hCECs ERK1/2 works as a downstream effector to PI 3-kinase for cell proliferation induced by FGF-2, whereas the ERK1/2 pathway in rCECs is parallel to the PI 3-kinase pathway. (arvojournals.org)
  • Silencing cereblon (CRBN), a known molecular target of lenalidomide, impaired the capacity of lenalidomide to induce expression of p21, inhibit CD154-induced CLL-cell proliferation, or enhance the degradation of Ikaros family zinc finger proteins 1 and 3 (IKZF1 and IKZF3). (slideshare.net)
  • We observed that LNO(2) inhibited VSMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Interestingly, cyclin D2-in contrast to its abundance and essential presence for rodent β-cell proliferation ( 13 - 15 )-is either absent or present at very low levels in human β-cells ( 16 - 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Since the CDK4/cyclin D complex propels a cell to go through the G1 check point of the cell cycle, a critical phase of cell division, alteration of the p16INK4 gene could lead a cell to uncontrolled proliferation and malignant transformation . (humpath.com)
  • In the present study, we established the efficacy and the mechanisms of action of hinokitiol, a tropolone derivative found in Chamaecyparis taiwanensis , Cupressaceae, in relation to platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and serum-dependent VSMC proliferation. (termedia.pl)
  • Treatment with hinokitiol (1-10 µM) inhibited PDGF-BB and serum-induced VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. (termedia.pl)
  • Vesicular transport protein (Swiss Prot. (bio.net)
  • protein kinase Cdc28p (Swiss Prot. (bio.net)
  • P24A protein (unknown function) (Swiss Prot. (bio.net)
  • DnaJ protein homolog (Swiss Prot. (bio.net)
  • Choline kinase (Swiss Prot. (bio.net)
  • Cloning of senescent cell-derived inhibitors of DNA synthesis using an expression screen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferrin family proteins are highly abundant and plays important role in transport and storage of iron in cells and tissues. (jcancer.org)
  • National Laboratory for Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, Peking-Yale Joint Research Center for Plant Molecular Genetics and AgroBiotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China. (nextbio.com)
  • Molecular interactions of ASPP1 and ASPP2 with the p53 protein family and the apoptotic promoters PUMA and Bax. (wikipathways.org)
  • p57KIP2, a structurally distinct member of the p21CIP1 Cdk-inhibitor family, is a candidate tumor suppressor gene. (atcc.org)
  • Since inactivation of extracellular glucose sensing through deletion of either the GPR1 or the GPA2 gene causes a marked, but partial, reduction in the ability to modulate cell size and protein content at Start, it is proposed that both extracellular and intracellular glucose signalling is required for properly setting the cell sizer in glucose media. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • These findings identify 4k as a novel, potent CDK selective inhibitor with potential for oral delivery in cancer patients. (nih.gov)
  • N-Terminal ubiquitination of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 and p21 directs their degradation by the proteasome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclic peptides which represent the site of histone or vimentin were effectively phosphorylated by cdc2 kinase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Ando, S.: 'Role of the pyrrolidine ring of proline in determining the substrate specificity of cdc2 kinase or cdk5' J.Biochem.122. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Indeed, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe , the Mcm proteins that are essential for DNA replication in the mitotic cell cycle are not required for premeiotic DNA replication ( F orsburg and H odson 2000 ). (genetics.org)
  • Investigation into the use of histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 as a topical agent for the prevention and treatment of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an SKH-1 hairless mouse model. (harvard.edu)
  • Butyrate, a known histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) and product of fibre fermentation, is postulated to mediate the protective effect of dietary fibre against colon cancer. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)