Transcriptional regulation of the cyclin D1 promoter by STAT5: its involvement in cytokine-dependent growth of hematopoietic cells. (1/369)

STAT5 is a member of a family of transcription factors that participate in the signal transduction pathways of many hormones and cytokines. Although STAT5 is suggested to play a crucial role in the biological effects of cytokines, its downstream target(s) associated with cell growth control is largely unknown. In a human interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent cell line F-36P-mpl, the induced expression of dominant-negative (dn)-STAT5 and of dn-ras led to inhibition of IL-3-dependent cell growth, accompanying the reduced expression of cyclin D1 mRNA. Also, both constitutively active forms of STAT5A (1*6-STAT5A) and ras (H-rasG12V) enabled F-36P-mpl cells to proliferate without added growth factors. In NIH 3T3 cells, 1*6-STAT5A and H-rasG12V individually and cooperatively transactivated the cyclin D1 promoter in luciferase assays. Both dn-STAT5 and dn-ras suppressed IL-3-induced cyclin D1 promoter activities in F-36P-mpl cells. Using a series of mutant cyclin D1 promoters, 1*6-STAT5A was found to transactivate the cyclin D1 promoter through the potential STAT-binding sequence at -481 bp. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, STAT5 bound to the element in response to IL-3. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of dn-STAT5 on IL-3-dependent growth was restored by expression of cyclin D1. Thus STAT5, in addition to ras signaling, appears to mediate transcriptional regulation of cyclin D1, thereby contributing to cytokine-dependent growth of hematopoietic cells.  (+info)

Cerebellar histogenesis is disturbed in mice lacking cyclin D2. (2/369)

Formation of brain requires deftly balancing primary genesis of neurons and glia, detection of when sufficient cells of each type have been produced, shutdown of proliferation and removal of excess cells. The region and cell type-specific expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, such as demonstrated for cyclin D2, may contribute to these processes. If so, regional brain development should be affected by alteration of cyclin expression. To test this hypothesis, the representation of specific cell types was examined in the cerebellum of animals lacking cyclin D2. The loss of this cyclin primarily affected two neuronal populations: granule cell number was reduced and stellate interneurons were nearly absent. Differences between null and wild-type siblings were obvious by the second postnatal week. Decreases in granule cell number arose from both reduction in primary neurogenesis and increase in apoptosis of cells that fail to differentiate. The dearth of stellate cells in the molecular layer indicates that emergence of this subpopulation requires cyclin D2 expression. Surprisingly, Golgi and basket interneurons, thought to originate from the same precursor pool as stellate cells, appear unaffected. These results suggest that cyclin D2 is required in cerebellum not only for proliferation of the granule cell precursors but also for proper differentiation of granule and stellate interneurons.  (+info)

FLI-1 inhibits differentiation and induces proliferation of primary erythroblasts. (3/369)

Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia involves two members of the ETS family of transcriptional regulators, both activated via proviral insertion in the corresponding loci. Spi-1/PU.1 is expressed in the disease induced by the original Friend virus SFFV(F-MuLV) complex in adult mice. In contrast, FLI-1 is overexpressed in about 75% of the erythroleukemias induced by the F-MuLV helper virus in newborn mice. To analyse the consequences of the enforced expression of FLI-1 on erythroblast differentiation and proliferation and to compare its activity to that of PU.1/Spi-1, we used a heterologous system of avian primary erythroblasts previously described to study the cooperation between Spi-1/PU.1 and the other molecular alterations observed in SFFV-induced disease. FLI-1 was found: (i) to inhibit the apoptotic cell death program normally activated in erythroblasts following Epo deprivation; (ii) to inhibit the terminal differentiation program induced in these cells in response to Epo and; (iii) to induce their proliferation. However, in contrast to Spi-1/PU.1, the effects of FLI-1 on erythroblast, differentiation and proliferation did not require its cooperation with an abnormally activated form of the EpoR. Enhanced survival of FLI-1 expressing erythroblasts correlated with the upregulation of bcl2 expression. FLI-1 also prevented the rapid downregulation of cyclin D2 and D3 expression normally observed during Epo-induced differentiation and delayed the downregulation of several other genes involved in cell cycle or cell proliferation control. Our results show that overexpression of FLI-1 profoundly deregulates the normal balance between differentiation and proliferation in primary erythroblasts. Thus, the activation of FLI-1 expression observed at the onset of F-MuLV-induced erythroleukemia may provide a proliferative advantage to virus infected cells that would otherwise undergo terminal differentiation or cell death.  (+info)

The proto-oncogene c-myc is a direct target gene of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2. (4/369)

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects and transforms primary B lymphocytes in vitro. Viral infection initiates the cell cycle entry of the resting B lymphocytes. The maintenance of proliferation in the infected cells is strictly dependent on functional EBNA2. We have recently developed a conditional immortalization system for EBV by rendering the function of EBNA2, and thus proliferation of the immortalized cells, dependent on estrogen. This cellular system was used to identify early events preceding induction of proliferation. We show that LMP1 and c-myc are directly activated by EBNA2, indicating that all cellular factors essential for induction of these genes by EBNA2 are present in the resting cells. In contrast, induction of the cell cycle regulators cyclin D2 and cdk4 are secondary events, which require de novo protein synthesis.  (+info)

Control of cell cycle entry and apoptosis in B lymphocytes infected by Epstein-Barr virus. (5/369)

Infection of human B cells with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) results in activation of the cell cycle and cell growth. To interpret the mechanisms by which EBV activates the cell, we have assayed many proteins involved in control of the G0 and G1 phases of the cell cycle and regulation of apoptosis. In EBV infection most of the changes, including the early induction of cyclin D2, are dependent on expression of EBV genes, but an alteration in the E2F-4 profile was partly independent of viral gene expression, presumably occurring in response to signal transduction activated when the virus binds to its receptor, CD21. By comparing the expression of genes controlling apoptosis, including those encoding several members of the BCL-2 family of proteins, the known relative resistance of EBV-immortalized B-cell lines to apoptosis induced by low serum was found to correlate with expression of both BCL-2 and A20. A20 can be regulated by the NF-kappaB transcription factor, which is known to be activated by the EBV LMP-1 protein. Quantitative assays demonstrated a direct temporal relationship between LMP-1 protein levels and active NF-kappaB during the time course of infection.  (+info)

Early induction of cyclin D2 expression in phorbol ester-responsive B-1 lymphocytes. (6/369)

B-1 lymphocytes represent a distinct B cell subset with characteristic features that include self-renewing capacity and unusual mitogenic responses. B-1 cells differ from conventional B cells in terms of the consequences of phorbol ester treatment: B-1 cells rapidly enter S phase in response to phorbol ester alone, whereas B-2 cells require a calcium ionophore in addition to phorbol ester to trigger cell cycle progression. To address the mechanism underlying the varied proliferative responses of B-1 and B-2 cells, we evaluated the expression and activity of the G1 cell cycle regulator, cyclin D2, and its associated cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). Cyclin D2 expression was upregulated rapidly, within 2-4 h, in phorbol ester-stimulated B-1 cells, in a manner dependent on intact transcription/translation, but was not increased in phorbol ester- stimulated B-2 cells. Phorbol ester-stimulated cyclin D2 expression was accompanied by the formation of cyclin D2-Cdk4, and, to a lesser extent, cyclin D2-Cdk6, complexes; cyclin D2- containing complexes were found to be catalytically functional, in terms of their ability to phosphorylate exogenous Rb in vitro and to specifically phosphorylate endogenous Rb on serine780 in vivo. These results strongly suggest that the rapid induction of cyclin D2 by a normally nonmitogenic phorbol ester stimulus is responsible for B-1 cell progression through G1 phase. The ease and rapidity with which cyclin D2 responds in B-1 cells may contribute to the proliferative features of this subset.  (+info)

Involvement of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) in intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. (7/369)

Using the conditionally immortalized human cell line tsFHI, we have investigated the role of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) in intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. Expression of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk), and CKIs was examined under conditions promoting growth, growth arrest, or expression of differentiated traits. Formation of complexes among cell cycle regulatory proteins and their kinase activities were also investigated. The tsFHI cells express three CKIs: p16, p21, and p27. With differentiation, p21 and p27 were strongly induced, but with different kinetics: the p21 increase was rapid but transient and the p27 increase was delayed but sustained. Our results suggest that the function of p16 is primarily to inhibit cyclin D-associated kinases, making tsFHI cells dependent on cyclin E-Cdk2 for pRb phosphorylation and G1/S progression. Furthermore, they indicate that p21 is the main CKI involved in irreversible growth arrest during the early stages of cell differentiation in association with D-type cyclins, cyclin E, and Cdk2, whereas p27 may induce or stabilize expression of differentiated traits acting independently of cyclin-Cdk function.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of selected cell cycle regulatory proteins during aerobic and hypoxic maintenance of human ovarian carcinoma cells. (8/369)

We have previously reported on the development of an in vitro model system for studying the effect of hypoxia on ovarian carcinoma cell proliferation and invasion (Krtolica and Ludlow, 1996). These data indicate that the cell division cycle is reversibly arrested during the G1 phase. Here, we have continued this study to include the proliferation properties of both aerobic and hypoxic human ovarian carcinoma cells at the molecular level. The growth suppressor product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene, pRB, appears to be functional in these cells as determined by SV40 T-antigen binding studies. Additional G1-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclins D and E, cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) 4 and 2, and cdk inhibitors p27 and p18, also appear to be intact based on their apparent molecular weights and cell cycle stage-specific abundance. During hypoxia, there is a decrease in abundance of cyclins D and E, with an increase in p27 abundance. cdk4 activity towards pRB and cdk2 activity towards histone H1 are also decreased. Co-precipitation studies revealed an increased amount of p27 complexing with cyclin E-cdk2 during hypoxia than during aerobic cell growth. In addition, pRB-directed phosphatase activity was found to be greater in hypoxic than aerobic cells. Taken together, a model is suggested to explain hypoxia-induced cell cycle arrest in SKA human ovarian carcinoma cells.  (+info)

The future promises to yield new discoveries and advances in our understanding of cardiomyocyte cell cycle regulation that will hopefully give rise to the ability to promote regenerative myocardial growth. With respect to the intrinsic proliferative and de novo cardiomyogenic potential of the adult heart, it is abundantly clear from studies cited herein that the published values for the magnitude of both processes vary dramatically. It is very important to rigorously determine the extent to which these processes do occur. If the intrinsic rates for cardiomyocyte proliferation and/or de novo cardiomyogenic differentiation are exceedingly low, then the ability to exploit these processes for clinical benefit would likely be quite limited. Increasing the frequency of these events would require the existence, identification, and ultimately the successful delivery of cytokines that normally regulate the process. Conversely, if these processes do occur at the frequency that some studies suggest, then ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction between the pRb2/p130 C-terminal domain and the N-terminal portion of cyclin D3. AU - Bonetto, Francesco. AU - Fanciulli, Maurizio. AU - Battista, Tullio. AU - De Luca, Antonio. AU - Russo, Patrizia. AU - Bruno, Tiziana. AU - De Angelis, Roberta. AU - Di Padova, Monica. AU - Giordano, Antonio. AU - Felsani, Armando. AU - Paggi, Marco C.. PY - 1999/12/15. Y1 - 1999/12/15. N2 - An association between cyclin D3 and the C-terminal domain of pRb2/p130 was demonstrated using the yeast two-hybrid system. Further analysis restricted the epitope responsible for the binding within the 74 N-terminal amino acids of cyclin D3, independent of the LXCXE amino acid motif present in the D-type cyclin N-terminal region. In a coprecipitation assay in T98G cells, a human glioblastoma cell line, the C-terminal domain of pRb2/p130 was able to interact solely with cyclin D3, while the corresponding portion of pRb interacted with either cyclin D3 or cyclin D1. In T98G cells, endogenous ...
The protein encoded by the Bcl-1 oncogene, known as cyclin D1, belongs to the highly conserved family of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) regulators. It is also known as CCND1, B-cell lymphoma 1 protein (BCL1), parathyroid adenomatosis 1 (PRAD1), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 1, G1/S-specific cyclin-D1, D11S287E, and U21B31. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns that contribute to the coordination of the cell cycle during mitosis. Cyclin D1 interacts with CDK4 and CDK6, whose activity is required for the cell cycle G1/S transition. Cyclin D1 also interacts with tumor suppressor protein Rb. Mutations in the Bcl-1 gene are associated with a variety of cancers, including esophageal, breast, and bladder cancer, as well as a variety of B-cell-related leukemias and lymphomas.. ...
and a shift of cyclin D1 mRNA from the polysome-associated to free mRNA fraction, indicating that 15d-PGJ2 inhibits the initiation of cyclin D1 mRNA translation. The selective rapid decrease in cyclin D1 protein accumulation is facilitated by its rapid turnover (t1/2=34 min) after inhibition of cyclin D1 protein synthesis. The half-life of cyclin D1 protein is not significantly altered in cells treated with 15d-PGJ2. Treatment of cells with 15d-PGJ2 results in strong induction of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression, suggesting that 15d-PGJ2 might activate protein kinase R (PKR), an eIF- ...
Cyclin D1 is an oncogene frequently overexpressed in human cancers that has a dual function as cell cycle and transcriptional regulator, although the latter is widely unexplored. Here, we investigated the transcriptional role of cyclin D1 in lymphoid tumor cells with cyclin D1 oncogenic overexpression. Cyclin D1 showed widespread binding to the promoters of most actively transcribed genes, and the promoter occupancy positively correlated with the transcriptional output of targeted genes. Despite this association, the overexpression of cyclin D1 in lymphoid cells led to a global transcriptional downmodulation that was proportional to cyclin D1 levels. This cyclin D1-dependent global transcriptional downregulation was associated with a reduced nascent transcription and an accumulation of promoter-proximal paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) that colocalized with cyclin D1. Concordantly, cyclin D1 overexpression promoted an increase in the Poll II pausing index. This transcriptional impairment seems ...
The alternatively spliced cyclin D1b variant of the CCND1 gene has been proposed to have higher oncogenic potential than cyclin D1a (8, 9). In breast cancer, aberrant cyclin D1b expression confers resistance to therapeutic treatment (30) and is associated with poor prognosis in patients (31). Cyclin D1b was also recently shown to enhance cell invasiveness and anchorage-independent growth of bladder cancer cells (32), and this isoform has been detected in various other cancer types (8, 28, 33). In PCa, changes in the cyclin D1b/cyclin D1a ratio are of particular relevance. Indeed, whereas both isoforms support cell cycle progression, they behave differently in the interaction with the AR pathway. Cyclin D1a was reported to associate with AR and to negatively regulate its transcriptional activity, thereby representing a brake for uncontrolled proliferation of PCa cells (6). By contrast, this negative feedback function is lacking in cyclin D1b (11), and its expression positively correlated with PCa ...
Data Availability StatementData are contained inside the paper. analysis from the transcriptional activity for ATF3, Wnt or NF-B. siRNA for ATF3 or p65 was employed for the knockdown of ATF3 and p65. Outcomes TC-HW decreased the cell viability in individual colorectal cancers cells. TC-HW reduced cyclin D1 proteins level through cyclin D1 degradation via GSK3-reliant threonine-286 (T286) phosphorylation of cyclin D1, indicating that cyclin D1 degradation might donate to TC-HW-mediated loss of cyclin D1 protein level. TC-HW downregulated the appearance of cyclin D1 mRNA level and Rabbit polyclonal to AREB6 inhibited Wnt activation through the downregulation of -catenin and TCF4 manifestation, indicating that inhibition of cyclin D1 transcription may also result in TC-HW-mediated decrease of cyclin D1 protein level. In addition, TC-HW was observed to induce apoptosis through ROS-dependent DNA damage. TC-HW-induced ROS improved NF-B and ATF3 activation, and inhibition of NF-B and ATF3 activation ...
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Plasmid pIS1 Cyclin D2 short UTR from Dr. David Bartels lab contains the insert Cyclin D2 short UTR and is published in Cell. 2009 Aug 21. 138(4):673-84. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Cyclin D1 expression is induced by Sox17.(A-B) Immunohistochemistry for cyclin D1 was performed on lung sections from adult CCSPrtTA (A) and CCSPrtTA/tetO-Sox
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Cyclin D1 is a target for positive regulation by estrogens in growth-responsive cells, in which it mediates their mitogenic effects. Amplification and overexpression of the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) might thus represent a genetic lesion inducing hormone-independent growth of transformed cells. Indeed, cyclin D1 overexpression has been found in up to 50% of primary breast cancers, and in about one-third of these cases, this is linked to amplification of the 11q13 chromosomal region, which also includes the CCND1 gene. These tumors are predominantly estrogen receptor-positive, and for this reason, these patients are often selected for adjuvant antiestrogen therapy. No information is available, however, as to whether cyclin D1 overexpression due to gene amplification might interfere with and reduce antiestrogen efficacy. This was investigated here by taking advantage of an experimental model that reproduces cyclin D1 overexpression resulting from increased CCND1 gene dosage in hormone-responsive human ...
THE D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) are critical governors of the cell-cycle clock apparatus during the G1 phase of the mammalian cell cycle. These three D-type cyclins are expressed in overlapping, apparently redundant fashion in the proliferating tissues. To investigate why mammalian cells need three distinct D-type cyclins, we have generated mice bearing a disrupted cyclin D2 gene by using gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. Cyclin D2-deficient females are sterile owing to the inability of ovarian granulosa cells to proliferate normally in response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), whereas mutant males display hypoplastic testes. In ovarian granulosa cells, cyclin D2 is specifically induced by FSH via a cyclic-AMP-dependent pathway, indicating that expression of the various D-type cyclins is under control of distinct intracellular signalling pathways. The hypoplasia seen in cyclin D2(-/-) ovaries and testes prompted us to examine human cancers deriving from corresponding tissues.
Expression profile and molecular genetic regulation of cyclin D1 expression in epithelioid sarcoma Epithelioid sarcoma is a distinctive, aggressive soft tissue tumor typically presenting as a subcutaneous or deep dermal mass in the distal extremities of young adults. Molecular genetic data of well-characterized cases of epithelioid sarcoma are sparse. A recent cytogenetic study of epithelioid sarcoma by conventional metaphase comparative genomic hybridization reported recurrent gains at chromosome 11q13, a region containing many genes, including the cyclin D1 gene. Cyclin D1 is a positive cell cycle regulator that is overexpressed in a variety of neoplasms, including mantle cell lymphoma and breast carcinoma. The objective of this study was to examine cyclin D1 expression in epithelioid sarcoma. Of 24 cases evaluated, 23 (96%) displayed cyclin D1 nuclear expression using immunohistochemical evaluation. Eight cases, which expressed cyclin D1 by immunohistochemistry, were evaluated by fluorescence ...
FIG.9. Effects of UV stimulation on cyclin D1 and p52. (A) UV treatment down regulates cyclin D1 protein levels. U-2 OS cells were treated with 40-J/m2 UV radiation for the indicated times. Whole-cell lysates were prepared and immunoblotted for cyclin D1 and a β-actin control as indicated. (B) UV treatment inhibits the cyclin D1 promoter in a manner dependent upon the proximal κB element. One and a half micrograms of each of the cyclin D1 (−66) and cyclin D1 (−66 mut) luciferase reporter plasmids were transfected into U-2 OS cells. Cells were treated with 40-J/m2 UV radiation for 6 h as indicated. Results are expressed as change in activation or repression (n-fold) relative to levels seen in the relevant untreated cell controls. luc, luciferase. (C) UV treatment induces Ser-15 phosphorylated endogenous p53 and down regulates Bcl-3 levels. U-2 OS cells were treated with 40-J/m2 UV radiation for the indicated times. Nuclear protein extracts were prepared and immunoblotted for p53, ...
Metabolism of L-Arg by arginase I-producing MDSCs leads to a significant decrease in the extracellular levels of L-Arg in murine tumor models and in patients with cancer (5, 25). The decreased levels of L-Arg induced the prolonged loss in the expression of CD3ζ (7, 26) and inhibited T cell proliferation (8). These effects were not associated with the induction of apoptosis and were rapidly reversible after replenishment of L-Arg or citrulline (8). We recently showed that activated primary T cells cultured in the absence of L-Arg were arrested in the G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle (8). The G0-G1 arrest in the cell cycle observed in L-Arg-deprived T cells correlated with an inability to upregulate the expression of cyclin D3 (8). Results from cyclin D3 knockout mice had demonstrated that cyclin D3 is essential for the maturation of T cells in the thymus (27), and they suggested a potential and selective role in T cell proliferation. Additionally, silencing of cyclin D3 induced a similar inhibition ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - PKCα tumor suppression in the intestine is associated with transcriptional and translational inhibition of cyclin D1. AU - Pysz, Marybeth A.. AU - Leontieva, Olga V.. AU - Bateman, Nicholas W.. AU - Uronis, Joshua M.. AU - Curry, Kathryn J.. AU - Threadgill, David W.. AU - Janssen, Klaus Peter. AU - Robine, Sylvie. AU - Velcich, Anna. AU - Augenlicht, Leonard H.. AU - Black, Adrian R.. AU - Black, Jennifer D.. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - Alterations in PKC isozyme expression and aberrant induction of cyclin D1 are early events in intestinal tumorigenesis. Previous studies have identified cyclin D1 as a major target in the antiproliferative effects of PKCα in non-transformed intestinal cells; however, a link between PKC signaling and cyclin D1 in colon cancer remained to be established. The current study further characterized PKC isozyme expression in intestinal neoplasms and explored the consequences of restoring PKCα or PKCδ in a panel of colon carcinoma cell lines. ...
As described above, we have reported a new physiological function of Cyclin D2 in the neuronal development of the mouse. We next questioned whether this mechanism is conserved among mammalian species. In humans, we found an accumulation of Cyclin D2 protein at the basal side of the cortical primordium at gestation week 16 (Tsunekawa et al. 2012). We also noted that the cis-acting element identified in mice that promotes basal transportation is highly conserved in human (74% match in the National Center for Biotechnology Information [NCBI] database). Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that in the human cortical primordium, Cyclin D2 mRNA is similarly transported within the basal process toward the basal endfoot and locally translated into protein. Notably, the basal transport cis-element that we have identified appears to be unique to mammals, as similar sequences are not found in avians or amphibians (NCBI database). Similarly, no accumulation of Cyclin D2 mRNA in the basal side of the chick ...
D-type cyclins (cyclin D1, D2 and D3) are components of the core cell cycle machinery. Rearrangements of cyclin D genes and overexpression of cyclin D proteins...
...(PHILADELPHIA) Cyclin D1 a protein that helps push a replicating cel... In addition to its role in regulating the cell cycle cyclin D1 induc...Using antisense RNA Dr. Pestells group was the first to show that cy...In the current study the group sought to investigate the mechanism by...,Cyclin,D1,governs,microRNA,processing,in,breast,cancer,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1) is an evolutionarily conserved protein containing a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain that regulates gene expression through interactions with multiple transcriptional regulators. Here, we have used short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to knockdown SNIP1 expression in human cell lines. Surprisingly, we found that reduction in SNIP1 levels resulted in significantly reduced cell proliferation and accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Consistent with this result, we observed that cyclin D1 protein and mRNA levels were reduced. Moreover, SNIP1 depletion results in inhibition of cyclin D1 promoter activity in a manner dependent upon a previously characterized binding site for the AP-1 transcription factor family. SNIP1 itself is induced upon serum stimulation immediately prior to cyclin D1 expression. These effects were independent of the tumour suppressors p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb), but were consistent with an interaction with BRG1, a component of
The generation of robust T-cell-dependent humoral immune responses requires the formation and expansion of germinal center structures within the follicular regions of the secondary lymphoid tissues. was only observed in mature GCs (Fig. ?(Fig.5D).5D). These data correlate with the lack of cyclin D2 manifestation in adult GCs and the requirement for cyclin D3 specifically at this stage. Based on our observation that cyclin D3 transcripts were observed in both follicular and GC B cells whereas cyclin D3 protein was only detected in GC cells and previous reports showing that cyclin D3 was regulated by pre-BCR mediated inhibition of proteosomal degradation (7) we hypothesized that GC-specific signaling events promote cyclin D3 protein stability. The proteosomal degradation of D-type cyclins upon phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue by GSK3α/β has been previously reported (10). In addition phosphorylation of GSK3α/β on serine 21/9 residues leads to reduced kinase activity (27). We ...
The generation of robust T-cell-dependent humoral immune responses requires the formation and expansion of germinal center structures within the follicular regions of the secondary lymphoid tissues. was only observed in mature GCs (Fig. ?(Fig.5D).5D). These data correlate with the lack of cyclin D2 manifestation in adult GCs and the requirement for cyclin D3 specifically at this stage. Based on our observation that cyclin D3 transcripts were observed in both follicular and GC B cells whereas cyclin D3 protein was only detected in GC cells and previous reports showing that cyclin D3 was regulated by pre-BCR mediated inhibition of proteosomal degradation (7) we hypothesized that GC-specific signaling events promote cyclin D3 protein stability. The proteosomal degradation of D-type cyclins upon phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue by GSK3α/β has been previously reported (10). In addition phosphorylation of GSK3α/β on serine 21/9 residues leads to reduced kinase activity (27). We ...
The cyclin D1 expression pattern is not altered by signaling inhibitors. If the PI3K/AKT/GSK3 pathway stabilizes cyclin D1 levels specifically during G1 and G2 phases as suggested above, inhibitors of this pathway would produce a reduction in cyclin D1 expression during these cell cycle phases to the low levels seen during S phase. Thus, inhibition of these signaling pathways would be expected to result in low, uniform expression of cyclin D1 throughout the cell cycle. PI3K was inhibited by LY294002, while the kinase mTOR was inhibited by rapamycin in actively cycling human diploid fibroblast (MRC5) cultures. After 2 hrs treatment, including a terminal pulse with BrdU, the culture was fixed and stained with fluorescent antibodies against both cyclin D1 and BrdU, while DNA was stained with DAPI. Individual images of each fluorochrome were collected with a sensitive CCD camera, and subjected to image analysis to accurately quantitate the level of each fluorochrome in each cell (see [20]). The ...
Citation: Soni R. and Chaudhuri B. (2001) Cell cycle arrest mediated by a pyridopyrimidine is not abrogated by over-expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1. International Journal of Oncology. 18 (5) pp.1035-40 ...
context : http://schema.org, @type : Product, name : Rat Cyclin D1 ELISA Kit, image : https://www.elisagenie.com/product_images/k/085/ER0328__34855.jpg, description : Rat Cyclin D1 ELISA Kit assay has a sensitivity of 0.094ng/ml ...
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its induction represents a mechanism by which myeloma cells can induce cyclin D2 dysregulation, and contribute to disease pathogenesis ...
Cyclin D1 is a G1-specific cyclin that has been linked to lymphoid, parathyroid, and breast tumors. Recent studies suggested that high protein levels of cyclin D1 are not always produced when cyclin D1 mRNA is overexpressed in transfected cells, suggesting that posttranscriptional events may be important in cyclin D1 regulation. The mRNA cap-binding protein (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E [eIF-4E]) is a potential regulatory of several posttranscriptional events, and it can itself induce neoplastic transformation. Consequently, we examined eIF-4E as a potential regulator of cyclin D1. Overexpression of cyclin D1 mRNA in NIH 3T3 cells did not increase cyclin D1 protein. In contrast, overexpression of eIF-4E markedly increased the amount of cyclin D1 protein in NIH 3T3 cells. This increase was specific to cyclin D1 in comparison with the retinoblastoma gene product, c-Myc, actin, and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha. We also examined cyclin D1 protein in cells expressing an estrogen ...
Cyclin D1 is an important cell cycle regulator but in cancer its overexpression also increases cellular migration mediated by p27KlP1 stabilization and RhoA inhibition. Recently, a common polymorphism at the exon 4-intron 4 boundary of the human cyclin D1 gene within a splice donor region was associated with an altered risk of developing cancer. Altered RNA splicing caused by this polymorphism gives rise to a variant cyclin D1 isoform termed cyclin D1b, which has the same N-terminus as the canonical cyclin D1a isoform but a distinct C-terminus. In this study we show that these different isoforms have unique properties with regard to the cellular migration function of cyclin D1. Whereas they displayed little difference in transcriptional co-repression assays on idealized reporter genes, microarray cDNA expression analysis revealed differential regulation of genes including those that influence cellular migration. Additionally, while cyclin D1a stabilized p27KIP1 and inhibited RhoA-induced ROCK kinase
The treatment of quiescent cells with growth factors results in the transcriptional activation of the D-type cyclin genes during G1. Expression of the members of this family of cyclins, D1, 2 and 3, is spatially and temporally regulated with respect to growth factor receptor ligation. Transcription of these particular cyclins is proposed to monitor the growth factor signal and the encoded proteins participate in G1 progression. I have been defining the cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors that control transcription of the human cyclin D3 gene in T-cells. Genomic clones for the human cyclin D3 gene, isolated from a human chromosome 6 library, were analysed by restriction endonuclease digestion and a sub-clone extending 1.7kb upstream of exon 1 was sequenced and studied. The human cyclin D3 gene has a TATA-less promoter and a single dominant initiation site. The minimal cyclin D3 promoter sequence was identified as a region 173bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. Transient ...
Functional screening in human cardiac organoids reveals a metabolic mechanism for cardiomyocyte cell cycle arrest. Hudson, J., Mills, R., Titmarsh, D., Koenig, X., Parker, B., Ryall, J., Quaife-Ryan, G., Voges, H., Hodson, M., Ferguson, C., Drowley, L., Plowright, A., Wang, Q., Gregorevic, P., Xin, M., Thomas, W., Parton, R., Nielsen, L., Launikonis, B., James, D., Elliott, D. and Porrello, E. (2017). Functional screening in human cardiac organoids reveals a metabolic mechanism for cardiomyocyte cell cycle arrest. Abstracts for the 65th Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand Annual Scientific Meeting and the International Society for Heart Research Australasian Section Annual Scientific Meeting, Perth, Australia, 10 - 13 August 2017. Chatswood, NSW, Australia: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2017.06.375. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prognostic role of cyclin d1 in lung cancer relationship to proliferating cell nuclear antigen. AU - Caputi, Mario. AU - Groeger, Angela M.. AU - Esposito, Vincenzo. AU - Dean, Charity. AU - De Luca, Antonio. AU - Pacilio, Carmen. AU - Muller, Michael R.. AU - Giordano, Giovan G.. AU - Baldi, Feliciano. AU - Wolner, Ernst. AU - Giordano, Antonio. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - We developed an immunohistochemical assay specific for cyclin D1 and suitable for formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections, to evaluate cyclin D1 expression in a group of 135 surgically resected lung-cancer patients for the purpose of investigating the prognostic role of this protein in lung cancer. In addition, we compared cyclin D1 expression with the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), considered to be a reliable index of the proliferation rate. We found cyclin D1 expressed in more than 60% of the neoplastic cells in 26.5% of our specimens. A total of 24.5% of the specimens showed ...
Results Normal epidermis showed parabasal Ki67 and cyclin D1 staining while fascin labelled cells in the lower one-third of the epithelium. Reactive and dVIN specimens demonstrated mildly increased Ki67 and cyclin D1 expression that maintained parabasal polarity, whereas uVIN and p16-positive SCC were characterised by loss of cyclin D1 staining. However, in 14 of 20 p16-positive SCC small infiltrative tumour groups and single infiltrating cells at the invasive front showed a cyclin D1-positive/ Ki67-negative phenotype. In contrast, p16-negative SCC generally showed diffuse and concordant cyclin D1 and Ki67 labelling, including at the invasive margin. Fascin expression was increased in all VIN and SCC lesions.. ...
Aberrant expression of cyclin D1, frequently observed in human malignant disorders, has been linked to the control of G1→S cell cycle phase transition and development and progression in carcinogenesis. Cyclin D1 level changes are partially controlled by GSK-3β-dependent phosphorylation at threonine-286 (Thr286), which targets cyclin D1 for ubiquitination and proteolytic degradation. In our continuing studies on the mechanism of prostate cancer prevention by resveratrol, focusing on the role of its recently discovered target protein, quinone reductase 2 (NQO2), we generated NQO2 knockdown CWR22Rv1 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing approach. We found that, compared with cells expressing NQO2 (shRNA08), NQO2 knockdown cells (shRNA25) displayed slower proliferation and G1 phase cell accumulation. Immunoblot analyses revealed a significant decrease in phosphorylation of retinoblastoma Rb and cyclin D1 in shRNA25 compared with shRNA08. Moreover, shRNA25 cells showed a 37% ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell-cycle-based strategies to drive myocardial repair. AU - Zhu, Wuqiang. AU - Hassink, Rutger J.. AU - Rubart, Michael. AU - Field, Loren J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/7. Y1 - 2009/7. N2 - Cardiomyocytes exhibit robust proliferative activity during development. After birth, cardiomyocyte proliferation is markedly reduced. Consequently, regenerative growth in the postnatal heart via cardiomyocyte proliferation (and, by inference, proliferation of stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes) is limited and often insufficient to affect repair following injury. Here, we review studies wherein cardiomyocyte cell cycle proliferation was induced via targeted expression of cyclin D2 in postnatal hearts. Cyclin D2 expression resulted in a greater than 500-fold increase in cell cycle activity in transgenic mice as compared to their nontransgenic siblings. Induced cell cycle activity resulted in infarct regression and concomitant improvement in ...
The relative levels of cyclin D1 (CCND1) (a) and (b) transcripts were determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and found to vary according to the tissue origin in both control and tumor samples. A five-fold overexpression of both isoforms was observed in 28/38 cases of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and of only one isoform in 10/38 MCL. No correlation was observed between expression of cyclin D1 isoforms and CCND1 genotype at position 870. ...
Cell proliferation is regulated by the balance between cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and CDK inhibitors such as p27. In neonatal cardiomyocytes, p27 is a key inhibitor of cell proliferation (6) and cyclin D1 is important for cell cycle progression (36). To delineate the pathway through which TIMP-3 inhibits neonatal cardiomyocyte proliferation, the effect of TIMP-3 on cyclin D1 and p27 expression was investigated. Our data showed that cyclin D1 was increased in TIMP-3−/− cardiomyocytes and decreased in rTIMP-3-treated cells as compared with WT. Consistent with these results, p27 expression was decreased in the TIMP-3−/− cardiomyocytes and neonatal hearts as compared with WT. This decrease in p27 expression resulted in an increase in cardiomyocyte proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, treatment of cardiomyocytes with rTIMP-3 resulted in a significant increase in p27 expression, which led to a significant decrease in cardiomyocyte proliferation. Our data suggest that ...
Home » meis1 regulates cyclin D1 and c-myc expression, and controls the proliferation of the multipotent cells in the early developing zebrafish ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Cyclin D1 Antibody (DCS-6). G1-Cyclin & Mantle Cell Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP, PAGE. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
Monoclonal clone# G2 antibody for CYCLIN D2/CCND2 detection. Host: Mouse.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: ICC. Reactive species: Human. CYCLIN D2/CCND2 information: Molecular Weight: 32826 MW; Subcellular Localization: Nucleus . Cytoplasm . Membran
Proliferation is accelerated in GSK3β inhibitor treated mice compared to similarly injured, but vehicle treated micea) Cyclin D1, c-myc and β-catenin levels b
In contrast to cyclin D1 and D2, the expression level of cyclin D3 was high in the hindbrain at the E15.5 stage (Figure 3I, arrowhead). Moreover, in the midbrain cyclin D3 was expressed in cells closer to the ventricle than those expressing cyclin D2 (Figure 3H, I, arrows).. Discussion. At the E10.5 stage, all three D-type cyclins were expressed in most of the spinal cord cells but cyclin D1 and D3 showed higher expression levels in the dorsal half of the spinal cord. Wianny et al. (1998) found that the dorso-ventral gradient of the cyclin D1 transcript also occurs in the spinal cord of 7-9 somite-stage embryos. However, in our study we found that at the E10.5 stage cyclin D2 was not missing from the floor plate and also that cyclin D3 was not expressed only ventrally, as was reported for the transcripts of the genes in 7-9 somite stage embryos by Wianny et al. (1998). This may have been due to altered expression patterns of these genes during the time course of spinal cord development and ...
Cyclin D1 and p16 are involved in the regulation of G1 checkpoint and may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Previous studies have examined the level of expression of cyclin D1 and p16 in primary untreated NPC but no such information is available for recurrent NPC. We set out in this study to examine the expression level of cyclin D1 and p16 in recurrent NPC that have failed previous treatment with radiation +/- chemotherapy. A total of 42 patients underwent salvage nasopharyngectomy from 1984 to 2001 for recurrent NPC after treatment failure with radiation +/- chemotherapy. Twenty-seven pathologic specimens were available for immunohistochemical study using antibodies against cyclin D1 and p16. Positive expression of cyclin D1 was observed in 7 of 27 recurrent NPC specimens (26%) while positive p16 expression was seen in only 1 of 27 recurrent NPC (4%). While the level of expression of cyclin D1 in recurrent NPC was similar to that of previously untreated
Cyclin D1 and p16 are involved in the regulation of G1 checkpoint and may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Previous studies have examined the level of expression of cyclin D1 and p16 in primary untreated NPC but no such information is available for recurrent NPC. We set out in this study to examine the expression level of cyclin D1 and p16 in recurrent NPC that have failed previous treatment with radiation +/- chemotherapy. A total of 42 patients underwent salvage nasopharyngectomy from 1984 to 2001 for recurrent NPC after treatment failure with radiation +/- chemotherapy. Twenty-seven pathologic specimens were available for immunohistochemical study using antibodies against cyclin D1 and p16. Positive expression of cyclin D1 was observed in 7 of 27 recurrent NPC specimens (26%) while positive p16 expression was seen in only 1 of 27 recurrent NPC (4%). While the level of expression of cyclin D1 in recurrent NPC was similar to that of previously untreated
The findings herein advance a strategy for inducing myocardial repair in pediatric patients. Myocardial regeneration experiments in neonatal mice were not feasible until the recent introduction of techniques for inducing myocardial injury (15, 17, 41). LAD ligation (16, 17) and amputation injury (15, 42) in neonatal mice were reported to lead to scarless repair, although these results are controversial (43, 44). Here, we verify that cryoinjury is a technically feasible method that produces scar formation and dysfunction, which is in line with the scar formation and delayed repair process observed in zebrafish (31-33) and neonatal mice (35, 36) after cryoinjury. We also show that cryoinjury in neonatal mice is a useful model for human infants with heart disease because it recapitulates the scar formation, dysfunction, and decrease in cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity frequently seen in young patients with heart disease. The observed decrease in cardiomyocyte proliferation after cryoinjury ...
Chromosomal instability (CIN) in tumors is characterized by chromosomal abnormalities and an altered gene expression signature; however, the mechanism of CIN is poorly understood. CCND1 (which encodes cyclin D1) is overexpressed in human malignancies and has been shown to play a direct role in transcriptional regulation. Here, we used genome-wide ChIP sequencing and found that the DNA-bound form of cyclin D1 occupied the regulatory region of genes governing chromosomal integrity and mitochondrial biogenesis. Adding cyclin D1 back to Ccnd1-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in CIN gene regulatory region occupancy by the DNA-bound form of cyclin D1 and induction of CIN gene expression. Furthermore, increased chromosomal aberrations, aneuploidy, and centrosome abnormalities were observed in the cyclin D1-rescued cells by spectral karyotyping and immunofluorescence. To assess cyclin D1 effects in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with acute and continuous mammary gland-targeted cyclin D1 ...
B78 Growth arrest represents an innate barrier to carcinogenesis. DNA damage and replicational stress are known to induce growth arrest and apoptotic death to avert genomic instability and consequently carcinogenesis. Working on the genotoxic stress induced by hydroxyurea and methylmethanesulfone, we observed a growth arrest at G1/S-phase that was mediated by destabilization of cyclin D1. The growth arrest was independent of the stability of cdc25A and preceded transcriptional up-regulation of p21waf1. Cyclin D1 destabilization involved its phosphorylation by GSK-3beta at threonine-286 since overexpression of the kinase-dead mutant of GSK-3beta or cyclin D1T286A mutant conferred stability to cyclin D1. Further, overexpression of cyclin D1T286A also helped in bypassing G1/S phase growth arrest. We also observed a rapid inactivation of Akt/PKB kinase in the presence of hydroxyurea. Enforced expression of the constitutively active Akt or viral oncoprotein HBx was sufficient to overcome growth ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Diana C Canseco, Wataru Kimura, Sonia Garg, Shibani Mukherjee, Souparno Bhattacharya, Salim Abdisalaam, Sandeep Das, Aroumougame Asaithamby, Pradeep P A Mammen, Hesham A Sadek].
This is consistent with the role of Pitx2 in regulating the growth-regulating genes cyclin D2, cyclin D1, and C-Myc. In renal ... promotes thyroid carcinogenesis by activation of cyclin D2". Cell Cycle. 9 (7): 1333-41. doi:10.4161/cc.9.7.11126. PMID ...
Tsunekawa, Yuji; Osumi, Noriko (November 2013). "Control of asymmetry distribution and the differentiation fate of Cyclin D2 in ...
... repress cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 promoter activity and encourages cell cycle arrest at cyclin G1 (CCNG1). As a result of that, ... Furthermore, FOXO1-mediated cell cycle arrest is linked with cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 suppression in mammals. It was detected ... The transcription and half- life of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1 rises when FOXO1 is active. A study detects that ... activation of FOXO1 prevents the cell-division cycle at cyclin G1 (CCNG1) out of one of two ways stimulating or suppressing ...
... "miR-497 and miR-302b regulate ethanol-induced neuronal cell death through BCL2 protein and cyclin D2". The Journal of ...
... A also raises cyclin D2 levels suggesting a role for the latter in macrophage activation besides proliferation. It ...
Other reported downstream ALK targets include FOXO3a, CDKN1B/p27kip, cyclin D2, NIPA, RAC1, CDC42, p130CAS, SHP1, and PIKFYVE. ...
Furthermore, Runx2 controls the gene expression of cyclin D2, D3, and the CDK inhibitor p21(cip1) in hematopoietic cells. It ... has been shown that on a molecular level, Runx associates with the cdc2 partner cyclin B1 during mitosis. The phosphorylation ...
Cyclin D2 and Twist in in situ and invasive lobular breast carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 107 (6): 970-5. doi: ...
... including some induction of cyclin D2 and Cdk4. Additionally, sustained ERK activity seems to be important for phosphorylation ... Cyclin D-bound cdks 4 and 6 are activated by cdk-activating kinase and drive the cell towards the restriction point. Cyclin D, ... Sustained mitogen signaling promotes cell cycle entry largely through regulation of the G1 cyclins (cyclin D1-3) and their ... including the major G1 cyclin, cyclin D1. Myc also regulates expression of a wide variety of pro-proliferative and pro-growth ...
Some of the downstream gene targets of human Gli1 include regulators of the cell cycle and apoptosis such as cyclin D2 and ...
"Deregulation of cyclin D2 by juxtaposition with T-cell receptor alpha/delta locus in t(12;14)(p13;q11)-positive childhood T- ...
... in part through direct downregulation of cyclin D2 and cyclin E2. miR-26a also directly suppresses expression of estrogen ... miR-26a again suppresses tumorigenesis in nasopharyngeal cells in vivo, with suppressed expression of c-myc, cyclins D3 and E2 ... 2011). "Tumor-specific expression of microRNA-26a suppresses human hepatocellular carcinoma growth via cyclin-dependent and - ... and cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. p14ARF and p21CIPI CDK inhibitor expression are conversely enhanced, mediated ...
... perhaps because the overexpression of cyclin D2 is weaker than Bcl2 overexpression in driving cells to accumulate and become ... both located at 9p21.3 and respectively encoding cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2B ... The overexpression of cyclin D1 is thought to be a major factor in the development of ISMCL and its progression to MCL. ... The cyclin D1-expressing lymphocytes generally populate the inner layers of the marginal zone but on occasion some of these ...
In mice and humans, two more cyclin D proteins have been identified. The three homologues, called cyclin D1, cyclin D2, and ... All six cyclin D-Cdk4,6 complexes (cyclin D1/D2/D3 with Cdk4/6) target Rb for phosphorylation through helix-based docking. The ... Other than Rb, viral cyclin D-Cdk6 complex also targets p27Kip, a Cdk inhibitor of cyclin E and A. In addition, viral cyclin D- ... The phosphorylation of Rb by cyclin A-Cdk2, cyclin B-Cdk1, and cyclin E-Cdk2 are unaffected. The C terminus has a stretch of 21 ...
Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4, Cyclin-dependent kinase 6, EIF3K, and Retinoic acid receptor alpha. Cyclin Cyclin D GRCh38: Ensembl ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ...
Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (Apr 1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ... "Entrez Gene: CCND2 cyclin D2". Mirzaa GM, Parry DA, Fry AE, Giamanco KA, Schwartzentruber J, Vanstone M, Logan CV, Roberts N, ...
CDK6; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK7; cyclin H CDK8; cyclin C CDK9; cyclin T1, cyclin T2a, cyclin T2b, cyclin K CDK10 ... cyclin A, cyclin B CDK2; cyclin A, cyclin E CDK3; cyclin C CDK4; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK5; CDK5R1, CDK5R2. See also ... Furthermore, cyclin binding determines the specificity of the cyclin-CDK complex for particular substrates. Cyclins can ... Viruses can encode proteins with sequence homology to cyclins. One much-studied example is K-cyclin (or v-cyclin) from Kaposi ...
CDK6 is positively regulated primarily by its union to the D cyclins D1, D2 and D3. If this subunit of the complex is not ... A Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 interacts with: CDKN2C, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3, P16, PPM1B, and PPP2CA. Cell cycle Cyclin-dependent ... It is regulated by cyclins, more specifically by Cyclin D proteins and Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins. The protein ... In mammalian cells, cell cycle is activated by CDK6 in the early G1 phase through interactions with cyclins D1, D2 and D3. ...
Another mammalian CDK, Cdk2, can form complexes with cyclins D1, D2, D3, E, or A. Cdk4 and Cdk6 interact with cyclins D1, D2, ... During G2 phase, cyclin A is degraded, while cyclin B is synthesized and cyclin B-Cdk1 complexes form. Not only are cyclin B- ... cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), with a regulatory subunit, cyclin. Once cyclin-dependent kinases bind to cyclin, the formed ... Cyclin Cyclin-dependent kinase Malumbres M, Barbacid M. Mammalian cyclin-dependent kinases. Trends Biochem. Sci. 2005 Nov;30(11 ...
... a protein Levuglandin D2 Prostaglandin D2 receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor Resolvin D2 Cyclin D2 (CCND2) Vitamin D2, or ... D2, D02, D.II, D II or D-2 may refer to: Dublin 2, a Dublin, Ireland postcode D2 motorway (Czech Republic) D2 road (Croatia), a ... Marcelo D2 (born 1967), Brazilian rapper D2, an abbreviation for DOCSIS 2.0, an international telecommunications standard D2 ... électronique d2, now trading as LaCie D2 kit, a microprocessor development kit MEK6800D2 D-2 (video), a professional digital ...
This has been attributed to high mRNA levels of G1-related Cyclin D2 and Cdk4 genes and low levels of cell cycle regulatory ... The cell cycle is regulated by complex network of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors ( ... hESCs show that the activities of Cyclin E/Cdk2 and Cyclin A/Cdk2 complexes are cell cycle-dependent and the Rb checkpoint in ... However, in mESCs, this typically ordered and oscillatory activity of Cyclin-Cdk complexes is absent. Rather, the Cyclin E/Cdk2 ...
Cyclin D2. *Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. *Cytochrome c. *DCTN1. *DOK1. *Dysferlin ...
... *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... cyclin D (Cdk4) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, ... cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... CDK8, K35, cyclin-dependent kinase 8, cyclin dependent kinase 8 ... Rickert P, Corden JL, Lees E (Jan 1999). "Cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are biochemically distinct CTD kinases". Oncogene ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK8 and cyclin C associate ... "Entrez Gene: CDK8 cyclin-dependent kinase 8".. *^ Nemet J, Jelicic B, Rubelj I, Sopta M (Feb 2014). "The two faces of Cdk8, a ...
cyclin D2-CDK4 complex. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • phosphorylation. • response to testosterone. • positive ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ...
The D2 class of receptors produce the opposite effect, as they are Gαi coupled receptors, and block the activity of adenylyl ... Sustained D1 receptor activity is kept in check by Cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Dopamine receptor activation of Ca2+/calmodulin- ... D2 receptor signaling may mediate protein kinase B, arrestin beta 2, and GSK-3 activity, and inhibition of these proteins ... Dopamine receptor D2 stimulation results in the formation of an Akt/Beta-arrestin/PP2A protein complex that inhibits Akt ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ... cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ... p21Cip1 (alternatively p21Waf1), also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin- ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)".. *^ Gartel AL, Radhakrishnan SK (May 2005). "Lost in ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ...
... cyclin - cyclin A - cyclin B - cyclin E - cyclin-dependent kinase - cycloleucine - cyclosporin - cyclosporine - cystatin - ... dopamine D2 receptor - dopamine receptor - double helix - Drosophila - drugs - dynorphin - eIF-2 - eIF-2 kinase - ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... cyclin-dependent kinases, and other cell cycle proteins. The ... All these phases in the cell cycle are highly regulated by cyclins, ...
"CDK-dependent Hsp70 Phosphorylation controls G1 cyclin abundance and cell-cycle progression". Cell. 151 (6): 1308-18. doi ...
細胞週期的進行是由不同的週期素(Cyclin)所調控。週期素意味著這些蛋白質的表現量會隨著細胞週期的進行而有所變化,進而確認週期素原來是扮演細胞週期調控的角色。依照目前的認知,就如同細胞週期G1期→S期→G2期→M期的進行,在G1期大量表現的週期素D( ... 兩類關鍵
... cyclin D1. The recruitment of TLS to the promoter of cyclin D1 is directed by long ncRNAs expressed at low levels and tethered ... August 2007). "The brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1 regulates dopamine D2 receptor-mediated transmission in the striatum". The Journal ... Yik JH, Chen R, Nishimura R, Jennings JL, Link AJ, Zhou Q (October 2003). "Inhibition of P-TEFb (CDK9/Cyclin T) kinase and RNA ... was recently shown that BC1 is associated with translational repression in dendrites to control the efficiency of dopamine D2 ...
CDKN2C, INK4C, p18, p18-INK4C, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C. ... CDKN2C‏ (Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين CDKN2C في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN2C cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4)". مؤرشف من الأصل في 05 ديسمبر 2010.. الوسيط , ... negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ...
CDK4/6 z cyklinami D1, D2 lub D3 oraz CDK2 inaktywują RB i promują przejście do fazy S. Z kolei CDK2 i CDK1 z odpowiednimi ... The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor SCH 727965 (dinacliclib) induces the apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells. „Mol Cancer Ther". ...
Zhao L, Samuels T, Winckler S, Korgaonkar C, Tompkins V, Horne MC, Quelle DE (January 2003). "Cyclin G1 has growth inhibitory ... 10 D2,10 66.32 cM. Start. 117,688,875 bp[2]. End. 117,710,758 bp[2]. ... "The MDM2 C-terminal region binds to TAFII250 and is required for MDM2 regulation of the cyclin A promoter". The Journal of ...
Takahashi-Yanaga F, Sasaguri T (Apr 2008). "GSK-3beta regulates cyclin D1 expression: a new target for chemotherapy". Cellular ...
Rossitto M, Ujjan S, Poulat F, Boizet-Bonhoure B (2015). "Multiple roles of the prostaglandin D2 signaling pathway in ... Cyclin D1, Cdk4, and Insulin-like growth factor 1; and e) regulating agents such as HSP70, GPR78, Gadd153, Ubiquitin B, and ... "Prostaglandin D2 inhibits hair growth and is elevated in bald scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia". Science Translational ... a glutathione-independent synthase termed lipocalin-type Prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS or L-PGDS) and a glutathione- ...
2004). "A novel partner for D-type cyclins: protein kinase A-anchoring protein AKAP95". Biochem. J. 378 (Pt 2): 673-9. doi: ... D2/Eg7 for chromosome condensation in mitotic extract". J. Cell Biol. 149 (3): 531-6. doi:10.1083/jcb.149.3.531. PMC 2174845. ... AKAP8 has been demonstrated to interact with: Cyclin D3 DDX5, MCM2, MYCBP, and PRKAR2A. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "A novel partner for D-type cyclins: protein kinase A-anchoring protein AKAP95". Biochem. J. 378 (Pt 2): 673-9. doi:10.1042/ ...
During prometaphase, dynactin also helps target polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) to kinetochores through cyclin dependent kinase 1 ( ... but can be induced to form a tight complex in the presence of the N-terminal 400 amino acids of Bicaudal D2 (BICD2), a cargo ...
Rulten SL, Hodder E, Ripley TL, Stephens DN, Mayne LV (July 2008). "Alcohol induces DNA damage and the Fanconi anemia D2 ... mice were found to die during embryogenesis and showed a drastic reduction in the production but increased expression of Cyclin ...
For instance, Cdk1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 1) activates condensin I, whereas CK2 (Casein kinase 2) negatively regulate its ... Nevertheless, there are multiple paralogs for two of its regulatory subunits (CAP-D2 and CAP-H), and some of them specifically ... and a CAP-D2(ycs4)/CAP-H(brn1) subcomplex. On the other hand, fast-speed atomic force microscopy has demonstrated that the arms ...
Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (Apr 1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ... "Entrez Gene: CCND2 cyclin D2". Mirzaa GM, Parry DA, Fry AE, Giamanco KA, Schwartzentruber J, Vanstone M, Logan CV, Roberts N, ...
Furthermore, IFN-alpha alone induced cyclin D2 mRNA and protein in normal BMM. Thus, we have identified a new role for type I ... Type I interferons mediate the lipopolysaccharide induction of macrophage cyclin D2.. Vadiveloo PK1, Christopoulos H, Novak U, ... Since LPS stimulates macrophages to produce autocrine-acting cytokines, we examined whether LPS induction of cyclin D2 was ... We recently showed that LPS unexpectedly induces cyclin D2 in macrophages. ...
David Bartels lab contains the insert Cyclin D2 short UTR and is published in Cell. 2009 Aug 21. 138(4):673-84. This plasmid ... Plasmid pIS1 Cyclin D2 short UTR from Dr. ... pIS1 Cyclin D2 short UTR was a gift from David Bartel (Addgene ... pIS1 Cyclin D2 long UTR * pIS1 Cyclin D2 long-mut-miR15/16 ... pIS1 Cyclin D2 short UTR. pIS1 Cyclin D2 short UTR (Plasmid # ...
David Bartels lab contains the insert Cyclin D2 long-mut-miR15/16 and is published in Cell. 2009 Aug 21. 138(4):673-84. This ... Plasmid pIS1 Cyclin D2 long-mut-miR15/16 from Dr. ... pIS1 Cyclin D2 long-mut-miR15/16 was a gift from David Bartel ( ... Depositor Full Sequence Map for pIS1 Cyclin D2 long-mut-miR15/16 ... pIS1 Cyclin D2 long-mut-miR15/16. pIS1 Cyclin D2 long-mut-miR15 ...
Cyclin D2 and brain evolution. As described above, we have reported a new physiological function of Cyclin D2 in the neuronal ... 3). The daughter cell with Cyclin D2 will become an AP, while the daughter without Cyclin D2 will become a neuronal cell or an ... Pink in the nucleus indicates Cyclin D2 protein. In Step 1, Cyclin D2 mRNA is transported to the basal endfoot during G1 and ... In early G1-phase, the inheritance of Cyclin D2 creates a clear asymmetry between Cyclin D2 protein levels in the two daughter ...
... cyclin D2) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Cyclin D2 pAb (GTX32545) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... cyclin D2. Background. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are ... WB analysis of various samples using GTX32545 Cyclin D2 antibody.. Dilution : 1:1000. Loading : 25μg per lane. Top ... WB analysis of various samples using GTX32545 Cyclin D2 antibody.. Dilution : 1:1000. Loading : 25μg per lane. Top ...
USP12 regulates cell cycle progression by involving c-Myc, cyclin D2 and BMI-1.. [Li-Juan Tang, Yu Li, Ying-Li Liu, Jian-Min ... In addition to BMI-1, USP12 R237C exhibited a functional resemblance to the wild-type by involving c-Myc and cyclin D2. The ... c-Myc and cyclin D2 transcription levels. By contrast, unlike the inactive C48S mutant, over-expression of USP12 and the ... c-Myc and cyclin D2 transcript levels. ...
Cyclin D2 knockout (cD2 KO) mice, which lack adult neurogenesis almost entirely, were used as a model. First, we examine … ... Cyclin D2 knockout (cD2 KO) mice, which lack adult neurogenesis almost entirely, were used as a model. First, we examined ...
PKC-ζ is essential for pancreatic beta cell replication during insulin resistance by regulating mTOR and cyclin-D2 ... PKC-ζ is essential for pancreatic beta cell replication during insulin resistance by regulating mTOR and cyclin-D2 ... PKC-ζ is essential for pancreatic beta cell replication during insulin resistance by regulating mTOR and cyclin-D2 ... PKC-ζ is essential for pancreatic beta cell replication during insulin resistance by regulating mTOR and cyclin-D2 ...
Mechanism for IL-15-Driven B Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cycling: Roles for AKT and STAT5 in Modulating Cyclin D2 and DNA ... Mechanism for IL-15-Driven B Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cycling: Roles for AKT and STAT5 in Modulating Cyclin D2 and DNA ... Mechanism for IL-15-Driven B Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cycling: Roles for AKT and STAT5 in Modulating Cyclin D2 and DNA ... Mechanism for IL-15-Driven B Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cycling: Roles for AKT and STAT5 in Modulating Cyclin D2 and DNA ...
... Diabetes. 2016 ... Importantly, KD-PKCζ inhibits insulin resistance-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and cyclin-D2 ... is key for early compensatory β-cell replication in insulin resistance by regulating the downstream signals mTOR and cyclin-D2 ...
... by either cyclin-dependent kinase 4/cyclin D1 or cyclin-dependent kinase 4/cyclin D2 or cyclin-dependent kinase 6/cyclin D2 in ... Corroborating the fact that Rb was phosphorylated by cdk4/cyclin D2 or cdk6/cyclin D2, cyclin D2 associates with both cdk6 and ... Phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein by cyclin-dependent kinase 4/cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4/cyclin D2 or cyclin ... Phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein by cyclin-dependent kinase 4/cyclin D2 or cyclin-dependent kinase 6/cyclin D2 ...
... cyclin D2 −/−, cyclin D1 +/−, and cyclin D1 +/− D2 −/− mice at 3 months and wild-type and cyclin D2 −/− mice at 9 to 12 months ... cyclin D2 −/−, cyclin D1 +/−, cyclin D1 +/− D2 −/−, and cyclin D1 −/− D2 +/− mice. Immunostaining with antibodies against ... b) Sixteen-day-old wild-type, cyclin D2 −/−, cyclin D1 +/− D2 −/−, and cyclin D1 −/− D2 −/− mice. Immunostaining with ... D2 +/− intercross mice. (a) Glucose tolerance tests of male wild-type, cyclin D2 −/−, cyclin D1 +/−, and cyclin D1 +/− D2 −/− ...
D2 antibody LS-C525346 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to Cyclin D1+D2 from human. It is reactive with human, ... Cyclin D1+D2 antibody LS-C525346 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to Cyclin D1+D2 from human. It is reactive ... Recognizes p36 cyclin D1 and cross-reacts with p34 cyclin D2, which has a highly homologous epitope. No cross-reactivity with ... Monoclonal Mouse anti‑Human Cyclin D1+D2 Antibody (Biotin, WB) LS‑C525346 ...
We used a novel approach, cyclin D2 knockout mice (D2 KO mice), specifically lacking adult brain neurogenesis to verify its ... We used a novel approach, cyclin D2 knockout mice (D2 KO mice), specifically lacking adult brain neurogenesis to verify its ... New hippocampal neurons are not obligatory for memory formation; cyclin D2 knockout mice with no adult brain neurogenesis show ... D2 KO mice showed no impairment in sensorimotor tests, with only sensory impairment in an olfaction-dependent task. However, D2 ...
Pep5 (WELVVLGKL) is a fragment of cyclin D2 that exhibits a 2-fold increase in the S phase of the HeLa cell cycle. When ... Pep5, a Fragment of Cyclin D2, Shows Antiparasitic Effects in Different Stages of the Trypanosoma cruzi Life Cycle and Blocks ... Pep5, a Fragment of Cyclin D2, Shows Antiparasitic Effects in Different Stages of the Trypanosoma cruzi Life Cycle and Blocks ... Pep5, a Fragment of Cyclin D2, Shows Antiparasitic Effects in Different Stages of the Trypanosoma cruzi Life Cycle and Blocks ...
A Cyclin D2-Rb Pathway Regulates Cardiac Myocyte Size and RNA Polymerase III After Biomechanical Stress in Adult Myocardium. ... A Cyclin D2-Rb Pathway Regulates Cardiac Myocyte Size and RNA Polymerase III After Biomechanical Stress in Adult Myocardium ... A Cyclin D2-Rb Pathway Regulates Cardiac Myocyte Size and RNA Polymerase III After Biomechanical Stress in Adult Myocardium ... A Cyclin D2-Rb Pathway Regulates Cardiac Myocyte Size and RNA Polymerase III After Biomechanical Stress in Adult Myocardium ...
Fig. 8. The parameters of proliferation in control and differentiating A.1 and 1.3 EC cells. EC cells of both lines seeded in the same densities (2.5 x 103 cells/cm2) were cultured with and without 10-6 M RA for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. A, growth rates. Cells were lysed in SDS-containing buffer, and the total amounts of protein were used as a measure of cell quantities. Micrograms of total protein are shown on the Y axis. Data are presented as the means of three independent experiments; bars, SE. B, the distribution of cells in cell cycle phases. Cells were fixed in Vindelov s solution, stained with propidium iodide, and analyzed using FACSCalibur equipped with ModFit 2.0 software. The percentages of cells in G1, S, and G2 phases are expressed as the means of three independent experiments; bars, SE.. ...
Early Cycling-independent Changes to p27, Cyclin D2, and Cyclin D3 in Differentiating Mouse Embryonal Carcinoma Cells1 Helena ... Supposedly, titration of p27 by D-type cyclins, which prevents its inhibitory action toward cyclin-dependent kinase 2, allows ... variances in the levels of p27 were strictly followed by variances in the levels of cyclins D2 and D3. In EC cells genetically ... Here, embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell lines were found that differ in their basal levels of p27 inhibitor of cyclin-dependent ...
CYCLIN D2/CCND2 information: Molecular Weight: 32826 MW; Subcellular Localization: Nucleus . Cytoplasm . Membran ... Monoclonal clone# G2 antibody for CYCLIN D2/CCND2 detection. Host: Mouse.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: ICC. Reactive ... Mouse IgG monoclonal antibody for Cyclin D2, cyclin D2 (CCND2) detection. Tested with WB, ICC in Human;mouse. No cross ... cyclins D1, D2, and D3) are regarded as essential links between cell environment and the core cell cycle machinery. cyclin D2( ...
RT-PCR revealed that LT-HSC express cyclin D2 (Fig. 3) and D3 but not D1 (data not shown). Cyclin D2-positive results were ... Cyclin D2 expression in five (A) and one (B) KTSL− cells as determined by using nested RT-PCR. No RT indicates lanes with RT- ... Our own experiments suggest that ≈40% of LT-HSC express the G1 cyclin D2. If 40% of LT-HSC were in G1/S/G2/M phases of the cell ... Cyclin D2 Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR).. Single KTSL− LT-HSC were directly clone sorted into U-bottom 96-well plates ...
... in transgenic mice that express cyclin D2. These features appear to be specific for cyclin D2, as both cardiac injury and beta ... Expression of cyclin D1, D2, or D3 promoted low levels of cardiomyocyte DNA synthesis in adult transgenic hearts. Surprisingly ... We propose four Specific Aims to study the effects of cyclin D2 expression in cardiomyocytes. Aim 1 will characterize the ... The proposed experiments will further delineate the consequences of cyclin D2 expression in the adult heart, and should provide ...
Categories BlogCategories GDC-0973 inhibition, Rabbit Polyclonal to Cyclin D2 Search for: Categories. *5??- ... Rabbit Polyclonal to Cyclin D2 June 12, 2019. Ionizing radiation improves cell mortality within a dose-dependent manner. its ... The observation that CIP modulates cytokine levels Rabbit Polyclonal to Cyclin D2 is consistent with findings from other ...
Our Cyclin D2 Polyclonal Antibody price is reasonable. Check more details about Cyclin D2 Polyclonal Antibody now. ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Skim Milk Powder to dilute the Cyclin D2 Antibody at , soak the PVDF Membrane in the primary antibody working solution, ... This cyclin forms a complex with CDK4 or CDK6 and functions as a regulatory subunit of the complex, whose activity is required ...
We also assessed the methylation status of the Cyclin D2 and PTCH1 promoters in these 14 cell lines and 58 primary tumor ... We also observed methylation of the cyclin D2 promoter in a significant number of astrocytoma cell lines (63%) and primary ... PTCH1 promoter methylation was less frequently observed than Cyclin D2 promoter methylation in astrocytomas, and not at all in ... Cyclin D2, Plakoglobin, NKX2.2 and PAX6. We also attempted to correlate the pattern of expression of GLI1 and its regulated ...
Exercise induced cardiac growth in all of the transgenic mice except for the mice deficient in cyclin D2. In the cyclin D2 null ... Exercise induced cardiac growth in all of the transgenic mice except for the mice deficient in cyclin D2. In the cyclin D2 null ... Exercise induced cardiac growth in all of the transgenic mice except for the mice deficient in cyclin D2. In the cyclin D2 null ... Exercise induced cardiac growth in all of the transgenic mice except for the mice deficient in cyclin D2. In the cyclin D2 null ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase synonyms, Cyclin-dependent kinase pronunciation, Cyclin-dependent kinase translation, English ... dictionary definition of Cyclin-dependent kinase. n. Any of various enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group ... cyclin D2; CDK6, cyclin-dependent kinase 6; CDC25, cell division cycle 25 homolog C (S.. MicroRNAs regulate expression of ... Targeting cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in cancer: lessons from mice, hopes for therapeutic applications in human.. The ...
... suggesting a reciprocal relationship between N-Myc and Cyclin D2 amplification. Because cyclin D2 is expressed at high levels ... N-Myc or Cyclin D2 Is Amplified in the DSB Repair-Deficient Medulloblastomas.. Although loss of Ptch1 was a defining event in ... These included amplification of regions of chr12 and chr6, corresponding to N-Myc and cyclin D2 and, more selectively, loss of ... 3 A and E) and cyclin D2 FISH (data not shown). The chromosomal changes associated with these events probably augment initial ...
Cyclins are a family of proteins that control how cells proceed through the multi-step cycle of cell division. Learn about this ... The CCND2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called cyclin D2. ... Cyclins are a family of proteins that control how cells proceed through the multi-step cycle of cell division. Cyclin D2 helps ... Cyclin D2s role in the cell division cycle makes it a key controller of the rate of cell growth and division (proliferation) ...
CCND2: cyclin D2. *CD40LG: CD40 ligand. *CDAN1: codanin 1. *CDC6: cell division cycle 6 ...
  • An important gene associated with Megalencephaly is CCND2 (Cyclin D2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Regulation of TP53 Activity and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway . (malacards.org)
  • IHC-P analysis of human stomach tissue using GTX32545 Cyclin D2 antibody. (genetex.com)
  • WB analysis of various samples using GTX32545 Cyclin D2 antibody. (genetex.com)
  • Cyclin D2, in particular, is the major D cyclin expressed in mature B cells, the precursors of antibody secreting plasma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin D1+D2 antibody LS-C525346 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to Cyclin D1+D2 from human. (lsbio.com)
  • Mouse IgG monoclonal antibody for Cyclin D2, cyclin D2 (CCND2) detection. (bosterbio.com)
  • Immunofluorescence analysis of U2OS cells using Cyclin D2 Polyclonal Antibody. (elabscience.com)
  • Cardiac function was not impacted in the cyclin D2 −/− mice and studies using a phospho-antibody array identified six proteins with increased phosphorylation (greater than 150%) and nine proteins with decreased phosphorylation (greater than 33% decrease) in the hearts of exercised cyclin D2 −/− mice compared to exercised NTG littermate controls. (elsevier.com)
  • G1/S-specific cyclin-D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) lacking a component of the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR-1) do not express cyclin D2 mRNA or protein in response to LPS stimulation (0.01-1 microg/ml for 7-30 h). (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, IFN-alpha alone induced cyclin D2 mRNA and protein in normal BMM. (nih.gov)
  • During RG division, Cyclin D2 protein is asymmetrically distributed to two daughter cells following mitosis. (wiley.com)
  • A similar localization pattern of Cyclin D2 protein has been observed in the human fetal cortical primordium, suggesting a common mechanism of maintenance of neural progenitors that may be evolutionarily conserved across higher mammals such as primates. (wiley.com)
  • Cyclin D1 or D3 expression does not vary in the clinical course, but that alone is insufficient to promote cell cycle progression unless cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4) is also elevated, in the absence of cdk6, to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein (Rb). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recombinant human cyclin D2 protein. (bosterbio.com)
  • Regulatory component of the cyclin D2-CDK4 (DC) complex that phosphorylates and inhibits members of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein family including RB1 and regulates the cell-cycle during G(1)/S transition. (bosterbio.com)
  • The CCND2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called cyclin D2. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The cyclin D2 protein is regulated by a chemical signaling pathway called the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each of the known mutations changes a single protein building block (amino acid) in the cyclin D2 protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • NOR1 deficiency alters phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein by preventing mitogen-induced cyclin D1 and D2 expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Changes in islet protein levels of cyclins and of two critical cell cycle regulators cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) were assessed in mice treated with exendin-4 and in a mouse model with specific upregulation of nuclear cAMP signaling exhibiting increased β-cell proliferation (CBP-S436A mouse). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS- Mice treated with exendin-4 showed increased β-cell proliferation, elevated islet protein levels of cyclin A2 with unchanged D-type cyclins, elevated PDX-1 and Skp2 levels, and reduced p27 levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Exendin-4 stimulated cyclin A2 promoter activity via the cAMP-cAMP response element binding protein pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We examined E-cadherin, nuclear β-catenin, and D-cyclin levels, as well as cell proliferation during in vitro and in vivo formation of islet cell aggregates, using β-TC6 cells and transgenic mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled beta cells, respectively. (springer.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are the families of protein kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • By definition, a CDK binds a regulatory protein called a cyclin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. (curehunter.com)
  • The protein encoded by the Bcl-1 oncogene, known as cyclin D1, belongs to the highly conserved family of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) regulators. (clontech.com)
  • It is also known as CCND1, B-cell lymphoma 1 protein (BCL1), parathyroid adenomatosis 1 (PRAD1), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 1, G1/S-specific cyclin-D1, D11S287E, and U21B31. (clontech.com)
  • Cyclin D1 also interacts with tumor suppressor protein Rb. (clontech.com)
  • The antibodies were raised in mouse using a recombinant protein, and can be used for Western blot (WB) detection or immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of human cyclin D1 protein. (clontech.com)
  • We reported previously that epidermal growth factor stimulation markedly increased cyclin D1 protein expression in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, and this was opposed by chemoprevention with all- trans- retinoic acid. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The current study sought to determine whether the EGFR TKI erlotinib repressed cyclin D1 protein expression in immortalized HBE cells, lung cancer cell lines, and clinical aerodigestive tract cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines were also evaluated for changes in proliferation and cyclin protein expression after erlotinib treatments. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Erlotinib, at clinically achievable dosages, repressed BEAS-2B cell growth, triggered G 1 arrest, and preferentially reduced cyclin D1 protein expression and transcriptional activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Erlotinib also preferentially repressed proliferation and cyclin D1 protein expression in responsive, but not resistant, non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these in vitro and in vivo findings provide direct evidence for repression of cyclin D1 protein as a surrogate marker of response in aerodigestive tract cancers to erlotinib treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • recombinant human Cyclin D 1 protein. (abcam.com)
  • Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. (genetex.com)
  • Targeting cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in cancer: lessons from mice, hopes for therapeutic applications in human. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In general, cell cycle progression requires the activity of regulatory cyclins and their catalytic partners, the cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). (asm.org)
  • Recombinant human Cyclin D1 expressed in E. coli. (lsbio.com)
  • These products are affinity-purified IgG antibodies that recognize human cyclin D1. (clontech.com)
  • Synthetic peptide within Human Cyclin D1 (C terminal). (abcam.com)
  • Cyclins are a family of proteins that control how cells proceed through the multi-step cycle of cell division. (medlineplus.gov)
  • only the cyclin-CDK complex is an active kinase but its activity can be typically further modulated by phosphorylation and other binding proteins, like p27. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substrate specificity of S cyclins is imparted by the hydrophobic batch (centered on the MRAIL sequence), which has affinity for substrate proteins that contain a hydrophobic RXL (or Cy) motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cyclin forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, cyclin D2 and cdk6 are coordinately increased, thereby overriding the inhibition by cdk inhibitors p18 INK4c and p27 Kip1 and phosphorylating Rb in conjunction with the existing cdk4. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, cyclin D1 pairs exclusively with cdk4 and cdk6 pairs only with cyclin D2, although cyclin D2 can also pair with cdk4 in multiple myeloma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, cyclin D1- or cyclin D3-expressing multiple myeloma cells are uniformly distributed in the bone marrow, whereas cdk6-specific phosphorylation of Rb occurs in discrete foci of bone marrow multiple myeloma cells before proliferation early in the clinical course and is then heightened with proliferation and disease progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mutually exclusive cdk4/cyclin D1 and cdk6/cyclin D2 pairing, therefore, is likely to be a critical determinant for cell cycle reentry and progression and may play a pivotal role in the expansion of self-renewing multiple myeloma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is required for cell cycle activation in response to physiologic signals, such as antigen ( 4 , 5 ), that lead to coordinated elevation of cyclin D2 and cdk4, and then cdk6 ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, although neither cdk4 nor cdk6 is required for cell cycle progression or viability in mice ( 11 ), specific D cyclins, cdk4/6, and CKIs are required for B-cell physiologic functions, implying that perturbation of this balance is likely to underlie oncogenesis in the B lineage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specifically, passage through G 1 requires the activities of D-type cyclins (D1, D2, D3) associated with Cdk4 or Cdk6, followed by activation of the cyclin E- and A-dependent kinase, Cdk2, as cells near the G 1 -S transition ( 79 ). (asm.org)
  • Cyclin D1 interacts with CDK4 and CDK6, whose activity is required for the cell cycle G1/S transition. (clontech.com)
  • Cyclin D2 knockout (cD2 KO) mice, which lack adult neurogenesis almost entirely, were used as a model. (nih.gov)
  • a) Representative islet histology of pancreas sections from 5-day-old wild-type, cyclin D2 − / − , cyclin D1 +/− , cyclin D1 +/− D2 − / − , and cyclin D1 − / − D2 +/− mice. (asm.org)
  • b) Sixteen-day-old wild-type, cyclin D2 − / − , cyclin D1 +/− D2 − / − , and cyclin D1 − / − D2 − / − mice. (asm.org)
  • c) Mean proportional cross-sectional β-cell area (reported as percentage of total pancreas area) of wild-type, cyclin D2 − / − , cyclin D1 +/− , and cyclin D1 +/− D2 − / − mice at postnatal day 5. (asm.org)
  • Metabolic testing of male wild-type and cyclin D2 − / − mice. (asm.org)
  • a to c) Glucose tolerance tests of male wild-type and cyclin D2 − / − mice. (asm.org)
  • c) Serum blood glucose measurements expressed as means ± SEM of percentages of initial blood glucose values of 3-month-old (c) or 9- to 12-month-old (d) male wild-type and cyclin D2 − / − mice after intraperitoneal injection of 1.5 U/kg human regular insulin. (asm.org)
  • Metabolic testing of cyclin D1 +/− D2 +/− intercross mice. (asm.org)
  • a) Glucose tolerance tests of male wild-type, cyclin D2 − / − , cyclin D1 +/− , and cyclin D1 +/− D2 − / − mice at 3 months of age. (asm.org)
  • Results represent at least 10 mice per group, except cyclin D1 +/− mice ( n = 5). (asm.org)
  • Islet histology and morphometric analysis of adult wild-type, cyclin D2 − / − , cyclin D1 +/− , and cyclin D1 +/− D2 − / − mice. (asm.org)
  • We used a novel approach, cyclin D2 knockout mice (D2 KO mice), specifically lacking adult brain neurogenesis to verify its importance in learning and memory. (uzh.ch)
  • D2 KO mice and their wild-type siblings were tested in several behavioral paradigms, including those in which the role of adult neurogenesis has been postulated. (uzh.ch)
  • D2 KO mice showed no impairment in sensorimotor tests, with only sensory impairment in an olfaction-dependent task. (uzh.ch)
  • However, D2 KO mice showed proper procedural learning as well as learning in context (including remote memory), cue, and trace fear conditioning, Morris water maze, novel object recognition test, and in a multifunctional behavioral system-IntelliCages. (uzh.ch)
  • D2 KO mice also demonstrated correct reversal learning. (uzh.ch)
  • We have recently generated transgenic mice that express D-type cyclins in the heart, in order to determine the effects of forced G1/S transit on cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Surprisingly, myocardial infarct and beta-adrenergic stimulation markedly increased the rates of cardiomyocyte DNA synthesis in peri-infarct zone of the ventricle and left atrium, respectively, in transgenic mice that express cyclin D2. (elsevier.com)
  • These features appear to be specific for cyclin D2, as both cardiac injury and beta adenergic stimulation markedly reduced cardiomyocyte DNA synthesis in transgenic mice expressing cyclin D1 or cyclin D3. (elsevier.com)
  • Exercise induced significant cardiac growth in all mouse models except the cyclin D2 −/− mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Exercise induced cardiac growth in all of the transgenic mice except for the mice deficient in cyclin D2. (elsevier.com)
  • In the cyclin D2 null mice, cardiac function was not impacted even though the hypertrophic response was blunted and a number of signaling pathways are differentially regulated by exercise. (elsevier.com)
  • Altered prostatic epithelial proliferation and apoptosis, prostatic development and serum testosterone in mice lacking cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors," Biology of Reproduction 73(5): 951-958. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Finally, we provide evidence that these observations are applicable in vivo by demonstrating decreased cyclin D1 expression during neointima formation in NOR1-deficient mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we extend these observations by demonstrating that NOR1-deficient mice are protected from neointima formation because of altered cyclin D1 expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • Enforced expression of cyclin D2 enhances the proliferative potential of myeloid progenitors, accelerates in vivo myeloid reconstitution, and promotes rescue of mice from lethal myeloablation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To investigate why mammalian cells need three distinct D-type cyclins, we have generated mice bearing a disrupted cyclin D2 gene by using gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. (jax.org)
  • After birth, beta cells showed increased levels of E-cadherin, but decreased levels of D-cyclin, whereas islets of Ecad βKO mice showed increased levels of D-cyclins and nuclear β-catenin, as well as increased beta cell proliferation. (springer.com)
  • To investigate the mechanisms that regulate the specification of distinct interneuron phenotypes, we examined mice lacking the G1 phase-active cyclin D2. (biologists.org)
  • Cyclin D2 accumulates at the very basal tip of the RG cell (i.e., the basal endfoot) via a unique cis -regulatory sequence found in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of its mRNA. (wiley.com)
  • The daughter cell that inherits Cyclin D2 mRNA maintains its self-renewal capability, while its sibling undergoes differentiation. (wiley.com)
  • The mRNA expression levels of cyclin D2 (CCND2) and the transfection efficiencies of the miR‑206 mimic and CCDN2 overexpression plasmid were determined using RT‑qPCR analysis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In this issue of The EMBO Journal , the team of Noriko Osumi proposes an elegant link between the two by showing that the mRNA of cyclinD2, a positive regulator of G1 progression, is confined to the basal end‐foot of radial glial cells and is asymmetrically distributed upon mitosis to the two resulting daughter cells ( Tsunekawa et al , 2012 ). (embopress.org)
  • According to this model, the daughter cell inheriting cyclinD2 mRNA maintains its self‐renewal capability, while lengthening of G1 and differentiation would occur in the sibling cell. (embopress.org)
  • The team of Noriko Osumi reports that the mRNA of cyclinD2, a positive regulator of G1 progression, is asymmetrically inherited during neural stem cell division. (embopress.org)
  • Cyclin D2 is a G1 cyclin required for G1 phase progression and is a strong candidate for a proto-oncogene. (thermofisher.com)
  • Consistent with this result, addition of anti-IFN-alpha/beta neutralizing antibodies reduced levels of LPS-stimulated cyclin D2 in normal BMM. (nih.gov)
  • No cross-reactivity with cyclin A, cyclin B or cyclin D3. (lsbio.com)
  • Based on internal testing in WB, this product shows a weak cross-reactivity to Cyclin D2. (abcam.com)
  • For IHC usage, this product shows a tissue localization specific to Cyclin D1 with no cross-reactivity to Cyclin D2. (abcam.com)
  • Here, we discuss our findings and the Cyclin D2 function in mammalian brain development and evolution. (wiley.com)
  • Importantly, KD-PKCζ inhibits insulin resistance-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and cyclin-D2 upregulation independent of Akt activation. (nih.gov)
  • THE D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) are critical governors of the cell-cycle clock apparatus during the G1 phase of the mammalian cell cycle. (jax.org)
  • In mammalian cells, CDK1, with its partners cyclin A2 and B1, alone can drive the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian cells, the activating phosphorylation occurs after cyclin binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian E-type cyclins control chromosome pairing, telomere stability and CDK2 localization in male meiosis. (dana-farber.org)
  • The structure of human Cdk2 revealed that CDKs have a modified ATP-binding site that can be regulated by cyclin binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDKs activity is closely associated with specific cyclin co-factors and at least 12 separate genetic loci are known to code for the CDKs. (omicsonline.org)
  • GATA-1 inhibited expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 6 and cyclin D2 and induced the Cdk inhibitors p18 INK4C and p27 Kip1 with associated inactivation of all G 1 Cdks. (asm.org)
  • Cyclins and cdks in development and cancer: a perspective. (dana-farber.org)
  • A, phosphorylation of Rb by cyclin D and cdk4/6 in early G 1 and cyclin E/cdk2 in late G 1 leads to the release of E2F and S-phase entry. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The four major mechanisms of CDK regulation are cyclin binding, CAK phosphorylation, regulatory inhibitory phosphorylation, and binding of CDK inhibitory subunits (CKIs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antisense knockdown of E-cadherin increased cell proliferation and levels of cyclins D1 and D2. (springer.com)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, we have identified a new role for type I IFN in macrophages, namely, as essential mediators of LPS-stimulated cyclin D2 expression. (nih.gov)
  • a) RT-PCR analysis of D-type cyclin RNA content in wild-type male mouse islets expressed as fraction of cyclin D2 expression. (asm.org)
  • Nested reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed cyclin D2 expression in a high proportion of LT-HSC. (pnas.org)
  • Expression of cyclin D1, D2, or D3 promoted low levels of cardiomyocyte DNA synthesis in adult transgenic hearts. (elsevier.com)
  • We propose four Specific Aims to study the effects of cyclin D2 expression in cardiomyocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • The proposed experiments will further delineate the consequences of cyclin D2 expression in the adult heart, and should provide additional information regarding the regulation of the cardiomyocyte cell cycle. (elsevier.com)
  • Subsequently, we performed RT-PCR and quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to assay the expression of downstream target genes PTCH1, Cyclin D2, Plakoglobin, NKX2.2 and PAX6 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ruiling Zhang and team from Xinxiang Medical University explored the correlation between cyclin-dependent kinase 5 expression in the hippocampus and neurological impairments following prenatal ethanol exposure, and found that prenatal ethanol exposure could affect cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and its activator p35 in the hippocampus of offspring rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of the cell cycle-driving molecule, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), in HCC was significantly reduced by the treatments with vitamin K2, K3 and K5. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Conversely, overexpression of NOR1 induces cyclin D1 expression and the transcriptional activity of the cyclin D1 promoter in transient reporter assays. (ahajournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS- Cyclin A2 is required for β-cell proliferation, exendin-4 stimulates cyclin A2 expression via the cAMP pathway, and exendin-4 stimulation of cAMP requires PDX-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In ovarian granulosa cells, cyclin D2 is specifically induced by FSH via a cyclic-AMP-dependent pathway, indicating that expression of the various D-type cyclins is under control of distinct intracellular signalling pathways. (jax.org)
  • At the molecular level, cyclin D2 expression was profoundly inhibited, whereas p27 kip1 was up-regulated. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns that contribute to the coordination of the cell cycle during mitosis. (clontech.com)
  • The BEAS-2B immortalized HBE cell line was exposed to varying concentrations of erlotinib, and effects on proliferation, cell cycle distribution, G 1 cyclin expression, and cyclin D1 reporter activity were measured. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cases without pathological response to erlotinib did not exhibit changes in cyclin D1 or Ki-67 immunohistochemical expression and had much lower erlotinib tissue levels than did responding cases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings also provide a rationale for combining an EGFR TKI with an agent that would cooperatively repress cyclin D1 expression in clinical trials for aerodigestive tract cancer therapy or chemoprevention. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In summary, PKCζ activation is key for early compensatory β-cell replication in insulin resistance by regulating the downstream signals mTOR and cyclin-D2. (nih.gov)
  • We are first to report that in PTSMTs, a non-canonical activation of WNT, independent of beta-catenin, drives tumor cell proliferation via MTOR/AKT1, MYC and Cyclin D2. (deepdyve.com)
  • There is considerable specificity in which cyclin binds with CDK. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, cyclin binding determines the specificity of the cyclin-CDK complex for particular substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • As described in a paper in Lancet in 2001, a marker panel consisting of Cyclin D2, RAR-beta and Twist was capable of detecting almost all breast cancers (96 percent) with a high level of specificity and sensitivity. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Cyclin D2, a positive regulator of G1 progression, shows a unique localization within radial glial (RG) cells (i.e., the neural progenitor in the developing neocortex). (wiley.com)
  • In this study, we showed that knockdown of USP12 effectively induced cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells and decreased BMI-1, c-Myc and cyclin D2 transcription levels. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Early Cycling-independent Changes to p27, Cyclin D2, and Cyclin D3 in Differentiating Mouse Embryonal Carcinoma Cells -- Preclíková et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • these experiments will establish the degree to which cyclin D2- mediated adult cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity can be driven, as well as characterize the functional activity of replicated atrial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The resulting buildup of cyclin D2 in cells triggers them to continue dividing when they otherwise would not have, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Conclusions- These experiments characterize cyclin D1 as an NOR1-regulated target gene in smooth muscle cells and demonstrate that NOR1 deficiency decreases neointima formation in response to vascular injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because cyclin A2 was stimulated by cAMP, we assessed the role of cylcin A2 in cell cycle progression in Min6 and isolated islet β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In Min6 cells, cyclin A2 knockdown prevented exendin-4-stimulated proliferation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • With the use of retroviral-mediated gene transfer, cyclin D2 was overexpressed in murine bone marrow progenitor cells, which at limited doses showed enhanced ability to rescue lethally ablated recipients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cyclin D2-deficient females are sterile owing to the inability of ovarian granulosa cells to proliferate normally in response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), whereas mutant males display hypoplastic testes. (jax.org)
  • Thus armed with a surplus of cyclin D2 and integrin beta 7, the cancerous cells are better at both spreading and persisting than are their normal counterparts. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In vitro, pseudo-islets of β-TC6 cells displayed increased E-cadherin but decreased nuclear β-catenin and cyclin D2, and reduced rates of cell proliferation, compared with monolayers. (springer.com)
  • From postnatal (P)4 to P10, the percentage of beta cells producing cyclin D2 is reduced threefold, but how and why this decrease occurs is unknown. (springer.com)
  • We hypothesised that the cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, might be upregulated in response to the cell-cell contacts that beta cells establish during islet formation, contributing to the reduction of cyclin D2, and consequently slowing beta cell replication. (springer.com)
  • In yeast cells, it occurs before cyclin binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen standard for cyclin D2 (CCND2) is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells transiently transfected with a TrueORF gene-carrying pCMV plasmid and then lysed in RIPA Buffer. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Hanashiro K, Kanai M, Geng Y, Sicinski P, Fukasawa K. Roles of cyclins A and E in induction of centrosome amplification in p53-compromised cells. (dana-farber.org)
  • When Shh signalling is blocked, polarising region cells over-proliferate and form an additional digit, which can be prevented by applying Bmp2 or by inhibiting D cyclin activity. (elifesciences.org)
  • We provide evidence that Shh signalling stimulates the proliferation of polarising region cells via Cyclin D2 and then inhibits proliferation via p27 kip1 . (elifesciences.org)
  • In this study, we sought to understand the regulatory roles of GLI1 , the immediate downstream activator of the Shh signaling pathway on its downstream target genes PTCH1 , Cyclin D2 , Plakoglobin , NKX2.2 and PAX6 in medulloblastoma and astrocytic tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Downstream target genes of GLI1 are PTCH1 , Wnt , as well as other genes such as Cyclin D2 and Plakoglobin . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, E2F target genes such as MYC, CCNE1 (cyclin E1), B-MYB, c-MYB , and EZH2 are also bona fide oncogenes, frequently amplified and overexpressed in primary human tumors ( 2 - 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin A2 overexpression in primary islets increased proliferation and reduced p27. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Herein, overexpression of D-type cyclins, promoting G0/G1 to S transition, was investigated as an alternative approach to accelerate myeloid reconstitution following stem cell transplantation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Competitive repopulation studies demonstrated that overexpression of cyclin D2 accelerated myeloid reconstitution following transplantation, and, in agreement with this, cyclin D2-transduced myeloid progenitors showed an enhanced proliferative response to cytokines in vitro. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, overexpression of cyclin D2 confers myeloid progenitors with an enhanced proliferative and granulocyte potential, facilitating rapid myeloid engraftment and rescue of lethally ablated recipients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We recently showed that LPS unexpectedly induces cyclin D2 in macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta induces cell proliferation by a cyclin E1-dependent mechanism and is up-regulated in thyroid tumors. (dana-farber.org)
  • The observation that CIP modulates cytokine levels Rabbit Polyclonal to Cyclin D2 is consistent with findings from other laboratories [17]. (schwitzbiotech.com)
  • D-type cyclin content analysis in mouse islets. (asm.org)
  • CBP-S436A islets exhibited elevated cyclin A2, reduced p27, and no changes in D-type cyclins, PDX-1, or Skp2. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In cultured islets, exendin-4 increased cyclin A2 and Skp2 and reduced p27. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cyclin-CDK complexes phosphorylate substrates appropriate for the particular cell cycle phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D2 can phosphorylate pRB when associated with cdk 4 and / or cdk 6. (thermofisher.com)
  • USP12 regulates cell cycle progression by involving c-Myc, cyclin D2 and BMI-1. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Most of the known cyclin-CDK complexes regulate the progression through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin B1 and B2 can localize Cdk1 to the nucleus and the Golgi, respectively, through a localization sequence outside the CDK-binding region. (wikipedia.org)
  • b) Representative immunohistochemistry of wild-type male mouse pancreas section stained with guinea pig anti-insulin (green) and mouse anti-cyclin D2 (red) antisera. (asm.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that unlike the other hypertrophic signaling molecules tested here, cyclin D2 is an important regulator of both pathologic and physiological hypertrophy. (elsevier.com)
  • Western blotting was used to measure cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27 that arrest cell cycle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • p27(KIP1) is a member of the CIP1/KIP1 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and is a potential tumor suppressor gene. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of the non-biological drugs, known as Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, are currently being tested for use in cancer treatment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Interestingly, compared to wild-type, the L153S mutant resulted in a more effective cell cycle-promotion and increased BMI-1, c-Myc and cyclin D2 transcript levels. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pep5 (WELVVLGKL) is a fragment of cyclin D2 that exhibits a 2-fold increase in the S phase of the HeLa cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • Our results indicate a fundamental difference in the capacity of the D-type cyclins to promote cell cycle activity in cardiomyocytes, and also suggest that cyclin D2 might be used to affect myocardial regeneration following injury. (elsevier.com)
  • these experiments will determine the extent to which cell cycle activation can ameliorate muscle loss following myocardial infarction, as well as test the capacity of cyclin D2 to induce cell cycle activity in naive adult ventricular cardiomyocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • these experiments will test the hypothesis that differential nuclear-to-cytoplasmic trafficking underlies the differential capacity of the D-type cyclins to promote cell cycle activity in response to myocardial injury. (elsevier.com)
  • We also assessed the methylation status of the Cyclin D2 and PTCH1 promoters in these 14 cell lines and 58 primary tumor samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also observed methylation of the cyclin D2 promoter in a significant number of astrocytoma cell lines (63%) and primary astrocytoma tumor samples (32%), but not at all in any medulloblastoma samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclin D2 helps to regulate a step in the cycle called the G1-S transition, in which the cell moves from the G1 phase, when cell growth occurs, to the S phase, when the cell's DNA is copied (replicated) in preparation for cell division. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cyclin D2's role in the cell division cycle makes it a key controller of the rate of cell growth and division (proliferation) in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is less clear how a buildup of cyclin D2 contributes to polydactyly, although the extra digits are probably related to abnormal cell proliferation in the developing hands and feet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cyclin D2 is an FSH-responsive gene involved in gonadal cell prolifer" by P Sicinski, J L. Donaher et al. (jax.org)
  • Interacts with D-type G1 cyclins during interphase at G1 to form a pRB/RB1 kinase and controls the entrance into the cell cycle. (uniprot.org)
  • Here, we tested the hypothesis that increasing levels of E-cadherin during islet formation mediate the decline in beta cell proliferation rate by contributing to a reduction of nuclear β-catenin and D-cyclins. (springer.com)
  • Cyclin-CDK complexes of earlier cell-cycle phase help activate cyclin-CDK complexes in later phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin L CDK levels remain relatively constant throughout the cell cycle and most regulation is post-translational. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAK activity is not regulated by known cell-cycle pathways and cyclin binding is the limiting step for CDK activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transplantation experiments show that the abnormalities of cyclin D2 -/- interneurons are largely caused by cell-autonomous mechanisms. (biologists.org)
  • Our data are consistent with Shh signalling stimulating polarising region cell proliferation via Cyclin D2, and then inhibiting proliferation via a Bmp2-p27 kip1 pathway. (elifesciences.org)
  • PTCH1 promoter methylation was less frequently observed than Cyclin D2 promoter methylation in astrocytomas, and not at all in medulloblastomas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methods: 514 NDL samples obtained from 150 women selected to represent a wide range of breast cancer risk were evaluated cytologically and by quantitative multiplex methylation-specific PCR for methylation of cyclin D2, APC, HIN1, RASSF1A , and RAR-β2 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • The INK4 family of CKIs (p16, p15, p18, and p19) inhibits cdk4/6 and the Cip/Kip family of CKIs (p21, p27, and p57) inhibits cyclin E/cdk 2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays identified a putative response element for NR4A receptors in the cyclin D1 promoter, to which NOR1 is recruited in response to mitogenic stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Jim DeCaprio ( [email protected] ) suggested adding cyclin D2 (CCND2) and 3 (CCND3) in addition to Cyclin D1 (CCND1) as MAPK targets. (cancer.gov)
  • The basis for this novel and specific cdk/D cyclin pairing lies in differential transcriptional activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In these cases, marked repression of cyclin D1 and the proliferation marker Ki-67 was detected by immunohistochemical assays. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Since LPS stimulates macrophages to produce autocrine-acting cytokines, we examined whether LPS induction of cyclin D2 was mediated by one such type of cytokine, type I interferons (IFN). (nih.gov)
  • Type I interferons mediate the lipopolysaccharide induction of macrophage cyclin D2. (nih.gov)
  • Zymosan A also raises cyclin D2 levels suggesting a role for the latter in macrophage activation besides proliferation. (wikipedia.org)