Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
Cell Cycle Proteins
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Tumor Suppressor Proteins
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5
CDC2 Protein Kinase
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
Tumor Cells, Cultured
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
E2F1 Transcription Factor
Transcription Factor DP1
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15
MAP Kinase Signaling System
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
E2F Transcription Factors
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p19
S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Gene Expression Regulation
Protein Kinase C
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Amino Acid Sequence
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Promoter Regions, Genetic
RNA, Small Interfering
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Caspase-mediated cleavage of p21Waf1/Cip1 converts cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis. (1/4670)The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf1/Cip1 is a downstream effector of the p53-dependent cell growth arrest. We report herein that p21 was cleaved by caspase-3/CPP32 at the site of DHVD112L during the DNA damage-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. The cleaved p21 fragment could no more arrest the cells in G1 phase nor suppress the cells undergoing apoptosis because it failed to bind to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and lost its capability to localize in the nucleus. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cleavage and inactivation of p21 protein may convert cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis, leading to the acceleration of chemotherapy-induced apoptotic process in cancer cells. (+info)
Caspase 3 inactivation to suppress Fas-mediated apoptosis: identification of binding domain with p21 and ILP and inactivation machinery by p21. (2/4670)The death mediator caspase acts as the dominant regulator during cell death induction. The CPP32 subfamily, including caspase 3 (CPP32/Yama/Apopain), is essential for the cell death signaling. We recently reported that activation of caspase 3 is regulated by complex formation with p21 or ILP. In the present study, we investigated the binding domain with p21 and ILP to further characterize the caspase 3 inactivation machinery. Our results show that caspase 3 contains p21 binding domain in the N-terminus and ILP binding domain in the active site. Further, the caspase 3 binding domain in p21 was independent of the Cdk- or PCNA-binding domain. We also found caspase 3 protection by p21 from the p3-site cleavage serineproteinase contributes to the suppression machinery. Here, we propose the caspase 3 inactivation system by p21 and ILP as new essential system in the regulation of cell death. (+info)
Cyclin D-CDK subunit arrangement is dependent on the availability of competing INK4 and p21 class inhibitors. (3/4670)The D-type cyclins and their major kinase partners CDK4 and CDK6 regulate G0-G1-S progression by contributing to the phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene product, pRB. Assembly of active cyclin D-CDK complexes in response to mitogenic signals is negatively regulated by INK4 family members. Here we show that although all four INK4 proteins associate with CDK4 and CDK6 in vitro, only p16(INK4a) can form stable, binary complexes with both CDK4 and CDK6 in proliferating cells. The other INK4 family members form stable complexes with CDK6 but associate only transiently with CDK4. Conversely, CDK4 stably associates with both p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1) in cyclin-containing complexes, suggesting that CDK4 is in equilibrium between INK4 and p21(CIP1)- or p27(KIP1)-bound states. In agreement with this hypothesis, overexpression of p21(CIP1) in 293 cells, where CDK4 is bound to p16(INK4a), stimulates the formation of ternary cyclin D-CDK4-p21(CIP1) complexes. These data suggest that members of the p21 family of proteins promote the association of D-type cyclins with CDKs by counteracting the effects of INK4 molecules. (+info)
Cell growth inhibition by farnesyltransferase inhibitors is mediated by gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB. (4/4670)Recent results have shown that the ability of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) to inhibit malignant cell transformation and Ras prenylation can be separated. We proposed previously that farnesylated Rho proteins are important targets for alternation by FTIs, based on studies of RhoB (the FTI-Rho hypothesis). Cells treated with FTIs exhibit a loss of farnesylated RhoB but a gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB (RhoB-GG), which is associated with loss of growth-promoting activity. In this study, we tested whether the gain of RhoB-GG elicited by FTI treatment was sufficient to mediate FTI-induced cell growth inhibition. In support of this hypothesis, when expressed in Ras-transformed cells RhoB-GG induced phenotypic reversion, cell growth inhibition, and activation of the cell cycle kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. RhoB-GG did not affect the phenotype or growth of normal cells. These effects were similar to FTI treatment insofar as they were all induced in transformed cells but not in normal cells. RhoB-GG did not promote anoikis of Ras-transformed cells, implying that this response to FTIs involves loss-of-function effects. Our findings corroborate the FTI-Rho hypothesis and demonstrate that gain-of-function effects on Rho are part of the drug mechanism. Gain of RhoB-GG may explain how FTIs inhibit the growth of human tumor cells that lack Ras mutations. (+info)
Induced expression of p16(INK4a) inhibits both CDK4- and CDK2-associated kinase activity by reassortment of cyclin-CDK-inhibitor complexes. (5/4670)To investigate the mode of action of the p16(INK4a) tumor suppressor protein, we have established U2-OS cells in which the expression of p16(INK4a) can be regulated by addition or removal of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. As expected, induction of p16(INK4a) results in a G1 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. However, induction of p16(INK4a) also causes marked inhibition of CDK2 activity. In the case of cyclin E-CDK2, this is brought about by reassortment of cyclin, CDK, and CDK-inhibitor complexes, particularly those involving p27(KIP1). Size fractionation of the cellular lysates reveals that a substantial proportion of CDK4 participates in active kinase complexes of around 200 kDa. Upon induction of p16(INK4a), this complex is partly dissociated, and the majority of CDK4 is found in lower-molecular-weight fractions consistent with the formation of a binary complex with p16(INK4a). Sequestration of CDK4 by p16(INK4a) allows cyclin D1 to associate increasingly with CDK2, without affecting its interactions with the CIP/KIP inhibitors. Thus, upon the induction of p16(INK4a), p27(KIP1) appears to switch its allegiance from CDK4 to CDK2, and the accompanying reassortment of components leads to the inhibition of cyclin E-CDK2 by p27(KIP1) and p21(CIP1). Significantly, p16(INK4a) itself does not appear to form higher-order complexes, and the overwhelming majority remains either free or forms binary associations with CDK4 and CDK6. (+info)
Differential roles for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 in the mechanisms of senescence and differentiation in human fibroblasts. (6/4670)The irreversible G1 arrest in senescent human diploid fibroblasts is probably caused by inactivation of the G1 cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes responsible for phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). We show that the Cdk inhibitor p21(Sdi1,Cip1,Waf1), which accumulates progressively in aging cells, binds to and inactivates all cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes in senescent cells, whereas in young cells only p21-free Cdk2 complexes are active. Furthermore, the senescent-cell-cycle arrest occurs prior to the accumulation of the Cdk4-Cdk6 inhibitor p16(Ink4a), suggesting that p21 may be sufficient for this event. Accordingly, cyclin D1-associated phosphorylation of pRb at Ser-780 is lacking even in newly senescent fibroblasts that have a low amount of p16. Instead, the cyclin D1-Cdk4 and cyclin D1-Cdk6 complexes in these cells are associated with an increased amount of p21, suggesting that p21 may be responsible for inactivation of both cyclin E- and cyclin D1-associated kinase activity at the early stage of senescence. Moreover, even in the late stage of senescence when p16 is high, cyclin D1-Cdk4 complexes are persistent, albeit reduced by +info)
Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins. (7/4670)Human cyclin A1, a newly discovered cyclin, is expressed in testis and is thought to function in the meiotic cell cycle. Here, we show that the expression of human cyclin A1 and cyclin A1-associated kinase activities was regulated during the mitotic cell cycle. In the osteosarcoma cell line MG63, cyclin A1 mRNA and protein were present at very low levels in cells at the G0 phase. They increased during the progression of the cell cycle and reached the highest levels in the S and G2/M phases. Furthermore, the cyclin A1-associated histone H1 kinase activity peaked at the G2/M phase. We report that cyclin A1 could bind to important cell cycle regulators: the Rb family of proteins, the transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family of proteins. The in vitro interaction of cyclin A1 with E2F-1 was greatly enhanced when cyclin A1 was complexed with CDK2. Associations of cyclin A1 with Rb and E2F-1 were observed in vivo in several cell lines. When cyclin A1 was coexpressed with CDK2 in sf9 insect cells, the CDK2-cyclin A1 complex had kinase activities for histone H1, E2F-1, and the Rb family of proteins. Our results suggest that the Rb family of proteins and E2F-1 may be important targets for phosphorylation by the cyclin A1-associated kinase. Cyclin A1 may function in the mitotic cell cycle in certain cells. (+info)
Immunohistochemical expression of mdm2 and p21WAF1 in invasive cervical cancer: correlation with p53 protein and high risk HPV infection. (8/4670)AIM: To investigate the immunocytochemical staining pattern of mdm2 and p21WAF1 proteins in invasive cervical cancer and to determine its relation with the expression of p53 and with the high risk HPV infection. METHODS: Immunocytochemistry for p53, mdm2, and p21WAF1 was performed in 31 paraffin embedded sections of invasive cervical cancer. The results were assessed by image analysis, evaluating for each protein the optical density of the immunostained area, scored as percentage of the total nuclear area. The presence of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was detected by using the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Immunostaining for both mdm2 and p21WAF1 was correlated with p53 expression; however, the correlation between p53 and mdm2 (R = 0.49; p < 0.01) was more significant than between p53 and p21WAF1 (R = 0.31; p < 0.05); the less stringent correlation between p53 and p21WAF1 might reflect the p53 independent mechanisms of p21WAF1 induction. Similar average levels of p53, mdm2, and p21WAF1 immunostaining were found in the presence or absence of high risk HPV-DNA, without significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that mdm2 and p21WAF1 proteins are expressed in invasive cervical cancer and that their immunocytochemical staining pattern is not abrogated by the presence of high risk HPV genomic sequences. (+info)
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The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21|sup|WAF1/Cip1|/sup| is an antiestrogen-regulated inhibitor of Cdk4 in human breast...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21,sup,WAF1/Cip1,/sup, is an antiestrogen-regulated inhibitor of Cdk4 in human breast cancer cells. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
HER2-targeting antibodies modulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 via multiple signaling pathways
Anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab is emerging as a frontline therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancers that overexpress HER2. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which the antibody inhibits tumor growth should permit the design of even more effective trastuzumab-based protocols. Several …
PCAF REGULATES THE STABILITY OF THE TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATOR AND CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 KIP1. | Institute of...
Our research line is made of three sublines, specialized in the investigation of brain pathologies, including cerebrovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and brain ageing.. ...
Biblio Search | sciensano.be
2017) Keywords: Biomarkers, Tumor Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Cell Transformation, Viral Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 DNA, Viral Humans In Situ Hybridization Neoplasm Proteins Oncogene Proteins, .... ...
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells multiply and become more resistant to immunochemotherapy in proliferation centers within tissues, whereas apoptosis occurs in the periphery. Various models recapitulate these microenvironments in vitro, such as stimulation with CD154 and IL4. Using this system, we observed a 30- to 40-fold induction of wild-type p53 protein in 50 distinct human CLL specimens tested, without the induction of either cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis. In contrast, the mRNA levels for p53 did not increase, indicating that its elevation occurred posttranscriptionally. Mechanistic investigations revealed that under the conditions studied, p53 was phosphorylated on residues associated with p53 activation and increased half-life. However, p53 protein induced in this manner could transcriptionally activate only a subset of target genes. The addition of a DNA-damaging agent further upregulated p53 protein levels, which led to apoptosis. p53 induction relied on the increase in ...
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Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 Summary Report | CureHunter
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 Summary Report | CureHunter
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Effect of human papillomavirus on cell cycle-related proteins p16INK4A, p21waf1/cip1, p53 and cyclin D1 in sinonasal inverted...
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica (FHC) is an international,English-language journal devoted to the developing fields of histochemistry,cytochemistry,cell biology,cell and tissue biology.It is source of the recent research in fields of and cell biology
Enhanced growth of mice lacking the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor function of p27(Kip1)
Disruption of the cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitory domain of p27 enhances growth of mice. Growth is attributed to an increase in cell number, due to increased cell proliferation, most obviously in tissues that ordinarily express p27 at the highest levels. Disruption of p27 function leads to nodula …
KEGG ORTHOLOGY: K10500
BCL6 interacts with the transcription factor Miz-1 to suppress the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and cell cycle arrest in germinal center B cells ...
Theresa A. Harrison
Harrison, T.A., Smith Adams, L.B., Moore, P.D., Perna, M.K., Sword, J.D.and Defoe, D. M.. Accelerated turnover of taste bud cells in mice deficient for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1.BMC Neuroscience 2011, 12:34 ...
Results: In vitro studies showed a pronounced growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effect of LBH589 on both HCC cell lines at low micromolar concentrations (IC50 approx. 0.1 µM). Interstingly, the pro-apoptotic effect of Panobinostat was not paralleled by a breakdown of ΔΨm. p53wt HepG2 cells were more sensitive than the p53-/- Hep3B cells. Quantitative PCR and western blotting showed an involvement of the cell cycle regulators p21cip1/waf1 and Chek1 but not the bax/bcl-2 system. Panobinostat regulated the expression of p21cip1/waf1 via a transcriptional upregulation as evidenced by ChIP ...
CDKN1C (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (P57)) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)
The KOMP Repository Collection is located at the MMRRC at the University of California, Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
A Possible Biomarker for Senescent Cells - Fight Aging!
Due to its role in aging and antitumor defense, cellular senescence has recently attracted increasing interest. However, [the] detection of senescent cells remains difficult due to the lack of specific biomarkers. ndeed, most determinants of cellular senescence, such as the upregulation of p53, p16Ink4a, p21WAF/CIP1 or SASP-associated cytokines, are not exclusively observed in senescence, but can also occur in other types of stress responses. In addition, alterations like SAHF or DNA-SCARS formation are frequently observed, but not necessarily a mandatory feature or exclusive to senescent cells. The current gold standard for the detection of senescence is the so-called senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) activity. Although SA-β-Gal has been first suggested as a distinct enzyme, its activity is derived from lysosomal β-Gal encoded by the GLB1 gene. β-Gal is an accepted marker of senescence, but its reliability and specificity have been questioned, as a positive β-Gal reaction ...
Structure Cluster - 1OIT: Imidazopyridines: a potent and selective class of Cyclin-dependent Kinase inhibitors...
1OIT: Imidazo[1,2-A]Pyridines: A Potent and Selective Class of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors Identified Through Structure-Based Hybridisation
CDKN2B Gene - GeneCards | CDN2B Protein | CDN2B Antibody
Complete information for CDKN2B gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
CDKN2D Gene - GeneCards | CDN2D Protein | CDN2D Antibody
Complete information for CDKN2D gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2D, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
RCSB PDB - 1E1X: HUMAN CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE 2 COMPLEXED WITH THE INHIBITOR NU6027 Methods Report Page
1E1X: Identification of Novel Purine and Pyrimidine Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors with Distinct Molecular Interactions and Tumor Cell Growth Inhibition Profiles.
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Prognostic Role of the Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer | Cancer Research
Despite its potential role as a tumor suppressor, p27 gene, a member of the Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes, has never been found mutated in human tumors. We investigated p27 protein expression in a series of 108 non-small cell lung cancers (57.4% stage 1, 16.7% stage 2, and 25.9% stage 3) to determine whether the lack or altered expression of this protein correlates with neoplastic transformation and/or progression. We performed immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of each specimen. We found that tumors expressing low to undetectable levels of p27 contained high p27 degradation activity. When we evaluated the outcome of the patients in relationship to p27 expression, we found p27 to be a prognostic factor correlating with the overall survival times (P = 0.0012).. The possibility of a simple assay, such as the immunohistochemical analysis of p27 expression on routinely formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens, has considerable value for the prognosis of ...
Gentaur Molecular :FabGennix \ Cyclin -dependent kinase inhibitor 1B, Biotin conjugates \ Kip110-Biotin
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , FabGennix \ Cyclin -dependent kinase inhibitor 1B, Biotin conjugates \ Kip110-Biotin for more molecular products just contact us
Differential Effects of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors p27Kip1, p21Cip1, and p16Ink4 on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell...
The major findings in this study are that the Kip/Cip and Ink CKIs differentially regulate cdk2 and cdk4 in VSMCs; this, in turn, leads to differences in the inhibition of VSMC proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The expression of p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 in VSMCs inactivated cdk2 and cdk4, whereas p16Ink4 inhibited only cdk4 activity. In vivo, p27Kip1 significantly inhibited intimal cell proliferation and the development of a neointima after vascular injury, whereas p16Ink4 expression did not lead to a reduction in cell proliferation or neointima formation.. This different pattern of CKI inactivation of the CDKs suggests varied biological roles for p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 compared with p16Ink4 in VSMCs. p27Kip1 was initially characterized as an inhibitor of cyclin E/cdk2 phosphorylation.10 11 p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 are upregulated in several animal models of wound repair. p27Kip1 is constitutively expressed in normal arteries, is downregulated after arterial injury, and is upregulated during the later ...
cGMP Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Peptide 82801-73-8 Chemical Properties Physical Properties
cGMP Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Peptide chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of cGMP Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Peptide 82801-73-8, What are the physical properties of cGMP Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Peptide ect.
Accelerated turnover of taste bud cells in mice deficient for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1.
Mammalian taste buds contain several specialized cell types that coordinately respond to tastants and communicate with sensory nerves. While it has long been appreciated that these cells undergo continual turnover, little is known concerning how adeq
Gene expression profiling of replicative and induced senescence.
Cellular senescence is a cell cycle arrest accompanied by high expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors which counteract overactive growth signals, which serves as a tumor suppressive mechanism. Senescence can be a result of telomere shortening (natural or replicative senescence) or DNA damage resulting from exogenous stressors (induced senescence). Here, we performed gene expression profiling through RNA-seq of replicative senescence, adriamycin-induced senescence, H2O2-induced...
The type III transforming growth factor-β receptor inhibits proliferation, migration, and adhesion in human myeloma cells
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in regulating hematopoiesis, inhibiting proliferation while stimulating differentiation when appropriate. We previously demonstrated that the type III TGF-β receptor (TβRIII, or betaglycan) serves as a novel suppressor of cancer progression in epithelial tumors; however, its role in hematologic malignancies is unknown. Here we demonstrate that TβRIII protein expression is decreased or lost in the majority of human multiple myeloma specimens. Functionally, restoring TβRIII expression in myeloma cells significantly inhibited cell growth, proliferation, and motility, largely independent of its ligand presentation role. In a reciprocal fashion, shRNA-mediated silencing of endogenous TβRIII expression enhanced cell growth, proliferation, and motility. Although apoptosis was not affected, TβRIII inhibited proliferation through induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. TβRIII further regulated myeloma cell ...
Visualitza per matèria p38 SAPK
The p57(Kip2) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKi) has been implicated in embryogenesis, stem-cell senescence and pathologies, but little is known of its role in cell cycle control. Here, we show that p57(Kip2) is ...
Anti-p21 Waf1/Cip1/CDKN1A Antibody (F-8) | SCBT - Santa Cruz Biotechnology
p21 Waf1/Cip1/CDKN1A抗体(F-8)是单克隆抗-p21 Waf1/Cip1抗体，用于WB, IP, IF和ELISA检测小鼠、大鼠和人p21 Waf1/Cip1。被31篇文献引用
anti-CDKN2A / p14ARF antibody | GeneTex
CDKN2A / p14ARF antibody (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4)) for ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB. Anti-CDKN2A / p14ARF pAb (GTX23642) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Effects of exogenous p62-overexpression. (a) H23 cells | Open-i
Effects of exogenous p62-overexpression. (a) H23 cells were transfected with indicated siRNAs for 3 days. After transfection, cell viability was measured, and
SDi2 | Pion
SDI2 allows scientists to see precisely whats happening at the solid-liquid interface during the dissolution process. Learn more about this unique tool.
IBM Software-Defined Infrastructure (SDI) - Canada
SDI helps transform a static IT infrastructure into a dynamic resource to speed innovation, evolve and quickly adapt to ever-changing business challenges.
Parts - Filter Parts - Page 1 - VivoAquatics
SDI Flow Sensor 316SS - # 8SDI0H1 N00-0200 1000 PSI @ 70 DEG F (21 DEG C) 225 PSI @ 180 DEG F (82 DEG C) Special Order Item - No returns. ...
CIP 104338 Strain Passport - StrainInfo
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
CIP 103202 Strain Passport - StrainInfo
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
Cortactin modulates RhoA activation and expression of Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors to promote cell cycle...
The cortactin oncoprotein is frequently overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), often due to amplification of the encoding gene (CTTN). While cortactin overexpression enhances invasive potential, recent research indicates that it also promotes cell proliferation, but how cortactin regulates the cell cycle machinery is unclear. In this article we report that stable short hairpin RNA-mediated cortactin knockdown in the 11q13-amplified cell line FaDu led to increased expression of the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) and inhibition of S-phase entry. These effects were associated with increased binding of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) to cyclin D1- and E1-containing complexes and decreased retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. Cortactin regulated expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, respectively. The direct roles of p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) ...
The T-box transcription factor TBX3 drives proliferation by direct repression of the p21 WAF1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor...
TBX3, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, is essential in development and has emerged as an important player in the oncogenic process. TBX3 is overexpressed in several cancers and has been shown to contribute directly to tumour formation, migration and invasion. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its role in development and oncogenesis because there is a paucity of information regarding its target genes. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 plays a pivotal role in a myriad of processes including cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis and here we provide a detailed mechanism to show that it is a direct and biologically relevant target of TBX3. Using a combination of luciferase reporter gene assays and in vitro and in vivo binding assays we show that TBX3 directly represses the p21WAF1 promoter by binding a T-element close to its initiator. Furthermore, we show that the TBX3 DNA binding domain is required for the transcriptional repression of p21WAF1
COVID-19 UPDATE: Global Cell Cycle Inhibitors Market to See Huge Growth by 2026 | Sanofi, Syros Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Piramal...
https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/toc/?dbmr=global-cell-cycle-inhibitors-market. Competitive Landscape and Global Cell Cycle Inhibitors Market Share Analysis. Cell cycle inhibitors market competitive landscape provides details by competitor. Details included are company overview, company financials, revenue generated, market potential, investment in research and development, new market initiatives, global presence, production sites and facilities, company strengths and weaknesses, product launch, clinical trials pipelines, product approvals, patents, product width and breath, application dominance, technology lifeline curve. The above data points provided are only related to the companies focus related to cell cycle inhibitors market.. Global Cell Cycle Inhibitors Market Country Level Analysis. The countries covered in the cell cycle inhibitors market report are U.S., Canada, Mexico in North America, Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Rest of South America, as part of South America, Germany, ...
Efficient Activation of Reconstructed Rat Embryos by Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors
Background Over the last decade a number of species, from farm animals to rodents, have been cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer technology (SCNT). This technique has the potential to revolutionize the way that genetically modified animals are made. In its current state, the process of SCNT is very inefficient (|5% success rate), with several technical and biological hurdles hindering development. Yet, SCNT provides investigators with powerful advantages over other approaches, such as allowing for prescreening for the desired level of transgene expression and eliminating the excess production of undesirable wild-type animals. The rat plays a significant role in biomedical research, but SCNT has been problematic for this species. In this study, we address one aspect of the problem by evaluating methods of activation in artificially constructed rat embryos. Principal Findings We demonstrate that treatment with a calcium ionophore (ionomycin) combined with a variety of cyclin-dependent kinase
Phased by Notch | JEM
The Notch family of transmembrane receptors regulates both cell fate decisions and the maintenance of adult stem cells, processes that require precise control of the cell cycle. Although Notch1 activation had previously been shown to alter the cell cycle in hematopoietic progenitor cells and to delay their commitment to the myeloid lineage, a direct link between Notch1 and cell cycle control pathways had not been established in these cells.. Sarmento et al. now find the link and show that constitutive Notch1 activation drives cell cycling by increasing the activity of cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2), a protein that promotes progression into the S phase of the cell cycle. CDK2 activation resulted from the degradation of the CDK inhibitor protein p27kip1, which was triggered by the Notch1-induced expression of a protein called SKP2-a component of a ubiquitin ligase complex that targets proteins for proteosomal degradation.. How Notch-induced changes in cell cycle kinetics influence ...
In Vivo Activation of the p53 Pathway by Small-Molecule Antagonists of MDM2 | Science
To confirm that the accumulation of p53 was due to decreased degradation of the protein rather than elevated expression of the p53 gene, we treated three wild-type p53 cancer cell lines with Nutlin-1 for 8 hours and monitored the expression of the p53 and p21 genes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Fig. 2B). The transcription of p21 increased in a dose-dependent manner in all cell lines consistent with accumulation of its transcriptional activator p53 (Fig. 2A). By contrast, transcription of the p53 gene itself was unaffected by Nutlin-1, even at the highest concentration tested (16 μM), which caused an 8- to 10-fold induction of p21 mRNA. These data indicate that the Nutlins up-regulate p53 by means of a posttranslational mechanism.. One of the main cellular consequences of p53 activation in proliferating cells is cell cycle arrest in G1 and G2 phases. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 plays a major role in this arrest (22). Cell cycle analysis of bromodeoxyuridine ...
Identification of novel purine and pyrimidine cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors with distinct molecular interactions and tumor...
Substituted guanines and pyrimidines were tested as inhibitors of cyclin B1/CDK1 and cyclin A3/CDK2 and soaked into crystals of monomeric CDK2. O6-Cyclohexylmethylguanine (NU2058) was a competitive inhibitor of CDK1 and CDK2 with respect to ATP (Ki values: CDK1, 5 +/- 1 microM; CDK2, 12 +/- 3 microM) and formed a triplet of hydrogen bonds (i.e., NH-9 to Glu 81, N-3 to Leu 83, and 2-NH2 to Leu 83). The triplet of hydrogen bonding and CDK inhibition was reproduced by 2,6-diamino-4-cyclohexylmethyloxy-5-nitrosopyrimidine (NU6027, Ki values: CDK1, 2.5 +/- 0.4 microM; CDK2, 1.3 +/- 0.2 microM). Against human tumor cells, NU2058 and NU6027 were growth inhibitory in vitro (mean GI50 values of 13 +/- 7 microM and 10 +/- 6 microM, respectively), with a pattern of sensitivity distinct from flavopiridol and olomoucine. These CDK inhibition and chemosensitivity data indicate that the distinct mode of binding of NU2058 and NU6027 has direct consequences for enzyme and cell growth inhibition.
Recombinant Human Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1), His-tagged CDKN1B-2499H - Creative BioMart
Recombinant human CDKN1B protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional chromatography. MW: 24.2 kDa.
Exogenous p | Article about exogenous p by The Free Dictionary
Looking for exogenous p? Find out information about exogenous p. A group of substances thought to be polysaccharides of microbial origin that produce an increase in body temperature when injected into humans and some animals Explanation of exogenous p
Melanoma resistant to MAPK inhibitors (MAPKi) displays loss of fitness upon experimental MAPKi withdrawal and, clinically, may be resensitized to MAPKi therapy after a drug holiday. Here, we uncovered and therapeutically exploited the mechanisms of MAPKi addiction in MAPKi-resistant BRAFMUT or NRASMUT melanoma. MAPKi-addiction phenotypes evident upon drug withdrawal spanned transient cell-cycle slowdown to cell-death responses, the latter of which required a robust phosphorylated ERK (pERK) rebound. Generally, drug withdrawal-induced pERK rebound upregulated p38-FRA1-JUNB-CDKN1A and downregulated proliferation, but only a robust pERK rebound resulted in DNA damage and parthanatos-related cell death. Importantly, pharmacologically impairing DNA damage repair during MAPKi withdrawal augmented MAPKi addiction across the board by converting a cell-cycle deceleration to a caspase-dependent cell-death response or by furthering parthanatos-related cell death. Specifically in MEKi-resistant NRASMUT or ...
OriGene - CDKN1A (NM 078467) cDNA Clone
CDKN1A - CDKN1A (untagged)-Human cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1) (CDKN1A), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
OriGene - CDKN2A (NM 058195) cDNA Clone
CDKN2A - CDKN2A (untagged)-Human cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4) (CDKN2A), transcript variant 4 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Ruben D. Carrasco, Ph.D., M.D. | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Raje N, Hideshima T, Mukherjee S, Raab M, Vallet S, Chhetri S, Cirstea D, Pozzi S, Mitsiades C, Rooney M, Kiziltepe T, Podar K, Okawa Y, Ikeda H, Carrasco R, Richardson PG, Chauhan D, Munshi NC, Sharma S, Parikh H, Chabner B, Scadden D, Anderson KC. Preclinical activity of P276-00, a novel small-molecule cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in the therapy of multiple myeloma. Leukemia. 2009 May; 23(5):961-70 ...
Contact Us - Randox Life Sciences
Find our Crumlin, UK office address, phone number & email id. Contact us if you have any query about our products, service or for any other purpose. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A RCP9477 Product Enquiry
PCI Compliance, Penetration Testing, and the Sucuri WAF
Our website firewall analyst shares some examples of PCI compliance and penetration testing that are done on websites behind the Sucuri WAF.
p21 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. P21 or P-21 may also refer to: p21/ras, part of the RAt Sarcoma family of proteins ... P21), a submarine of the Royal Navy LÉ Emer (P21), a patrol vessel of the Irish Navy Maltese patrol boat P21, of the Armed ... Transforming protein p21, encoded by the HRAS gene in humans ARA King (P-21), a minelayer and patrol ship of the Argentine Navy ... Forces of Malta Curtiss XP-21, an American experimental fighter aircraft P21 road (Ukraine) Papyrus 21, a biblical manuscript ...
... also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) ... p21 is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI). The p21 (CIP1/WAF1) protein binds to and inhibits the activity of ... CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)". Gartel AL, Radhakrishnan SK (May 2005). "Lost in transcription: p21 ... Cyclin-Dependent+Kinase+Inhibitor+p21 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila dacapo ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C
"New functional activities for the p21 family of CDK inhibitors". Genes & Development. 11 (7): 847-62. doi:10.1101/gad.11.7.847 ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C is a tight-binding inhibitor of several G1 cyclin/Cdk complexes and a negative regulator ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (p57, Kip2), also known as CDKN1C, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CDKN1C ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN1C cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (p57, Kip2)". Matsuoka S, Edwards MC, Bai C, Parker S, Zhang P, ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein
They are p15, p16, p18, p19, p21, p27, and p57. Russo AA, Jeffrey PD, Patten AK, Massagué J, Pavletich NP (July 1996). "Crystal ... A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein is a protein which inhibits the enzyme cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK). Several ... Seven cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins have thus far been identified. They are named by the small letter "p" followed ... Cyclin-Dependent+Kinase+Inhibitor+Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e ( ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6
"Both p16 and p21 families of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors block the phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases by ... Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3, P16, PPM1B, and PPP2CA. Cell cycle Cyclin-dependent kinase Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 Mitosis The ... It is regulated by cyclins, more specifically by Cyclin D proteins and Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins. The protein ... 2003). "Expression of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6, but Not Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4, Alters Morphology of Cultured Mouse ...
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is induced by both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms and can arrest the ... ISBN 978-1-58829-500-2.[page needed] Gartel AL, Tyner AL (June 2002). "The role of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in ... cell cycle at the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints by deactivating cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. The SOS response is the ... In one of the earliest steps, the stress-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphorylates SIRT6 on ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor". Cancer Research. 64 (5): 1669-1674. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.can-03-3286. PMID 14996726. ... Prince S, Carreira S, Vance KW, Abrahams A, Goding CR (March 2004). "Tbx2 directly represses the expression of the p21(WAF1) ... It is known that Tbx2 functions in a dose-dependent manner; therefore, duplication or deletion of the region encompassing Tbx2 ... June 2010). "T-box 2 represses NDRG1 through an EGR1-dependent mechanism to drive the proliferation of breast cancer cells". ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2
"The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases". Cell. 75 (4): 805-16. doi:10.1016/ ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ... CDK2 cyclin-dependent kinase 2". Echalier A, Endicott JA, Noble ME (March 2010). "Recent developments in cyclin-dependent ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, also known as cell division protein kinase 2, or Cdk2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ...
"The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases". Cell. 75 (4): 805-816. doi:10.1016/ ... "p21 is a universal inhibitor of cyclin kinases". Nature. 366 (6456): 701-704. Bibcode:1993Natur.366..701X. doi:10.1038/366701a0 ... Yue Xiong and David Beach as a cyclin-CDK-PCNA interacting protein (p21), and as a senescence derived inhibitor by Noda. ... p21(WAF1) was the first mammalian cell cycle inhibitor to be discovered, and was found independently by Wade Harper and Steve ...
1993). "The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases". Cell. 75 (4): 805-16. doi: ... It was identified as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate CDK2 kinase ... "The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases". Cell. 75 (4): 805-16. doi:10.1016/ ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDKN3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ...
"P21-activated kinase 4 regulates the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57(kip2) in human breast cancer". Anatomical Record. ... "Small-molecule p21-activated kinase inhibitor PF-3758309 is a potent inhibitor of oncogenic signaling and tumor growth". ... "p21-activated kinase group II small compound inhibitor GNE-2861 perturbs estrogen receptor alpha signaling and restores ... pyridine-based p21-activated kinase 4 inhibitor". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 26 (11): 2580-3. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl ...
Inactivation of cyclin D is triggered by several cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein (CKIs) like the INK4 family (e.g. ... Another way in which DNA damage targets Cdks is p53-dependent induction of p21, which inhibits cyclin E-Cdk2 complex. In ... activate cyclin D gene in response to integrin. p27kip1 and p21cip1 are cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) which ... Cyclins are eukaryotic proteins that form holoenzymes with cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdk), which they activate. The ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor". Cell Division. 11 (1): 6. doi:10.1186/s13008-016-0019-0. PMC 4840944. PMID 27110270. Li J, ... "The T-box transcription factor TBX3 drives proliferation by direct repression of the p21(WAF1) ... The kinases involved are cyclin A-CDK2 at either SP190 or SP354, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase at SP692 in ... The function of TBX3 is also regulated by phosphorylation by the p38-MAPK, AKT3 and cyclin A/CDK2 and by protein co-factors, ...
The cyclin-dependent cell cycle checkpoint kinase inhibitor-1 CDKN1A (also known as p21) gene harbours promoter G-quadruplex. ... Upon insertion of 8-oxo-dG into thymidine kinase gene of humans, it was determine that if 8-oxo-dG was left unchecked and not ... The RET oncogene functions in the transcription of kinase which has been abundant in certain types of cancer. The guanine rich ... Interaction of this G-quadruplex with TRF2 (also known as TERF2) resulted in epigenetic regulation of p21, which was tested ...
Meis1 has been shown to be necessary for the activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p15, p16, and p21. Knockout ... Cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors play key roles in this process. One gene, jumonji (jmj), has ... Cardiomyocytes have been shown to be encouraged to exit the cell cycle then cyclin-dependent kinases are downregulated, or when ... of the cardiomyocyte cell cycle is believed to be regulated by transcription factors and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors, ...
Epigenetic regulation of neurogenesis
This includes the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P21 and the tumor suppressor gene Pten to promote neural stem cell ... DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors could possibly reverse epigenetic ... DNMT inhibitors and HDAC often produces antidepressant-like effects. Hu XL, Wang Y, Shen Q (April 2012). "Epigenetic control on ... Although these inhibitors improve some phenotypes of HD in mice, such as neuropathology and motor function, these beneficial ...
TGF beta 1
... and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors P27 and P21". Leuk. Lymphoma. 43 (1): 51-7. doi:10.1080/10428190210195. PMID ... Specifically, TGF-β1 prevents the interleukin(IL)-1- & interleukin-2-dependent proliferation in activated T cells, as well as ... "Activin receptor-like kinase 1 modulates transforming growth factor-beta 1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis". Proc. ... "Transforming growth factor-beta is a potent immunosuppressive agent that inhibits IL-1-dependent lymphocyte proliferation". J. ...
This gene targets the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21, and causes cell differentiation, cell cycle arrest in G1, and ... The problem with K562 cells, and many other cancer cell types, is an overabundance of Aurora kinases. These kinases play a role ... However, the overabundance of Aurora kinases allows for uncontrolled cellular division, resulting in cancer. Inhibiting these ...
Increased levels of myostatin up-regulate a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor called p21 and thereby inhibit the ... and p21 mRNA levels. This is consistent with the fact that cyclin D1 and p21 upregulation correlates to division and ... Dependent on their relative position to daughter cells on myofibers, satellite cells undergo asymmetric and symmetric division ... Relaix F, Rocancourt D, Mansouri A, Buckingham M (June 2005). "A Pax3/Pax7-dependent population of skeletal muscle progenitor ...
"Evidence for different modes of action of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: p15 and p16 bind to kinases, p21 and p27 bind to ... Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Different cyclins ... and the Kip/Cip family of CDK-inhibitor proteins. Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, ... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases". Oncogene. 15 (2): 143-157. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201252. PMID 9244350. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 7
"Both p16 and p21 families of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors block the phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases by ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 7, or cell division protein kinase 7, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene. The ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 has been shown to interact with: Androgen receptor, Cyclin H, GTF2H1, MNAT1, P53, SUPT5H, and XPB. ... "Entrez Gene: CDK7 cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (MO15 homolog, Xenopus laevis, cdk-activating kinase)". Patel H, Abduljabbar R, Lai ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4
"Evidence for different modes of action of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: p15 and p16 bind to kinases, p21 and p27 bind to ... "Entrez Gene: CDK4 cyclin-dependent kinase 4". "CDK4 - Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDK4 gene & protein". ... See also CDK inhibitor for inhibitors of various CDKs. Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 has been shown to interact with: CDC37, CDKN1B ... 1995). "Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
"Both p16 and p21 families of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors block the phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases by ... Marzluff WF, Gongidi P, Woods KR, Jin J, Maltais LJ (Oct 2002). "The human and mouse replication-dependent histone genes". ... 1999). "Cloning and characterization of RLPK, a novel RSK-related protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (2): 1026-32. doi:10.1074 ... the CDK-activating kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (31): 18195-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.31.18195. PMID 7629134. Albig W, Drabent B, ...
"Antitumour effect of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p16(INK4A), p18(INK4C), p19(INK4D), p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p27(KIP1)) on ... CDKN2C has been shown to interact with Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and Cyclin-dependent kinase 6. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor C is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDKN2C gene. The protein encoded by this ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN2C cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4)". Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, ...
"Evidence for different modes of action of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: p15 and p16 bind to kinases, p21 and p27 bind to ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN2B cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (p15, inhibits CDK4)". Tu Q, Hao J, Zhou X, Yan L, Dai H, Sun B, et al ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B also known as multiple tumor suppressor 2 (MTS-2) or p15INK4b is a protein that is ... Yang W, Zhang A, Han Y, Su X, Chen Y, Zhao W (2021). "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2b Controls Fibrosis and Functional ...
Evolution of ageing
The p53 protein binds to DNA, then stimulates the production of a p21, which is also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ... However, the p21 cells can trigger apoptosis. Apoptosis or programmed cell death is associated with gradual degradation of the ... Moorad JA, Promislow DE (August 2008). "A theory of age-dependent mutation and senescence". Genetics. 179 (4): 2061-2073. doi: ...
... also regulates cell cycle progression by acting on SETD8 to downregulate transcription of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 ( ... CDKN1A), also known as p21. CDKN1A binds to and inhibits CDK2 using its N-terminal binding domain, thus blocking progression ... For CDK2 to be activated, cyclin A must bind to the cyclin-dependent kinase complex (CDKC). Cell division cycle 25A (CDC25A) is ... Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of enzymes that phosphorylate serine and threonine residues to drive the cell ...
2004). "Antitumour effect of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p16(INK4A), p18(INK4C), p19(INK4D), p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p27( ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor D is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDKN2D gene. The protein encoded by this ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN2D cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2D (p19, inhibits CDK4)". Dehkordi, Shiva Kazempour; Walker, Jamie; Sah, ... 1995). "Novel INK4 proteins, p19 and p18, are specific inhibitors of the cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6". Mol. Cell. ...
"Distinct roles for cyclin-dependent kinases in cell cycle control." Science 262.5142 (1993): 2050-2054. Harlow, E. D., et al. " ... LaBaer, J (1997). "New functional activities for the p21 family of CDK inhibitors". Genes Dev. 11: 847-62. doi:10.1101/gad.11.7 ... "p35 is a neural-specific regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 5." (1994): 419-423. Meyerson, Matthew, et al. "A family ... Tsai, L (1994). "p35 is a neural-specific regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 5". Nature. 371: 419-23. doi:10.1038/ ...
Disposable soma theory of aging
Lastly, studies have also indicated that the mTOR pathway also alters immune responses and stimulates cyclin-dependent kinase ( ... CDK) inhibitors such as p16 and p21. This leads to alteration of the stem-cell niche and results in stem cell exhaustion, ... Mechanistically, the NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1) is upregulated during low-nutrient periods. SIRT-1 increases ... This cascade results in kinases phosphorylating forkhead transcription factor (FOXO), deactivating it. Deactivation of FOXO ...
"A current and comprehensive review of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer". ... They halt the cell cycle in G1 phase by binding to and inactivating cyclin-CDK complexes. p21 is activated by p53 (which, in ... Two key classes of regulatory molecules, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), determine a cell's progress through the ... cyclin A, DNA polymerase, thymidine kinase, etc. Cyclin E thus produced binds to CDK2, forming the cyclin E-CDK2 complex, which ...
... regulating the cell cycle and cell proliferation by stimulating p21, cFos, Erg-1, and cMyc or inhibiting N-Myc, Cyclin D1, Cdk4 ... "Anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone prostaglandins are direct inhibitors of IkappaB kinase". Nature. 403 (6765): 103-8. Bibcode: ... DP2 and DP1 are G protein-coupled receptors, with the DP2 receptor coupled to Gi alpha subunit-dependent depression of cellular ... 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 forms an adduct with the IKK-β subunit of IκB kinase thereby inhibiting the kinases activity thereby ...
p21 p53 Cyclin-dependent kinase Cyclin D GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000147889 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... p16 is also known as: p16INK4A p16Ink4 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) CDKN2 CDK 4 Inhibitor Multiple Tumor ... p16 is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). It slows down the cell cycle by prohibiting progression from G1 phase to ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN2A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4)". Nobori T, Miura K, Wu DJ, Lois A, ...
SKP2 targets p27Kip-1, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDKs2/4 partner with the cyclins E/D, respectively, ... "N-Terminal ubiquitylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 and p21 directs their degradation by the proteasome". ... This is achieved by continuous control of cyclins or CDKs levels through ubiquitination and degradation. When cyclin E is ... The level of cyclins, as the name suggests, are high only at certain time point during cell cycle. ...
Cyclin D, Cyclin E transcriptional regulators: Myc, E2f1, p130 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs): p27Kip1, p21, Wee1 ... Schwob, E (1994-10-21). "The B-type cyclin kinase inhibitor p40SIC1 controls the G1 to S transition in S. cerevisiae". Cell. 79 ... βTRCP recognizes these substrates after they are phosphorylated by Polo-like kinase 1 or Cyclin B-CDK1. Fbw7, which is the ... The phenotype was attributed to a failure to degrade Sic1, an inhibitor of S cyclin-CDK complexes. These findings indicated ...
G2-M DNA damage checkpoint
Accumulation of cyclin B increases the activity of the cyclin dependent kinase Cdk1 human homolog Cdc2 as cells prepare to ... p53 regulates the function of the Cdk2 inhibitor p21 and the 14-3-3 proteins that phosphorylate (and thereby inactivate) and ... The cell cycle is driven by proteins called cyclin dependent kinases that associate with cyclin regulatory proteins at ... Chk1 is an effector protein kinase that maintains mitotic cyclin in an inactive state and is phosphorylated by rad3 between S ...
Cell cycle checkpoint
At this point, E2F 1-3 proteins bind to DNA and transcribe Cyclin A and Cdc 6. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B), ... p53 also transactivates p21, and both p21 and the 14-3-3 in turn inhibit cyclin B-cdc2 complexes through the phosphorylation ... The G1 phase cyclin-dependent kinase works together with S phase cyclin-dependent kinase targeting p27 for degradation. In turn ... Progression through these checkpoints is largely determined by the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases by regulatory protein ...
Flap structure-specific endonuclease 1
... and shares sequence elements with the PCNA-binding regions of FEN-1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21". J. Biol. Chem. ... and shares sequence elements with the PCNA-binding regions of FEN-1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21". J. Biol. Chem. ... Henneke G, Koundrioukoff S, Hübscher U (Jul 2003). "Phosphorylation of human Fen1 by cyclin-dependent kinase modulates its role ... FEN1 is an essential enzyme in an inaccurate pathway for repair of double-strand breaks in DNA called microhomology-dependent ...
Dutta discovered how the cell cycle factor p21 interacts with and inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases and PCNA, identifying the ... Machida, YJ; Dutta, A (15 January 2007). "The APC/C inhibitor, Emi1, is essential for prevention of rereplication". Genes & ... Takeda, DY; Wohlschlegel, JA; Dutta, A (19 January 2001). "A bipartite substrate recognition motif for cyclin-dependent kinases ... Abbas, T; Sivaprasad, U; Terai, K; Amador, V; Pagano, M; Dutta, A (15 September 2008). "PCNA-dependent regulation of p21 ...
... and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors P27 and P21". Leuk. Lymphoma. 43 (1): 51-7. doi:10.1080/10428190210195. PMID ... CDKN1B has been shown to interact with: AKT1, CKS1B, Cyclin D3, Cyclin E1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is an enzyme inhibitor that in humans is encoded by the CDKN1B gene. It encodes ... vitamin D receptor and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27". Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 18 Suppl 3 (90003): iii9-12 ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776)
... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19 MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.500 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 MeSH D12.776.624.776 ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.700 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57 See List of MeSH ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p15 MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.200 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 MeSH D12.776.624.776 ... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.900 - cyclin-dependent kinase 9 MeSH D12.7126.96.36.1990.500 - cdc2 protein ...
"Interactions between protein kinase CK2 and Pin1. Evidence for phosphorylation-dependent interactions". The Journal of ... Inhibitors of Pin1 may have therapeutic implications for cancer and immune disorders. The gene encoding Pin1 was identified in ... Wulf GM, Liou YC, Ryo A, Lee SW, Lu KP (Dec 2002). "Role of Pin1 in the regulation of p53 stability and p21 transactivation, ... but protects phosphorylated cyclin D from ubiquitination and proteolysis. Recent data also implicate Pin1 as playing an ...
It specifically recognizes and promotes the degradation of phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B, also ... such as p27 and p21. Here, SKP2 has been implicated in double negative feedback loops with both p21 and p27, that control cell ... Progression through the cell cycle is tightly regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and their interactions with cyclins ... "Cytoplasmic relocalization and inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) by PKB/Akt-mediated ...
... has been shown to interact with: ARHGEF2, ARPC1B, BMX, C-Raf, CDC42, Cyclin-dependent kinase 5, DYNLL1, LIMK1, NCK1, ... "p21-activated kinase-1 signaling regulates transcription of tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor". The Journal of ... Shin YJ, Kim YB, Kim JH (September 2013). "Protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates and activates p21-activated kinase 1". Molecular ... "p21-activated kinase-1 signaling mediates cyclin D1 expression in mammary epithelial and cancer cells". The Journal of ...
Inhibition in MC/CAR Myeloma Cells via Cell Cycle Arrest in Association with Induction of Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor, ... p21, and Apoptosis". Cancer Research. 60 (3065): 3065-71. PMID 10850458. Retrieved 2010-12-15. "Arsenic in Drinking Water - ... The inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1) and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) are two receptors that ... Sykora, P; Snow, E.T (2008). "Modulation of DNA polymerase beta-dependent base excision repair in cultured human cells after ...
In addition to p53 and Rb, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs), such as p21, p27, and p57, are also important for ... Immunoprecipitation kinase assays revealed that cyclin C has Rb kinase activity. Furthermore, unlike cyclins D and E, cyclin ... co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk3) promotes G0 exit by forming a complex with cyclin ... Under normal conditions, the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase complex, Pho80-Pho85, inactivates the Pho4 transcription factor ...
... as well as p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1), which is involved in pausing cell development for DNA repair. HNRNPK ... May 1999). "Regulated interaction of protein kinase Cdelta with the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein". The ... "The multifunctional herpes simplex virus IE63 protein interacts with heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K and with casein kinase 2 ...
... is required for activation of a subset of NF-kappaB-dependent genes by recruiting cyclin-dependent kinase 9/cyclin T1 complexes ... "Regulation of NF-κB RelA Phosphorylation and Transcriptional Activity by p21 and Protein Kinase Cζ in Primary Endothelial Cells ... Yang JP, Hori M, Sanda T, Okamoto T (May 1999). "Identification of a novel inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB, RelA-associated ... TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1) and TRAF2-associated kinase (T2K)). The fact that RELA can be modified by a collection of kinases ...
Histone acetylation and deacetylation
... embryogenesis and showed a drastic reduction in the production but increased expression of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors ( ... HDACs 1 and 2 have been found to express regulatory roles in key cell cycle genes including p21. Activity of these HDACs can be ... Binding of HDACs to MEF2 inhibits muscle differentiation, which can be reversed by action of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase ( ... Nucleosome formation is dependent on the positive charges of the H4 histones and the negative charge on the surface of H2A ...
The opioid growth factor-opioid growth factor receptor axis: homeostatic regulator of cell proliferation and its implications...
S interface of the cell cycle by modulating cyclin-dependent inhibitory kinase (CKI) pathways. The OGF-OGFr axis is a tonically ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism * Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism ... S interface of the cell cycle by modulating cyclin-dependent inhibitory kinase (CKI) pathways. The OGF-OGFr axis is a tonically ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 * Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 * Narcotic Antagonists ...
Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL): Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
... p21, inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. ... PIP3 is generated as a result of BCR-dependent PI3K activation ... Following signaling via the BCR, protein kinase C (PKC) beta-dependent serine phosphorylation within the CARD11 linker domain ... PI3K, phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase; AKT, protein kinase B; PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog; PIP2, phosphatidylinositol-4 ... 10] Alternatively, activation of NFkB results from the proteasome degradation of its inhibitor (inhibitor of kappa B [IkB]). ...
Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) Workup: Approach Considerations, Flow Cytometry and Genetic Studies, Imaging Studies
... p21, inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. ... PIP3 is generated as a result of BCR-dependent PI3K activation ... PI3K, phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase; AKT, protein kinase B; PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog; PIP2, phosphatidylinositol-4 ... B-cell receptor signaling activates PI3K-mediated activation of the kinase AKT, which activates many downstream signaling ... usually anaplastic lymphoma kinase [ALK]) positive).  While each of these variants can be determined by pathological ...
Biblio | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University
Keith Vance - Research output - the University of Bath's research portal
MEOX1 gene: MedlinePlus Genetics
DNA repair - Wikipedia
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is induced by both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms and can arrest the ... "The role of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in apoptosis". Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 1 (8): 639-49. PMID ... cell cycle at the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints by deactivating cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. ... Checkpoint Proteins can be separated into four groups: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-like protein kinase, proliferating ...
Cancers | Free Full-Text | BRCA-Mutated Pancreatic Cancer: From Discovery to Novel Treatment Paradigms
... such as platinum chemotherapy and PARP inhibitors. Olaparib is currently indicated for maintenance therapy in metastatic PDAC ... p53 is needed to activate p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which induces the G1-S checkpoint arrest. A depletion in ... Thus, WEE1 kinase inhibitors are salient partners for platinum chemotherapy . A study by Hartman and colleagues analyzed a ... PARP Inhibitors in Combination with Other Agents. PARP inhibitors have also been tested in the combination setting in BRCA- ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is an important player in stress pathways exhibiting both tumor-suppressive and ... Nucleolar GTP-binding Protein-1 (NGP-1) Promotes G1 to S Phase Transition by Activating Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 ... CDK inhibitor, p21, enhances cell proliferation in certain situations.Significance: This study provides evidence that p21 ... Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors provide an effective treatment for these diseases, they generally do not kill leukemic stem ...
TEAD1 and c-Cbl are novel prostate basal cell markers that correlate with poor clinical outcome in prostate cancer | British...
Luminal cells expressed negative regulators of the cell cycle, including the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21CIP1/WAF1 ( ... The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Cell 75: 805-816 ... RNase inhibitor (Roche Diagnostics Ltd, Burgess Hill, UK) was used at a concentration of 0.5 U μl−1 in all solutions. ... Thien CB, Langdon WY (2001) Cbl: many adaptations to regulate protein tyrosine kinases. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2: 294-307 ...
JCI - Frataxin deficiency promotes endothelial senescence in pulmonary hypertension
These data were supported by an increase in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (Supplemental Figure 6E) associated with ... This FXN-dependent effect was robustly increased with hydroxyurea, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor that depletes ... While certain FXN-dependent phenotypes share similarities with those resulting from deficiencies of other HIF-α-dependent Fe-S ... First, tamoxifen-dependent endothelial (EC) Fxn-/- mice (Cdh5(PAC)-Cre-ERT2+ mice  crossed with Fxn flox/flox mice; ref. 72 ...
Index by author - July 01, 1999, 19 (13) | Journal of Neuroscience
Channels and Membrane Depolarization Regulate Accumulation of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21CIP1 in ... Channels and Membrane Depolarization Regulate Accumulation of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21CIP1 in ... Channels and Membrane Depolarization Regulate Accumulation of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21CIP1 in ... Channels and Membrane Depolarization Regulate Accumulation of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21CIP1 in ...
Xenoestrogen Action in Prostate Cancer: Pleiotropic Effects Dependent on Androgen Receptor Status | Cancer Research | American...
Androgen induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 gene: role of androgen receptor and transcription factor Sp1 ... Androgen regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 gene through an androgen response element in the proximal ... Elevated cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase activity in the rhabdomyosarcoma cell line RD. Cancer Res ... It has been shown by our group and others that androgen induces accumulation of cyclin D1, cyclin A, and p21cip1 in LNCaP cells ...
Tim Stearns' Profile | Stanford Profiles
Injection of the cdk (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor p21 into one blastomere of a dividing embryo blocks centrosome ... Cyclin-dependent kinase control of centrosome duplication PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES ... Cyclin-dependent kinase control of motile ciliogenesis ELIFE Vladar, E. K., Stratton, M. B., Saal, M. L., Salazar-De Simone, G ... depletion of either cdk2 or of the two activating cyclins, cyclin A and cyclin E, eliminates centriole separation activity. In ...
Gene expression profiling revealed novel mechanism of action of Taxotere and Furtulon in prostate cancer cells | BMC Cancer |...
NM_000389.1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1) 1.3 9.8 8.6 1.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 8.0 7.5 ... AB012305.1 cyclin-dependent kinase 2 -1.7 -3.5 -5.3 -2.0 -2.1 -2.1 NC -2.8 -3.5 ... AF112857.1 cyclin E2 splice variant 1 mRNA 1.2 -3.5 -3.2 NC -2.0 -1.6 -1.4 -7.0 -8.6 ... NM_001237.1 cyclin A2 (CCNA2) -1.2 -5.7 -12.1 NC NC -2.1 -1.1 -8.6 -13.9 ...
Peunova N et al. (2001), Nitric oxide is an essential negative regulator... - Paper
Induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Sdi1/Cip1/Waf1) by nitric oxide-generating vasodilator in vascular ... Inhibitors of the proteasome block the myogenic differentiation of rat L6 myoblasts. 1998, Pubmed Kuzin, Nitric oxide regulates ... NF-kappaB-dependent expression of nitric oxide synthase is required for membrane fusion of chick embryonic myoblasts. 1997, ... Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors attenuate transforming-growth-factor-beta 1-stimulated capillary organization in vitro. 1997, ...
Hinokitiol Negatively Regulates Immune Responses through Cell Cycle Arrest in Concanavalin A-Activated Lymphocytes
In conclusion, we for the first time demonstrated that hinokitiol upregulates p21 expression and attenuates IFN-,i,γ,/i, ... and Cdk4 expression and upregulated p21 expression. These results revealed that hinokitiol may regulate immune responses. ... In addition, hinokitiol also downregulated cyclin D3, E2F1, ... "Role of cyclin kinase inhibitor p21 in systemic autoimmunity," ... The cell cycle inhibitor p21, which belongs to the Cip/Kip family, interferes with cycling by inhibiting all cyclin-dependent ...
Tbx2 Directly Represses the Expression of the p21WAF1 Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor - Nuffield Department of Medicine
Taken together, these results implicate Tbx2 as a novel direct regulator of p21 expression and have implications for our ... The p21WAF1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor plays a key role in senescence and in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage. Here, ... Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of Tbx2 expression results in a robust activation of p21 expression. ... we show that Tbx2 can bind and repress the p21 promoter in vitro and in vivo. ...
Telomeric Theory of Aging IV
ATM and p53 relay a signal that causes the induction of a family of inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinases (including p21 and ... While some genetic expression or lack thereof in senescence are dependant on the type of cell involved, ie; cd28 in T cells and ... However most of the genetic changes like the expression of ATM, p53, P21 and P16 as well as other biochemicals like ...
AMP-activated protein kinase - a journey from 1 to 100 downstream targets | Biochemical Journal | Portland Press
... in part by inducing transcription of genes such as CDKN1A encoding the inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases, p21CIP1, thus ... Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta is an alternative upstream kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase ... The Ca2+/calmoldulin-dependent protein kinase kinases are AMP-activated protein kinase kinases ... Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta acts upstream of AMP-activated protein kinase in mammalian cells ...
Find Research outputs - Keio University
Pro-oxidant activity of sulforaphane and cisplatin potentiates apoptosis and simultaneously promotes autophagy in malignant...
... was not dependent on the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1, rather it was associated with an upregulation of p- ... 5023), cyclin D1 (catalog no. 2978), cyclin B1 (catalog no. 12231), phosphorylated (p)-cyclin dependent kinase 2 (p-Cdc2Tyr15; ... phosphorylated cyclin dependent kinase 2; PE, phycoerythrin; SFN, sulforaphane. ... phosphorylated-cyclin dependent kinase 2; PE, phycoerythrin; SFN, sulforaphane. ...
PathScan®Total Akt2 Sandwich ELISA Kit (Mouse Preferred) | Cell Signaling Technology
... and by negatively regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a ... LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis ... Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is ... an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).. * Franke, T.F. et al. (1997) Cell. 88, 435-7. ...
Find Research outputs - Yonsei University
The flavonoid beverage Haelan 951 induces growth arrest and apoptosis in pancreatic carcinoma cell lines in vitro | BMC...
The proliferation-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects of Haelan are highly dependent on cell type and concentration ... and its anticancer activity may be potentiated when administered with calpain inhibitors. ... We investigated the effects of the isoflavone containing beverage Haelan 951 and the calpain inhibitor PD150606 on the ... the protease cleaves inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases p21/Cip1 and p27/Kip1, which in turn facilitates cell proliferation ...
Control and target gene selection for studies on UV-induced genotoxicity in whales | BMC Research Notes | Full Text
... followed by the genes encoding phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) and succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA). A careful ... One of P53s most important transcriptional targets is the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, which can provoke cell-cycle ... namely phospho-inositide kinases, check point kinases 1 and 2 and the group of BRCT (breast cancer C-terminal repeats) proteins ... Garrido C, Schmitt E, Candé C, Vahsen N, Parcellier A, Kroemer G: HSP27 and HSP70: potentially oncogenic apoptosis inhibitors. ...
Nanomicelles Potentiate HDAC Inhibitor Efficacy In Vitro. | Research Square
... p21 is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that can stabilize the interaction between cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-4/6 ... cyclin-dependent kinase; HDACi: Histone deacetylase inhibitors.. Authors contributions. Conceptualization and methodology: CL ... and cyclin D and promote the formation of cyclin D/CDK complexes. Overexpression of p21 leads to the arrest of cells in the G1/ ... Histone deacetylase inhibitor, Romidepsin (FK228) inhibits endometrial cancer cell growth through augmentation of p53-p21 ...
Arginase Promotes Neointima Formation in Rat Injured Carotid Arteries, NC DOCKS (North Carolina Digital Online Collection of...
Reactome | PCBP4:CDKN1A mRNA [cytosol]
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is regulated by RNA-binding protein PCBP4 via mRNA stability Chen, X, Cho, SJ, ... Transcriptional activation of cell cycle inhibitor p21 (Homo sapiens) * PCBP4 binds the CDKN1A mRNA (Homo sapiens) * PCBP4: ... p53-Dependent G1/S DNA damage checkpoint (Homo sapiens) * p53-Dependent G1 DNA Damage Response (Homo sapiens) * Transcriptional ...
Upregulated p21 expressionProteinCDKN1ACip1ProteinsWAF1Tyrosine kinaseProliferationDysregulationHDACPolymorphismsVitroApoptosisSpecific inhibitorHistonePotent and selectiveLymphocytesSubunitSenescencePathwaysCytoplasmicPromoterCellExpressionTranscriptionInhibitionBindActivationRoleHumanEffectsResponseCells
Upregulated p21 expression1
- In addition, hinokitiol also downregulated cyclin D3, E2F1, and Cdk4 expression and upregulated p21 expression. (hindawi.com)
- A casual decision made one evening in 1976, in a bar near the Biochemistry Department at the University of Dundee, led me to start my personal research journey by following up a paper that suggested that acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (believed to be a key regulatory enzyme of fatty acid synthesis) was inactivated by phosphorylation by what appeared to be a novel, cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase. (portlandpress.com)
- This led me to define and name the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway, on which I am still working 46 years later. (portlandpress.com)
- Moreover, gene and protein expression analyses suggested that this effect was achieved through the regulation of p21 and p53 expression. (researchsquare.com)
- Moreover treatment of VSMCs with BEC or L-OHNA or knockdown of arginase I protein rrested cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and induced the expression of the cyclin-dependent rotein kinase inhibitor p21. (uncg.edu)
- Protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation of Sox9 enhances Sox9-dependent transcription by increasing the DNA-binding aﬃnity of Sox9. (heightquest.com)
- CHIR-99021 is a GSK-3α/β inhibitor with an IC50 of 10 and 6.7 nM，showing 500-fold selectivity over its closest homologs CDC2 and ERK2, as well as other protein kinases. (dcchemicals.com)
- APE1 was earlier shown to stimulate p53's DNA binding and its transactivation function in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A) gene. (nebraska.edu)
- The resulting free Sp1/3 transcriptionally activated p21 CIP1/WAF1 , a representative negative regulator of cell growth. (rupress.org)
- Using 20 epidermal biopsies from blue, fin and sperm whale, we found that the genes encoding the ribosomal proteins L4 and S18 ( RPL4 and RPS18 ) were the most suitable to use as controls, followed by the genes encoding phosphoglycerate kinase 1 ( PGK1 ) and succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A ( SDHA ). (biomedcentral.com)
- Although the identities of the sensors are still unclear, transducers include four sets of conserved proteins, namely phospho-inositide kinases, check point kinases 1 and 2 and the group of BRCT (breast cancer C-terminal repeats) proteins [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) are proteins that bind to and inhibit the activity of CDKs. (prospecbio.com)
- Background: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21CIP1/WAF1 is involved in cell-cycle growth arrest due to cell stressors, such as cigarette smoke. (elsevier.com)
- Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors provide an effective treatment for these diseases, they generally do not kill leukemic stem cells (LSCs), the cancer-initiating cells that compete with normal hematopoietic stem cells for the bone marrow niche. (jbc.org)
- Increased expression and/or activation of the tyrosine kinase c-Src has classically been associated with increased aggressiveness in cancer cells. (virginia.edu)
- We also show that higher concentrations of BPA block proliferation of AR-positive, androgen-dependent prostate adenocarcinoma cells (LNCaP and LAPC-4), with a more modest inhibitory effect on androgen-independent cells (22Rv-1). (aacrjournals.org)
- The cell cycle inhibitor p21, which belongs to the Cip/Kip family, interferes with cycling by inhibiting all cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) involved in the G1/S phase, thereby controlling cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in various cell types [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- In addition, p21 deficiency was reported to enhance T lymphocyte activation and proliferation and to induce autoimmune manifestations [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Suppression of p21 promotes malignant T lymphocyte proliferation in malignant CD30 + T lymphocytes [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Thus, p21 may play a critical role in autoimmune diseases and tumorigenesis by regulating T lymphocyte activation and proliferation. (hindawi.com)
- The proliferation-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects of Haelan are highly dependent on cell type and concentration administered. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the present study, we investigated whether, in the epithelium of small airways of smokers with and without COPD, altered p21 expression is associated with an imbalance between proliferation and apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
- Objectives and Methods: The expression of specific molecules involved in the regulation of apoptosis, such as activated caspase-3 and cytoplasmic p21, cell quiescence (G0) or proliferation markers such as Ki67 and PCNA, and cell-cycle markers such as the nuclear p21, was assessed in the small airway (bronchiolar) epithelium of smokers with and without COPD and in nonsmoker non-COPD subjects. (elsevier.com)
- Furthermore, p21 alteration may be associated with the inhibition of tissue repair in smokers and smokers with COPD as confirmed by the low expression of proliferation markers such as PCNA. (elsevier.com)
- It is thus likely that APE1 overexpression and inactivation of p53, often observed in tumor cells, promote tumor cell proliferation by constitutively downregulating p21 expression. (nebraska.edu)
- Interestingly, it was demonstrated that c-Src expression in the UMUC3 cell iii line had a direct correlation with p21 expression suggesting that c-Src could act as a suppressor of proliferation in UC via increased p21 expression. (virginia.edu)
- Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 dysregulation induces oligodendrocyte differentiation impairment in multiple sclerosis cerebral organoids. (tischms.org)
- Nanomicelles Potentiate HDAC Inhibitor Efficacy In Vitro. (researchsquare.com)
- Based on histone deacetylation phenotypes implied by bioinformatic analysis, HDAC inhibitors demonstrated significant survival superiority in the survival of TR mice, yielding insights into clinical efficacy against rare types of APL. (bvsalud.org)
- Here, using a combination of in vitro DNA-binding, transfection, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that Tbx2 can bind and repress the p21 promoter in vitro and in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
- CHIR-99021 is a glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta inhibitor that has antiproliferative activity in vitro and in vivo. (dcchemicals.com)
- CHIR 99021 is a small organic molecule that inhibits GSK3α and GSK3β by competing for their ATP-binding sites.In vitro kinase assays reveal that CHIR 99021 specifically inhibits GSK3β (IC50=~5 nM) and GSK3α (IC50=~10 nM), with little effect on other kinases. (dcchemicals.com)
- SFN has also been reported to sensitize cancer cells to imatinib- and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand-induced apoptosis, via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent pathway ( 8 , 9 ), suggesting potential therapeutic value as an adjunct to current cancer therapies. (spandidos-publications.com)
- We investigated the effects of the isoflavone containing beverage Haelan 951 and the calpain inhibitor PD150606 on the viability, growth and apoptosis of the human pancreatic cancer cell lines CAPAN-1 and BxPC-3, on the rat pancreatic cancer cell line AR42J, and on human fibroblasts as the control cell line. (biomedcentral.com)
- The role of p21 in cell apoptosis is controversial as it exerts pro-or antiapoptotic effects in different cells. (elsevier.com)
- Moreover, aged ASCs were characterized by increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and miRNAs (interleukin 8 (IL-8), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), miR-203b-5p, and miR-16-5p), as well as apoptosis markers (p21, p53, caspase-3, caspase-9). (biomedcentral.com)
- Moreover, blocking AKT or STAT3 pathway with a specific inhibitor could partially reverse the promotion of melanoma malignancy mediated by TRIM14 overexpression. (aging-us.com)
- BIO (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime) is a specific inhibitor of GSK-3 with IC50 of 5 nM for GSK-3α/β, shows >16-fold selectivity over CDK5, also a pan-JAKinhibitor. (dcchemicals.com)
- In this study, Pluronic F127 was used to fabricate nanomicelles containing the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA, which has an epigenetic-driven anti-cancer effect in several tumor types. (researchsquare.com)
- the BMP-2 inhibitor Noggin represses Sox9 expression in limb bud chondrogenic precursors while inducing the ligament/tendon-speciﬁc transcription factor Scx" "the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p300 has the potential to facilitate transcriptional activity by modulating the chromatin structure. (heightquest.com)
Potent and selective3
- Furthermore local perivascular application of the potent and selective rginase inhibitors S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine (BEC) or NG-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (L-OHNA) mmediately after injury markedly attenuated medial and neointimal DNA synthesis and neointima ormation. (uncg.edu)
- SB 216763 is a potent and selective cell permeable ATP-competitive inhibitor of GSK3α with an IC50 value of 34 nM (similar potency for GSK3β). (dcchemicals.com)
- CP21R7 is a potent and selective GSK-3β inhibitor. (dcchemicals.com)
- In conclusion, we for the first time demonstrated that hinokitiol upregulates p21 expression and attenuates IFN- γ secretion in ConA-stimulated T lymphocytes, thereby arresting cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. (hindawi.com)
- Sox9 interacts with the Med12/Trap230 subunit of the mediator complex to stimulate RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription in chondrocytes. (heightquest.com)
- The p21WAF1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor plays a key role in senescence and in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage. (ox.ac.uk)
- Taken together, these results implicate Tbx2 as a novel direct regulator of p21 expression and have implications for our understanding of the role of T-box factors in the regulation of senescence and oncogenesis, as well as in development. (ox.ac.uk)
- However most of the genetic changes like the expression of ATM, p53, P21 and P16 as well as other biochemicals like collagenases an cd28 have been directly related to the cells entrance into the G1 block of senescence. (bio.net)
- The opioid growth factor (OGF), chemically termed [Met(5)]-enkephalin, is an endogenous opioid peptide that interacts with the OGF receptor (OGFr) to delay the G(1)/S interface of the cell cycle by modulating cyclin-dependent inhibitory kinase (CKI) pathways. (nih.gov)
- Results: In smokers with and without COPD, we found an increase of cytoplasmic nuclear p21 and activated caspase-3 expression. (elsevier.com)
- Conclusions: In the small airway epithelium, cytoplasmic p21 correlating with increased activated caspase-3 expression might play a proapoptotic role. (elsevier.com)
- We then identified APE1's another binding site in p21's proximal promoter region containing cis elements for AP4, a repressor of p21. (nebraska.edu)
- Moreover, ectopic p53 in p53-null cells inhibited AP4's association with APE1, their binding to the promoter and p21 repression. (nebraska.edu)
- The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
- We have shown that duplication of the centrosome, the microtubule organizing center of animal cells, is dependent on the cell cycle kinase cdk2, and on cell cycle-specific proteolysis. (stanford.edu)
- 293 cells were transfected with XNOS cDNA, and the NOS activity in the cell extract was measured using the arginine-to-citrulline conversion assay in the presence or absence of various cofactors and inhibitors. (xenbase.org)
- Ectopic expression of p53 in the p53-null cells abrogated this repression suggesting that APE1's negative regulatory role in p21 expression is dependent on the p53 status. (nebraska.edu)
- Importantly, these data also suggested that c-Src inhibitors would be contraindicated in UC patients with high cSrc expression. (virginia.edu)
- Thus, while c-Src is likely important in regulating p21 expression in UC, the phenotypic impact of this relationship is likely subtle. (virginia.edu)
- p53 is a transcription factor for Waf-1/p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. (cdc.gov)
- Several transcription factors and coactivators, such as Scleraxis/E47 and p300, cooperatively modulate the Sox9-dependent transcription by interacting with Sox9. (heightquest.com)
- The TGF-β-regulated Smad3/4 complex activates Sox9-dependent transcription on chromatin by associating with Sox9 itself, and by recruiting p300 onto Sox9 [thus TGF-Beta may help with Sox9 transcription, note LSJL increases TGF-Beta levels]. (heightquest.com)
- no significant inhibition on 26 other kinases. (dcchemicals.com)
- The p21 family (p21, p27, p28 and p57) can bind to broad range of CDK-cyclin complexes and inhibit their activities. (prospecbio.com)
- Here, we show APE1's stable binding to p53 cis elements which are required for p53-mediated activation of p21 in p53-expressing wild type HCT116 cells. (nebraska.edu)
- These results together establish APE1's role as a co-activator or co-repressor of p21 gene, dependent on p53 status. (nebraska.edu)
- The results show for the first time that Haelan may be a promising candidate in the treatment of human pancreatic cancer, and its anticancer activity may be potentiated when administered with calpain inhibitors. (biomedcentral.com)
- The overall effects of impaired calcium extrusion due to age-dependent decline of PMCA function seem to accumulate with age, increasing the susceptibility to neurotoxic insults. (transhumanist.ru)
- The operational activities of cells are based on an awareness of their current state, coupled to a programmed response to internal and external cues in a context-dependent manner. (tamu.edu)
- Loss of BAF180 blunts the induction of the canonical p53 target p21, which functions as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, in response to particular forms of stress. (ees2010prague.org)
- Mechanisms of MEOX1 and MEOX2 regulation of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 in vascular endothelial cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- However, surprisingly, we observed APE1-dependent repression of p21 in isogenic p53-null HCT116 cells. (nebraska.edu)