Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Cyclin C: A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Cyclin D: A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins: A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Cyclin D3: A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6: Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57: A potent inhibitor of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES in G1 PHASE and S PHASE. In humans, aberrant expression of p57 is associated with various NEOPLASMS as well as with BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Cyclin D2: A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.Cyclin A1: A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Cyclin A2: A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Cyclin G: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Cyclin G1: A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Cyclin B2: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cyclin T: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cyclin H: A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.Cyclin G2: An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Mice, Inbred C57BLProto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.E2F4 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F4 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene PROMOTER REGIONS through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130 and RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P107.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Cell regulatory signaling system that controls progression through S PHASE and stabilizes the replication forks during conditions that could affect the fidelity of DNA REPLICATION, such as DNA DAMAGE or depletion of nucleotide pools.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.PhosphoproteinsRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cyclin I: A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.ChromonesProtein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.MAP Kinase Kinase 2: A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genes, bcl-1: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.MorpholinesGene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesPhosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Genes, p16: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Phosphoglycerate Kinase: An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.Casein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.MAP Kinase Kinase 6: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.

Cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are biochemically distinct CTD kinases. (1/122)

Phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II is important for basal transcriptional processes in vivo and for cell viability. Several kinases, including certain cyclin-dependent kinases, can phosphorylate this substrate in vitro. It has been proposed that differential CTD phosphorylation by different kinases may regulate distinct transcriptional processes. We have found that two of these kinases, cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36, can specifically phosphorylate distinct residues in recombinant CTD substrates. This difference in specificity may be largely due to their varying ability to phosphorylate lysine-substituted heptapeptide repeats within the CTD, since they phosphorylate the same residue in CTD consensus heptapeptide repeats. Furthermore, this substrate specificity is reflected in vivo where cyclin C/ CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 can differentially phosphorylate an endogenous RNA polymerase II substrate. Several small-molecule kinase inhibitors have different specificities for these related kinases, indicating that these enzymes have diverse active-site conformations. These results suggest that cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are physically distinct enzymes that may have unique roles in transcriptional regulation mediated by their phosphorylation of specific sites on RNA polymerase II.  (+info)

GAL4 is regulated by the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme-associated cyclin-dependent protein kinase SRB10/CDK8. (2/122)

Phosphorylation of the yeast transcription factor GAL4 at S699 is required for efficient galactose-inducible transcription. We demonstrate that this site is a substrate for the RNA polymerase holoenzyme-associated CDK SRB10. S699 phosphorylation requires SRB10 in vivo, and this site is phosphorylated by purified SRB10/ SRB11 CDK/cyclin in vitro. RNA Pol II holoenzymes purified from WT yeast phosphorylate GAL4 at sites observed in vivo whereas holoenzymes from srb10 yeast are incapable of phosphorylating GAL4 at S699. Mutations at GAL4 S699 and srb10 are epistatic for GAL induction, demonstrating that SRB10 regulates GAL4 activity through this phosphorylation in vivo. These results demonstrate a function for the SRB10/ CDK8 holoenzyme-associated CDK that involves regulation of transactivators by phosphorylation during transcriptional activation.  (+info)

Transcription: Common cofactors and cooperative recruitment. (3/122)

Mammalian counterparts of the yeast SRB/MED transcriptional 'mediator' complex have recently been identified. These complexes define a common cofactor requirement for diverse transcriptional activators and underscore the conserved nature of the transcriptional machinery among eukaryotic organisms.  (+info)

Multiple signals regulate GAL transcription in yeast. (4/122)

Gal4p activates transcription of the Saccharomyces GAL genes in response to galactose and is phosphorylated during interaction with the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) holoenzyme. One phosphorylation at S699 is necessary for full GAL induction and is mediated by Srb10p/CDK8 of the RNA Pol II holoenzyme mediator subcomplex. Gal4p S699 phosphorylation is necessary for sensitive response to inducer, and its requirement for GAL induction can be abrogated by high concentrations of galactose in strains expressing wild-type GAL2 and GAL3. Gal4p S699 phosphorylation occurs independently of Gal3p and is responsible for the long-term adaptation response observed in gal3 yeast. SRB10 and GAL3 are shown to represent parallel mechanisms for GAL gene induction. These results demonstrate that Gal4p activity is controlled by two independent signals: one that acts through Gal3p-galactose and a second that is mediated by the holoenzyme-associated cyclin-dependent kinase Srb10p. Since Srb10p is regulated independently of galactose, our results suggest a function for CDK8 in coordinating responses to specific inducers with the environment through the phosphorylation of gene-specific activators.  (+info)

A regulatory shortcut between the Snf1 protein kinase and RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. (5/122)

RNA polymerase II holoenzymes respond to activators and repressors that are regulated by signaling pathways. Here we present evidence for a "shortcut" mechanism in which the Snf1 protein kinase of the glucose signaling pathway directly regulates transcription by the yeast holoenzyme. In response to glucose limitation, the Snf1 kinase stimulates transcription by holoenzyme that has been artificially recruited to a reporter by a LexA fusion to a holoenzyme component. We show that Snf1 interacts physically with the Srb/mediator proteins of the holoenzyme in both two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays. We also show that a catalytically hyperactive Snf1, when bound to a promoter as a LexA fusion protein, activates transcription in a glucose-regulated manner; moreover, this activation depends on the integrity of the Srb/mediator complex. These results suggest that direct regulatory interactions between signal transduction pathways and RNA polymerase II holoenzyme provide a mechanism for transcriptional control in response to important signals.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of the role of Pol II holoenzyme components in repression by the Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor in yeast. (6/122)

The Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex is targeted to promoters by pathway-specific DNA-binding repressors, thereby inhibiting the transcription of specific classes of genes. Genetic screens have identified mutations in a variety of Pol II holoenzyme components (Srb8, Srb9, Srb10, Srb11, Sin4, Rgr1, Rox3, and Hrs1) and in the N-terminal tails of histones H3 and H4 that weaken repression by Cyc8-Tup1. Here, we analyze the effect of individual and multiple mutations in many of these components on transcriptional repression of natural promoters that are regulated by Cyc8-Tup1. In all cases tested, individual mutations have a very modest effect on SUC2 RNA levels and no detectable effect on levels of ANB1, MFA2, and RNR2. Furthermore, multiple mutations within the Srb components, between Srbs and Sin4, and between Srbs and histone tails affect Cyc8-Tup1 repression to the same modest extent as the individual mutations. These results argue that the weak effects of the various mutations on repression by Cyc8-Tup1 are not due to redundancy among components of the Pol II machinery, and they argue against a simple redundancy between the holoenzyme and chromatin pathways. In addition, phenotypic analysis indicates that, although Srbs8-11 are indistinguishable with respect to Cyc8-Tup1 repression, the individual Srbs are functionally distinct in other respects. Genetic interactions among srb mutations imply that a balance between the activities of Srb8 + Srb10 and Srb11 is important for normal cell growth.  (+info)

Roles of transcription factor Mot3 and chromatin in repression of the hypoxic gene ANB1 in yeast. (7/122)

The hypoxic genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are repressed by a complex consisting of the aerobically expressed, sequence-specific DNA-binding protein Rox1 and the Tup1-Ssn6 general repressors. The regulatory region of one well-studied hypoxic gene, ANB1, is comprised of two operators, OpA and OpB, each of which has two strong Rox1 binding sites, yet OpA represses transcription almost 10 times more effectively than OpB. We show here that this difference is due to the presence of a Mot3 binding site in OpA. Mutations in this site reduced OpA repression to OpB levels, and the addition of a Mot3 binding site to OpB enhanced repression. Deletion of the mot3 gene also resulted in reduced repression of ANB1. Repression of two other hypoxic genes in which Mot3 sites were associated with Rox1 sites was reduced in the deletion strain, but other hypoxic genes were unaffected. In addition, the mot3Delta mutation caused a partial derepression of the Mig1-Tup1-Ssn6-repressed SUC2 gene, but not the alpha2-Mcm1-Tup1-Ssn6-repressed STE2 gene. The Mot3 protein was demonstrated to bind to the ANB1 OpA in vitro. Competition experiments indicated that there was no interaction between Rox1 and Mot3, indicating that Mot3 functions either in Tup1-Ssn6 recruitment or directly in repression. A great deal of evidence has accumulated suggesting that the Tup1-Ssn6 complex represses transcription through both nucleosome positioning and a direct interaction with the basal transcriptional machinery. We demonstrate here that under repressed conditions a nucleosome is positioned over the TATA box in the wild-type ANB1 promoter. This nucleosome was absent in cells carrying a rox1, tup1, or mot3 deletion, all of which cause some degree of derepression. Interestingly, however, this positioned nucleosome was also lost in a cell carrying a deletion of the N-terminal coding region of histone H4, yet ANB1 expression remained fully repressed. A similar deletion in the gene for histone H3, which had no effect on repression, had only a minor effect on the positioned nucleosome. These results indicate that the nucleosome phasing on the ANB1 promoter caused by the Rox1-Mot3-Tup1-Ssn6 complex is either completely redundant with a chromatin-independent repression mechanism or, less likely, plays no role in repression at all.  (+info)

Characterization of CAF4 and CAF16 reveals a functional connection between the CCR4-NOT complex and a subset of SRB proteins of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. (8/122)

The CCR4-NOT transcriptional regulatory complex affects transcription both positively and negatively and consists of the following two complexes: a core 1 x 10(6) dalton (1 MDa) complex consisting of CCR4, CAF1, and the five NOT proteins and a larger, less defined 1.9-MDa complex. We report here the identification of two new factors that associate with the CCR4-NOT proteins as follows: CAF4, a WD40-containing protein, and CAF16, a putative ABC ATPase. Whereas neither CAF4 nor CAF16 was part of the core CCR4-NOT complex, both CAF16 and CAF4 appeared to be present in the 1.9-MDa complex. CAF4 also displayed physical interactions with multiple CCR4-NOT components and with DBF2, a likely component of the 1.9-MDa complex. In addition, both CAF4 and CAF16 were found to interact in a CCR4-dependent manner with SRB9, a component of the SRB complex that is part of the yeast RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. The three related SRB proteins, SRB9, SRB10, and SRB11, were found to interact with and to coimmunoprecipitate DBF2, CAF4, CCR4, NOT2, and NOT1. Defects in SRB9 and SRB10 also affected processes at the ADH2 locus known to be controlled by components of the CCR4-NOT complex; an srb9 mutation was shown to reduce ADH2 derepression and either an srb9 or srb10 allele suppressed spt10-enhanced expression of ADH2. In addition, srb9 and srb10 alleles increased ADR1(c)-dependent ADH2 expression; not4 and not5 deletions are the only other known defects that elicit this phenotype. These results suggest a close physical and functional association between components of the CCR4-NOT complexes and the SRB9, -10, and -11 components of the holoenzyme.  (+info)

Buy our Recombinant Human CDK2 + CCNE1 protein. Ab85836 is a full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in WB…
Buy our Recombinant Human Cdk4 protein. Ab126909 is a full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in WB, SDS-PAGE…
Hello, are you looking for article Nursing Care Plan Renal Failure by ahmed.1319? If it is true we are very fortunate in being able to provide information Nursing Care Plan Renal Failure by ahmed.1319 And good article Nursing Care Plan Renal Failure by ahmed.1319 This could benefit/solution for you. ...
Where is all this heading? Alongside the arms race of increasingly elaborate modelling software, there are also efforts to develop software that can assist in negotiation and mediation. Two decades ago Clara Ponsatí, a Spanish academic, came up with a clever idea while pondering the arduous Israeli-Palestinian peace process. As negotiators everywhere know, the first side to disclose all that it is willing to sacrifice (or pay) loses considerable bargaining power. Bereft of leverage, it can be pushed back to its bottom line by a clever opponent. But if neither side reveals the concessions it is prepared to make, negotiations can stall or collapse. In a paper published in 1992, Dr Ponsatí described how software could be designed to break the impasse. Difficult negotiations can often be nudged along by neutral mediators, especially if they are entrusted with the secret bottom lines of all parties. Dr Ponsatís idea was that if a human mediator was not trusted, affordable or available, a computer ...
MCM Proteins Are Associated with RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme: MCMs are a family of proteins related to ATP-dependent helicases that bind to origin recognition
9Med医学文献频道发布最新最全的医学文献,9Med和维普数据库合作,为医生提供超过1000万篇医学文献的浏览下载,包括内、外、妇、儿、护理、管理各个学科的医学文献全文。
MED13兔多克隆抗体(ab76923)可与人样本反应并经WB, IP实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
,9Med医学期刊频道每季度发布最新最全的医学期刊官方信息名录,提供600种医学期刊,120万篇医学论文免费全文阅读,1200种医学杂志投稿预审推荐。9Med助力医生事业成长,促进医学学术交流。
Миша Мёд - плоть от плоти челябинской тусовки, уже дебютируя в роли дискжокея, двигал слайдеры на микшере с уверенностью правой руки Сталина, выводившей подписи...
Το τσάι είναι ένα από τα πιο διαδεδομένα ροφήματα στον κόσμο. Μετά το νερό, το τσάι είναι το πιο συχνά καταναλισκόμενο ποτό. Σήμερα, καταναλώνονται πά..
Διαβάστε για τις ευεργετικές ιδιότητες του μήλου και πως βοηθάει στη μείωση της χοληστερίνης.
Mouse anti Human Cdk6 antibody, clone DCS-83 recognizes the human cyclin dependent kinase 6, also known as Cdk6 or Serine/threonine-protei
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Tai unikalus informacijos apie Europoje pagamintas ir į ją importuotas chemines medžiagas šaltinis. Čia pateikiama informacija apie pavojingas cheminių medžiagų savybes, klasifikavimą, ženklinimą ir saugų jų naudojimą.. REACH. ...
EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval-pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity ...
As most subunits of the transcriptional mediator complex have not been functionally analyzed in vertebrates, the extent to which subunit composition may contribute to developmental mechanisms has remained unclear. Here, we present the first functional analysis of the subunit Crsp34 in the context of development and cell differentiation of zebrafish. We tested the concept of subunit-specific roles by analyzing the loss-of-function effects of three mediator subunits on the development of the vertebrate CNS: Trap100 (Pietsch et al. 2006), Crsp150 (Amsterdam et al. 2004), and Crsp34 (this study). As an experimental system we chose the developing zebrafish retina, since it represents one of the best-studied units of the CNS, regarding anatomy and control of proliferation, as well as expression of genes involved in patterning and differentiation for zebrafish (reviewed in Malicki 2000). Therefore, analysis of the retina in a mutant embryo allows us to detect developmental defects at high ...
Complete information for MED7 gene (Protein Coding), Mediator Complex Subunit 7, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
MED24 antibody (mediator complex subunit 24) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-MED24 pAb (GTX55701) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
MED31 antibody, N-term (mediator complex subunit 31) for WB, ChIP assay. Anti-MED31 pAb (GTX45020) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Complete information for MED12L gene (Protein Coding), Mediator Complex Subunit 12 Like, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
SCU22109 U22109 1948bp DNA PLN 26-APR-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ytp1p (YTP1) gene, complete cds. YTP1; Ytp1p. SCU22156 U22156 3680bp DNA PLN 26-APR-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hfm1p (HFM1) gene, complete cds. HFM1; Hfm1p. SCU22361 U22361 5599bp DNA PLN 26-APR-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rlr1p (RLR1) gene, complete cds. RLR1; Rlr1p. SCU23811 U23811 1494bp DNA PLN 26-APR-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II holoenzyme component (SRB7) gene, complete cds. SRB7; RNA polymerase II holoenzyme component. SCU23812 U23812 4849bp DNA PLN 26-APR-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II holoenzyme component (SRB9) gene, complete cds. SRB9; RNA polymerase II holoenzyme component. SCU24129 U24129 2965bp DNA PLN 26-APR-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae sporulation-specific septin (SPR3) gene, complete cds. SPR3; sporulation-specific septin. SCU24143 U24143 298bp mRNA PLN 26-APR-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein S12 mRNA, partial cds. S12; ribosomal protein S12. SCU24144 ...
Human CDK7 (NM_001799, 1 a.a. - 346a.a.) and CCNH (NM_001239, 1 a.a. - 323 a.a.) and MNAT1 (NM_002431, 1 a.a. - 309 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-His tag expressed in Sf9 cells. (P4662) - Products - Abnova
Growth Inhibition in MC/CAR Myeloma Cells via Cell Cycle Arrest in Association with Induction of Cyclin-dependent Kinase ... and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) are two receptors that restrict the rate of translation.[61] On ... Sykora, P; Snow, E.T (2008). "Modulation of DNA polymerase beta-dependent base excision repair in cultured human cells after ... Phosphate-Dependent Organism". Science. 337 (6093): 467-70. Bibcode:2012Sci...337..467E. doi:10.1126/science.1218455. PMID ...
negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • lung development. • cytokine-mediated ... kinase binding. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • GO:0000975 transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • transcription factor ... positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. • positive regulation of transcription from ...
Liu H, Di Cunto F, Imarisio S, Reid LM (Jan 2003). "Citron kinase is a cell cycle-dependent, nuclear protein required for G2/M ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ... protein kinase activity. • PDZ domain binding. • SH3 domain binding. • scaffold protein binding. • metal ion binding. • kinase ...
... leading to an accumulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, and to subsequent G1-phase arrest, as seen in ... Bobek P, Ozdín L, Galbavý S (1998). "Dose- and time-dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ... "Effect of the oyster fungus on glycaemia and cholesterolaemia in rats with insulin-dependent diabetes". Physiol Res. 42 (3): ... 61 (8): 2613-23. doi:10.1021/jo952117p. PMID 11667090.. *^ Hirama M, Vet M (1982). "A chiral total synthesis of compactin". J. ...
Cyclin. *Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein. *Cyclin-dependent kinase. *Cyclin. Lipid. *Phosphoinositide phospholipase C ... 1omw: Crystal Structure of the complex between G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 and Heterotrimeric G Protein beta 1 and ... Buhl AM, Osawa S, Johnson GL (1995). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation requires two signal inputs from the human ... 2bcj: Crystal Structure of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Complex with Galpha-q and Gbetagamma Subunits ...
Cell cycle progression is controlled by ordered action of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), activated by specific cyclins that ... is one of the 19S subcomponents that also tightly binds the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK4 and plays a key role in recognizing ... In particular, exit from mitosis requires the proteasome-dependent dissociation of the regulatory component cyclin B from the ... the ATP-dependent proteolytic complex that was responsible for ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation was discovered and was ...
CDKN2A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4) Archived 2004-11-17 at the Wayback Machine from ... Another mutation in the same gene results in a nonfunctional inhibitor of CDK4, a cyclin-dependent kinase that promotes cell ... molecular weight protein inhibitor of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) - which has been localised to the p21 region of ... 8 (3): 34. doi:10.3390/cancers8030034. PMC 4810118. PMID 26978405.. *^ a b Akbani, Rehan; Akdemir, Kadir C.; Aksoy, B. Arman; ...
SLBP are marked for degradation by phosphorylation at two threonine residues by cyclin dependent kinases, possibly cyclin A/ ... "NPAT links cyclin E-Cdk2 to the regulation of replication-dependent histone gene transcription". Genes & Development. 14 (18): ... The mitotic kinase aurora B phosphorylates histone H3 at serine 10, triggering a cascade of changes that mediate mitotic ... NPAT activates histone gene expression only after it has been phosphorylated by the G1/S-Cdk cyclin E-Cdk2 in early S phase.[ ...
protein kinase activity. • cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity. • ADP binding. • AMP-activated protein kinase activity. • ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity. • protein kinase binding. • ATP binding. • adenyl ribonucleotide binding. ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ...
"Activation of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 transcription factor by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-stimulated ... "HDAC1, HDAC4, and HDAC9 Bind to PC3/Tis21/Btg2 and Are Required for Its Inhibition of Cell Cycle Progression and Cyclin D1 ... protein kinase binding. • hydrolase activity. • protein deacetylase activity. • identical protein binding. • core promoter ... NAD-dependent histone deacetylase activity (H3-K14 specific). • sequence-specific DNA binding. • DNA binding. • transcription ...
The catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase: prototype for an extended network of communication.. „Prog Biophys Mol ... Shanahan F, Seghezzi W, Parry D, Mahony D, Lees E. Cyclin E associates with BAF155 and BRG1, components of the mammalian SWI- ... LKB1, a novel serine/threonine protein kinase and potential tumour suppressor, is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein ... LKB1 is a master kinase that activates 13 kinases of the AMPK subfamily, including MARK/PAR-1. „EMBO J". 23. 4, s. 833-43, 2004 ...
NUCKS1: Nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate. *NVL: Nuclear valosin-containing protein-like ... C1orf103: encoding protein Ligand-dependent nuclear receptor-interacting factor 1 (LRIF1). *C1orf109: chromosome 1 open reading ... It represents about 8% of the total DNA in human cells.[6] ... C2CD4D: C2 calcium-dependent domain-containing 4D. *CD5L: CD5 ...
... is inhibited by cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). CDKs are in turn inhibited by p21. Thus MyoD enhances its own activity in ... Both MyoD and pRb are necessary for the repression of cyclin D1, but rather than acting directly on cyclin D1, they act on Fra- ... "Coupling of the cell cycle and myogenesis through the cyclin D1-dependent interaction of MyoD with cdk4". EMBO J. 18 (4): 926- ... Cyclin D1. Cell cycle arrest (in which myoblasts would indicate the conclusion of myogenesis) is dependent on the continuous ...
사이클린 의존성 인산화효소(Cyclin-dependent Kinase; CDKs)는 세포주기 조절과 관련된 인산화효소들이다. 다른 단백질의 세린 혹은 트레오닌 잔기를 인산화하지만, 반드시 사이클린 단백질과 먼저 결합하여야 활성을 ... Canavese, Miriam; Santo, Loredana; Raje, Noopur (2012년 5월 1일). "Cyclin dependent kinases in cancer: Potential for therapeutic ... "Cyclin-Dependent Kinases". Chemical Reviews (영어) 101 (8): 2511-2526. doi:10.1021/cr0001030.. ... 유사분열 활성화 단백질 인산화효소(Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; MAP kinase; MAPKs)는 세린/트레오닌 인산화효소족으로 다양한 세포외 성장 신호에 반응한다. 성장 호르몬이나 상피성장인자 ...
"Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 is a drug target for visceral leishmaniasis". Nature. 560 (7717): 192-197. doi:10.1038/s41586-018- ... 178 (8): 5383-89. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.178.8.5383. PMID 17404324.. *^ a b Jean, Francois (1995). "Sudan: Speak no Evil, Do no ... 173 (6): 1515-8. doi:10.1093/infdis/173.6.1515. PMID 8648233.. *^ a b c Holaday B (1999). "Immunotherapy for Visceral ... 12 (8): 1228-31. doi:10.1006/cyto.2000.0694. PMID 10930301.. *^ Kemp K, Kemp M, Kharazmi A, et al. (1999). "Leishmania-specific ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase and DREAM complex. When it is time for a cell to enter S phase, complexes of cyclin-dependent kinases ( ... cyclin E and cyclin A), which push the cell through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases, and a molecule ... One such example of E2F-regulated genes repressed by Rb are cyclin E and cyclin A. Both of these cyclins are able to bind to ... Cyclin D - Cdk 4/6 Mono-phosphorylates RbEdit. When a cell enters G1, Cyclin D- Cdk4/6 phosphorylates Rb at a single ...
... and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors P27 and P21". Leuk. Lymphoma 43 (1): 51-7. PMID 11908736. doi:10.1080/10428190210195 ... "Transforming growth factor-beta is a potent immunosuppressive agent that inhibits IL-1-dependent lymphocyte proliferation". J. ... Biophys. 355 (2): 241-8. PMID 9675033. doi:10.1006/abbi.1998.0720.. *↑ Takeuchi Y, Kodama Y, Matsumoto T (Dec 1994). "Bone ... Chem. 269 (51): 32634-8. PMID 7798269.. *↑ Choy L, Derynck R (November 1998). "The type II transforming growth factor (TGF)- ...
사이클린이 특정 농도 이상이 되면 사이클린 의존성 키나아제(Cyclin-dependent Kinase, Cdk)와 결합하여 사이클린-Cdk 복합체를 만든다. Cdk는 여러 종류가 있으며 각각 Cdk-1, Cdk-2 와 같은 ... 8, No. 2. link. *↑ Janusz Komender (2008). "Kilka słów o doktorze Wacławie Mayzlu i jego odkryciu" [On Waclaw Mayzel and his ... ISBN 978-83-223-1876-8.. *↑ Bütschli, O. (1873). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der freilebenden Nematoden. Nova Acta der Kaiserlich ... 8][9][10] 1838년 마티아스 야코프 슐라이덴은 이것이 세포 내부에서 새로운 세포가 형성되는 일반적인 과정이라고 주장하였으나 로베르트 레마크를 비롯한 다른 학자들은 이를 받아들이지 않았다.[11] ...
... and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors P27 and P21.». Leuk. Lymphoma 43 (1): 51-7. PMID 11908736. doi:10.1080/ ... de 2000). «Activin receptor-like kinase 1 modulates transforming growth factor-beta 1 signaling in the regulation of ... Transforming growth factor-beta is a potent immunosuppressive agent that inhibits IL-1-dependent lymphocyte proliferation». J ... Biophys. (UNITED STATES) 355 (2): 241-8. ISSN 0003-9861. PMID 9675033. doi:10.1006/abbi.1998.0720. ...
They inhibit all of the kinase-dependent functions of mTORC1 and mTORC2 and therefore, block the feedback activation of PI3K/ ... Rapamycin induces dephosphorylation of 4EBP1 as well, resulting in an increase in p27 and a decrease in cyclin D1 expression. ... protein tyrosine kinases and protein serine/threonine kinases. Dual-specificity kinases are subclass of the tyrosine kinases.[8 ... mTOR is a kinase within the family of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-related kinases (PIKKs),[9] which is a family of serine/ ...
cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ... CDKN1A, CAP20, CDKN1, CIP1, MDA-6, P21, SDI1, WAF1, p21CIP1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ... also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) ... 1994). "p53-dependent inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activities in human fibroblasts during radiation-induced G1 arrest ...
CDK4, CMM3, PSK-J3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin dependent kinase 4. ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 also known as cell division protein kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK4 gene ... "The nuclear protein p34SEI-1 regulates the kinase activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 in a concentration-dependent manner". ...
MAPKs belong to the CMGC (CDK/MAPK/GSK3/CLK) kinase group. The closest relatives of MAPKs are the cyclin-dependent kinases ( ... MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K or MKKK). *MAP kinase kinase kinases *MAP3K1 ... the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), where substrates are recognized by the cyclin subunit, MAPKs associate with their ... A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine ...
Takahashi-Yanaga F, Sasaguri T (Apr 2008). "GSK-3beta regulates cyclin D1 expression: a new target for chemotherapy". Cellular ... "CD97 antibody depletes granulocytes in mice under conditions of acute inflammation via a Fc receptor-dependent mechanism". ... lateral cell-cell contacts and regulates the localization and degradation of β-catenin through glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK ... Cluster of differentiation 97 is a protein also known as BL-Ac[F2] encoded by the ADGRE5 gene.[5][6][7][8] CD97 is a member of ...
These transitions are controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1.[10] Though the proteins that control Cdk1 are well ... a cyclin-dependent kinase, on a tyrosine residue. Cdc2 drives entry into mitosis by phosphorylating a wide range of targets. ... The protein kinase Cdr2 (which negatively regulates Wee1) and the Cdr2-related kinase Cdr1 (which directly phosphorylates and ... Wu L, Russell P (June 1993). "Nim1 kinase promotes mitosis by inactivating Wee1 tyrosine kinase". Nature. 363 (6431): 738-41. ...
Cytoplasmic Serine/threonine kinases and their regulatory subunits. Raf kinase, and cyclin-dependent kinases (through ... Downstream effectors of Ras include three mitogen-activated protein kinases Raf a MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase (MAPKKK), MEK a MAP ... Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Src-family, Syk-ZAP-70 family, and BTK family of tyrosine kinases, the Abl gene in CML - ... Receptor tyrosine kinases add phosphate groups to other proteins in order to turn them on or off. Receptor kinases add ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase (EC 2.7.11.22). *CDK1. *CDK2. *CDKL2. *CDK3. *CDK4. *CDK5 ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • ATP binding. • kinase activity. • protein binding. Cellular component. • cell ...
... kinase/Akt pathway Cerebral organoids model human brain development and microcephaly IRF4 transcription factor-dependent CD11b+ ... CDK4/6 inhibitors target SMARCA4-determined cyclin D1 deficiency in hypercalcemic small cell carcinoma of the ovary Predictors ... and the kinase RIP3 are key mediators of AAG-dependent alkylation-induced retinal degeneration Species-specific maturation ... hydrogels by human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells CDK1 substitutes for mTOR kinase to activate mitotic cap-dependent protein ...
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 , Artifacts , Ki-67 Antigen - analysis , Microscopy, Fluorescence - methods , ... 8. Full Text Semantic Focusing Allows Fully Automated Single-Layer Slide Scanning of Cervical Cytology Slides ... and 8 mm from the apex of endodontic canals... Endocrinology & Metabolism , Dentistry , passive ultrasonic irrigation , ... PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, 04/2013, Volume 8, Issue 4, p. e61441 ...
Dose-dependent modulation of ZCCHC24, HEXIM1, SERP1N1, and c-Myc, but not ZMYND8, was observed in OPM-2 tumors (Fig. 3A). ... Binding of the 7SK snRNA turns the HEXIM1 protein into a P-TEFb (CDK9/cyclin T) inhibitor. EMBO J 2004;23:2608-19. ... Blockade of oncogenic IkappaB kinase activity in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by bromodomain and extraterminal domain protein ... Dose- and time-dependent responses of pharmacodynamic markers to BET inhibitors. A, Gene expression changes of 5 BET inhibitor ...
cyclin-dependent kinase 8. 0.031. Yeast srsf5b. serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 5b. 0.031. ... SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1. 0.061. ... SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 5. 0.020. ... smu-1 suppressor of mec-8 and unc-52 homolog (C. elegans). 0.217. ...
cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4). 0.026. Ugt2a3. UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family, polypeptide A3 ...
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 - genetics , Germ-Line Mutation , Carcinoma - genetics , Pancreatic Neoplasms - genetics ... a bacterium with disulfide dependent infection and development ... 8. Full Text Hospital Report Cards for Hospital-Acquired ... Annals of internal medicine, ISSN 0003-4819, 2013, Volume 159, Issue 8, pp. 505 - 513 ...
... stress-activated kinase signaling cascades, and PPAR signaling (most likely PPARγ). This latter effect may provide a ... Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 5 (A) and Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling pathways (B) among 2,102 differentially ... Cheung ZH, Ip NY: The roles of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in dendrite and synapse development. Biotechnol J. 2007, 2: 949-957. ... Pareek TK, Keller J, Kesavapany S, Pant HC, Iadarola MJ, Brady RO, Kulkarni AB: Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity regulates ...
Analysis of Cdk2 kinase activity and p27 binding to cyclin E complexes in the presence of exogenous wild-type p27 or p27T187A ... the release of galectin-9 was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner. ... the C5b-8 complex induces polymerization of C9. The effect of intrathecal administration of capsaicin in the rat on thermal ...
Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase *Cytokines *DAPK *Deoxycytidine Kinase *DNA Topoisomerase *DNA-PK ... which is expressed on NK cells and dependent cellular cytotoxicity ADCC). It also participates in cytokine and superoxide ... Mouse monoclonal to Cyclin E2 NBCCS NSC-280594 Pik3r1 PKI-402 Plxnc1 Prp2 PU-H71 Rabbit Polyclonal to 5-HT-6 Rabbit polyclonal ... 8 cm) [12] and main tumor size was 8 cm in 33 patients. According to tumor location or extent, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ...
The cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have been intensely studied because of their involvement in regulating essential cellular ... First case was 9-year-old boy and the second was a 8-year-old girl. The objective of the present work was to investigate the ...
Ishida, Induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Sdi1/Cip1/Waf1) by nitric oxide-generating vasodilator in ... Lee, NF-kappaB-dependent expression of nitric oxide synthase is required for membrane fusion of chick embryonic myoblasts. 1997 ... Garg, Nitric oxide-generating vasodilators and 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine monophosphate inhibit mitogenesis and proliferation of ...
Cyclic Nucleotide Dependent-Protein Kinase *Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase *Cyclooxygenase *CYP *CysLT1 Receptors ... exogenous cholesterol in a dose dependent style. November 22, 2019. By cancercurehere with Comments Off on Supplementary ... It had been noticed that rDer p 2 weakly bound to liposomes in a dosage dependent style (Fig.?1, best panel, Supplementary Fig ... Intro Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) may be the primary disorder of the nosological family members ...
A mathematical model for the interactions of cdc2 and cyclin is constructed. … Simulation and analysis of the model show that ... The transcript catalogue of the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri provides insights into age-dependent changes of mRNA ... Cofactors ATP and NADPH were regenerated via pyruvate kinase and glucose dehydrogenase. A mathematical model was constructed on ... The proteins cdc2 and cyclin form a heterodimer (maturation promoting factor) that controls the major events of the cell cycle ...
... as well as upon deactivation of the mitogen-dependent MEK-Erk pathway or EGFR signaling. Reduction of RUNX2 levels by RNAi has ... kinase and phospholipase C-dependent mechanism. Cancer Res. 1999, 59: 5475-5478. ... Shen R, Wang X, Drissi H, Liu F, OKeefe RJ, Chen D: Cyclin d1-Cdk4 induce Runx2 ubiquitination and degradation. J Biol Chem. ... The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor Wortmannin has no effects on RUNX2 levels. MDA-MB-231 cells were incubated in ...
Age-dependent changes in voltage-gated calcium channels and ATP-dependent potassium channels in Fischer 344 rats. Applications ... Tyrosine kinase activity of skeletal muscle during insulin infusion in humans. The care program is an evidence based ... Tetrandrine-induced growth inhibition was associated with induction of Cdk inhibitor p21, inhibition of cyclin D1 and ... We identified that heregulin-beta1 (HRG-beta1), a HER3 ligand, stimulated dose-dependent FAS expression in breast cancer cell ...
... and cyclin E-associated kinase activities in the absence of significant changes in the amounts of cyclin-cdk complexes. Our ... Halothane and isoflurane inhibit endothelium-derived relaxing factor-dependent cyclic guanosine monophosphate accumulation in ... Loss of cyclin D can cause G(1) arrest in some cells, but in other cellular contexts, the downstream cyclin E protein can ... Cyclin D1 correlated with cytoplasmic c-myc expression and to a lesser extent with nuclear c-myc. ...
... phosphoinositide-dependent kinase, Akt/protein kinase B serine/threonine kinase, and G-proteins (e.g., Rac-GTPase). The FOXO ... FoxO3a and BCR-ABL regulate cyclin D2 transcription through a STAT5/BCL6-dependent mechanism. Mol Cell Biol 2004;24:10058-71. ... Dose-dependent induction of ABCB1 by FOXO3a:ER was also confirmed in the KD30 cell line (Fig. 5D). To investigate if FOXO3a ... Control of cell cycle exit and entry by protein kinase B-regulated forkhead transcription factors. Mol Cell Biol 2002;22:2025- ...
... which facilitates active cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complex formation in glioma cells. In intestinal cells stimulated by the ... Participates in TNF-dependent transactivation of NF-kappa-B by phosphorylating and activating IKBKB kinase, which in turn leads ... Associates with the cyclin CCNE1-CDK2-CDKN1B complex and inhibits CDK2 kinase activity, leading to RB1 dephosphorylation and ... Protein kinase c activity. Specific Function:. Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/ ...
Suggesting broad conservation from yeast to human, CDK-dependent phosphorylation of Hsc70 T38 similarly regulates Cyclin D1 ... We previously reported that HSV-1 employs its protein kinase US3 to modulate the expression of the key antigen-presenting ... The stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway plays a central role in coordinating gene expression in response to diverse ... of a morphologically descriptive 3-canal biomechanical model of the human membranous labyrinth to study gravity-dependent ...
Importantly, anti-leptin treatment induced a failure to downmodulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 (p27Kip-1) in ... 0.02, days 8-11, versus control Ig. (. C. ) ObR:Fc treatment did not affect polyclonal T cell proliferation induced with anti- ... 0.02, day -1 to day 1 and days 8-11 versus control Ig. (. B. ) Proliferative response of lymph node-derived T cells against PLP ...
... including the stimulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B and the phospholipase C-gamma/Ras GDP-releasing ... cyclin, and CKI families. Combined clinical and US assessment identifies individuals in remission who may be suitable for anti- ... and concentration-dependent manner, as visualized by their failure to migrate into SDS gels. ... The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate delays prion neuroinvasion by inhibiting prion propagation in the periphery. ...
Aurora Kinase. *Cdc2-like Kinase (CLK). *Checkpoint Kinase (Chk). *Cyclin-dependent Kinase (CDK) ... 1448169-71-8. 名称:. 1-[(3S)-3-{4-amino-3-[(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethynyl]-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl}pyrrolidin-1-yl]prop-2- ...
... through suppression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27, increases their proliferative as well as their metastatic ... miR-34a and miR-34b/c expression can be induced by DNA damage and oncogenic stress in a p53-dependent manner. The introduction ... Recent evidences have demonstrated that let-7a acts as a tumor-suppressor in prostate cancer by downregulating E2F2 and cyclin ... dependent MYCN inhibition. On the other end, miR-34a indirectly controls p53 activation through SIRT1. Inhibition of SIRT1 by ...
Bcr-Abl kinase down-regulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in human and murine cell lines. Blood 2000;96:1933-9. ... BCR/ABL oncogenic kinase promotes unfaithful repair of the reactive oxygen species-dependent DNA double-strand breaks. Blood ... Fusion tyrosine kinases induce drug resistance by stimulation of homology-dependent recombination repair, prolongation of G(2)/ ... Bcr-Abl kinase promotes cell cycle entry of primary myeloid CML cells in the absence of growth factors. Br J Haematol 1998;100: ...
deletion (del)(9p) (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A [CDKN2A]/Cen9), and t(14;var). (immunoglobulin heavy chain [IGH] is ... diagnosed breakpoint cluster region (BCR)-c-abl oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase. (ABL)-negative B lineage acute ... hours on days 1 and 8, and pegaspargase IM or IV on day 9.. Patients are then randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.. Patients ... on days 8 and 15.. INTENSIFICATION THERAPY: Beginning 4 weeks after the completion of course 2 of induction. therapy, patients ...
  • Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that HCV induced an increased expression of genes involved in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling, adipocytokine signaling, cell cycle and nitrogen metabolism. (edu.pl)
  • Bax translocates to mitochondria of heart cells during simulated ischaemia: involvement of AMP-activated and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • We used the UC1 strain to study cleistothecia formation by searching for differences between UC1 and its parent G217B, and we determined that the H. capsulatum homolog of protein kinase C (PKC1) plays a role in cleistothecia formation. (checkpointsignaling.com)
  • Wingless signaling was discovered to be regulated by zeste-white 3 (also called Shaggy), which is the Drosophila ''' homolog ''' of mammalian Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). (edu.au)
  • Further, our data validated that NVD administration of human colorectal cancer HCT116 and HT29 cells resulted in cell growth arrest, alteration in molecules regulating cell cycle operative in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis in a dose dependent approach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An aberrant miRNA expression could contribute to cancer development and progression [ 6 , 7 ] and could affect their target genes that are involved in many biological processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, and development [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Silibinin dose-dependently decreased AOM-induced colonic cell proliferation, evidenced by proliferative cell nuclear antigen and cyclin D1 immunohistochemical staining, and induced apoptosis in these colon tissues, evidenced by terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although it has been well recognized for decades that OA exerts certain anti-tumor activity by inducing mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, it is still unclear that what molecular signaling is responsible for this effect. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • OA can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent ASK1 activation, and this event was indispensable for p38 MAPK-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • These results provide the first evidence that, in the central nervous system, endothelial Sema3G serves as a vascular-derived synaptic organizer that regulates synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent memory. (stanford.edu)
  • Because of their central role in transcriptional control, they are considered excellent drug targets ( 8 ). (mcponline.org)
  • We show that transcriptional activation of cyclin B by FoxM1 is essential for timely mitotic entry, whereas CENP-F, another direct target of FoxM1 identified here, is essential for precise functioning of the mitotic spindle checkpoint. (storysteel.gq)
  • We find that, similar to its regulation in osteoblasts, RUNX2 expression in MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cells is enhanced upon growth factor deprivation, as well as upon deactivation of the mitogen-dependent MEK-Erk pathway or EGFR signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additional evidence highlights that miR-15a and miR-16-1 might control other genes involved in the programmed cell death pathway and cell cycle checkpoints such as CCND1 (encoding cyclin D1) and WNT3A, promoting several tumorigenic features, including survival, proliferation, and invasion. (arraystar.com)
  • There is also evidence in S. cerevisiae for a functional link between the pheromone response MAP kinase pathway and the MAP kinase pathway involved in cell wall integrity, as S. cerevisiae strains lacking the MAP kinase Slt2 die after exposure to pheromone . (checkpointsignaling.com)
  • 1995) Genes involved in sister chromatid separation are needed for B-type cyclin proteolysis in budding yeast. (aimspress.com)
  • 16. Millband DN, Hardwick KG (2002) Fission yeast Mad3p is required for Mad2p to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex and localizes to kinetochores in a Bub1p-, Bub3p-, and Mph1p-dependent manner. (aimspress.com)
  • Analysis of the putative G1 cyclin PCL2 (ORFD) identified a second cyclin-cdk complex that contributes to cell cycle progression in yeast. (sciencemag.org)
  • context" : "http://schema.org", "@type" : "Product", "name" : " Human CCND2 / Cyclin D2 ELISA Kit", "image" : "https://www.elisagenie.com/product_images/i/191/EH2777__44314.jpg", "description" : "Human CCND2/Cyclin D2 ELISA Kit assay has a. (elisagenie.com)
  • Here, we show that eMI in the Drosophila fat body, akin to the mammalian liver, is induced upon oxidative or genotoxic stress in an ESCRT and partially Hsc70-4-dependent manner. (biomed.news)
  • It is targeted for proteasomal degradation by the action of a virus-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase that contains the viral E1B 55-kDa and E4 Orf6 proteins, while the E4 Orf3 protein has been reported to block its ability to stimulate expression of p53-dependent genes. (princeton.edu)
  • These observations indicate that E4 Orf3-dependent disruption of Pml bodies does not have a major effect on the pattern of p53 posttranslational modifications in adenovirus-infected cells. (princeton.edu)
  • A number of directed evolution approaches have been employed to engineer antibodies with high affinities for target antigens 8-10 . (jove.com)
  • Because PHO85 and another cyclin-like molecule, PHO80, also take part in inorganic phosphate metabolism, this cdk enzyme may integrate responses to nutritional conditions with the cell cycle. (sciencemag.org)
  • PI3Ks are a family of lipid kinases that serve as mediators of signals generated by many different activated growth factor receptors and adhesion molecules. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It also affects the nervous system by inhibiting protein kinase C and alkaline phosphatase, which impairs brain microvascular formation and function, as well as alters the blood-brain barrier. (t3db.ca)
  • Enhancement of ABL kinase catalytic efficiency by a direct binding regulator is independent of other regulatory mechanisms. (mousemine.org)
  • 1997). "Purification of a Tat-associated kinase reveals a TFIIH complex that modulates HIV-1 transcription. (hawaiilibrary.net)
  • 1995) A 20S complex containing CDC27 and CDC16 catalyzes the mitosis-specific conjugation of ubiquitin to cyclin B. Cell 81: 279-288. (aimspress.com)
  • Recently, several new members of the cdk family were cloned, and some of these were shown to complex with different cyclins and to be active at discrete stages of the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • An additional mechanism entails up-regulation of transporters involved in energy-dependent efflux of a wide variety of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic agents that enter cells freely by diffusion through the plasma membrane. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We further propose a mechanism linking LRRK2 dimerisation, GTPase function and membrane recruitment with LRRK2 kinase activation by Rab29. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Computer simulations suggest that the cell-size-dependent spindle elongation velocity in C. elegans embryos depends on the number of cortical force-generators pulling on spindle poles ( Hara and Kimura, 2009 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • miR-34a and miR-34b/c expression can be induced by DNA damage and oncogenic stress in a p53-dependent manner. (arraystar.com)
  • Normal ABL1 is a tumor suppressor and therapeutic target in human and mouse leukemias expressing oncogenic ABL1 kinases. (mousemine.org)
  • Abl kinases regulate autophagy by promoting the trafficking and function of lysosomal components. (mousemine.org)
  • In particular, recent studies have shown that BRD4 is highly enriched in large clusters of enhancers that supercharge the expression of genes critical for cancer initiation and maintenance ( 8-10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, Bcr-Abl modulates DNA repair ( 9 , 13 - 15 ) and extends G 2 -M arrest on DNA damage ( 8 , 16 ) mediated by an enhanced stimulation of ATR-CHK1 ( 8 , 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Substrate specificity of the cdk-activating kinase (CAK) is altered upon association with TFIIH. (hawaiilibrary.net)