Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Cyclin C: A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Cyclin D: A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins: A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Cyclin D3: A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6: Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57: A potent inhibitor of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES in G1 PHASE and S PHASE. In humans, aberrant expression of p57 is associated with various NEOPLASMS as well as with BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Cyclin D2: A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.Cyclin A1: A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Cyclin A2: A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Cyclin G: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Cyclin G1: A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Cyclin B2: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cyclin T: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cyclin H: A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.Cyclin G2: An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Mice, Inbred C57BLProto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.E2F4 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F4 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene PROMOTER REGIONS through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130 and RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P107.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Cell regulatory signaling system that controls progression through S PHASE and stabilizes the replication forks during conditions that could affect the fidelity of DNA REPLICATION, such as DNA DAMAGE or depletion of nucleotide pools.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.PhosphoproteinsRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cyclin I: A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.ChromonesProtein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.MAP Kinase Kinase 2: A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genes, bcl-1: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.MorpholinesGene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesPhosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Genes, p16: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Phosphoglycerate Kinase: An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.Casein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.MAP Kinase Kinase 6: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.

A premature-termination mutation in the Mus musculus cyclin-dependent kinase 3 gene. (1/18)

Our understanding of the mammalian cell cycle is due in large part to the analysis of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2 and CDK4/6. These kinases are regulated by E and D type cyclins, respectively, and coordinate the G(1)/S-phase transition. In contrast, little is known about CDK3, a homolog of CDK2 and cell division cycle kinase 2 (CDC2). Previous studies using ectopic expression of human CDK3 suggest a role for this kinase in the G(1)/S-phase transition, but analysis of the endogenous kinase has been stymied by the low levels of protein present in cells and by the absence of an identifiable cyclin partner. Herein we report the presence of a single point mutation in the CDK3 gene from several Mus musculus strains commonly used in the laboratory. This mutation results in the replacement of a conserved tryptophan (Trp-187) within kinase consensus domain IX with a stop codon. The protein predicted to be encoded by this allele is truncated near the T loop, which is involved in activation by CDK-activating kinase. This mutation also deletes motif XI known to be required for kinase function and is, therefore, expected to generate a null allele. In stark contrast, CDK3 from two wild-mice species (Mus spretus and Mus mus castaneus) lack this mutation. These data indicate that CDK3 is not required for M. musculus development and suggest that any functional role played by CDK3 in the G(1)/S-phase transition is likely to be redundant with another CDK.  (+info)

ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3). (2/18)

p70ik3-1 (a 70-kDa protein) contains a cyclin box, and binds to p35cdk3 in vivo and in vitro [Matsuoka, M., Matsuura, Y., Semba, K. & Nishimoto, I. (2000) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 273, 442-447]. In spite of its structural similarity to cyclins, p70ik3-1 does not activate cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk3)-mediated phosphorylation of pRb, histone H1, or the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Here, we report that Ser274 of p70ik3-1 is phosphorylated by cdk2 or cdk3 bound to cyclin A and to cyclin E in vitro. We also found that in COS7 cells in which cyclin E and cdk3 were ectopically overexpressed, the phosphorylation level of Ser274 in coexpressed p70ik3-1 is upregulated. We therefore conclude that p70ik3-1 is a substrate for cdk3-mediated phosphorylation.  (+info)

ik3-2, a relative to ik3-1/cables, is associated with cdk3, cdk5, and c-abl. (3/18)

A cDNA coding for ik3-2 (designated as ik3-2 from an interactor-2 with cdk3) was cloned by cross-hybridization with ik3-1 and RT-PCR. Analysis of amino acid sequence indicated that ik3-2 has the C-terminal cyclin-box-like region highly homologous to that of ik3-1 (identity in amino acids: 78%). On the other hand, the remainder of ik3-2 gene is not so similar to that of ik3-1. There are several regions other than the C-terminal cyclin-box-like region that are conserved between ik3-1 and ik3-2. In vivo binding assay indicated that like ik3-1, ik3-2 binds to cdk3, cdk5, and c-abl, although ik3-2 binds to cdk3 weakly as compared with ik3-1. The C-terminal cyclin-box-like region of ik3-2 (123 amino acids) is able to be associated with cdk5. Accordingly, ik3-2 is very similar to ik3-1 concerning its molecular interaction with other molecules, suggesting that ik3-2 function in the same biological field as ik3-1. Northern blot analysis indicated that ik3-2 is expressed ubiquitously all over tissues.  (+info)

Cyclin C/cdk3 promotes Rb-dependent G0 exit. (4/18)

G0 is a physiological state occupied by resting or terminally differentiated cells that have exited the cell cycle. In contrast to the well-characterized cyclin/cdk-mediated inactivation of pRb that controls the G1/S transition, little is known about regulation of the G0/G1 transition. However, pRb is likely to participate in this process because its acute somatic inactivation is sufficient for G0-arrested cells to re-enter the cell cycle. One physiological regulator of this event may be cyclin C because its highest mRNA levels occur during G0 exit. Here we show that a non-cdk8-associated cellular pool of cyclin C combines with cdk3 to stimulate pRb phosphorylation at S807/811 during the G0/G1 transition, and that this phosphorylation is required for cells to exit G0 efficiently. Thus, G1 entry is regulated in an analogous fashion to S phase entry, but involves a distinct cyclin/cdk combination.  (+info)

Cyclin C makes an entry into the cell cycle. (5/18)

From yeast to humans, cell cycle progression is orchestrated by the oscillation of kinase activities associated with cyclins. In an article published recently in Cell, Ren and Rollins investigate mechanisms controlling the G0/G1 transition in quiescent cells and identify new cyclin C/Cdk3 complexes as key regulators of cell cycle reentry in human cells.  (+info)

Absolute quantification of multisite phosphorylation by selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry: determination of inhibitory phosphorylation status of cyclin-dependent kinases. (6/18)

Multisite phosphorylation is an important mechanism for achieving intricate regulation of protein function. Here we extended the absolute quantification of abundance (AQUA) methodology and validated its applicability to quantitatively study multisite phosphorylation. As a test case, we chose the conserved inhibitory site of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), Cdk1, Cdk2, and Cdk3, which are important regulators of cell cycle transitions and apoptosis. Inhibitory phosphorylation at Thr(14) and Tyr(15) of the CDKs is modulated by complex regulatory mechanisms involving multiple kinases and phosphatases. Yet the resulting quantitative dynamics among the four possible phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated versions of CDKs (T14p-Y15p, T14p-Y15, T14-Y15p, and T14-Y15) has not been investigated to date. Hence we used the heavy isotope-labeled tryptic peptides spanning the inhibitory site as internal standards and quantified all four versions by LC-selected reaction monitoring. Quantification of the phosphorylation status of the inhibitory site in the cell extracts provided novel quantitative insights. 1) The transition to mitotic phase was dominated by the conversion of "T14p-Y15p" to the "T14-Y15" form, whereas the two monophosphorylated forms were considerably lower in abundance. 2) The amount of all four forms decreased during the progression of apoptosis but with differing kinetics. Analysis of immunoprecipitated Cdk1 and Cdk2 revealed that the inhibitory site phosphorylation state of both kinases at different stages of the cell cycle followed the same trend. Quantitative immunoblotting using antibodies to Cdk1 and Cdk2 and to the T14-Y15p form suggested that quantification by AQUA was reliable and accurate. These results highlight the utility of internal standard peptides to achieve accurate quantification of multisite phosphorylation status.  (+info)

Cyclin-dependent kinase 3-mediated activating transcription factor 1 phosphorylation enhances cell transformation. (7/18)

 (+info)

Cyclin C and cyclin dependent kinases 1, 2 and 3 in thrombin-induced neuronal cell cycle progression and apoptosis. (8/18)

 (+info)

*E2F3

... "ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3)". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 268 (23): 6076-82 ... "Specific regulation of E2F family members by cyclin-dependent kinases". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 17 (7): 3867-75. doi: ... He Y, Cress WD (Jun 2002). "E2F-3B is a physiological target of cyclin A". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (26): 23493 ... This protein and another 2 members, E2F1 and E2F2, have an additional cyclin binding domain. This protein binds specifically to ...

*E2F2

... "ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3)". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (23): 6076-82. doi:10.1046/j.0014- ... This protein and another 2 members, E2F1 and E2F3, have an additional cyclin binding domain. This protein binds specifically to ... Denis GV, Vaziri C, Guo N, Faller DV (2001). "RING3 kinase transactivates promoters of cell cycle regulatory genes through E2F ... Denis GV, Vaziri C, Guo N, Faller DV (August 2000). "RING3 kinase transactivates promoters of cell cycle regulatory genes ...

*CDKN3

It was identified as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate CDK2 kinase ... 2005). "Binding of HTm4 to cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-associated phosphatase (KAP).Cdk2.cyclin A complex enhances the ... "Dephosphorylation of Cdk2 Thr160 by the cyclin-dependent kinase-interacting phosphatase KAP in the absence of cyclin". Science ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDKN3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ...

*CABLES1

"Molecular cloning of a cyclin-like protein associated with cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3) in vivo". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... CABLES1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-binding protein that plays a role in proliferation and/or cell differentiation ( ... 2002). "ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3)". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (23): 6076-82. doi:10.1046/j. ... 2004). "Loss of cables, a cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory protein, is associated with the development of endometrial ...

*KIR3DL1

2002). "ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3)". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (23): 6076-82. doi:10.1046/j. ... 44 (3): 227-30. doi:10.1007/BF02602590. PMID 8662091. Pende D, Biassoni R, Cantoni C, et al. (1996). "The natural killer cell ... 3 (6): 801-9. doi:10.1016/1074-7613(95)90069-1. PMID 8777725. Valiante NM, Uhrberg M, Shilling HG, et al. (1998). "Functionally ... KIR proteins with the short cytoplasmic domain lack the ITIM motif and instead associate with the TYRO protein tyrosine kinase ...

*Sandra Quackenbush

It was determined that he RV-cyclin bound to cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) and increased its activity. The genes IEGs are ... Birkenheuer, C; Brewster, C; Quackenbush, S; Rovnak, J (2015). "Retroviral Cyclin Controls Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8-Mediated ... "The retroviral cyclin of walleye dermal sarcoma virus binds cyclin-dependent kinases 3 and 8". Virology. 409: 299-307. doi: ... The retroviral cyclin of walleye dermal sarcoma virus binds cylin-dependent kinases 3 and 8. Transgenic expression of walleye ...

*CDC2L2

"The p34cdc2-related cyclin-dependent kinase 11 interacts with the p47 subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 during ... "The C-terminal kinase domain of the p34cdc2-related PITSLRE protein kinase (p110C) associates with p21-activated kinase 1 and ... Dickinson LA, Edgar AJ, Ehley J, Gottesfeld JM (July 2002). "Cyclin L is an RS domain protein involved in pre-mRNA splicing". ... Bunnell BA, Heath LS, Adams DE, Lahti JM, Kidd VJ (October 1990). "Increased expression of a 58-kDa protein kinase leads to ...

*EIF3F

Shi J, Feng Y, Goulet AC, Vaillancourt RR, Sachs NA, Hershey JW, Nelson MA (2003). "The p34cdc2-related cyclin-dependent kinase ... Sheffler DJ, Kroeze WK, Garcia BG, Deutch AY, Hufeisen SJ, Leahy P, Brüning JC, Roth BL (2006). "p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 ... "mTOR-dependent stimulation of the association of eIF4G and eIF3 by insulin". EMBO J. 25 (8): 1659-68. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj. ... 94 (1-3): 203-8. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2005.01.007. PMID 15862967. Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H ...

*Carol Greider, wolna encyklopedia

Regulation of telomere elongation by the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1. „Mol Cell". 24 (3), s. 423-32, Nov 2006. DOI: 10.1016/j. ... Kinase-independent functions of TEL1 in telomere maintenance.. „Mol Cell Biol". 29 (18), s. 5193-202, Sep 2009. DOI: 10.1128/ ... Od 1988 do 1990 odbyła staż podoktorancki (postdoctoral fellowship) w Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Long Island[3]. Prowadziła ... Tę stronę ostatnio edytowano 11:22, 3 lut 2017.. *Tekst udostępniany na licencji Creative Commons: uznanie autorstwa, na tych ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 4

CDK4, CMM3, PSK-J3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin dependent kinase 4. ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... "Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 also known as cell division protein kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK4 gene ...

*Mediator (coactivator)

CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Xu W, Ji JY (2011). "Dysregulation of CDK8 and Cyclin C in tumorigenesis". J ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Clark AD, Oldenbroek M, Boyer TG (2015). "Mediator kinase module and human ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Grueter CE (2013). "Mediator complex dependent regulation of cardiac development ... This appears to be accomplished by phosphorylation of part of the polymerase by a kinase. Importantly, mediator and ...

*Chem-seq

... a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, exerts its effects by transcriptional inhibition in leukemia cell lines and patient ... an inhibitor of the cyclin dependent kinase CDK9, and 3) Study how the DNA intercalating agent psoralen interacts with genomic ... be attributed to the weaker signal obtained for bio-AT7519 or because AT7519 can bind and inhibit other cyclin-dependent kinase ...

*Fanconi anemia, complementation group C

... binds to the cyclin-dependent kinase, cdc2". Blood. 90 (3): 1047-54. PMID 9242535. McMahon LW, Walsh CE, Lambert MW (Nov 1999 ... binds to the cyclin-dependent kinase, cdc2". Blood. 90 (3): 1047-54. PMID 9242535. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, ... "The anti-apoptotic function of Hsp70 in the interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase-mediated death ... 7 (3): 264-5. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1996)7:3. 3.0.CO;2-0. PMID 8829660. Gibson RA, Morgan NV, Goldstein LH, Pearson IC, ...

*Beta-secretase 2

"Neuron-specific phosphorylation of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein by cyclin-dependent kinase 5". Journal of ... "In vitro phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of the amyloid precursor protein by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta". Journal ... 89 (3-4): 177-84. doi:10.1159/000015608. PMID 10965118. Hattori M, Fujiyama A, Taylor TD, Watanabe H, Yada T, Park HS, Toyoda A ... 524 (1-3): 183-7. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03052-1. PMID 12135764. Aplin AE, Gibb GM, Jacobsen JS, Gallo JM, Anderton BH (Aug ...

*Alvocidib

"Successful treatment of animal models of rheumatoid arthritis with small-molecule cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors". J. ... Alvocidib (INN; also known as Flavopiridol) is a flavonoid alkaloid CDK9 kinase inhibitor under clinical development for the ... 180 (3): 1954-61. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.180.3.1954. PMID 18209094. Ruef J, Meshel AS, Hu Z, Horaist C, Ballinger CA, Thompson LJ ... 141 (3): 432-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.03.030. PMC 2864022 . PMID 20434984. Harmon, AD; Weiss, U; Silverton, JV (1979). "The ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 8

"Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proceedings of the National ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK8 and cyclin C associate ... "Entrez Gene: CDK8 cyclin-dependent kinase 8".. *^ Nemet J, Jelicic B, Rubelj I, Sopta M (Feb 2014). "The two faces of Cdk8, a ...

*CIP/KIP

"Crystal structure of the p27Kip1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor bound to the cyclin A-cdk2 complex". Nature. 382: 325-331. ... "Increased proteasome-dependent degredation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in aggressive colorectal carcinomas". ... As cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, CIP/KIP proteins have been classically viewed as tumor suppressors; however, the exact ... Lee MH, Reynisdottir I, Massague J (1995). "Cloning of p57kip2, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with unique domain ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase

CDK6; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK7; cyclin H CDK8; cyclin C CDK9; cyclin T1, cyclin T2a, cyclin T2b, cyclin K CDK10 ... cyclin A, cyclin B CDK2; cyclin A, cyclin E CDK3; cyclin C CDK4; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK5; CDK5R1, CDK5R2. See also ... A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) is a protein that interacts with a cyclin-CDK complex to block kinase activity, ... Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of sugar kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle. ...

*Mariano Barbacid

Malumbres M, Ortega S, Barbacid M. «Genetic analysis of mammalian cyclin-dependent kinases and their inhibitors.» Biol Chem ... Toll-like Receptor-4 (TLR4) Down-regulates MicroRNA-107, Increasing Macrophage Adhesion via Cyclin-dependent Kinase 6.» J Biol ... Increasing Macrophage Adhesion via Cyclin-dependent Kinase 6." (2011) His scientific career has been awarded with prizes such ... "Genetic analysis of mammalian cyclin-dependent kinases and their inhibitors." (2000). "Toll-like Receptor-4 (TLR4) Down- ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 1

... like other cyclin-dependent kinases, contains a T-loop, which, in the absence of an interacting cyclin, prevents substrate ... E2F#E2F.2FpRb complexes Hyperphosphorylation cdc25 Maturation promoting factor CDK cyclin A cyclin B cyclin D cyclin E Wee ( ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that ... De Bondt HL, Rosenblatt J, Jancarik J, Jones HD, Morgan DO, Kim SH (June 1993). "Crystal structure of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 10

"Entrez Gene: CDK10 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDC2-like) 10". Kasten M, Giordano A (Apr 2001). "Cdk10, a Cdc2-related kinase, ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 10 has been shown to interact with ETS2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000185324 - Ensembl, May ... This kinase has been shown to play a role in cellular proliferation. Its function is limited to cell cycle G2-M phase. At least ... Cell division protein kinase 10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK10 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 6

2003). "Expression of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6, but Not Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4, Alters Morphology of Cultured Mouse ... "Both p16 and p21 families of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors block the phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases by ... A Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 interacts with: CDKN2C, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3, P16, PPM1B, and PPP2CA. Cell cycle, Mitosis, CDK, ... It is regulated by cyclins, more specifically by Cyclin D proteins and Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins. The protein ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 2

... has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, also known as cell division protein kinase 2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK2 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. This protein ... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases". Oncogene. 15 (2): 143-57. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201252. PMID 9244350. Shintani S, Ohyama H ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 5

... membrane-associated neuronal kinase, cyclin-dependent kinase 5/p35-regulated kinase". The Journal of Neuroscience. 23 (12): ... Unlike other cyclin dependent kinases, CDK5 does not also require phosphorylation on the T loop so that binding with the ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CDK5 human gene location in ... The protein encoded by this gene is part of the cyclin-dependent kinase family. Recently Cdk5 has emerged as an essential ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase complex

... cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), with a regulatory subunit, cyclin. Once cyclin-dependent kinases bind to cyclin, the formed ... Cyclin Cyclin-dependent kinase Malumbres M, Barbacid M. Mammalian cyclin-dependent kinases. Trends Biochem. Sci. 2005 Nov;30(11 ... Yu DS, Zhao R, Hsu EL, Cayer J, Ye F, Guo Y, Shyr Y, Cortez D. Cyclin-dependent kinase 9-cyclin K functions in the replication ... A cyclin-dependent kinase complex (CDKC, cyclin-CDK) is a protein complex formed by the association of an inactive catalytic ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 4

1995). "Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... "The nuclear protein p34SEI-1 regulates the kinase activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 in a concentration-dependent manner". ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 also known as cell division protein kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK4 gene ... Kato JY, Matsuoka M, Strom DK, Sherr CJ (1994). "Regulation of cyclin D-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4) by cdk4-activating kinase". ...

*Histone

SLBP are marked for degradation by phosphorylation at two threonine residues by cyclin dependent kinases, possibly cyclin A/ ... "NPAT links cyclin E-Cdk2 to the regulation of replication-dependent histone gene transcription". Genes & Development. 14 (18): ... The mitotic kinase aurora B phosphorylates histone H3 at serine 10, triggering a cascade of changes that mediate mitotic ... NPAT activates histone gene expression only after it has been phosphorylated by the G1/S-Cdk cyclin E-Cdk2 in early S phase.[ ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 9

... or CDK9 is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Cyclin dependent ... CDK9 cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDC2-related kinase)". MacLachlan TK, Sang N, De Luca A, Puri PL, Levrero M, Giordano A (1998 ... member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Synergistic repression of thyroid hyperplasia by cyclin C and Pten. AU - Jezek, Jan. AU - Wang, Kun. AU - Yan, Ruilan. AU - Di Cristofano, Antonio. AU - Cooper, Katrina F.. AU - Strich, Randy. PY - 2019/8/15. Y1 - 2019/8/15. N2 - The cyclin C-Cdk8 kinase has been identified as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene depending on the cell type. The genomic locus encoding cyclin C (Ccnc) is often deleted in aggressive anaplastic thyroid tumors. To test for a potential tumor suppressor role for cyclin C, Ccnc alone, or Ccnc in combination with a previously described thyroid tumor suppressor Pten, was deleted late in thyroid development. Although mice harboring individual Pten or Ccnc deletions exhibited modest thyroid hyperplasia, the double mutant demonstrated dramatic thyroid expansion resulting in animal death by 22 weeks. Further analysis revealed that Ccncthyr-/- tissues exhibited a reduction in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) phosphorylation at ...
Survival analysis is long-established within actuarial science but infrequently used in general data science projects. We explain more with worked examples.

Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 - WikipediaCyclin-dependent kinase 3 - Wikipedia

"Entrez Gene: CDK3 cyclin-dependent kinase 3". Bullrich F, MacLachlan TK, Sang N, et al. (1995). "Chromosomal mapping of members ... 2002). "ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3)". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (23): 6076-82. doi:10.1046/j. ... Meikrantz W, Schlegel R (1996). "Suppression of apoptosis by dominant negative mutants of cyclin-dependent protein kinases". J ... Ren S, Rollins BJ (2004). "Cyclin C/cdk3 promotes Rb-dependent G0 exit". Cell. 117 (2): 239-51. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00300 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin-dependent_kinase_3

Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 increases 3 end processing of growth factor-induced c-FOS transcripts.  - PubMed - NCBICyclin-dependent kinase 12 increases 3' end processing of growth factor-induced c-FOS transcripts. - PubMed - NCBI

Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 increases 3 end processing of growth factor-induced c-FOS transcripts.. Eifler TT1, Shao W2, ... Transcriptional cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate RNA polymerase II initiation and elongation as well as ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 12 Increases 3′ End Processing of Growth Factor-Induced c-FOS Transcripts ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 12 Increases 3′ End Processing of Growth Factor-Induced c-FOS Transcripts ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25384976

Identification of potent pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline-3-carboxamides as multi-cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.  - PubMed - NCBIIdentification of potent pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline-3-carboxamides as multi-cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. - PubMed - NCBI

Compounds targeting complexes between cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins (Cy) and inhibiting their activity are ... Identification of potent pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline-3-carboxamides as multi-cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.. Traquandi G1, ... An expansion of pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline chemical class oriented to the development of three points of variability was ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20141146

RCSB PDB - 5FP6: Structure of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 with small-molecule ligand 3-(4,7-dichloro-1H-indol-3-yl)prop-2-yn-1-ol...RCSB PDB - 5FP6: Structure of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 with small-molecule ligand 3-(4,7-dichloro-1H-indol-3-yl)prop-2-yn-1-ol...

Structure of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 with small-molecule ligand 3-(4,7-dichloro-1H-indol-3-yl)prop-2-yn-1-ol (AT17833) in an ... Structure of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 with small-molecule ligand 3-(4,7-dichloro-1H-indol-3-yl)prop-2-yn-1-ol (AT17833) in an ... a Novel Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Using Fragment-Based X-Ray Crystallography and Structure Based Drug Design.. Wyatt, P ... 3-(4,7-dichloro-1H-indol-3-yl)prop-2-yn-1-ol. C11 H7 Cl2 N O. VIZAOCOKGQUJRZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N. ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/structure/5FP6

Remediated Sequence 









- 1KE9: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 (CDK2) COMPLEXED WITH 3-{[4-({[AMINO(IMINO)METHYL]AMINOSULFONYL...Remediated Sequence - 1KE9: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 (CDK2) COMPLEXED WITH 3-{[4-({[AMINO(IMINO)METHYL]AMINOSULFONYL...

Oxindole-based inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2): design, synthesis, enzymatic activities, and X-ray ... CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 (CDK2) COMPLEXED WITH 3-{[4-({[AMINO(IMINO)METHYL]AMINOSULFONYL)ANILINO]METHYLENE}-2-OXO-2,3-DIHYDRO- ... Chain A: Cell division protein kinase 2. Chain Downloadable Files. Download FASTA File. View Sequence & DSSP Image. Download ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/remediatedSequence.do?structureId=1KE9

Cyclin-dependent Kinase-like 3 | definition of Cyclin-dependent Kinase-like 3 by Medical dictionaryCyclin-dependent Kinase-like 3 | definition of Cyclin-dependent Kinase-like 3 by Medical dictionary

What is Cyclin-dependent Kinase-like 3? Meaning of Cyclin-dependent Kinase-like 3 medical term. What does Cyclin-dependent ... Looking for online definition of Cyclin-dependent Kinase-like 3 in the Medical Dictionary? Cyclin-dependent Kinase-like 3 ... redirected from Cyclin-dependent Kinase-like 3). Also found in: Acronyms. CDKL3. A gene on chromosome 5q31 that encodes a CMGC- ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-Like 5. *Cyclin-dependent kinases. *Cyclin-dependent kinases. *cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 binding ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Cyclin-dependent+Kinase-like+3

cdkl3, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 3 - Creative Biogenecdkl3, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 3 - Creative Biogene

... serine threonine protein kinase NKIAMRE; CDKL3 protein; Cyclin dependent kinase like 3; serine-threonine protein kinase NKIAMRE ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly ... Profiling ServicesKinase Screening & Profiling ServicesIon Channel Screening & Profiling ServicesGPCR Screening & Profiling ... CDKL3; cyclin-dependent kinase-like 3; NKIAMRE; ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biogene.com/symbolsearch_cdkl3.html

Effects of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Inhibitors on Morphine-Induced Analgesia and Tolerance in...Effects of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Inhibitors on Morphine-Induced Analgesia and Tolerance in...

Effects of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Inhibitors on Morphine-Induced Analgesia and Tolerance in ... Effects of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Inhibitors on Morphine-Induced Analgesia and Tolerance in ... Effects of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Inhibitors on Morphine-Induced Analgesia and Tolerance in ... Effects of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Inhibitors on Morphine-Induced Analgesia and Tolerance in ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/319/2/832/tab-figures-data

Antibody Database - Conjugates for the antigen p16 / CDKN2A / cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A / p16INK4a (isoform 3)Antibody Database - Conjugates for the antigen 'p16 / CDKN2A / cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A / p16INK4a (isoform 3)'

... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A / p16INK4a (isoform 3) in the Antibody Database ... p16 / CDKN2A / cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A / p16INK4a (isoform 3) Antibodies by Conjugate. ... Fluorochrome conjugates for (p16 / CDKN2A / cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A / p16INK4a (isoform 3)) in the Chromocyte ...
more infohttps://www.chromocyte.com/Antibody-Database/Antigen/p16---CDKN2A---cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitor-2A---p16INK4a--isoform-3-_19506

Study of the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases with roscovitine and indirubin-3′-oxime from molecular dynamics simulations...Study of the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases with roscovitine and indirubin-3′-oxime from molecular dynamics simulations...

Zhang, B., Tan, V.B.C., Lim, K.M., Tay, T.E., Zhuang, S. (2007-01). Study of the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases with ... Study of the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases with roscovitine and indirubin-3′-oxime from molecular dynamics simulations ... the stronger affinity for the R enantiomer is the presence of an important hydrogen bond between R-roscovitine and the kinases ... The simulations detected the displacement of a water molecule in the active site of the water-included CDK/indirubin-3′-oxime ...
more infohttp://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/61403

Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 - wikidocCyclin-dependent kinase 3 - wikidoc

2002). "ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3)". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (23): 6076-82. doi:10.1046/j. ... Meikrantz W, Schlegel R (1996). "Suppression of apoptosis by dominant negative mutants of cyclin-dependent protein kinases". J ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ...
more infohttp://es.wikidoc.org/index.php/Cyclin-dependent_kinase_3

Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 3Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/Q8IVW4

Buy Recombinant Human cyclin-dependent kinase 3 Protein (pka-055)Buy Recombinant Human cyclin-dependent kinase 3 Protein (pka-055)

ProteoGenix provides you the best Kinases proteins. Shop now from our 200 000 + products. ... Buy online Recombinant Human cyclin-dependent kinase 3 Protein from Prospec cat# pka-055. ... More info about Recombinant Human cyclin-dependent kinase 3 Protein. Catalog#: pka-055. ... Data sheet of Recombinant Human cyclin-dependent kinase 3 Protein. Brand. Prospec. ...
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CDKN3 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIHCDKN3 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIH

It was identified as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate CDK2 kinase ... cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 3. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... thus prevent the activation of CDK2 kinase. This gene was reported to be deleted, mutated, or overexpressed in several kinds of ...
more infohttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/CDKN3

CDK3 Gene - GeneCards | CDK3 Protein | CDK3 AntibodyCDK3 Gene - GeneCards | CDK3 Protein | CDK3 Antibody

Cyclin Dependent Kinase 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. IEA. --. GO:0004693. cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. IBA, ... ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3). (PMID: 11733001) Yamochi T … Matsuoka M (European journal of ... cyclin dependent kinase 3,involved in cell cycle regulation (G1 to S transition),not complexing with any cyclin *CDK3 ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CDK3&sg_prom=2

CDKN3 Gene - GeneCards | CDKN3 Protein | CDKN3 AntibodyCDKN3 Gene - GeneCards | CDKN3 Protein | CDKN3 Antibody

Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... It was identified as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate CDK2 kinase ... Binding of HTm4 to cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-associated phosphatase (KAP).Cdk2.cyclin A complex enhances the phosphatase ... regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. TAS. 8242750. GO:0000082. G1/S transition of mitotic ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CDKN3

SWISS-MODEL Template Library | 1fq1.1SWISS-MODEL Template Library | 1fq1.1

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF KINASE ASSOCIATED PHOSPHATASE (KAP) IN COMPLEX WITH PHOSPHO-CDK2 ... CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR 3: A. CELL DIVISION PROTEIN KINASE 2: B. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB Chain Id:. A. A ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF KINASE ASSOCIATED PHOSPHATASE (KAP) IN COMPLEX WITH PHOSPHO-CDK2. Coordinates. PDB Format Method. X-RAY ... Song, H. et al., Phosphoprotein-protein interactions revealed by the crystal structure of kinase-associated phosphatase in ...
more infohttps://swissmodel.expasy.org/templates/1fq1

The discovery of a new structural class of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines | Molecular Cancer...The discovery of a new structural class of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines | Molecular Cancer...

... cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), growth suppressor genes and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs). Oncogene. 1995;11211-9. ... Cyclin E is the only cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated cyclin that predicts metastasis and survival in early stage non-small ... A cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 binding site within the C domain of the retinoblastoma protein. Cancer Res. 2001;61:2885- ... Pines J. Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases: take your partners. Trends Biochem Sci. 1993;18:195-7. ...
more infohttps://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/3/1/1

CDK15 - Cyclin-dependent kinase 15 - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDK15 gene & proteinCDK15 - Cyclin-dependent kinase 15 - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDK15 gene & protein

Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts like an antiapoptotic protein that counters TRAIL/TNFSF10-induced apoptosis by ... IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 15 (EC:2.7.11.221 Publication. Manual assertion based on experiment ini ... sp,Q96Q40,CDK15_HUMAN Cyclin-dependent kinase 15 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CDK15 PE=1 SV=2 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q96Q40

Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases, GSK-3β and CK1 by hymenialdisine, a marine sponge constituent<...Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases, GSK-3β and CK1 by hymenialdisine, a marine sponge constituent<...

keywords = "Alzheimers disease, Cyclin-dependent kinases, Glycogen synthase kinase, Hymenialdisine, Tau",. author = "L. Meijer ... The marine sponge constituent hymenialdisine is a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, glycogen synthase kinase-3β and ... The marine sponge constituent hymenialdisine is a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, glycogen synthase kinase-3β and ... The marine sponge constituent hymenialdisine is a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, glycogen synthase kinase-3β and ...
more infohttps://asu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/inhibition-of-cyclin-dependent-kinases-gsk-3%CE%B2-and-ck1-by-hymenial

Indian Patents. 234346:3, 4-DISUBSTITUTED 1H-PYRAZOLE COMPOUNDS AND THEIR USE AS CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES (CDK) AND GLYCOGEN...Indian Patents. 234346:3, 4-DISUBSTITUTED 1H-PYRAZOLE COMPOUNDS AND THEIR USE AS CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES (CDK) AND GLYCOGEN...

... and sub-groups thereof are inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinases, and in particular cyclin dependent kinases selected from ... The activity of the compounds of the invention as inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinases and glycogen synthase kinase-3 can be ... or inhibit cell proliferation through the inhibition of protein kinases such as cyclin dependent kinase or tyrosine kinase. The ... 4-DISUBSTITUTED 1H-PYRAZOLE COMPOUNDS AND THEIR USE AS CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES (CDK) AND GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE-3 (GSK-3) ...
more infohttp://www.allindianpatents.com/patents/234346-3-4-disubstituted-1h-pyrazole-compounds-and-their-use-as-cyclin-dependent-kinases-cdk-and-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-gsk-3-modulators

Molecules  | Free Full-Text | Pharmacogenomics of Scopoletin in Tumor Cells | HTMLMolecules | Free Full-Text | Pharmacogenomics of Scopoletin in Tumor Cells | HTML

Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3. CDK1and CDK2 inhibitor. −0.428. GC35573. U20979. CHAF1A. Chromatin assembly factor 1, ... Krystof, V.; Uldrijan, S. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors as anticancer drugs. Curr. Drug Targets 2010, 11, 291-302. [Google ... Molecular docking was performed to calculate the interaction energy and geometry of scopoletin with I-κB kinase β, I-κB kinase ... I-κB kinase β (PDB ID:3RZF), I-κB kinase β-NEMO complex (PDB ID: 3BRT), NF-κB (p52/RelB heterodimer, PDB ID: 3DO7), NF-κB-DNA ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/21/4/496/htm

Mechanism for Inactivation of the KIP Family Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor Genes in Gastric Cancer Cells | Cancer ResearchMechanism for Inactivation of the KIP Family Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor Genes in Gastric Cancer Cells | Cancer Research

Evidence for different mode of action of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: p15 and p16 bind to kinase, p21 and p27 bind to ... Mechanism for Inactivation of the KIP Family Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor Genes in Gastric Cancer Cells. Jong-Yeon Shin, ... Margarita S. B., Ana I. S., Juan C. M., Mateo M. S., Lydia S. V., Raquel V., Giancarlo T., Miguel A. P. Cyclin-dependent kinase ... Sherr C. J., Roberts J. M. Inhibitors of mammalian G1 cyclin-dependent kinase. Genes Dev., 9: 1149-1163, 1995. ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/60/2/262

Sex-dependent and -independent transcriptional changes during haploid phase gametogenesis in the sugar kelp Saccharina...Sex-dependent and -independent transcriptional changes during haploid phase gametogenesis in the sugar kelp Saccharina...

Cyclin-dependent Kinase 6. Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during ... Cyclin C. A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual ... A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a ... It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18. ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2478350/Sex-dependent-and-independent-transcriptional-changes-during-haploid-phase-gametogenesis-in-the.html

What is the role of chemoimmunotherapy in the treatment of relapsed/refractory DLBCL?What is the role of chemoimmunotherapy in the treatment of relapsed/refractory DLBCL?

PIP3 is generated as a result of BCR-dependent PI3K activation. BTK also hydrolyzes PIP2 into DAG and IP3. IP3 induces release ... B-cell receptor signaling activates PI3K-mediated activation of the kinase AKT, which activates many downstream signaling ... IkB kinase; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; FoxO, Forkhead box transcription factors; GSK3b, glycogen synthase 3-beta; p21 ... protein kinase B; PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog; PIP2, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate; PIP3, phosphatidylinositol ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/202969-188169/987540-overview
  • Hymenialdisine also blocks the in vivo phosphorylation of the microtubule-binding protein tau at sites that are hyperphosphorylated by GSK-3 and CDK5/p35 in Alzheimer's disease (cross-reacting with Alzheimer's-specific AT100 antibodies). (elsevier.com)
  • 1995 ). CDK5/p35 is the first example of a CDC2-like kinase with neuronal function. (springer.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) controls melanoma cell motility, invasiveness, and metastatic spread-identification of a promising novel therapeutic target. (springer.com)
  • Detection limit for recombinant GST tagged CDKL3 is 3 ng/ml as a capture antibody. (abnova.com)
  • Sex-dependent and -independent transcriptional changes during haploid phase gametogenesis in the sugar kelp Saccharina latissima. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Phosphoprotein-protein interactions revealed by the crystal structure of kinase-associated phosphatase in complex with phosphoCDK2. (expasy.org)
  • 5FP6: Structure of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 with small-molecule ligand 3-(4,7-dichloro-1H-indol-3-yl)prop-2-yn-1-ol (AT17833) in an alternate binding site. (rcsb.org)
  • Long, Lin;He, Jian-Zhong;Chen, Ye;Xu, Xiu-E;Liao, Lian-Di;Xie, Yang-Min;Li, En-Min;Xu, Li-Yan 2018-05-07 00:00:00 Abstract Background Riboflavin is an essential component of the human diet and its derivative cofactors play an established role in oxidative metabolism. (deepdyve.com)
  • These are compounds containing an indole moiety, which consists of pyrrolidine ring fused to benzene to form 2,3-dihydroindole. (drugbank.ca)
  • Anti-CDK12 antibodies revealed CDK12 in these immunoprecipitations in the absence (lanes 3 and 6) or presence (lanes 4 and 7) of RNase A by Western blotting (upper panels). (nih.gov)
  • Your search returned 2 cyclin-dependent kinase 16 S homeolog Antibodies across 2 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Protein kinases may be characterized by their regulation mechanisms. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Figure 3: CDK regulation and opportunities for therapeutic intervention. (nature.com)
  • Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that involucrin expression was 3- to 5-fold enhanced by the forced expression of p21 sdi1 in esophageal cancer cells, whereas only a mild up-regulation up to 1.2-fold occurred in normal keratinocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The aims of this volume are to highlight the tremendous pharmacological potential of protein kinase and protein phosphatase inhibitors, to provide a thorough overview of the most remarkable achievements in the field and to illustrate how beneficial these studies can be for the advancement of both basic knowledge on biological regulation and deregulation and for the clinical treatment of a wide spectrum of diseases. (springer.com)
  • These findings prompted us to study the effect of the Cdk 3 inhibitor p21 sdi1 , which is associated with differentiation in some circumstances, on involucrin expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines as well as normal human keratinocytes. (aacrjournals.org)