Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5
Cell Cycle Proteins
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
CDC2 Protein Kinase
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57
Tumor Suppressor Proteins
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
E2F1 Transcription Factor
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
MAP Kinase Signaling System
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Transcription Factor DP1
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
E2F Transcription Factors
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein Kinase C
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Amino Acid Sequence
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
Gene Expression Regulation
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Casein Kinase II
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
MAP Kinase Kinase 1
Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
RNA, Small Interfering
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
MAP Kinase Kinase 4
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)
I-kappa B Kinase
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
E2F4 Transcription Factor
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Protein Kinase C-alpha
S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Protein Kinase C-delta
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1
Focal Adhesion Kinase 1
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Janus Kinase 2
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
Protein Kinase C-epsilon
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
MAP Kinase Kinase 2
MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1
Protein Kinase C beta
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8
Casein Kinase I
A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
MAP Kinase Kinase 6
Cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are biochemically distinct CTD kinases. (1/122)Phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II is important for basal transcriptional processes in vivo and for cell viability. Several kinases, including certain cyclin-dependent kinases, can phosphorylate this substrate in vitro. It has been proposed that differential CTD phosphorylation by different kinases may regulate distinct transcriptional processes. We have found that two of these kinases, cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36, can specifically phosphorylate distinct residues in recombinant CTD substrates. This difference in specificity may be largely due to their varying ability to phosphorylate lysine-substituted heptapeptide repeats within the CTD, since they phosphorylate the same residue in CTD consensus heptapeptide repeats. Furthermore, this substrate specificity is reflected in vivo where cyclin C/ CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 can differentially phosphorylate an endogenous RNA polymerase II substrate. Several small-molecule kinase inhibitors have different specificities for these related kinases, indicating that these enzymes have diverse active-site conformations. These results suggest that cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are physically distinct enzymes that may have unique roles in transcriptional regulation mediated by their phosphorylation of specific sites on RNA polymerase II. (+info)
GAL4 is regulated by the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme-associated cyclin-dependent protein kinase SRB10/CDK8. (2/122)Phosphorylation of the yeast transcription factor GAL4 at S699 is required for efficient galactose-inducible transcription. We demonstrate that this site is a substrate for the RNA polymerase holoenzyme-associated CDK SRB10. S699 phosphorylation requires SRB10 in vivo, and this site is phosphorylated by purified SRB10/ SRB11 CDK/cyclin in vitro. RNA Pol II holoenzymes purified from WT yeast phosphorylate GAL4 at sites observed in vivo whereas holoenzymes from srb10 yeast are incapable of phosphorylating GAL4 at S699. Mutations at GAL4 S699 and srb10 are epistatic for GAL induction, demonstrating that SRB10 regulates GAL4 activity through this phosphorylation in vivo. These results demonstrate a function for the SRB10/ CDK8 holoenzyme-associated CDK that involves regulation of transactivators by phosphorylation during transcriptional activation. (+info)
Transcription: Common cofactors and cooperative recruitment. (3/122)Mammalian counterparts of the yeast SRB/MED transcriptional 'mediator' complex have recently been identified. These complexes define a common cofactor requirement for diverse transcriptional activators and underscore the conserved nature of the transcriptional machinery among eukaryotic organisms. (+info)
Multiple signals regulate GAL transcription in yeast. (4/122)Gal4p activates transcription of the Saccharomyces GAL genes in response to galactose and is phosphorylated during interaction with the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) holoenzyme. One phosphorylation at S699 is necessary for full GAL induction and is mediated by Srb10p/CDK8 of the RNA Pol II holoenzyme mediator subcomplex. Gal4p S699 phosphorylation is necessary for sensitive response to inducer, and its requirement for GAL induction can be abrogated by high concentrations of galactose in strains expressing wild-type GAL2 and GAL3. Gal4p S699 phosphorylation occurs independently of Gal3p and is responsible for the long-term adaptation response observed in gal3 yeast. SRB10 and GAL3 are shown to represent parallel mechanisms for GAL gene induction. These results demonstrate that Gal4p activity is controlled by two independent signals: one that acts through Gal3p-galactose and a second that is mediated by the holoenzyme-associated cyclin-dependent kinase Srb10p. Since Srb10p is regulated independently of galactose, our results suggest a function for CDK8 in coordinating responses to specific inducers with the environment through the phosphorylation of gene-specific activators. (+info)
A regulatory shortcut between the Snf1 protein kinase and RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. (5/122)RNA polymerase II holoenzymes respond to activators and repressors that are regulated by signaling pathways. Here we present evidence for a "shortcut" mechanism in which the Snf1 protein kinase of the glucose signaling pathway directly regulates transcription by the yeast holoenzyme. In response to glucose limitation, the Snf1 kinase stimulates transcription by holoenzyme that has been artificially recruited to a reporter by a LexA fusion to a holoenzyme component. We show that Snf1 interacts physically with the Srb/mediator proteins of the holoenzyme in both two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays. We also show that a catalytically hyperactive Snf1, when bound to a promoter as a LexA fusion protein, activates transcription in a glucose-regulated manner; moreover, this activation depends on the integrity of the Srb/mediator complex. These results suggest that direct regulatory interactions between signal transduction pathways and RNA polymerase II holoenzyme provide a mechanism for transcriptional control in response to important signals. (+info)
Genetic analysis of the role of Pol II holoenzyme components in repression by the Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor in yeast. (6/122)The Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex is targeted to promoters by pathway-specific DNA-binding repressors, thereby inhibiting the transcription of specific classes of genes. Genetic screens have identified mutations in a variety of Pol II holoenzyme components (Srb8, Srb9, Srb10, Srb11, Sin4, Rgr1, Rox3, and Hrs1) and in the N-terminal tails of histones H3 and H4 that weaken repression by Cyc8-Tup1. Here, we analyze the effect of individual and multiple mutations in many of these components on transcriptional repression of natural promoters that are regulated by Cyc8-Tup1. In all cases tested, individual mutations have a very modest effect on SUC2 RNA levels and no detectable effect on levels of ANB1, MFA2, and RNR2. Furthermore, multiple mutations within the Srb components, between Srbs and Sin4, and between Srbs and histone tails affect Cyc8-Tup1 repression to the same modest extent as the individual mutations. These results argue that the weak effects of the various mutations on repression by Cyc8-Tup1 are not due to redundancy among components of the Pol II machinery, and they argue against a simple redundancy between the holoenzyme and chromatin pathways. In addition, phenotypic analysis indicates that, although Srbs8-11 are indistinguishable with respect to Cyc8-Tup1 repression, the individual Srbs are functionally distinct in other respects. Genetic interactions among srb mutations imply that a balance between the activities of Srb8 + Srb10 and Srb11 is important for normal cell growth. (+info)
Roles of transcription factor Mot3 and chromatin in repression of the hypoxic gene ANB1 in yeast. (7/122)The hypoxic genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are repressed by a complex consisting of the aerobically expressed, sequence-specific DNA-binding protein Rox1 and the Tup1-Ssn6 general repressors. The regulatory region of one well-studied hypoxic gene, ANB1, is comprised of two operators, OpA and OpB, each of which has two strong Rox1 binding sites, yet OpA represses transcription almost 10 times more effectively than OpB. We show here that this difference is due to the presence of a Mot3 binding site in OpA. Mutations in this site reduced OpA repression to OpB levels, and the addition of a Mot3 binding site to OpB enhanced repression. Deletion of the mot3 gene also resulted in reduced repression of ANB1. Repression of two other hypoxic genes in which Mot3 sites were associated with Rox1 sites was reduced in the deletion strain, but other hypoxic genes were unaffected. In addition, the mot3Delta mutation caused a partial derepression of the Mig1-Tup1-Ssn6-repressed SUC2 gene, but not the alpha2-Mcm1-Tup1-Ssn6-repressed STE2 gene. The Mot3 protein was demonstrated to bind to the ANB1 OpA in vitro. Competition experiments indicated that there was no interaction between Rox1 and Mot3, indicating that Mot3 functions either in Tup1-Ssn6 recruitment or directly in repression. A great deal of evidence has accumulated suggesting that the Tup1-Ssn6 complex represses transcription through both nucleosome positioning and a direct interaction with the basal transcriptional machinery. We demonstrate here that under repressed conditions a nucleosome is positioned over the TATA box in the wild-type ANB1 promoter. This nucleosome was absent in cells carrying a rox1, tup1, or mot3 deletion, all of which cause some degree of derepression. Interestingly, however, this positioned nucleosome was also lost in a cell carrying a deletion of the N-terminal coding region of histone H4, yet ANB1 expression remained fully repressed. A similar deletion in the gene for histone H3, which had no effect on repression, had only a minor effect on the positioned nucleosome. These results indicate that the nucleosome phasing on the ANB1 promoter caused by the Rox1-Mot3-Tup1-Ssn6 complex is either completely redundant with a chromatin-independent repression mechanism or, less likely, plays no role in repression at all. (+info)
Characterization of CAF4 and CAF16 reveals a functional connection between the CCR4-NOT complex and a subset of SRB proteins of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. (8/122)The CCR4-NOT transcriptional regulatory complex affects transcription both positively and negatively and consists of the following two complexes: a core 1 x 10(6) dalton (1 MDa) complex consisting of CCR4, CAF1, and the five NOT proteins and a larger, less defined 1.9-MDa complex. We report here the identification of two new factors that associate with the CCR4-NOT proteins as follows: CAF4, a WD40-containing protein, and CAF16, a putative ABC ATPase. Whereas neither CAF4 nor CAF16 was part of the core CCR4-NOT complex, both CAF16 and CAF4 appeared to be present in the 1.9-MDa complex. CAF4 also displayed physical interactions with multiple CCR4-NOT components and with DBF2, a likely component of the 1.9-MDa complex. In addition, both CAF4 and CAF16 were found to interact in a CCR4-dependent manner with SRB9, a component of the SRB complex that is part of the yeast RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. The three related SRB proteins, SRB9, SRB10, and SRB11, were found to interact with and to coimmunoprecipitate DBF2, CAF4, CCR4, NOT2, and NOT1. Defects in SRB9 and SRB10 also affected processes at the ADH2 locus known to be controlled by components of the CCR4-NOT complex; an srb9 mutation was shown to reduce ADH2 derepression and either an srb9 or srb10 allele suppressed spt10-enhanced expression of ADH2. In addition, srb9 and srb10 alleles increased ADR1(c)-dependent ADH2 expression; not4 and not5 deletions are the only other known defects that elicit this phenotype. These results suggest a close physical and functional association between components of the CCR4-NOT complexes and the SRB9, -10, and -11 components of the holoenzyme. (+info)
Recombinant Human CDK5 Protein, Myc/DDK-tagged, C13 and N15-labeled CDK5-4483H - Creative BioMart
Purified Recombinant Human CDK5 Protein, Myc/DDK-tagged, C13 and N15-labeled from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human CDK5 Protein, Myc/DDK-tagged, C13 and N15-labeled can be used for research.
Recombinant Human CDK2 + CCNE1 protein (ab85836) | Abcam
Buy our Recombinant Human CDK2 + CCNE1 protein. Ab85836 is a full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in WB…
Recombinant Human Cdk4 protein (ab126909) | Abcam
Buy our Recombinant Human Cdk4 protein. Ab126909 is a full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in WB, SDS-PAGE…
bostongop: Nursing Care Plan Renal Failure by ahmed.1319
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Potential roles of mediator Complex Subunit 13 in Cardiac Diseases
1. Dannappel MV, Sooraj D, Loh JJ, Firestein R. Molecular and in vivo Functions of the CDK8 and CDK19 Kinase Modules. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2018;6:171 2. Borggrefe T, Yue X. Interactions between subunits of the Mediator complex with gene-specific transcription factors. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2011;22:759-68 3. Putlyaev EV, Ibragimov AN, Lebedeva LA, Georgiev PG, Shidlovskii YV. Structure and Functions of the Mediator Complex. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2018;83:423-36 4. Poss ZC, Ebmeier CC, Taatjes DJ. The Mediator complex and transcription regulation. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;48:575-608 5. Soutourina J. Transcription regulation by the Mediator complex. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2018;19:262-74 6. Roeder RG. Transcriptional regulation and the role of diverse coactivators in animal cells. FEBS letters. 2005;579:909-15 7. Schiano C, Casamassimi A, Vietri MT, Rienzo M, Napoli C. The roles of mediator complex in cardiovascular diseases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1839:444-51 8. Allen BL, Taatjes DJ. The ...
CYCC - Cyclacel Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Summary, Stock Quote and News | Benzinga
Cyclacel Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: CYCC) stock research, profile, news, analyst ratings, key statistics, fundamentals, stock price, charts, earnings, guidance and peers on Benzinga.
NeuroRhythms: September 2011
Where is all this heading? Alongside the arms race of increasingly elaborate modelling software, there are also efforts to develop software that can assist in negotiation and mediation. Two decades ago Clara Ponsatí, a Spanish academic, came up with a clever idea while pondering the arduous Israeli-Palestinian peace process. As negotiators everywhere know, the first side to disclose all that it is willing to sacrifice (or pay) loses considerable bargaining power. Bereft of leverage, it can be pushed back to its bottom line by a clever opponent. But if neither side reveals the concessions it is prepared to make, negotiations can stall or collapse. In a paper published in 1992, Dr Ponsatí described how software could be designed to break the impasse. Difficult negotiations can often be nudged along by neutral mediators, especially if they are entrusted with the secret bottom lines of all parties. Dr Ponsatís idea was that if a human mediator was not trusted, affordable or available, a computer ...
MCM Proteins Are Associated with RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme...
MCM Proteins Are Associated with RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme: MCMs are a family of proteins related to ATP-dependent helicases that bind to origin recognition
Human CDK10 gene isoforms
The CDK10/PISSLRE gene has been shown to encode two different CDK-like putative kinases. The function(s) of the gene products are unknown, although a role at the G2/M transition has been suggested. We characterised two novel cDNAs. CDK10 mRNA quantity was not found to be correlated with cell prolife …
磁力正畸与牙周组织中神经肽的研究进展-- 解剖学 --医学文献--首席医学网
Миша Мёд - плоть от плоти челябинской тусовки, уже дебютируя в роли дискжокея, двигал слайдеры на микшере с уверенностью правой руки Сталина, выводившей подписи...
Τσάι και η υγεία της καρδιάς | medΝutrition
Το τσάι είναι ένα από τα πιο διαδεδομένα ροφήματα στον κόσμο. Μετά το νερό, το τσάι είναι το πιο συχνά καταναλισκόμενο ποτό. Σήμερα, καταναλώνονται πά..
Ένα μήλο την ημέρα τη χοληστερόλη κάνει πέρα | medΝutrition
Διαβάστε για τις ευεργετικές ιδιότητες του μήλου και πως βοηθάει στη μείωση της χοληστερίνης.
RNA polymerase II holoenzyme - Wikipedia
RNAPII can exist in two forms: RNAPII0, with a highly phosphorylated CTD, and RNAPIIA, with a nonphosphorylated CTD. Phosphorylation occurs principally on Ser2 and Ser5 of the repeats, although these positions are not equivalent. The phosphorylation state changes as RNAPII progresses through the transcription cycle: The initiating RNAPII is form IIA, and the elongating enzyme is form II0. While RNAPII0 does consist of RNAPs with hyperphosphorylated CTDs, the pattern of phosphorylation on individual CTDs can vary due to differential phosphorylation of Ser2 versus Ser5 residues and/or to differential phosphorylation of repeats along the length of the CTD. The PCTD (phosphoCTD of an RNAPII0) physically links pre-mRNA processing to transcription by tethering processing factors to elongating RNAPII, e.g., 5′-end capping, 3′-end cleavage, and polyadenylation. Ser5 phosphorylation (Ser5PO4) near the 5′ ends of genes depends principally on the kinase activity of TFIIH (Kin28 in yeast; ...
Anti Human Cdk6 Antibody, clone DCS-83.1 | Bio-Rad Antibodies (formerly AbD Serotec)
Mouse anti Human Cdk6 antibody, clone DCS-83 recognizes the human cyclin dependent kinase 6, also known as Cdk6 or Serine/threonine-protei
Mediator complex, subunit Med4 (IPR019258) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
adn-dangerous-goods-lists-dir-2008-68 - ECHA
Tai unikalus informacijos apie Europoje pagamintas ir į ją importuotas chemines medžiagas šaltinis. Čia pateikiama informacija apie pavojingas cheminių medžiagų savybes, klasifikavimą, ženklinimą ir saugų jų naudojimą.. REACH. ...
Sterol regulatory element binding protein
EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval-pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity ...
Differential Roles of Transcriptional Mediator Complex Subunits Crsp34/Med27, Crsp150/Med14 and Trap100/Med24 During Zebrafish...
As most subunits of the transcriptional mediator complex have not been functionally analyzed in vertebrates, the extent to which subunit composition may contribute to developmental mechanisms has remained unclear. Here, we present the first functional analysis of the subunit Crsp34 in the context of development and cell differentiation of zebrafish. We tested the concept of subunit-specific roles by analyzing the loss-of-function effects of three mediator subunits on the development of the vertebrate CNS: Trap100 (Pietsch et al. 2006), Crsp150 (Amsterdam et al. 2004), and Crsp34 (this study). As an experimental system we chose the developing zebrafish retina, since it represents one of the best-studied units of the CNS, regarding anatomy and control of proliferation, as well as expression of genes involved in patterning and differentiation for zebrafish (reviewed in Malicki 2000). Therefore, analysis of the retina in a mutant embryo allows us to detect developmental defects at high ...
RCSB PDB - 2C6T: Crystal structure of the human CDK2 complexed with the triazolopyrimidine inhibitor
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
MED7 Gene - GeneCards | MED7 Protein | MED7 Antibody
Complete information for MED7 gene (Protein Coding), Mediator Complex Subunit 7, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Search | eLife
eLife is a non-profit organisation inspired by research funders and led by scientists. Our mission is to help scientists accelerate discovery by operating a platform for research communication that encourages and recognises the most responsible behaviours in science. eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd is a limited liability non-profit non-stock corporation incorporated in the State of Delaware, USA, with company number 5030732, and is registered in the UK with company number FC030576 and branch number BR015634 at the address: ...
Martti Ahtisaari discusses his life and work as a worldwide peacemaker and the challenges that face peace negotiators in todays conflict zones. In summary, although all MED KO mice are embryonic lethal, they die at totally different developmental phases with distinctive phenotypes, suggesting important and particular roles for particular person Mediator subunits throughout growth. General, as a grasp coordinator, Mediator coordinates transcription and cell lineage specification/improvement to ensure that the correct genes are expressed at the right time and place and with the required intensity and period. Since a mediator is neutral, unhealthy information from the mediator is generally not met with the identical reactive devaluation as would greet that same dangerous news if damaged by a litigation adversary.. Following his/her appointment, the mediator will contact the parties or their counsel to repair a date for the holding of the primary assembly. Then again, Mediator can leverage Observer ...
MED21 Gene - GeneCards | MED21 Protein | MED21 Antibody
Complete information for MED21 gene (Protein Coding), Mediator Complex Subunit 21, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
anti-MED24 antibody | GeneTex
MED24 antibody (mediator complex subunit 24) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-MED24 pAb (GTX55701) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
anti-MED31 antibody, N-term | GeneTex
MED31 antibody, N-term (mediator complex subunit 31) for WB, ChIP assay. Anti-MED31 pAb (GTX45020) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
A unified nomenclature for protein subunits of mediator complexes linking transcriptional regulators to RNA polymerase II. -...
Bourbon H-M., Aguilera A., Ansari AZ., Asturias FJ., Berk AJ., Bjorklund S., Blackwell TK., Borggrefe T., Carey M., Carlson M., Conaway JW., Conaway RC., Emmons SW., Fondell JD., Freedman LP., Fukasawa T., Gustafsson CM., Han M., He X., Herman PK., Hinnebusch AG., Holmberg S., Holstege FC., Jaehning JA., Kim Y-J., Kuras L., Leutz A., Lis JT., Meisterernest M., Naar AM., Nasmyth K., Parvin JD., Ptashne M., Reinberg D., Ronne H., Sadowski I., Sakurai H., Sipiczki M., Sternberg PW., Stillman DJ., Strich R., Struhl K., Svejstrup JQ., Tuck S., Winston F., Roeder RG., Kornberg RD ...
New Saccharomyces Sequences 04/27/95
SCU22109 U22109 1948bp DNA PLN 26-APR-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ytp1p (YTP1) gene, complete cds. YTP1; Ytp1p. SCU22156 U22156 3680bp DNA PLN 26-APR-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hfm1p (HFM1) gene, complete cds. HFM1; Hfm1p. SCU22361 U22361 5599bp DNA PLN 26-APR-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rlr1p (RLR1) gene, complete cds. RLR1; Rlr1p. SCU23811 U23811 1494bp DNA PLN 26-APR-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II holoenzyme component (SRB7) gene, complete cds. SRB7; RNA polymerase II holoenzyme component. SCU23812 U23812 4849bp DNA PLN 26-APR-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II holoenzyme component (SRB9) gene, complete cds. SRB9; RNA polymerase II holoenzyme component. SCU24129 U24129 2965bp DNA PLN 26-APR-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae sporulation-specific septin (SPR3) gene, complete cds. SPR3; sporulation-specific septin. SCU24143 U24143 298bp mRNA PLN 26-APR-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein S12 mRNA, partial cds. S12; ribosomal protein S12. SCU24144 ...
CDK7/CCNH/MNAT1 (Human) Recombinant Protein - (P4662) - Products - Abnova
Human CDK7 (NM_001799, 1 a.a. - 346a.a.) and CCNH (NM_001239, 1 a.a. - 323 a.a.) and MNAT1 (NM_002431, 1 a.a. - 309 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-His tag expressed in Sf9 cells. (P4662) - Products - Abnova
No data available that match "cyclin dependent kinase 8"
No data available that match "cyclin dependent kinase 8"
- Although patients have benefited from the development of imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, relapses occur. (idw-online.de)
- siRNA transduced on day 0 against ephrin ligand B1 (EFNB1), EFNB3, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase delta catalytic subunit (PI3KCD), cyclin-dependent kinase (Z)-4-Hydroxytamoxifen manufacturer inhibitor 1A (p21), and plasminogen-activated inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) messages induced significant decreases in ATPLite-reactive senescent (solid bars) vs. proliferating (open bars) cells by day 4 (100, denoted by the red line, is control, scrambled siRNA). (btkinhibitor.com)
- Palbociclib (IBRANCE®) tablets for oral administration contain 125 mg, 100 mg, or 75 mg of palbociclib, a kinase inhibitor. (ptmasterguide.com)
- Palbociclib is an inhibitor of eyelin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4 and 6. (ptmasterguide.com)
- Centrosome duplication is mainly controlled by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)/cyclin E and cyclin A complexes, which are inhibited by the CDK inhibitors p21 Cip1 and p27 Kip1 . (elsevier.com)
- HSV-1, having a genome of 150 kb encoding more than 70 proteins approximately, can afford its serine/threonine kinase. (azd8835.com)
- non-etheless, early during HSV-1 an infection, apoptosis continues to be blocked within an Akt-dependent way until the trojan has accumulated more than enough Us3 proteins kinase to imitate Akt activity. (azd8835.com)
- Zhang (19) proven that Pec was able to disturb transmission transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling and decrease STAT3 downstream proteins, including cyclin D1, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) B-cell lymphoma extra-large (BCL-xL), Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1), contributing to the suppression of cell proliferation and apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells. (cell-signaling-pathways.com)
- They are lipid second messengers made by sphingolipid metabolic process, and they cause important cell reactions, including proteins kinase C-alpha (PKC-) activation (6). (baxkyardgardener.com)
- Ceramides promote the transmission transduction pathway with apoptosis and activate stress-activated proteins kinases (SAPK), such as for example c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) (7). (baxkyardgardener.com)
- This dynamic change is due to the dissociation and degradation of the kinase module that includes the MED13, MED12, cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8), and cyclin C (CCNC) subunits. (elsevier.com)
- During their search for new therapeutic options for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), a team of researchers at Vetmeduni Vienna have discovered a new function for a special enzyme, cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8), as part of the signalling system in ALL. (idw-online.de)
- Of note is that the function of CDK8 in ALL is independent of enzymatic activity, which means that conventional kinase inhibitors are ineffective," says Menzl. (idw-online.de)
- The dissociation and degradation of the kinase module are dependent upon nutrient activation of mTORC1 that is necessary for the induction of lipogenic gene expression because pharmacological or genetic inhibition of mTORC1 in the fed state restores the kinase module. (elsevier.com)
- In addition, genetically insulin-resistant and obese db/db mice in the fasted state displayed elevated lipogenic gene expression and loss of the kinase module that was reversed following mTORC1 inhibition. (elsevier.com)
- Both viral EBV transcriptional activators, BZLF1 and BRLF1, can reactivate the lytic form of viral replication with BRLF1 acting inside a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner as inhibition of PI3K abolishes BRLF1-induced transcriptional activation . (azd8835.com)
- A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. (rush.edu)
- delicate variations in NS1 protein localizations depending on the NS1 isoform, which only differs in seven amino acids between the two strains, A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) and A/WSN/33. (azd8835.com)
- 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 potentiates upstream lesions on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in breast carcinoma. (nih.gov)
- Cyclin D1 overexpression is associated with estrogen receptor expression in Caucasian but not African-American breast cancer. (nih.gov)
- Noble Laureate Prof. Elizabeth H. Blackburn has reported in Cell that Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Cdc13 coordinates telomere elongation during cell-cycle progression. (genomediscovery.org)
- However when the MMP-regulatory processes go awry a number of pathological events ensue including malignancy growth and tumor metastasis among others (8-11). (globaltechbiz.com)
- This means that which the spermatozoa contain the enzymatic equipment to create and degrade their very 126150-97-8 manufacture own AEA exhibiting an endogenous anandamide build. (baxkyardgardener.com)
- Cyclin D1 and CDK 4/6 are downstream of signaling pathways which lead to cellular proliferation. (ptmasterguide.com)
- LMK-235 lowered overall cell viability by inducing apoptosis inside a dose- and time-dependent manner. (ablkinase.com)
- A,B) BON-1 (A) and QGP-1 (B) were incubated for 8, 24, and 32 h with different LMK-235 concentrations (0.078C20 M). Relative changes in caspase activity were measured A-385358 like a parameter for treatment-induced apoptosis. (ablkinase.com)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Aurora Kinases" by people in Profiles. (rush.edu)
- For all other LMK-235 concentrations, a dose- and time-dependent tendency was observed for both cell lines (Number 2A,B). Control experiments performed with related amounts of the solvent (DMSO) yielded caspase 3/7 activities in the range of untreated controls (data not shown). (ablkinase.com)
- They observed enhanced MHV-68 creation in permissive fibroblast after either "type":"entrez-nucleotide","attrs":"text message":"LY294002″,"term_id":"1257998346″,"term_text message":"LY294002″LY294002 Dinaciclib supplier treatment within a dose-dependent way or RNAi-mediated Akt1 silencing. (azd8835.com)
- Immunocytochemical analysis showed that proliferative activity (phosphohistone H3 and Ki-67) decreased at highest concentrations of LMK-235 while chromogranin and somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) manifestation increased inside a dose-dependent manner. (ablkinase.com)
- BON-1 demonstrated a continuing dose-dependent reduced amount of viability whereas QGP-1 demonstrated a fairly dichotomous response with cell success at low concentrations ( 0.31 M) along with a dose-dependent reduced amount of cell viability at concentrations 2.25 M LMK-235. (ablkinase.com)
- The diffusion equation that describes the time dependent mass transport from a spherical resource can be (13): 1 where may be the concentration from the cyto/chemokine and may be Natamycin manufacturer the diffusion coefficient. (baxkyardgardener.com)
- Lentivirus with CMV promoter-driven expression of cyclin-dependent kinase-like 1 (CDC2-related kinase) (CDKL1) in pLenti vector with puromycin selection and C-terminal Myc and FLAG tags. (vigenebio.com)
- Mechanistically, SW IV-134 induced degradation of cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 leading to NF-?B activation and TNF-dependent cell death. (baxkyardgardener.com)
- For instance, circFOXO3 can inhibit the process of the cell cycle by binding to cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 during the cell cycle. (thailandmedical.news)
- Lineage allocation of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to osteoblasts and adipocytes is dependent on both Wnt signaling and PPAR2 activity. (barasertib.info)
- More precisely, studies of patients with missense and buy 292135-59-2 splice-site mutations that affect only the histone acetyl transferase (HAT) domain of CREBBP demonstrated that loss of HAT activity is sufficient to cause the syndrome [7,8]. (azd8835.com)
- 2) shows the calculation process 223445-75-8 officially determined and applied by ICPDR (2000). (barasertib.info)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Aurora Kinases" by people in this website by year, and whether "Aurora Kinases" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (rush.edu)
- Electronic supplementary materials The online edition of this content (doi:10.1186/s12936-016-1098-8) contains supplementary materials, which is open to authorized users. (bcl-2-protein.com)
- Withdrawal of differentiation inhibitory activityleukemia inhibitory factor up-regu- lates D-type cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in mouse embryonic stem cells. (forexmangates.com)
- Differentially expressed epigenome modifiers, including aurora kinases A and B, in immune cells in rheumatoid arthritis in humans and mouse models. (rush.edu)
- Mouse cells didn't react to stimuli up to 8 m, unless route opening medicines had been present. (baxkyardgardener.com)
- Samples are ordered from left to right by proliferative state (N = 8). (btkinhibitor.com)
- Cells secreted GABA both by glucose-dependent exocytosis of insulin-containing granules and by a glucose-independent mechanism. (baxkyardgardener.com)
- Human -cells contain high concentrations of GABA (11,12), and manifestation of Itgb8 GABAAR subunits in human islets has been detected by RT-PCR (8,13). (baxkyardgardener.com)
- Recently, however, for two additional herpes viruses, murine gamma herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) and human being herpesvirus-8/Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV8/KSHV), Peng and coworkers shown that Akt promotes viral persistence by suppressing transcriptional reactivation of these viruses rather than reactivating lytic replication. (azd8835.com)
- A family group of 23 known individual zinc-dependent endopeptidases known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) continues to be recognized to play vital roles in redecorating the ECM in regular physiological circumstances which take place throughout lifestyle. (globaltechbiz.com)
- This draw out solution remained in contact with the powder for 8 days with sporadic agitation in an amber glass bottle, to avoid possible interference from light, at a room heat of approximately 25C. (cell-signaling-pathways.com)