Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Cyclin C: A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Cyclin D: A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins: A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Cyclin D3: A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6: Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57: A potent inhibitor of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES in G1 PHASE and S PHASE. In humans, aberrant expression of p57 is associated with various NEOPLASMS as well as with BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Cyclin D2: A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.Cyclin A1: A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Cyclin A2: A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Cyclin G: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Cyclin G1: A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Cyclin B2: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cyclin T: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cyclin H: A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.Cyclin G2: An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Mice, Inbred C57BLProto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.E2F4 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F4 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene PROMOTER REGIONS through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130 and RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P107.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Cell regulatory signaling system that controls progression through S PHASE and stabilizes the replication forks during conditions that could affect the fidelity of DNA REPLICATION, such as DNA DAMAGE or depletion of nucleotide pools.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.PhosphoproteinsRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cyclin I: A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.ChromonesProtein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.MAP Kinase Kinase 2: A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genes, bcl-1: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.MorpholinesGene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesPhosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Genes, p16: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Phosphoglycerate Kinase: An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.Casein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.MAP Kinase Kinase 6: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.

Induced expression of p16(INK4a) inhibits both CDK4- and CDK2-associated kinase activity by reassortment of cyclin-CDK-inhibitor complexes. (1/1711)

To investigate the mode of action of the p16(INK4a) tumor suppressor protein, we have established U2-OS cells in which the expression of p16(INK4a) can be regulated by addition or removal of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. As expected, induction of p16(INK4a) results in a G1 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. However, induction of p16(INK4a) also causes marked inhibition of CDK2 activity. In the case of cyclin E-CDK2, this is brought about by reassortment of cyclin, CDK, and CDK-inhibitor complexes, particularly those involving p27(KIP1). Size fractionation of the cellular lysates reveals that a substantial proportion of CDK4 participates in active kinase complexes of around 200 kDa. Upon induction of p16(INK4a), this complex is partly dissociated, and the majority of CDK4 is found in lower-molecular-weight fractions consistent with the formation of a binary complex with p16(INK4a). Sequestration of CDK4 by p16(INK4a) allows cyclin D1 to associate increasingly with CDK2, without affecting its interactions with the CIP/KIP inhibitors. Thus, upon the induction of p16(INK4a), p27(KIP1) appears to switch its allegiance from CDK4 to CDK2, and the accompanying reassortment of components leads to the inhibition of cyclin E-CDK2 by p27(KIP1) and p21(CIP1). Significantly, p16(INK4a) itself does not appear to form higher-order complexes, and the overwhelming majority remains either free or forms binary associations with CDK4 and CDK6.  (+info)

Differential roles for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 in the mechanisms of senescence and differentiation in human fibroblasts. (2/1711)

The irreversible G1 arrest in senescent human diploid fibroblasts is probably caused by inactivation of the G1 cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes responsible for phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). We show that the Cdk inhibitor p21(Sdi1,Cip1,Waf1), which accumulates progressively in aging cells, binds to and inactivates all cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes in senescent cells, whereas in young cells only p21-free Cdk2 complexes are active. Furthermore, the senescent-cell-cycle arrest occurs prior to the accumulation of the Cdk4-Cdk6 inhibitor p16(Ink4a), suggesting that p21 may be sufficient for this event. Accordingly, cyclin D1-associated phosphorylation of pRb at Ser-780 is lacking even in newly senescent fibroblasts that have a low amount of p16. Instead, the cyclin D1-Cdk4 and cyclin D1-Cdk6 complexes in these cells are associated with an increased amount of p21, suggesting that p21 may be responsible for inactivation of both cyclin E- and cyclin D1-associated kinase activity at the early stage of senescence. Moreover, even in the late stage of senescence when p16 is high, cyclin D1-Cdk4 complexes are persistent, albeit reduced by +info)

Progesterone inhibits estrogen-induced cyclin D1 and cdk4 nuclear translocation, cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activation, and cell proliferation in uterine epithelial cells in mice. (3/1711)

The response of the uterine epithelium to female sex steroid hormones provides an excellent model to study cell proliferation in vivo since both stimulation and inhibition of cell proliferation can be studied. Thus, when administered to ovariectomized adult mice 17beta-estradiol (E2) stimulates a synchronized wave of DNA synthesis and cell division in the epithelial cells, while pretreatment with progesterone (P4) completely inhibits this E2-induced cell proliferation. Using a simple method to isolate the uterine epithelium with high purity, we have shown that E2 treatment induces a relocalization of cyclin D1 and, to a lesser extent, cdk4 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and results in the orderly activation of cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinases and hyperphosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 pretreatment did not alter overall levels of cyclin D1, cdk4, or cdk6 nor their associated kinase activities but instead inhibited the E2-induced nuclear localization of cyclin D1 to below the control level and, to a lesser extent, nuclear cdk4 levels, with a consequent inhibition of pRb and p107 phosphorylation. In addition, it abrogated E2-induced cyclin E-cdk2 activation by dephosphorylation of cdk2, followed by inhibition of cyclin A expression and consequently of cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activity and further inhibition of phosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 is used therapeutically to oppose the effect of E2 during hormone replacement therapy and in the treatment of uterine adenocarcinoma. This study showing a novel mechanism of cell cycle inhibition by P4 may provide the basis for the development of new antiestrogens.  (+info)

Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins. (4/1711)

Human cyclin A1, a newly discovered cyclin, is expressed in testis and is thought to function in the meiotic cell cycle. Here, we show that the expression of human cyclin A1 and cyclin A1-associated kinase activities was regulated during the mitotic cell cycle. In the osteosarcoma cell line MG63, cyclin A1 mRNA and protein were present at very low levels in cells at the G0 phase. They increased during the progression of the cell cycle and reached the highest levels in the S and G2/M phases. Furthermore, the cyclin A1-associated histone H1 kinase activity peaked at the G2/M phase. We report that cyclin A1 could bind to important cell cycle regulators: the Rb family of proteins, the transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family of proteins. The in vitro interaction of cyclin A1 with E2F-1 was greatly enhanced when cyclin A1 was complexed with CDK2. Associations of cyclin A1 with Rb and E2F-1 were observed in vivo in several cell lines. When cyclin A1 was coexpressed with CDK2 in sf9 insect cells, the CDK2-cyclin A1 complex had kinase activities for histone H1, E2F-1, and the Rb family of proteins. Our results suggest that the Rb family of proteins and E2F-1 may be important targets for phosphorylation by the cyclin A1-associated kinase. Cyclin A1 may function in the mitotic cell cycle in certain cells.  (+info)

Heparin inhibits proliferation of myometrial and leiomyomal smooth muscle cells through the induction of alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin h1 and p27. (5/1711)

Mast cells are widely distributed in human tissues, including the human uterus. However, the function of mast cells in uterine smooth muscle has not been clearly established. Mast cells possess secretory granules containing such substances as heparin, serotonin, histamine and many cytokines. To help establish the role of mast cells in the human myometrium, the action of heparin was investigated using smooth muscle cells (SMC) from normal myometrium and from leiomyoma. The proliferation of cultured myometrial and leiomyomal SMC was inhibited by heparin treatment. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the population in the G1 phase of the cell cycle increased under heparin treatment. Western blotting analysis showed that markers of SMC differentiation such as alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), calponin h1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 were induced by heparin, whereas cell-cycle-related gene products from the G1 phase of the cell cycle, such as cyclin E and cdk2, were not changed. Taken together, these results indicate that heparin inhibits the proliferation of myometrial and leiomyomal SMC through the induction of alpha-SMA, calponin h1 and p27. We suggest that heparin from mast cells may induce differentiation in uterine SMC and may influence tissue remodelling and reconstruction during physiological and pathophysiological events.  (+info)

Impact of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis in tumor cells. (6/1711)

Following exposure to 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (an inhibitor of the cellular DNA polymerases alpha, delta and epsilon), human erythroleukemia K562, human T-lymphoid CEM and murine leukemia L1210 cells markedly accumulated in the S phase of the cell cycle. In contrast to DNA replication, RNA synthesis (transcription) and protein synthesis (mRNA translation) were not affected by 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)-adenine. The ribonucleoside triphosphate pools were slightly elevated, while the intracellular levels of all four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates were 1.5-4-fold increased in 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562, CEM and L1210 cells. The effect of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on de novo (thymidylate synthase-mediated) and salvage (thymidine kinase-mediated) dTTP synthesis was investigated using radio-labelled nucleoside precursors. The amount of thymidylate synthase-derived dTTP in the acid soluble pool was 2-4-fold higher in PMEA-treated than in untreated K562 cells, which is in accord with the 3-4-fold expansion of the global dTTP level in the presence of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Strikingly, 2-derived dTTP accumulated to a much higher extent (i.e. 16-40-fold) in the soluble dTTP pool upon 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine treatment. In keeping with this finding, a markedly increased thymidine kinase activity could be demonstrated in extracts of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562 cell cultures. Also, in the presence of 200 microM 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine, 14-fold less thymidylate synthase-derived but only 3-fold less thymidine kinase-derived dTTP was incorporated into the DNA of the K562 cells. These data show that thymidine incorporation may be inappropriate as a cell proliferation marker in the presence of DNA synthesis inhibitors such as 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Our findings indicate that 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine causes a peculiar pattern of (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism deregulation in drug-treated tumor cells, as a result of the metabolic block imposed by the drug on the S phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

A new pathway for mitogen-dependent cdk2 regulation uncovered in p27(Kip1)-deficient cells. (7/1711)

BACKGROUND: The ability of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) to promote cell proliferation is opposed by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs), proteins that bind tightly to cyclin-CDK complexes and block the phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. Mice with targeted CKI gene deletions have only subtle proliferative abnormalities, however, and cells prepared from these mice seem remarkably normal when grown in vitro. One explanation may be the operation of compensatory pathways that control CDK activity and cell proliferation when normal pathways are inactivated. We have used mice lacking the CKIs p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) to investigate this issue, specifically with respect to CDK regulation by mitogens. RESULTS: We show that p27 is the major inhibitor of Cdk2 activity in mitogen-starved wild-type murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Nevertheless, inactivation of the cyclin E-Cdk2 complex in response to mitogen starvation occurs normally in MEFs that have a homozygous deletion of the p27 gene. Moreover, CDK regulation by mitogens is also not affected by the absence of both p27 and p21. A titratable Cdk2 inhibitor compensates for the absence of both CKIs, and we identify this inhibitor as p130, a protein related to the retinoblastoma gene product Rb. Thus, cyclin E-Cdk2 kinase activity cannot be inhibited by mitogen starvation of MEFs that lack both p27 and p130. In addition, cell types that naturally express low amounts of p130, such as T lymphocytes, are completely dependent on p27 for regulation of the cyclin E-Cdk2 complex by mitogens. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of Cdk2 activity in mitogen-starved fibroblasts is usually performed by the CKI p27, and to a minor extent by p21. Remarkably p130, a protein in the Rb family that is not related to either p21 or p27, will directly substitute for the CKIs and restore normal CDK regulation by mitogens in cells lacking both p27 and p21. This compensatory pathway may be important in settings in which CKIs are not expressed at standard levels, as is the case in many human tumors.  (+info)

Modulation of apoptosis by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). (8/1711)

Proliferation and apoptosis are increased in many types of inflammatory diseases. A role for the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) (p27) in limiting proliferation has been shown. In this study, we show that p27(-/-) mesangial cells and fibroblasts have strikingly elevated rates of apoptosis, not proliferation, when deprived of growth factors. Apoptosis was rescued by restoration of p27 expression. Cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity, but not cyclin E-CDK2 activity, was increased in serum-starved p27(-/-) cells, and decreasing CDK2 activity, either pharmacologically (Roscovitine) or by a dominant-negative mutant, inhibited apoptosis. Our results show that a new biological function for the CDK inhibitor p27 is protection of cells from apoptosis by constraining CDK2 activity. These results suggest that CDK inhibitors are necessary for coordinating the cell cycle and cell-death programs so that cell viability is maintained during exit from the cell cycle.  (+info)

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. This protein ... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases". Oncogene. 15 (2): 143-57. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201252. PMID 9244350. Shintani S, Ohyama H ... "Reversal of growth suppression by p107 via direct phosphorylation by cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, also known as cell division protein kinase 2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK2 ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 1

... like other cyclin-dependent kinases, contains a T-loop, which, in the absence of an interacting cyclin, prevents substrate ... E2F#E2F.2FpRb complexes Hyperphosphorylation cdc25 Maturation promoting factor CDK cyclin A cyclin B cyclin D cyclin E Wee ( ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that ... De Bondt HL, Rosenblatt J, Jancarik J, Jones HD, Morgan DO, Kim SH (June 1993). "Crystal structure of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 ...

*CDK2AP1

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK2AP1 gene. The protein encoded ... CDK2AP1 has been shown to interact with Cyclin-dependent kinase 2. It interacts with unnamed protein product (BC006130) which ... "p12DOC-1 Is a Novel Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2-Associated Protein". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (17): 6300-7. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.17.6300 ... "p12DOC-1 Is a Novel Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2-Associated Protein". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (17): 6300-7. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.17.6300 ...

*Centrosome cycle

This link between the cell cycle and the centrosome cycle is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2). There has been ample ... Matsumoto, Y; Hayashi, K; Nishida, E (Apr 22, 1999). "Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) is required for centrosome duplication ... Lacey, KR; Jackson, PK; Stearns, T (Mar 16, 1999). "Cyclin-dependent kinase control of centrosome duplication". Proceedings of ... by cyclin-dependent kinase 2-cyclin E and its role in centrosome duplication". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (24): ...

*Aptamer

"Genetic selection of peptide aptamers that recognize and inhibit cyclin-dependent kinase 2". Nature. 380 (6574): 548-550. ... 37 (2): e14. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn956. Yamashige, R.; et al. (2012). "Highly specific unnatural base pair systems as a third base ... 2 (1): 11-12. doi:10.1038/nmeth0105-11. PMID 15782163. Spolar R. S.; Record M. T. Jr. (1994). "Coupling of local folding to ... 91 (2): 145-156. doi:10.1002/bip.21097. PMID 19025993. Long, S.; M. Long; R. White; B. Sullenger (2008). "Crystal structure of ...

*CDKN3

It was identified as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate CDK2 kinase ... 2005). "Binding of HTm4 to cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-associated phosphatase (KAP).Cdk2.cyclin A complex enhances the ... "Dephosphorylation of Cdk2 Thr160 by the cyclin-dependent kinase-interacting phosphatase KAP in the absence of cyclin". Science ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDKN3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ...

*Stress granule

"Phosphorylation of hnRNP K by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 controls cytosolic accumulation of TDP-43". Human Molecular Genetics. ... "Stress granules regulate double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase activation through a complex containing G3BP1 and Caprin1 ... Markmiller S, Soltanieh S, Server KL, Mak R, Jin W, Fang MY, Luo E, Krach F, Yang D (2018-01-25). "Context-Dependent and ... Wasserman T, Katsenelson K, Daniliuc S, Hasin T, Choder M, Aronheim A (January 2010). "A novel c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)- ...

*CEBPA

... has been shown to interact with Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and Cyclin-dependent kinase 4. It has been shown that mutation ... Also, the encoded protein can interact with CDK2 and CDK4, thereby inhibiting these kinases and causing growth arrest in ... 13 (2): 293-300. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(92)90245-N. PMID 1535333. Cao Z, Umek RM, McKnight SL (October 1991). "Regulated ... 2 (2): 256-9. doi:10.1016/S0959-437X(05)80282-5. PMID 1638120. Marcucci G, Mrózek K, Bloomfield CD (2005). "Molecular ...

*BRCA1

... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases". Oncogene. 15 (2): 143-57. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201252. PMID 9244350. Boulton SJ (November ... "BRCA1 is phosphorylated at serine 1497 in vivo at a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 phosphorylation site". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (7): ... "BRCA1 interacts with and is required for paclitaxel-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3". ... kinase and ATM and Rad3 related kinase mediate phosphorylation of Brca1 at distinct and overlapping sites. In vivo assessment ...

*CDKL2

Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDKL2 gene. This gene product is a member of a ... "Entrez Gene: CDKL2 cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 (CDC2-related kinase)". Human CDKL2 genome location and CDKL2 gene details ... 2005). "Mutations in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5/STK9) gene are associated with severe ... 2004). "Novel roles of TLR3 tyrosine phosphorylation and PI3 kinase in double-stranded RNA signaling". Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. ...

*Kim Sung-Hou

He also published many papers on the structures of protein molecules including human Ras, human cyclin dependent kinase 2 and ...

*Cyclin A1

Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Different cyclins ... Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ... "Evidence for different modes of action of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: p15 and p16 bind to kinases, p21 and p27 bind to ... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases". Oncogene. 15 (2): 143-57. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201252. PMID 9244350. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo- ...

*MAPK15

A number of additional proteins also interact with MAPK15, including cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), mitogen-activated ... MAP kinases are also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), and are involved in signaling cascades that ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase 15, also known as MAPK15, ERK7, or ERK8, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK15 ... It contains two SH3 (SRC homology 3) binding motifs in its C-terminal region, and is likely activated by an SRC-dependent ...

*MYBL2

The encoded protein is phosphorylated by cyclin A/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 during the S-phase of the cell cycle and possesses ... MYBL2 has been shown to interact with: CDK9, CREB-binding protein, Cyclin A1, Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C EP300, PARP1 ... Joaquin M, Watson RJ (Nov 2003). "The cell cycle-regulated B-Myb transcription factor overcomes cyclin-dependent kinase ... B-myb and selective members of cyclin/cdk subunits are targets for protein kinase C-mediated bimodal growth regulation in ...

*Retinoblastoma-like protein 1

... has been shown to interact with: BEGAIN, BRCA1, BRF1, Cyclin A2, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1 ... "Reversal of growth suppression by p107 via direct phosphorylation by cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4". Molecular and ... Joaquin M, Watson RJ (Nov 2003). "The cell cycle-regulated B-Myb transcription factor overcomes cyclin-dependent kinase ... "Regulation of the retinoblastoma protein-related protein p107 by G1 cyclin-associated kinases". Proceedings of the National ...

*Mir-885 microRNA precursor family

... including the CDK2 and MCM5 genes encoding cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and mini-chromosome maintenance protein MCM5, and also ...

*Eukaryotic DNA replication

One kinase is the Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase called Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) and the other is cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK). Chromatin ... S phase-specific cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) and Cdc7/Dbf4 kinase (DDK) transform the pre-RC into an active ... activation of the complex is triggered by two kinases, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) that ... and Mcm2p at replication origins controlled by S-phase cyclin-dependent kinases and Cdc7p-Dbf4p kinase". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (9 ...

*ORC1

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, MCM2, MCM4, MCM6, MCM7, MYST2, ORC2, ORC4, ORC5, and SKP2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Jiang W, McDonald D, Hope TJ, Hunter T (Oct 1999). "Mammalian Cdc7-Dbf4 protein kinase complex is essential for initiation of ... Laman H, Peters G, Jones N (Dec 2001). "Cyclin-mediated export of human Orc1". Experimental Cell Research. 271 (2): 230-7. doi: ... ORC1 has been shown to interact with: CDC45-related protein and CDC6, Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase, ...

*PPP2CA

Cheng A, Kaldis P, Solomon MJ (Nov 2000). "Dephosphorylation of human cyclin-dependent kinases by protein phosphatase type 2C ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, Cyclin-dependent kinase 6, FAM40A, IGBP1, MOBKL3, PPP2R1A, PPP2R1B, PPP2R2A, PPP2R3B, PPP2R5A, ... "Phosphorylation and activation of hamster carbamyl phosphate synthetase II by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. A novel mechanism ... Bennin DA, Don AS, Brake T, McKenzie JL, Rosenbaum H, Ortiz L, DePaoli-Roach AA, Horne MC (Jul 2002). "Cyclin G2 associates ...

*CDK5R2

2002). "The cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent ... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK5R2 gene. The protein encoded by this ... "Entrez Gene: CDK5R2 cyclin-dependent kinase 5, regulatory subunit 2 (p39)". Dhavan, Rani; Greer Paul L; Morabito Maria A; ...

*CKS2

Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CKS2 gene. CKS2 protein binds to ... 2007). "Gene expression of cyclin-dependent kinase subunit Cks2 is repressed by the tumor suppressor p53 but not by the related ... the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. The CKS2 mRNA is found to ... "Entrez Gene: CKS2 CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2". Human CKS2 genome location and CKS2 gene details page in the UCSC ...

*Myostatin

... has been shown to directly prevent cell cycle G1 to S phase transition by decreasing levels of cyclin-dependent kinase complex ... Growth of cardiomyocytes may also be hindered by myostatin-regulated inhibition of protein kinase p38 and the serine-threonine ... This process includes mitogen-activated protein kinases and binding of the MEF2 transcription factor within the promoter region ... Manipulating the muscle creatinine kinase promoter can modulate myostatin expression, although it has only been observed in ...

*CDKN1B

... has been shown to interact with: AKT1, CKS1B, Cyclin D3, Cyclin E1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 ... "Assembly of cyclin D-dependent kinase and titration of p27Kip1 regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1)". ... "Increased proteasome-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in aggressive colorectal carcinomas". ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is an enzyme inhibitor that in humans is encoded by the CDKN1B gene. It encodes ...

*P21

... also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) ... 1994). "p53-dependent inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activities in human fibroblasts during radiation-induced G1 arrest ... "Mechanism of inhibition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent DNA synthesis by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)". Gartel AL, Radhakrishnan SK (May 2005). "Lost in ...

*TGF beta 1

... and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors P27 and P21". Leuk. Lymphoma. 43 (1): 51-7. doi:10.1080/10428190210195. PMID ... "Activin receptor-like kinase 1 modulates transforming growth factor-beta 1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis". Proc. ... "Transforming growth factor-beta is a potent immunosuppressive agent that inhibits IL-1-dependent lymphocyte proliferation". J. ... 262 (5135): 900-2. doi:10.1126/science.8235612. PMID 8235612. Oh SP, Seki T, Goss KA, Imamura T, Yi Y, Donahoe PK, Li L, ...

*Cell cycle

Two key classes of regulatory molecules, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), determine a cell's progress through the ... cyclin A, DNA polymerase, thymidine kinase, etc. Cyclin E thus produced binds to CDK2, forming the cyclin E-CDK2 complex, which ... Nigg EA (June 1995). "Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle". BioEssays. 17 (6): 471-80 ... Cyclin D is the first cyclin produced in the cell cycle, in response to extracellular signals (e.g. growth factors). Cyclin D ...
Recombinant human CDKN1B protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional chromatography. MW: 24.2 kDa.
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... cellular proliferation via inhibition of CDK activities. routine and g27Kip1 (hereafter g27) can regulate CDK actions.1-3 The p27 protein was originally known as an inhibitor of CDK activities for things containing CDK2 and shown to inhibit cyclin E and cyclin A activities which regulate G1 and S phase traverse.4-6 In addition to CDK inhibition, g27 provides other multifarious connections with cyclin N/cdk4 processes putatively.7 Since cellular amounts of g27 are elevated in response to high cell thickness, serum deprival, and TGF, it was hypothesized g27 brought cells into quiescence and held them in G0 through the inhibition of CDK actions.8 Numerous reviews have got characterized the control of p27 including the control of its transcription,9,10 translation,11,12 post-translational adjustments.7,13,14 cellular localization15-19 and balance.20-23 The regulations of its stability has a main role in adjusting mobile ...
Cyclin E is an important regulator of cell cycle progression. Various studies examined the relationship between cyclin E overexpression with the clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer but yie
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Lenti ORF clone of Human cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4) (CDKN2A), transcript variant 1, mGFP tagged
CDKN2A - CDKN2A (untagged)-Human cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4) (CDKN2A), transcript variant 4 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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Mouse anti Human Cdk6 antibody, clone DCS-83 recognizes the human cyclin dependent kinase 6, also known as Cdk6 or Serine/threonine-protei
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
View mouse Cdk11b Chr4:155624854-155649938 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
1GIH: Crystallographic approach to identification of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)-specific inhibitors by using CDK4 mimic CDK2 protein.
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:5:146231288:146302874:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000025856 transcript:OTTMUST00000063710 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Cdk8 description:cyclin-dependent kinase 8 ...
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Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6: Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
The conversation the turned to patient eligibility and the panel agreed that it was prudent to offer the best possible treatment first to patients, where possible, due to the proven response rates seen with CDK 4/6 inhibitors. This point was of particular interest to Dr Beresford as ribociclib and palbocilcib are not approved for 2nd line use in the U.K., and therefore will not be an option for those who are treated with hormone therapy, for example, as an initial option. The panel also reiterated the importance of considering CDK 4/6 inhibitors as a 1st line option to avoid the over use of chemotherapy; a strategy that was backed up by the PALOMA-1 study that showed treatment with a CDK 4/6 inhibitor delayed the time until a patient received subsequent chemotherapy treatment ...
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P 276 is a flavone that selectively inhibits the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk4-D1, Cdk9-T and Cdk1-B, thus inhibiting the pathways necessary for cancer cell
NU2058 (O6-(Cyclohexylmethyl)guanine) is a potent, competitive and guanine-based CDK inhibitor with IC50s of 17 μM and 26 μM for CDK2 and CDK1. NU2058 has anti-cancer activity. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
1PXK: Discovery of a novel family of CDK inhibitors with the program LIDAEUS: structural basis for ligand-induced disordering of the activation loop
A stable environment minimizes evapora- tive heat loss. 10. Cyclin-dependent kinases participate recomendaad death of neurons evoked by DNA- damaging agents. Daleiden, A.
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The human cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) gene generates several transcript variants that differ in their first exons. At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported. One of these, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4) or p16INK4a, interacts with, and sequesters, the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. Thus, p16-INK4a functions as a tumor suppressor in a variety of cells. Mutations in the CDKN2A gene are often found in many tumors. p16INK4a is also suggested to play a role in controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis during mammary gland development. p16-INK4a is also known as cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor A, CDK4 inhibitor p16-INK4, cell cycle negative regulator beta, multiple tumor suppressor 1 (MTS-1), ARF, MLM, p14, p16, p19, CMM2, INK4, INK4A, TP16, CDK4I, CDKN2, p14-ARF, p19-ARF, and p16-INK4.. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of sugar kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle. They are also involved in regulating transcription, mRNA processing, and the differentiation of nerve cells. They are present in all known eukaryotes, and their regulatory function in the cell cycle has been evolutionarily conserved. In fact, yeast cells can proliferate normally when their CDK gene has been replaced with the homologous human gene. CDKs are relatively small proteins, with molecular weights ranging from 34 to 40 kDa, and contain little more than the kinase domain. By definition, a CDK binds a regulatory protein called a cyclin. Without cyclin, CDK has little kinase activity; only the cyclin-CDK complex is an active kinase. CDKs phosphorylate their substrates on serines and threonines, so they are serine-threonine kinases. The consensus sequence for the phosphorylation site in the amino acid sequence of a CDK substrate is [S/T*]PX[K/R], where S/T* is the ...
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Complete information for CDK19 gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin Dependent Kinase 19, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CDK5 gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The researchers examined a protein called cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), which works as a "quality control inspector." As normal cells divide, they pause in the replication process when they find inaccurate genetic code embedded in their DNA. The health and well-being of offspring cells depends on accurate genetic code transfer from one generation of cells to the next. The Mayo researchers showed that when errors in genes are irreparable, CDK2 modifies another cellular protein -- FOXO1 -- to send a signal that results in the death of the cell. This protein-to-protein relationship invites targeted drug intervention to control unregulated growth of cancer cells ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - SU9516, a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitor, promotes accumulation of high molecular weight E2F complexes in human colon carcinoma cells. AU - Yu, Bo. AU - Lane, Maureen E.. AU - Wadler, Scott. PY - 2002/10/1. Y1 - 2002/10/1. N2 - The E2F family plays a critical role in the expression of genes required for entry into and progression through S phase. E2F-mediated transcription is repressed by the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein (pRb), which results in sequestration of E2F in a multiprotein complex that includes pRb. Derepression of E2F results from a series of complex phosphorylation events mediated by cyclin D/cdk4 and cyclin E/cdk2. We have employed a novel 3-substituted indolinone compound, 3-[1-(3H-imidazol-4-yl)-meth-(Z)-ylidene]-5-methoxy-1,3-dihydro-indol-2-one (SU9516), which selectively inhibits cdk2 activity (Lane et al., Cancer Res 2001;61:6170-7) to investigate these events. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays were performed on SU9516-treated and ...
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Cardiac hypertrophy leading to heart failure remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the 21st century despite major therapeutic advances. Improved understanding of novel molecular and cellular processes contributing to cardiac hypertrophy therefore continues to be important. Cyclin-dependent Kinase 9 (CDK9), part of a family of proteins controlling cell cycle and growth, has emerged as one such potential candidate over the last 5 years. CDK9 is the catalytic subunit of the CDK9/CyclinT complex and acts by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Hypertrophic signals, such as Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and phenylephrine, have been shown to cause CDK9 activation leading to a hypertrophic response in cultured mouse cardiomyocytes associated with reactivation of the foetal gene program. CDK9 also forms a complex with GATA4 to play a role in differentiation of mouse ES cells into cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest a specific role for CDK9 in controlling growth and ...
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If you have a question about this talk, please contact Caroline Newnham.. Host: Viji Draviam. Tissue homeostasis in metazoans is regulated by transitions of cells between quiescence and proliferation. The hallmark of proliferating populations is progression through the cell cycle, which is driven by Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. I will discuss our recent development of a live-cell sensor for CDK2 activity and the finding that proliferating cells bifurcate into two populations as they exit mitosis. Some cells immediately commit to the next cell cycle by building up CDK2 activity from an intermediate level, while other cells lack CDK2 activity and enter a transient state of quiescence. This bifurcation is directly controlled by the CDK inhibitor p21 and is regulated by mitogens during a restriction window at the end of the previous cell cycle. We are currently exploring the role of cell stress in controlling this bifurcation in an attempt to uncover the root cause of this striking ...
Dinaciclib, also known as SCH727965, is a potent CDK inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Dinaciclib selectively inhibits cyclin dependent kinases CDK1, CDK2, CDK5, and CDK9 activity in vitro with IC(50) values of 1, 1, 3, and 4 nmol/L, respectively. Compared with flavopiridol, Dinaciclib exhibits superior activity with an improved therapeutic index. Dinaciclib induced regression of established solid tumors in a range of mouse models following intermittent scheduling of doses below the maximally tolerated level..
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This Phase II SBIR project is aimed at developing a novel type of drugs, termed SNX9-class compounds, with a unique combination of two anticancer activities. The first is a selective antiproliferative effect on tumor cells relative to normal cells. The second is the inhibition of chemotherapy- or radiation-induced expression of multiple genes encoding secreted tumor-supporting factors with mitogenic, antiapoptotic and angiogenic activities; as a result, SNX9-class compounds potentiate the induction of apoptosis by conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Studies conducted during Phase I of this project showed that both activities of SNX9- class compounds are due to their ability to inhibit CDK3. This understudied member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family is apparently unneeded by normal cells, based on its very low expression in normal human tissues and spontaneous germline inactivation in laboratory mice. However, CDK3 is overexpressed in different ...
The KOMP Repository Collection is located at the MMRRC at the University of California, Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
MONARCH 1: Final overall survival analysis of a phase 2 study of abemaciclib, a CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitor, as monotherapy, in patients with HR+/HER2- breast cancer, after chemotherapy for advanced ...
The master regulators, cyclin dependant kinases (CDKs), are the actual driving forces behind the progression of cell cycle in eukaryotic cells. The activity level of thes..
Novel localization of Argonaute 2 (AGO2) to human mitochondria.A. Purity assessment of mitochondrial fraction. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) was assessed in
We are looking for a source of Cdk2-GST or Cdk2 to be used in in vitro kinase assays. Can anyone help? Thomas Chiles; e-mail= Thomas.Chiles at bc.edu ...
The cyclin E oncogene activates CDK2 to drive cells from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle to commence DNA replication. It coordinates essential cellular functions with the cell cycle including histone biogenesis, splicing, centrosome duplication and origin firing for DNA replication. The two E-cyclins, E1 and E2, are assumed to act interchangeably in these functions. However recent reports have identified unique functions for cyclins E1 and E2 in different tissues, and particularly in breast cancer. Cyclins E1 and E2 localise to distinct foci in breast cancer cells as well as co-localising within the cell. Both E-cyclins are found in complex with CDK2, at centrosomes and with the splicing machinery in nuclear speckles. However cyclin E2 uniquely co-localises with NPAT, the main activator of cell-cycle regulated histone transcription. Increased cyclin E2, but not cyclin E1, expression is associated with high expression of replication-dependent histones in breast cancers. The preferential localisation of
Progestin antagonists inhibit the proliferation of progesterone receptor-positive cells, including breast cancer cells, by G1 phase-specific actions, but the molecular targets involved are not defined. Reduced phosphorylation of pRB, a substrate for G1 cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in vivo, was apparent after 9 h treatment of T-47D breast cancer cells with the antiprogestins RU 486 or ORG 31710, accompanying changes in S phase fraction. Although the abundance of cyclin D1, Cdk4, and Cdk6 did not decrease cyclin D1-associated kinase activity was reduced by approximately 50% at 9-18 h. Similarly, cyclin E-associated kinase activity decreased by approximately 60% at 12-24 h in the absence of significant changes in the abundance of cyclin E and Cdk2. The CDK inhibitor p21 increased in mRNA and protein abundance and was present at increased levels in cyclin D1 and cyclin E complexes at times when their kinase activity was decreased. Increased p21 protein abundance was observed in another antiprogestin
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded protein kinase, pUL97, is considered a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) ortholog, due to shared structural and functional characteristics. The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of pUL97 with cyclin T1 in subnuclear compartments, most pronounced in viral replication centres. The distribution patterns of pUL97 and cyclin T1 were independent of HCMV strain and host cell type. The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231-280. Additional co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed cyclin B1 and cyclin A as further pUL97 interaction partners. Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay
A8326 AZD-5438 AZD5438 is a potent small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1, 2 and 9 with half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 16 nmol/L, 6 nmol/L and 20 nmol/L respectively. AZD5438 has also been found to potently inhibit the human cyclin E/CDK2 complex, the cyclin B1/CDK1 complex and the cyclin A/CDK2 complex with IC50 of 0.006 μM, 0.016 μM and 0.045 μM respectively. In previous studies, AZD5438 has exhibited significant anti-proliferative activity in a few human tumor cell lines with IC50 ranging from 0.2 μmol/L to 1.7 μmol/L, in which the phosphorylation of a few proteins, including CDK substrates pRb, nucleolin, protein phosphatase 1a and RNA polymerase II COOH-terminal domain, and cell cycling at G2-M, S and G1 phases were inhibited. ...
Background Over the last decade a number of species, from farm animals to rodents, have been cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer technology (SCNT). This technique has the potential to revolutionize the way that genetically modified animals are made. In its current state, the process of SCNT is very inefficient (|5% success rate), with several technical and biological hurdles hindering development. Yet, SCNT provides investigators with powerful advantages over other approaches, such as allowing for prescreening for the desired level of transgene expression and eliminating the excess production of undesirable wild-type animals. The rat plays a significant role in biomedical research, but SCNT has been problematic for this species. In this study, we address one aspect of the problem by evaluating methods of activation in artificially constructed rat embryos. Principal Findings We demonstrate that treatment with a calcium ionophore (ionomycin) combined with a variety of cyclin-dependent kinase
LONDON - During the recent past, Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK) Inhibitors have emerged as one of the most promising therapeutics for cancer and also a novel frontier for organiations engaged in the R&D, licensing and commercialisation of targeted cancer therapies.. Today, there are two CDK inhibitors commercially available in the cancer treatment market. Furthermore, there are over 45 CDK inhibitors in different phases of clinical development.. The recent remarkable advancements in the discovery of new cyclin pathways and their inhibitors have opened up novel prospects in the CDKs therapy market. numerous companies are now working on different therapeutics that has shown some kind of new response in inhibiting or stopping the cell cycle. A strong clinical pipeline presents an encouraging scenario of the possible future development of the CDK inhibitors sector.. The new research publication "Global Cancer CDK Inhibitors Market & Clinical Pipeline Outlook 2022" elaborated by Kuick Research ...
p35 is an activating co-factor of Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a protein whose dysfunction has been implicated in a wide-range of neurological disorders including cognitive impairment and disease. Inducible deletion of the p35 gene in adult mice results in profound deficits in hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and synaptic physiology, however the impact of the loss of p35 function on hippocampal in vivo physiology and spatial coding remains unknown. Here, we recorded CA1 pyramidal cell activity in freely behaving p35 cKO and control mice and found that place cells in the mutant mice have elevated firing rates and impaired spatial coding, accompanied by changes in the temporal organization of spiking both during exploration and rest. These data shed light on the role of p35 in maintaining cellular and network excitability and provide a physiological correlate of the spatial learning deficits in these mice.
Antigen Background p27 protein, also known as kinase inhibitory protein 1 (Kip1), binds to cyclin E/cdk2 complexes, but not to cdk2 alone, and is detected in purified extracts of growth-arrested cells. p27 protein constrains cell proliferation by setting the threshold level of cyclin E necessary to activate cdk2. The p27 protein is also present in proliferating cells, but only in a sequestered form when it is unavailable to interact with cyclin E/cdk2 complexes. It is likely that cyclin D complexed with catalytically inactive cdk4 is sufficient to sequester p27 protein and titrate its function. The presence of bound p27 protein in proliferating cells suggests that its role may not be restricted to inducing cell cycle arrest but to also set the cyclin E threshold for execution of the G1 to S phase transition during each mitotic cycle.. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are core components of the cell cycle machinery that govern the transition between phases during cell cycle progression. Genes involved in cell cycle are frequently mutated in human cancer and deregulated CDK activity repr
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HMN-214 inhibits polo-like and cyclin-dependent kinase activity, has potent antimicrotubular effects and results in profound apoptosis and antitumor activity in a broad spectrum of human xenografts.
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The i-CDK9-induced increase in CDK9s binding to the MYC locus is mostly BRD4-dependent.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06535.017
When protein synthesis is completely blocked from before fertilization, the sea urchin zygote arrests in first S phase and the paternal centrosome reduplicates multiple times. However, when protein synthesis is blocked starting in prophase of first mitosis, the zygote divides and the blastomeres arrest in a G1-like state. The centrosome inherited from this mitosis duplicates only once in each blastomere for reasons that are not understood. The late G1 rise in cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity initiates centrosome duplication in mammalian cells and its activity is needed for centrosome duplication in Xenopus egg extracts. Since the half-time for cyclin E turnover is normally approximately 1 h in sea urchin zygotes, the different behaviors of centrosomes during G1 and S phase arrests could be due to differential losses of cyclin E and its associated kinase activities at these two arrest points. To better understand the mechanisms that limit centrosome duplication, we characterize the levels of cyclin E and
Cyclin E is one of the key regulators of the G(1)/S transition in the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin E has been observed in several malignancies and is associated with high proliferation, aberrant expression of other cell cycle regulators and chromosomal instability in vitro. To explore potential associations between cyclin E deregulation and inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in human breast cancer, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of cyclin E in paraffin embedded breast cancers from 270 women with known p53 status by cDNA based sequencing of the p53 gene. The breast cancers were divided into three subgroups according to the percentage of cyclin E-positive cells. One hundred and seventy-one patients (63%) had low cyclin E, 72 (27%) medium and 27 (10%) had high cyclin E content. Fifty-six percent (15/27) of the breast cancers with high cyclin E had p53 gene mutations, compared with 14% (24/171) of those with low cyclin E content (P , 0.0001). In p53 mutated ...
The major findings in this study are that the Kip/Cip and Ink CKIs differentially regulate cdk2 and cdk4 in VSMCs; this, in turn, leads to differences in the inhibition of VSMC proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The expression of p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 in VSMCs inactivated cdk2 and cdk4, whereas p16Ink4 inhibited only cdk4 activity. In vivo, p27Kip1 significantly inhibited intimal cell proliferation and the development of a neointima after vascular injury, whereas p16Ink4 expression did not lead to a reduction in cell proliferation or neointima formation.. This different pattern of CKI inactivation of the CDKs suggests varied biological roles for p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 compared with p16Ink4 in VSMCs. p27Kip1 was initially characterized as an inhibitor of cyclin E/cdk2 phosphorylation.10 11 p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 are upregulated in several animal models of wound repair. p27Kip1 is constitutively expressed in normal arteries, is downregulated after arterial injury, and is upregulated during the later ...
2604 We demonstrate that Smad3, a key mediator of TGF-beta antiproliferative responses, is a major physiological substrate of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK2. Except for the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) family, Smad3 is the only substrate demonstrated so far for CDK4, and Smad3 can be phosphorylated by CDK4 to a greater extent than Rb. We have mapped both the in vivo and the in vitro CDK4 and CDK2 phosphorylation sites in Smad3. These sites are phosphorylated by CDK4 and CDK2 in vitro and in a cell-cycle dependent manner in vivo. Moreover, we show that their phosphorylation is reduced in CDK4 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), and their phosphorylation is increased in CDK4 R24C/R24C MEF, which have elevated CDK4 activity. In addition, RNAi experiments also indicate that CDK4 and CDK2 phosphorylate these sites. CDK phosphorylation of Smad3 inhibits its basal as well as TGF-beta induced transcriptional activity, thus preventing activation of the expression of CDK inhibitors p15 ...
Although most efforts to develop antagonists of CDK function have focused on identifying and optimizing ATP-competitive CDK inhibitors, a number of studies have been published in which new, creative strategies have been used. Most of these approaches focus on CDK2 inhibition. This is in part due to the fact that X-ray crystal structures of CDK2 and the cyclin A/CDK2 complex have been available longer than similar data for other CDK and cyclin/CDK complexes. A crystal structure of cyclin A/CDK2 in complex with ATP and a substrate peptide (Brown et al., 1999) (Fig. 3A) shows ATP bound in a cleft formed on one side by the GEGTYG nucleotide-binding motif (red- and blue-colored residues). The peptide substrate is bound in a cleft adjacent to the ATP binding site and in close apposition to ATP. Interestingly, binding of the endogenous CDK inhibitor p27 to cyclin A/CDK2 causes large-scale structural changes to the cyclin A/CDK2 complex (Fig. 3B) (Russo et al., 1996). p27 inserts itself into the ATP ...
To achieve faithful replication of the genome once in each cell cycle, reinitiation of S phase is prevented in G(2) and origins are restricted from refiring within S phase. We have investigated the block to rereplication during G(2) in fission yeast. The DNA synthesis that occurs when G(2)/M cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity is depleted has been assumed to be repeated rounds of S phase without mitosis, but this has not been demonstrated to be the case. We show here that on G(2)/M CDK depletion in G(2), repeated S phases are induced, which are correlated with normal G(1)/S transcription and attainment of doublings in cell size. Mostly normal mitotic S-phase origins are utilized, although at different efficiencies, and replication is essentially equal across the genome. We conclude that CDK inhibits reinitiation of S phase during G(2), and if G(2)/M CDK is depleted, replication results from induction of a largely normal S-phase program with only small differences in origin usage and efficiency ...
The p27Kip1 gene codes for a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor implicated in G1 arrest by transforming growth factor β, cell-cell contact, agents that elevate cyclic AMP, and the growth-inhibitory drug rapamycin. p27 binds to and inhibits complexes formed by cyclin E-cdk2, cyclin A-cdk2, and cyclin D-cdk4. The involvement of p27 in the negative regulation of cell proliferation suggests that it may also function as a tumor suppressor gene. Using a combination of somatic cell hybrid panels and fluorescence in situ hybridization p27Kip1 has been mapped to the short arm of chromosome 12 at the 12p12-12p13.1 boundary, reported to harbor deletions and rearrangements in leukemia and mesotheliomas. In order to assess potential p27Kip1 gene alterations, we have screened a total of 147 human primary solid tumors and found no detectable cancer-specific mutations. These results argue that the often observed loss of antimitogenic transforming growth factor β responsiveness in human cancer cells is not due ...
Centrosome Duplication And Separation Are Linked Inextricably To Certain Cell Cycle Events, In Particular Activation Of Cyclin-dependent Kinases (CDKs). However, Relatively Few CDK Targets Driving These Events Have Been Uncovered. Here, We Have Performed
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) is a member of cyclin-dependent kinase family which regulates G1 to S cell cycle transition. CDK4 activity is increased in many tumor types. Here, we report a...
Schematic of the cell cycle. outer ring: I=Interphase, M=Mitosis; inner ring: M=Mitosis; G1=Gap phase 1; S=Synthesis; G2=Gap phase 2. The duration of mitosis in relation to the other phases has been exaggerated in this diagram Cyclin dependent…
The p57(Kip2) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKi) has been implicated in embryogenesis, stem-cell senescence and pathologies, but little is known of its role in cell cycle control. Here, we show that p57(Kip2) is ...
Chromosome, Human, Cancer, Cell Division, Chromatin, PCR, Regulation, RNA, Active Site, Cyclin, Kinases, Cell Cycle, Cyclin-dependent Kinases, and Egg
John Carroll One of Pfizers top late-stage prospects is its cancer drug palbociclib, an oral inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4 and 6 that the FDA put in its first group ...
Researchers have identified a subtype of triple-negative breast cancer that may be responsive to inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6), according to findings presented by Asghar et a.... ...
Human CDK7 (NM_001799, 1 a.a. - 346a.a.) and CCNH (NM_001239, 1 a.a. - 323 a.a.) and MNAT1 (NM_002431, 1 a.a. - 309 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-His tag expressed in Sf9 cells. (P4662) - Products - Abnova
Inhibition of CDK4-6 as a novel therapeutic option for neuroblastoma. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Guess it was just one of those days for Dan Hawkins on Monday. He has them occasionally, days when he decides to be a little more forthcoming and straightforward than usual.
不動産担保ローンは無担保のローンに比べ金利が安い - 所有している不動産を担保にして借り入れをする不動産担保ローンは 無担保のローンに比べると 不動産の価値にもよりますが 金利が安く 融資額が大きい 長期の借り入れが可能などのメリットがあります》 融資額の内容は所有している […] ...
In this paper, we report that (+)-preussin, a pyrrolidinol alkaloid originally identified as an antifungal agent, has growth-inhibitory and cytotoxic effects on human cancer cells. Preussin was found to be a potent inhibitor of cyclin E kinase (CDK2-cyclin E) in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration; approximately 500 nM) and to inhibit cell cycle progression into S phase. In agreement with these findings, the level of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP-1) is increased in response to preussin treatment while the expression of both cyclin A and the transcription factor E2F-1 is down-regulated. Preussin also induces programmed cell death (apoptosis), which requires caspase activation and involves the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. This induction of apoptosis is not blocked by high levels of Bcl-2, which usually confers resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Taken together, our data indicate that preussin could be a promising lead compound for the development of a new class of potent
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dinaciclib induces anaphase catastrophe in lung cancer cells via inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2. AU - Danilov, Alexey. AU - Hu, Shanhu. AU - Orr, Bernardo. AU - Godek, Kristina. AU - Mustachio, Lisa Maria. AU - Sekula, David. AU - Liu, Xi. AU - Kawakami, Masanori. AU - Johnson, Faye M.. AU - Compton, Duane A.. AU - Freemantle, Sarah J.. AU - Dmitrovsky, Ethan. PY - 2016/11/1. Y1 - 2016/11/1. N2 - Despite advances in targeted therapy, lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Chromosomal instability is a prominent feature in lung cancer and, because it rarely occurs in normal cells, it represents a potential therapeutic target. Our prior work discovered that lung cancer cells undergo anaphase catastrophe in response to inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), followed by apoptosis and reduced growth. In this study, the effects and mechanisms of the multi-CDK inhibitor dinaciclib on lung cancer cells were ...
Cyclin Dependent Kinase 1 (p34 Protein Kinase or Cell Division Protein Kinase 1 or Cell Division Control Protein 2 Homolog or CDK1 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-08-29 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
Morgan, D.O. (2007) The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control. London: New Science Press.. Thornton, B.R., Ng, T.M., Matyskiela, M.E., Carroll, C.W., Morgan, D.O., and Toczyski, D.P. (2006) An architectural map of the anaphase-promoting complex. Genes Dev. 20, 449-460. Carroll, C.W., and Morgan, D.O. (2005) Enzymology of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex. Meth. Enzymol. 398, 219-230.. Loog, M., and Morgan, D.O. (2005) Cyclin specificity in the phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase substrates. Nature 434, 104-108. (Commentary: Nature 434, 34-35; and Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 6, 280). Carroll, C.W., Enquist-Newman, M., and Morgan, D.O. (2005) The APC subunit Doc1 promotes recognition of the substrate destruction box. Curr. Biol. 15, 11-18.. Ubersax, J.A., Woodbury, E.L., Quang, P.N., Paraz, M., Blethrow, J.D., Shah, K., Shokat, K.M., and Morgan, D.O. (2003) Targets of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1. Nature, 425, 859-864.. Carroll, C.W., and Morgan, D.O. (2002) The Doc1 subunit is a processivity ...
Clone REA756 recognizes the human CD20L, an intracytoplasmic membrane protein, which is also known as Htm4 or MS4A3. It is present specifically in hematopoietic cells and tissues. CD20L functions as a hematopoietic modulator for the G1-S cell cycle transition. It binds to cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3/KAP) and modulates the level of phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Additional information: Clone REA756 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Österreich
Bastaki et al (2016) reported a case of BWS in a 9-year old Emirati boy. The patient was born to healthy, unrelated parents. He was found to have an omphalocele which contained small bowel and a small extra liver lobe. The patient was also found to suffer from cryptorchidism. Abdominal US revealed a non-progressive abdominal cyst. PCR amplification and sequencing of exons 2 and 3 of the CDKN1C gene identified a variant (c.703C,T) in the gene. According to in silico analysis results the protein change (p.Gln235X) leads to the production of a truncated protein that completely lacked the QT box. Polyphen 2 predicted that the variant was "probably damaging". The variant was not found in either of the parents DNA, marking it as a de novo mutation. ...
The normal, pyramidal morphology of some of the neurons incdk5 −/− deserves further comment. Analysis of the reeler mutation raised the possibility that disruption of pyramidal morphology and cortical inversion are directly linked. In the cdk5 −/− cerebral cortex, however, the earliest cortical plate neurons are superficial to all later born cells yet still have a pyramidal morphology. One important difference between early cortical plate neurons in reelerand cdk5 −/− mice that may explain this disparity is the normal location of some layer VI cells between the subplate and marginal zone in cdk5 −/−mice. Perhaps only within the environment between subplate and marginal zone can cortical neurons achieve a normal pyramidal morphology. In this position, young neurons would be able to interact with Cajal-Retzius cells of the marginal zone and their secreted factor, reelin. This interaction might then serve as a mechanism to confer a pyramidal morphology.. A persistent question raised ...
miR-145 was reproducibly elevated in all the resistant sub-lines tested within one of the experimental sets; however, modulation of miR-145 levels alone in these cells did not affect their response to cisplatin. A potential target of miR-145 is cyclin dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), an important regulator of cell proliferation. Both mRNA and protein levels of CDK6 are down regulated in the resistant sub-lines. An inhibitor of CDK4/6 (PD0332991) protected cells from cisplatin cytotoxicity. ...
Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor (CKI); Inhibitor Of Cdc28-Clb Kinase Complexes That Controls G1/S Phase Transition, Preventing Premature S Phase And Ensuring Genomic Integrity; Phosphorylated By Clb5/6-Cdk1 And Cln1/2-Cdk1 Kinase Which Regulate Timing Of Sic1p Degradation; Phosphorylation Targets Sic1p For SCF(CDC4)-dependent Turnover; Functional Homolog Of Mammalian Kip1
CCNY Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_659449), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. Cyclins, such as CCNY, control cell division cycles and regulate cyclin-dependent kinases (e.g., CDC2; MIM 116940) (Li et al., 2009 )
rs1063192 is a SNP in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B CDKN2B gene. A study of 432 Han Chinese patients with myocardial infarctions concluded that male subjects carrying a rs1063192(C) allele were at 0.71x decreased risk (for MI).[PMID 19272367] Myocardial Infarction ...
The cortactin oncoprotein is frequently overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), often due to amplification of the encoding gene (CTTN). While cortactin overexpression enhances invasive potential, recent research indicates that it also promotes cell proliferation, but how cortactin regulates the cell cycle machinery is unclear. In this article we report that stable short hairpin RNA-mediated cortactin knockdown in the 11q13-amplified cell line FaDu led to increased expression of the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) and inhibition of S-phase entry. These effects were associated with increased binding of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) to cyclin D1- and E1-containing complexes and decreased retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. Cortactin regulated expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, respectively. The direct roles of p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) ...
Cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes are critical regulators of cellular proliferation. A complex network of regulatory mechanisms has evolved to control their activity, including activating and inactivating phosphorylation of the catalytic CDK subunit and inhibition through specific regulatory proteins. Primate herpesviruses, including the oncogenic Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, encode cyclin D homologues. Viral cyclins have diverged from their cellular progenitor in that they elicit holoenzyme activity independent of activating phosphorylation by the CDK-activating kinase and resistant to inhibition by CDK inhibitors. Using sequence comparison and site-directed mutagenesis, we performed molecular analysis of the cellular cyclin D and the Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus-cyclin to delineate the molecular mechanisms behind their different behavior. This provides evidence that a surface recognized for its involvement in the docking of CIP/KIP inhibitors is required and sufficient to modulate ...
Disease progression in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) is determined by the interplay between proliferation kinetics in the proliferating compartment and cell death in the accumulating compartment. Improving our knowledge of cell cycle regulation in B-CLL cells might therefore be important for identifying therapeutic targets. Cyclin E was detected by Western blotting in purified B-CLL cells from peripheral blood samples of all 12 patient tested but not in normal peripheral blood B cells. While cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2) expression was similar in different samples, p27 and cyclin E expression was highly variable. We further investigated the regulation of p27, cyclin E and cdk2 in an in vitro model of cycling B-CLL cells. Cyclin E and cdk2 expression was increased in B-CLL cells stimulated with a CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide and interleukin-2, while p27 expression rapidly declined. This was accompanied by the increased formation of cyclin E-cdk2 complexes, which were able to ...
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Activation of growth factor receptors by ligand binding initiates a cascade of events leading to cell growth and division. Progression through the cell cycle is controlled by cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdks), but the mechanisms that link growth factor signaling to the cell cycle machinery have not been established. We report here that Ras proteins play a key role in integrating mitogenic signals with cell cycle progression through G1. Ras is required for cell cycle progression and activation of both Cdk2 and Cdk4 until approximately 2 h before the G1/S transition, corresponding to the restriction point. Analysis of Cdk-cyclin complexes indicates that Ras signaling is required both for induction of cyclin D1 and for downregulation of the Cdk inhibitor p27KIP1. Constitutive expression of cyclin D1 circumvents the requirement for Ras signaling in cell proliferation, indicating that regulation of cyclin D1 is a critical target of the Ras signaling cascade. ...

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (P24941) | InterPro | EMBL-EBICyclin-dependent kinase 2 (P24941) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/P24941

Crystal structure of cyclin-dependent kinase 2.  - PubMed - NCBICrystal structure of cyclin-dependent kinase 2. - PubMed - NCBI

Crystal structure of cyclin-dependent kinase 2.. De Bondt HL1, Rosenblatt J, Jancarik J, Jones HD, Morgan DO, Kim SH. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is a member of a highly conserved family of protein kinases that regulate the eukaryotic cell ... The structure is bi-lobate, like that of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but contains a unique helix-loop segment that ... with ATP and protein substrate binding and probably plays a key part in the regulation of all cyclin-dependent kinases. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8510751?dopt=Abstract

cdk2 - cyclin-dependent kinase 2 - Ictalurus punctatus (Channel catfish) - cdk2 gene & proteincdk2 - cyclin-dependent kinase 2 - Ictalurus punctatus (Channel catfish) - cdk2 gene & protein

IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... cyclin-dependent kinase 2Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p ... tr,A0A2D0PKQ8,A0A2D0PKQ8_ICTPU cyclin-dependent kinase 2 OS=Ictalurus punctatus OX=7998 GN=cdk2 PE=3 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A2D0PKQ8

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 - WikipediaCyclin-dependent kinase 2 - Wikipedia

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. This protein ... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases". Oncogene. 15 (2): 143-57. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201252. PMID 9244350. Shintani S, Ohyama H ... "Reversal of growth suppression by p107 via direct phosphorylation by cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, also known as cell division protein kinase 2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK2 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin-dependent_kinase_2

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 2 - O75956 (CDKA2 HUMAN)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 2 - O75956 (CDKA2 HUMAN)

... represses CDK2 activation by inhibiting its interaction with cyclin E and A (PubMed:23781148). UniProt ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/O75956

Substrate recruitment to cyclin-dependent kinase 2 by a multipurpose docking site on cyclin A | PNASSubstrate recruitment to cyclin-dependent kinase 2 by a multipurpose docking site on cyclin A | PNAS

Substrate recruitment to cyclin-dependent kinase 2 by a multipurpose docking site on cyclin A. Brenda A. Schulman, Derek L. ... An important question in the cell cycle field is how cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) target their substrates. We have studied ... Substrate recruitment to cyclin-dependent kinase 2 by a multipurpose docking site on cyclin A ... as different substrate preferences are observed for cdk2 bound to cyclin E or cyclin A and for cdc2 bound to cyclin A or cyclin ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/95/18/10453?ijkey=c28a7b356fb925e10b516114d525b4182332e5ed&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2) Protein</span...Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2) Protein</span...

Recombinant Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2) Protein. Species: Rat (Rattus). Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B (p15, Inhibits CDK4) Proteins * Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2C (p18, Inhibits CDK4) ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8 Proteins * Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9 Proteins * Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1) ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 Proteins * Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Proteins * Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5, Regulatory Subunit 1 (p35 ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/protein/6303635/Cyclin-Dependent+Kinase+2+CDK2+protein/

RCSB PDB 









- 1GIH: HUMAN CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE 2 COMPLEXED WITH THE CDK4 INHIBITOR Methods Report PageRCSB PDB - 1GIH: HUMAN CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE 2 COMPLEXED WITH THE CDK4 INHIBITOR Methods Report Page

Crystallographic approach to identification of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)-specific inhibitors by using CDK4 mimic CDK2 ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/materialsAndMethods.do?structureId=1GIH

Anti-cdk2 (Cyclin-dependent Kinase 2) | Rockland Immunochemicals | Biomol.comAnti-cdk2 (Cyclin-dependent Kinase 2) | Rockland Immunochemicals | Biomol.com

Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the control of the cell cycle, essential for meiosis, but dispensable for mitosis. ... Anti-CDK2, Anti-CDKN2, EC=2.7.11.22, Anti-p33 protein kinase, Anti-Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, Anti-Cell division protein kinase ... Product information "Anti-cdk2 (Cyclin-dependent Kinase 2)" Protein function: Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the ... and subsequently activated by cyclin A2 (cyclin A1 in germ cells) during the late stages of DNA replication to drive the ...
more infohttps://www.biomol.com/products/antibodies/primary-antibodies/general/anti-cdk2-cyclin-dependent-kinase-2-100-401-161

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 is essential for meiosis but not for mitotic cell division in mice.  - PubMed - NCBICyclin-dependent kinase 2 is essential for meiosis but not for mitotic cell division in mice. - PubMed - NCBI

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 is essential for meiosis but not for mitotic cell division in mice.. Ortega S1, Prieto I, Odajima J, ... We targeted the locus encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) by homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem (ES) ... an unforeseen role for this cell cycle kinase. ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2. *Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/physiology ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12923533?dopt=Abstract

cdk2 Protein, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 - Creative BioMartcdk2 Protein, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 - Creative BioMart

The encoded protein is the catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, which regulates progression ... This protein associates with and regulated by other subunits of the complex including cyclin A or E, CDK inhibitor p21Cip1 ( ... This gene encodes a member of a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that participate in cell cycle regulation. ... Recombinant Human Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2, GST-tagged. Sf 9 Insect cells. Human. GST. +Inquiry. ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/symbolsearch_CDK2.htm

Sensitivity of breast cancer cells to erlotinib depends on cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activitySensitivity of breast cancer cells to erlotinib depends on cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity

... Fumiyuki Yamasaki,1,2,4 Dongwei ... Collaborative role of E2F transcriptional activity and G1 cyclin dependent kinase activity in the induction of S phase. Proc ... Cytoplasmic relocalization and inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) by PKB/Akt-mediated ... led us to study the potential relationship between cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), particularly CDK2 (12, 13) and erlotinib ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2603172/?lang=en-ca

Sensitivity of breast cancer cells to erlotinib depends on cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity | Molecular Cancer TherapeuticsSensitivity of breast cancer cells to erlotinib depends on cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity | Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

Sensitivity of breast cancer cells to erlotinib depends on cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity. Fumiyuki Yamasaki, Dongwei Zhang ... Collaborative role of E2F transcriptional activity and G1 cyclin dependent kinase activity in the induction of S phase. Proc ... Cytoplasmic relocalization and inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) by PKB/Akt-mediated ... Sensitivity of breast cancer cells to erlotinib depends on cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity ...
more infohttp://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/6/8/2168.long

Fbw7 Targets GATA3 through Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2-Dependent Proteolysis and Contributes to Regulation of T-Cell Development ...Fbw7 Targets GATA3 through Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2-Dependent Proteolysis and Contributes to Regulation of T-Cell Development ...

Phosphorylation of GATA3 Thr-156 was detected in mouse thymocytes, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) was identified as a ... Fbw7 Targets GATA3 through Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2-Dependent Proteolysis and Contributes to Regulation of T-Cell Development ... Fbw7 Targets GATA3 through Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2-Dependent Proteolysis and Contributes to Regulation of T-Cell Development ... Fbw7 Targets GATA3 through Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2-Dependent Proteolysis and Contributes to Regulation of T-Cell Development ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/34/14/2732.abstract

Structural Basis for Interaction of Inhibitors with Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 | Bentham ScienceStructural Basis for Interaction of Inhibitors with Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 | Bentham Science

Structural Basis for Interaction of Inhibitors with Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2. Author(s): Fernanda Canduri , Walter Filgueira ... Abstract: Cell cycle progression is tightly controlled by the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDKs are inactive as ... Cell cycle progression is tightly controlled by the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDKs are inactive as monomers ... Title: Structural Basis for Interaction of Inhibitors with Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/60497/article

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 :...Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 :...

Global Markets Directs, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein... ... p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. ... 65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 ( ... p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22) *The report reviews Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein ...
more infohttp://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/648588-cyclin-dependent-kinase-2-p33-protein-kinase-or-cdc2-related-protein-kinase-or-ec-271122-pipeline-review-h1-2016.html

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 | ISHAR OnlineCyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 | ISHAR Online

HIV-1 transcription is activated by HIV-1 Tat protein, which recruits cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)/cyclin T1 and other host ... blocks prostate cancer growth and cell cycle progression by disrupting Sp1 interactions with the cyclin-dependent kinase-4 ( ... Both the 44- and 42-kDa forms of the MAP-kinase protein were expressed at similar levels in young and senescent cells. ... Mesothelin-induced pancreatic cancer cell proliferation involves alteration of cyclin E via activation of signal transducer and ...
more infohttp://isharonline.org/tags/cyclin-dependent-kinase-2

Human Cyclin Dependent Kinase Like 2 (CDKL2) Protein (GST tag) | ABIN6699741Human Cyclin Dependent Kinase Like 2 (CDKL2) Protein (GST tag) | ABIN6699741

Cyclin Dependent Kinase Like 2 (CDKL2) Protein (GST tag). Species: Human. Source: Baculovirus infected Insect Cells. Order ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase Like 2 (CDKL2) protein (GST tag) Cyclin Dependent Kinase Like 2 (CDKL2) protein (GST tag). Details for ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase Like 2 (CDKL2) show synonyms for this antigen * KKIAMRE ... More product categories related to Cyclin Dependent Kinase Like 2 Protein * 66 anti-Cyclin Dependent Kinase Like 2 Primary ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/protein/6699741/Cyclin+Dependent+Kinase+Like+2+CDKL2+protein+GST+tag/

Frontiers | Involvement of cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 in cognitive function required for contextual and spatial learning in...Frontiers | Involvement of cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 in cognitive function required for contextual and spatial learning in...

Recent genetic studies indicate that mutations of Cdkl family kinases are associated with neurodevelopmental and ... Recent genetic studies indicate that mutations of Cdkl family kinases are associated with neurodevelopmental and ... is a cdc2-related serine/threonine protein kinase that is postnatally expressed in various brain regions, including the ... is a cdc2-related serine/threonine protein kinase that is postnatally expressed in various brain regions, including the ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnbeh.2010.00017/full

MP TR1527 c0 g1 i1 g.3997 - Cyclin-dependent kinase B1-2 - Noccaea caerulescens (Alpine penny-cress) - MP TR1527 c0 g1 i1 g...MP TR1527 c0 g1 i1 g.3997 - Cyclin-dependent kinase B1-2 - Noccaea caerulescens (Alpine penny-cress) - MP TR1527 c0 g1 i1 g...

IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase B1-2Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures ... tr,A0A1J3JA08,A0A1J3JA08_NOCCA Cyclin-dependent kinase B1-2 (Fragment) OS=Noccaea caerulescens OX=107243 GN=MP_TR1527_c0_g1_i1_ ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A1J3JA08

SU9516, a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitor, promotes accumulation of high molecular weight E2F complexes in human colon...SU9516, a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitor, promotes accumulation of high molecular weight E2F complexes in human colon...

keywords = "Cyclin, Cyclin-dependent kinase, Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, E2F, Retinoblastoma protein", ... T1 - SU9516, a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitor, promotes accumulation of high molecular weight E2F complexes in human colon ... SU9516, a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitor, promotes accumulation of high molecular weight E2F complexes in human colon ... SU9516, a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitor, promotes accumulation of high molecular weight E2F complexes in human colon ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/su9516-a-cyclin-dependent-kinase-2-inhibitor-promotes-accumulatio-2

Phosphorylation of hnRNP K by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 controls cytosolic accumulation of TDP-43Phosphorylation of hnRNP K by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 controls cytosolic accumulation of TDP-43

... Academic Article * Authors ... Previously, we reported that inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) prevented cytosolic stress granule accumulation of ... Understanding how kinase activity modulates TDP-43 accumulation may provide new pharmacological targets for disease ...
more infohttps://scholars.latrobe.edu.au/display/publication55149

siRNA at MIT: CDK2 (#1112)siRNA at MIT: CDK2 (#1112)

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2). Target gene:. CDK2 (NM_001798). Probe type: shRNA. ...
more infohttp://web.mit.edu/sirna/sequences/results-1112.html

The discovery of a new structural class of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines | Molecular Cancer...The discovery of a new structural class of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines | Molecular Cancer...

... cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), growth suppressor genes and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs). Oncogene. 1995;11211-9. ... A cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 binding site within the C domain of the retinoblastoma protein. Cancer Res. 2001;61:2885- ... Cyclin E is the only cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated cyclin that predicts metastasis and survival in early stage non-small ... Pines J. Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases: take your partners. Trends Biochem Sci. 1993;18:195-7. ...
more infohttps://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/3/1/1

Structural studies with inhibitors of the cell cycle regulatory kinase cyclin-dependent protein kinase 2 - ePrints - Newcastle...Structural studies with inhibitors of the cell cycle regulatory kinase cyclin-dependent protein kinase 2 - ePrints - Newcastle...

Structural studies with inhibitors of the cell cycle regulatory kinase cyclin-dependent protein kinase 2. Lookup NU author(s): ... Conference Name: Pharmacology & Therapeutics: 2nd International Confernce on Inhbitors of Protein Kinases ...
more infohttps://eprint.ncl.ac.uk/178859
  • Expression of phosphorylated (p-)tyrosine, p-Akt, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) 1/ERK2 (p42/p44), and p27 after treatment of erlotinib was not associated with erlotinib sensitivity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The heterogeneity of kinases involved in phospho-regulation provides a fundamental basis for the sequential biochemical reactions that underlie the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. (frontiersin.org)
  • This hydrophobic patch is ≈35Å away from the active site of cdk2 and contains the MRAIL sequence conserved among a number of mammalian cyclins. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, the conserved hydrophobic patch is important for cyclin A function in cells, contributing to cyclin A's ability to drive cells out of the G 1 phase of the cell cycle. (pnas.org)
  • A hydrophobic patch on the surface of cyclin A, comprising residues conserved in many cyclins, is readily apparent ( 31 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have made hydrophobic to alanine mutations in cyclin A based on this crystal structure to investigate the role of the hydrophobic patch in cyclin A-cdk2 function. (pnas.org)
  • Recent genetic studies indicate that mutations of Cdkl family kinases are associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cyclin E/CDK2 prevents oxidative stress-mediated Ras-induced senescence by phosphorylating MYC. (biomol.com)