Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression of the CELL CYCLE through the G1 PHASE and allow transition to S PHASE when the cells are ready to undergo DNA REPLICATION. DNA DAMAGE, or the deficiencies in specific cellular components or nutrients may cause the cells to halt before progressing through G1 phase.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F4 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene PROMOTER REGIONS through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130 and RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P107.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.

Detection of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus DNA sequences in multiple myeloma bone marrow stromal cells. (1/457)

Whether Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with multiple myeloma (MM) remains controversial. We assayed for KSHV DNA sequences in long-term bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from 26 patients with MM and 4 normal donors. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers which amplify a KSHV gene sequence to yield a 233-bp fragment (KS330233 within open reading frame 26) was negative in all cases. Aliquots of these PCR products were used as templates in subsequent nested PCR, with primers that amplify a 186-bp product internal to KS330233. BMSCs from 24 of 26 (92%) patients with MM and 1 of 4 normal donors were KSHV PCR+. DNA sequence analyses showed interpatient specific mutations (2 to 3 bp). Both Southern blot and sequence analyses confirmed the specificity of PCR results. The presence of the KSHV gene sequences was further confirmed by amplifying T 1.1 (open reading frame [ORF] K7) and viral cyclin D (ORF 72), two other domains within the KSHV genome. Immunohistochemical studies of KSHV PCR+ MM BMSCs demonstrate expression of dendritic cell (DC) lineage markers (CD68, CD83, and fascin). Serological studies for the presence of KSHV lytic or latent antibodies were performed using sera from 53 MM patients, 12 normal donors, and 5 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/KSHV+ patients. No lytic or latent antibodies were present in sera from either MM patients or normal donors. Taken together, these findings show that KSHV DNA sequences are detectable in BMSCs from the majority of MM patients, but that serologic responses to KSHV are not present. Ongoing studies are defining whether the lack of antibody response is caused by the absence of ongoing infection, the presence of a novel viral strain associated with MM, or underlying immunodeficiency in these patients.  (+info)

TAFII250, Egr-1, and D-type cyclin expression in mice and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with doxorubicin. (2/457)

Differential display identified that gene fragment HA220 homologous to the transcriptional activator factor II 250 (TAFII250) gene, or CCG1, was increased in hypertrophied rodent heart. To determine whether TAFII250 gene expression is modified after cardiac damage, we measured TAFII250 expression in vivo in mouse hearts after injection of the cardiotoxic agent doxorubicin (DXR) and in vitro in DXR-treated isolated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. In vivo atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC), Egr-1, and TAFII250 expression increased with dose and time after a single DXR injection, but only ANF and beta-MHC expression were increased after multiple injections. After DXR treatment of neonatal cardiomyocytes we found decreased ANF, alpha-MHC, Egr-1, and TAFII250 expression. Expression of the TAFII250-regulated genes, the D-type cyclins, was increased after a single injection in adult mice and was decreased in DXR-treated cardiomyocytes. Thus expression of Erg-1, TAFII250, and the D-type cyclins is modulated after cardiotoxic damage in adult and neonatal heart.  (+info)

Regulation of Rb and E2F by signal transduction cascades: divergent effects of JNK1 and p38 kinases. (3/457)

The E2F transcription factor plays a major role in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis, but it is not clear how it is regulated by non-mitogenic signaling cascades. Here we report that two kinases involved in signal transduction have opposite effects on E2F function: the stress-induced kinase JNK1 inhibits E2F1 activity whereas the related p38 kinase reverses Rb-mediated repression of E2F1. JNK1 phosphorylates E2F1 in vitro, and co-transfection of JNK1 reduces the DNA binding activity of E2F1; treatment of cells with TNFalpha had a similar effect. Fas stimulation of Jurkat cells is known to induce p38 kinase and we find a pronounced increase in Rb phosphorylation within 30 min of Fas stimulation. Phosphorylation of Rb correlated with a dissociation of E2F and increased transcriptional activity. The inactivation of Rb by Fas was blocked by SB203580, a p38-specific inhibitor, as well as a dominant-negative p38 construct; cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors as well as dominant-negative cdks had no effect. These results suggest that Fas-mediated inactivation of Rb is mediated via the p38 kinase, independent of cdks. The Rb/E2F-mediated cell cycle regulatory pathway appears to be a normal target for non-mitogenic signaling cascades and could be involved in mediating the cellular effects of such signals.  (+info)

The p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) CDK 'inhibitors' are essential activators of cyclin D-dependent kinases in murine fibroblasts. (4/457)

The widely prevailing view that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) are solely negative regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is challenged here by observations that normal up-regulation of cyclin D- CDK4 in mitogen-stimulated fibroblasts depends redundantly upon p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1). Primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts that lack genes encoding both p21 and p27 fail to assemble detectable amounts of cyclin D-CDK complexes, express cyclin D proteins at much reduced levels, and are unable to efficiently direct cyclin D proteins to the cell nucleus. Restoration of CKI function reverses all three defects and thereby restores cyclin D activity to normal physiological levels. In the absence of both CKIs, the severe reduction in cyclin D-dependent kinase activity was well tolerated and had no overt effects on the cell cycle.  (+info)

DNA binding protein dbpA binds Cdk5 and inhibits its activity. (5/457)

Progress in the cell cycle is governed by the activity of cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks). Unlike other Cdks, the Cdk5 catalytic subunit is found mostly in differentiated neurons. Interestingly, the only known protein that activates Cdk5 (i.e. p35) is expressed solely in the brain. It has been suggested that, besides its requirement in neuronal differentiation, Cdk5 activity is induced during myogenesis. However, it is not clear how this activity is regulated in the pathway that leads proliferative cells to differentiation. In order to find if there exists any Cdk5-interacting protein, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to screen a HeLa cDNA library. We have determined that a C-terminal 172 amino acid domain of the DNA binding protein, dbpA, binds to Cdk5. Biochemical analyses reveal that this fragment (dbpA(Cdelta)) strongly inhibits p35-activated Cdk5 kinase. The protein also interacts with Cdk4 and inhibits the Cdk4/cyclin D1 enzyme. Surprisingly, dbpA(Cdelta) does not bind Cdk2 in the two-hybrid assay nor does it inhibit Cdk2 activated by cyclin A. It could be that dbpA's ability to inhibit Cdk5 and Cdk4 reflects an apparent cross-talk between distinct signal transduction pathways controlled by dbpA on the one hand and Cdk5 or Cdk4 on the other.  (+info)

A cyclin D-Cdk4 activity required for G2 phase cell cycle progression is inhibited in ultraviolet radiation-induced G2 phase delay. (6/457)

Cyclin D-Cdk4 complexes have a demonstrated role in G1 phase, regulating the function of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (Rb). Previously, we have shown that following treatment with low doses of UV radiation, cell lines that express wild-type p16 and Cdk4 responded with a G2 phase cell cycle delay. The UV-responsive lines contained elevated levels of p16 post-treatment, and the accumulation of p16 correlated with the G2 delay. Here we report that in UV-irradiated HeLa and A2058 cells, p16 bound Cdk4 and Cdk6 complexes with increased avidity and inhibited a cyclin D3-Cdk4 complex normally activated in late S/early G2 phase. Activation of this complex was correlated with the caffeine-induced release from the UV-induced G2 delay and a decrease in the level of p16 bound to Cdk4. Finally, overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of Cdk4 blocked cells in G2 phase. These data indicate that the cyclin D3-Cdk4 activity is necessary for cell cycle progression through G2 phase into mitosis and that the increased binding of p16 blocks this activity and G2 phase progression after UV exposure.  (+info)

Transduced p16INK4a peptides inhibit hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein and cell cycle progression prior to activation of Cdk2 complexes in late G1. (7/457)

Progression of cells through the G1 phase of the cell cycle requires cyclin D:Cdk4/6 and cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes; however, the duration and ordering of these complexes remain unclear. To address this, we synthesized a peptidyl mimetic of the Cdk4/6 inhibitor, p16INK4a that contained an NH2-terminal TAT protein transduction domain. Transduction of TAT-p16 wild-type peptides into cells resulted in the loss of active, hypophosphorylated pRb and elicited an early G1 cell cycle arrest, provided cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes were inactive. We conclude that cyclin D:Cdk4/6 activity is required for early G1 phase cell cycle progression up to, but not beyond, activation of cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes at the restriction point and is thus nonredundant with cyclin E:Cdk2 in late G1.  (+info)

c-Myc regulates cyclin D-Cdk4 and -Cdk6 activity but affects cell cycle progression at multiple independent points. (8/457)

c-myc is a cellular proto-oncogene associated with a variety of human cancers and is strongly implicated in the control of cellular proliferation, programmed cell death, and differentiation. We have previously reported the first isolation of a c-myc-null cell line. Loss of c-Myc causes a profound growth defect manifested by the lengthening of both the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle. To gain a clearer understanding of the role of c-Myc in cellular proliferation, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of the components that regulate cell cycle progression. The largest defect observed in c-myc-/- cells is a 12-fold reduction in the activity of cyclin D1-Cdk4 and -Cdk6 complexes during the G0-to-S transition. Downstream events, such as activation of cyclin E-Cdk2 and cyclin A-Cdk2 complexes, are delayed and reduced in magnitude. However, it is clear that c-Myc affects the cell cycle at multiple independent points, because restoration of the Cdk4 and -6 defect does not significantly increase growth rate. In exponentially cycling cells the absence of c-Myc reduces coordinately the activities of all cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. An analysis of cyclin-dependent kinase complex regulators revealed increased expression of p27(KIP1) and decreased expression of Cdk7 in c-myc-/- cells. We propose that c-Myc functions as a crucial link in the coordinate adjustment of growth rate to environmental conditions.  (+info)

The prognosis for mantle-cell lymphoma is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of approximately 40%. Treatment options include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and autologous stem-cell transplantation. The disease often recurs after initial therapy, and subsequent treatments may be less effective.

Mantle-cell lymphoma can be difficult to distinguish from other types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, such as follicular lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and a correct diagnosis is important for determining appropriate treatment.

Slide: Mantle Cell Lymphoma (Image courtesy of Nephron/Wikimedia Commons)

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

Word count: 190

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

SCC typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on the skin, and may be pink, red, or scaly. The cancer cells are usually well-differentiated, meaning they resemble normal squamous cells, but they can grow rapidly and invade surrounding tissues if left untreated.

SCC is more common in fair-skinned individuals and those who spend a lot of time in the sun, as UV radiation can damage the skin cells and increase the risk of cancer. The cancer can also spread to other parts of the body, such as lymph nodes or organs, and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and effectively.

Treatment for SCC usually involves surgery to remove the cancerous tissue, and may also include radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes for patients with SCC.

... D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to S phase. G2/M cyclins - essential for ... The rise in presence of G1/S cyclins is paralleled by a rise in S cyclins. G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ... Note that the cyclins are now classified according to their conserved cyclin box structure, and not all these cyclins alter in ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ...
Cyclin-O is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNO gene. Cyclin O has been shown to interact with RPA2 and PCNA. ... "Entrez Gene: CCNO cyclin O". Otterlei M, Warbrick E, Nagelhus TA, Haug T, Slupphaug G, Akbari M, Aas PA, Steinsbekk K, Bakke O ... Hirst R, Gosden R, Miller D (June 2006). "The cyclin-like uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) of murine oocytes and its relationship ... Muller SJ, Caradonna S (January 1993). "Cell cycle regulation of a human cyclin-like gene encoding uracil-DNA glycosylase". The ...
Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Different cyclins ... Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ...
... is a member of the cyclin family, specifically the B-type cyclins. The B-type cyclins, B1 and B2, associate with ... Cyclin B1 co-localizes with microtubules, whereas cyclin B2 is primarily associated with the Golgi region. Cyclin B2 also binds ... Cyclin B2 has been shown to interact with TGF beta receptor 2. Cyclin B GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000157456 - Ensembl, ... "Cyclin B2-null mice develop normally and are fertile whereas cyclin B1-null mice die in utero". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
... is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin B is a mitotic cyclin. The amount of cyclin B (which binds to Cdk1) and the ... Because cyclin B is necessary for cells to enter mitosis and therefore necessary for cell division, cyclin B levels are often ... The fact that cyclin B is often disregulated in cancer cells makes cyclin B an attractive biomarker. Many studies have been ... Cyclin+B at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Cyclin B - The Interactive Fly (All ...
"Entrez Gene: CCNE1 cyclin E1". Shanahan F, Seghezzi W, Parry D, Mahony D, Lees E (February 1999). "Cyclin E associates with ... Mumberg D, Wick M, Bürger C, Haas K, Funk M, Müller R (1997). "Cyclin ET, a new splice variant of human cyclin E with a unique ... Cyclin E1 has been shown to interact with: CDC25A, CDKN1B, CUL3 Cdk1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, HERC5, P21, Retinoblastoma- ... Lew DJ, Dulić V, Reed SI (October 1991). "Isolation of three novel human cyclins by rescue of G1 cyclin (Cln) function in yeast ...
Other than Rb, viral cyclin D-Cdk6 complex also targets p27Kip, a Cdk inhibitor of cyclin E and A. In addition, viral cyclin D- ... The phosphorylation of Rb by cyclin A-Cdk2, cyclin B-Cdk1, and cyclin E-Cdk2 are unaffected. The C terminus has a stretch of 21 ... In mice and humans, two more cyclin D proteins have been identified. The three homologues, called cyclin D1, cyclin D2, and ... among which is cyclin D. In this way, cyclin D is synthesized as long as the growth factor is present. Cyclin D levels in ...
Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (Apr 1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... "The consensus motif for phosphorylation by cyclin D1-Cdk4 is different from that for phosphorylation by cyclin A/E-Cdk2". The ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDKs (Cyclin-dependent kinase). Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... cyclin D1 is translocated to the IgH promoter leading to cyclin D1 overexpression. Chromosomal translocation of the cyclin D1 ... Cyclin D1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND1 gene. The CCND1 gene encodes the cyclin D1 protein. The human ... Cyclin D1 and the mechanisms it regulates have the potential to be a therapeutic target for cancer drugs: Cyclin D1 has been ...
"Cyclin K inhibits HIV-1 gene expression and replication by interfering with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)-cyclin T1 ... "Entrez Gene: CCNK cyclin K". Baek K, Brown RS, Birrane G, Ladias JA (February 2007). "Crystal structure of human cyclin K, a ... Cyclin K also interacts with HIV nef protein. In the presence of overexpressed Nef protein, Cyclin k and CDK9 binding is ... Cyclin K is indispensable for Leukemia growth. SETD1A, is also known to bind Cyclin K through its FLOS domain. The interaction ...
"Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378-88. doi: ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNB1 gene. Cyclin B1 is a regulatory protein ... Like all cyclins, levels of cyclin B1 oscillate over the course of the cell cycle. Just prior to mitosis, a large amount of ... Cyclin B1 can reside in the nucleus or the cytoplasm which can have an effect on the malignant potential of cyclin B1 when ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNE2 gene. It is a G1 cyclin that binds Cdk2 and is inhibited by p27( ... Gudas JM, Payton M, Thukral S, Chen E, Bass M, Robinson MO, Coats S (January 1999). "Cyclin E2, a novel G1 cyclin that binds ... Zariwala, M.; Liu, J.; Xiong, Y. (1998-11-26). "Cyclin E2, a novel human G1 cyclin and activating partner of CDK2 and CDK3, is ...
Like all cyclin family members, cyclin E forms a complex with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2). Cyclin E/CDK2 regulates multiple ... Cyclin E is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin E binds to G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S ... Cyclin E/CDK2 plays a critical role in the G1 phase and in the G1-S phase transition. Cyclin E/CDK2 phosphorylates ... Dysregulation of cyclin E occurs in 18-22% of the breast cancers. Cyclin E is a prognostic marker in breast cancer, its altered ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns that ... Cyclin-T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin tightly associates with CDK9 kinase, and was found to be a major subunit of the transcription elongation factor p- ... This cyclin and its kinase partner were also found to be involved in the phosphorylation and regulation of the carboxy-terminal ...
Cyclin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA2 gene. It is one of the two types of cyclin A: cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A2 belongs to the cyclin family, whose members regulate cell cycle progression by interacting with CDK kinases. Cyclin ... The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex eventually phosphorylates E2F, turning off cyclin A2 transcription. E2F promotes cyclin A2 ... Cyclin A2 is synthesized at the onset of S phase and localizes to the nucleus, where the cyclin A2-CDK2 complex is implicated ...
... has been shown to interact with P53, Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and MNAT1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000134480 ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-H is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNH gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin forms a complex with CDK7 kinase and ring finger protein MAT1. The kinase complex is able to phosphorylate CDK2 and ...
... remains associated with CDK1 from late S into late G2 phase when it is replaced by cyclin B. Cyclin A/CDK1 is thought ... Cyclin A is the only cyclin that regulates multiple steps of the cell cycle. Cyclin A can regulate multiple cell cycle steps ... Cyclin A2 is expressed in dividing somatic cells. Cyclin A, along with the other members of the cyclin family, regulates cell ... P21 is a CDK inhibitor that binds to several cyclin/CDK complexes, including cyclin A-CDK2/1 and cyclin D/CDK4, and blocks the ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4, Cyclin-dependent kinase 6, EIF3K, and Retinoic acid receptor alpha. Cyclin Cyclin D GRCh38: Ensembl ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ...
CDK6; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK7; cyclin H CDK8; cyclin C CDK9; cyclin T1, cyclin T2a, cyclin T2b, cyclin K CDK10 ... cyclin A, cyclin B CDK2; cyclin A, cyclin E CDK3; cyclin C CDK4; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK5; CDK5R1, CDK5R2. See also ... Furthermore, cyclin binding determines the specificity of the cyclin-CDK complex for particular substrates. Cyclins can ... Viruses can encode proteins with sequence homology to cyclins. One much-studied example is K-cyclin (or v-cyclin) from Kaposi ...
E2F.2FpRb complexes Hyperphosphorylation cdc25 Maturation promoting factor CDK cyclin A cyclin B cyclin D cyclin E Wee (cell ... "Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378-1388. doi: ... Cyclin binding alters access to the active site of Cdk1, allowing for Cdk1 activity; furthermore, cyclins impart specificity to ... Furthermore, cyclins can target Cdk1 to particular subcellular locations. In addition to regulation by cyclins, Cdk1 is ...
"Entrez Gene: CDK10 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDC2-like) 10". Kasten M, Giordano A (Apr 2001). "Cdk10, a Cdc2-related kinase, ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 10 has been shown to interact with ETS2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000185324 - Ensembl, May ...
A Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 interacts with: CDKN2C, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3, P16, PPM1B, and PPP2CA. Cell cycle Cyclin-dependent ... It is regulated by cyclins, more specifically by Cyclin D proteins and Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins. The protein ... 1996). "Inhibition of Cyclin D-CDK4/CDK6 Activity Is Associated with an E2F-Mediated Induction of Cyclin Kinase Inhibitor ... 2003). "Expression of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6, but Not Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4, Alters Morphology of Cultured Mouse ...
... has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ... "Entrez Gene: CDK2 cyclin-dependent kinase 2". Echalier A, Endicott JA, Noble ME (March 2010). "Recent developments in cyclin- ... This protein associates with and is regulated by the regulatory subunits of the complex including cyclin E or A. Cyclin E binds ... Lacy S, Whyte P (May 1997). "Identification of a p130 domain mediating interactions with cyclin A/cdk 2 and cyclin E/cdk 2 ...
... has been shown to interact with: Androgen receptor, Cyclin H, GTF2H1, MNAT1, P53, SUPT5H, and XPB. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 7, or cell division protein kinase 7, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene. The ... The growth suppressor p53 has been shown to interact with cyclin H both in vitro and in vivo. Addition of wild type p53 was ... "Entrez Gene: CDK7 cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (MO15 homolog, Xenopus laevis, cdk-activating kinase)". Patel H, Abduljabbar R, Lai ...
"OMIM Entry - * 123831 - CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; CDK5". omim.org. Retrieved 2020-11-02. Tsai, Li-Huei. Cyclin Dependent ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is a protein, and more specifically an enzyme, that is encoded by the Cdk5 gene. It was discovered 15 ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5. Springer. 19 August 2008. ISBN 978-0-387-78886-9. Patrick GN, Zukerberg L, Nikolic M, de la Monte S ... Cyclin-Dependent+Kinase+5 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CDK5 human gene location in ...
During G2 phase, cyclin A is degraded, while cyclin B is synthesized and cyclin B-Cdk1 complexes form. Not only are cyclin B- ... cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), with a regulatory subunit, cyclin. Once cyclin-dependent kinases bind to cyclin, the formed ... Cyclin Cyclin-dependent kinase Malumbres M, Barbacid M. Mammalian cyclin-dependent kinases. Trends Biochem. Sci. 2005 Nov;30(11 ... cyclin D1-Cdk4 and cyclin D1-Cdk6 phosphorylate pRB, followed by additional phosphorylation from the cyclin E-Cdk2 CDKC. Once ...
"Entrez Gene: CDK4 cyclin-dependent kinase 4". "CDK4 - Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDK4 gene & protein". ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ... 1995). "Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
... or CDK9 is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found ... Cyclin-Dependent+Kinase+9 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Cyclin dependent ... "Entrez Gene: CDK9 cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDC2-related kinase)". MacLachlan TK, Sang N, De Luca A, Puri PL, Levrero M, ...
"Entrez Gene: CDK3 cyclin-dependent kinase 3". Bullrich F, MacLachlan TK, Sang N, et al. (1995). "Chromosomal mapping of members ... 2002). "ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3)". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (23): 6076-82. doi:10.1046/j. ... Ren S, Rollins BJ (2004). "Cyclin C/cdk3 promotes Rb-dependent G0 exit". Cell. 117 (2): 239-51. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00300 ... CDK3 can phosphorylate histone H1 and interacts with an unknown type of cyclin. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000250506 - ...
Background: Cyclin B1. Cyclin B1 (also CCNB1 and G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1) is a member of the cyclin AB subfamily, cyclin ... CCNB; CCNB1; Cyclin B1; G2/mitotic-specific cyclin B1; G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1 ... Human Cyclin B1 is 433 amino acids (aa) in length. It contains two cyclin box folds (aa 201‑290 and 298‑383) and two substrate ... Cyclin B1 in Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Cyclin B1 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human ...
Cyclin-Dependent Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.646.500]. *Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.646. ... It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA ... Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21. ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.200.323]. *Proline-Directed Protein Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
Kinase enrichment analysis of hypo-phosphorylated proteins using the X2K Web tool identified ERK1, cyclin-dependant kinase 1 ( ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 promotes cellular proliferation by activating cyclin-dependent kinases and ...
Cyclin A was observed after 4 days of costimulation with anti CD2 + CD28 whereas stimulation by anti CD2 or anti CD28 alone was ... Relief of cyclin A gene transcriptional inhibition during activation of human primary T lymphocytes via CD2 and CD28 adhesion ... Relief of cyclin A gene transcriptional inhibition during activation of human primary T lymphocytes via CD2 and CD28 adhesion ... Cyclin A transcription is cell cycle regulated and induced by cell proliferative signals. To understand the mechanisms ...
Cyclin Missy Grand Rapids, MI, United States. Welcome to Cyclin Missy! Im an avid cyclist and runner in Grand Rapids, ... Posted by Cyclin Missy at 8:11 AM Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Pinterest ...
A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.646.500]. *Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3 [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.646. ... "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3" by people in this website by year, ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is a kinase involved in the regulation of cell cycle, being responsible for triggering DNA ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is a kinase involved in the regulation of cell cycle, being responsible for triggering DNA ... Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the determinants of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibition by 5-nitrosopyrimidine ... Molecular dynamics, well-tempered metadynamics, drug design, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, 5-nitrosopyrimidines ...
... Ver/Abrir. Quandt Herrera, Eva [et al.]_Atypical Cyclins Extended_2019.pdf ( ... These potential "cyclins" have been named new, orphan or atypical, creating a conundrum in cyclins nomenclature. Moreover, ... Regulation of cell division is orchestrated by cyclins, which bind and activate their catalytic workmates, the cyclin-dependent ... Atypical cyclins: the extended family portrait. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2020, 77, p. 231-242. Disponible en: , ...
Hyperphosphorylation of tau on S202 and T205 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in SMA disease condition, because ... Hyperphosphorylation of tau on S202 and T205 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in SMA disease condition, because ... Hyperphosphorylation of tau on S202 and T205 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in SMA disease condition, because ... Hyperphosphorylation of tau on S202 and T205 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in SMA disease condition, because ...
Informations about Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2D (CDKN2D) Antibody (abx005030-20) ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been ...
Human Cyclin-dependent kinase 4,CDK-4 ELISA Kit. All. Elisa Kit (11.192). Laboratuvar Cihazları (88). Moleküler Genetik ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 binds and phosphorylates DNA methyltransferase 1. Isamu Kameshita, Mari Sekiguchi, Daisuke ... Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 binds and phosphorylates DNA methyltransferase 1. In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... This 110-kDa kinase was identified as cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) by LC-MS/MS analysis. CDKL5 and Dnmt1 were found ... This 110-kDa kinase was identified as cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) by LC-MS/MS analysis. CDKL5 and Dnmt1 were found ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) complex is significantly over-activated in many cancers. While it makes CDK2 an attractive ... Inhibition of the CDK2 and Cyclin A complex leads to autophagic degradation of CDK2 in cancer cells. ... Inhibition of the CDK2 and Cyclin A complex leads to autophagic degradation of CDK2 in can ... between CDK2 and Cyclin A. To target the potential druggable pockets, we perform a LIVS in silico screening of a library ...
CONCLUSION: Altered expression of cyclin D1 is associated with lymph node metastasis and risk of UCB recurrence. Cyclin D1 ... Expression of cyclin d1 and its association with disease characteristics in bladder cancer. Submitted by aii2002 on April 5, ... Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Cell Line, Tumor, Cyclin D1, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, RNA, Messenger, Urinary Bladder ... were immunostained using an antibody against cyclin D1. The association between cyclin D1 and clinicopathological parameters ...
cyclin-dependent kinase 2; Cyclin-dependent kinase 2; cyclin-dependent kinase 2; cell division protein kinase 2; cyclin ... FITC-linked Antibody to Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2) Form/Appearance. Supplied as solution form in PBS, pH7.4, containing ... This is an antibody designed to detect Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2) ; CDK2 ... dependent kinase 2-alpha; cyclin dependent kinase 2; Cell division protein kinase 2 ...
The Potential Role of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 in Focal Cortical Dysplasia ... The Potential Role of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 in Focal Cortical Dysplasia ...
Human Papillomavirus16 Variant E7 Gene Induces Transformation of NIH 3T3 Cells Via Up-Regulation of cdc25A and Cyclin A ... Human Papillomavirus16 Variant E7 Gene Induces Transformation of NIH 3T3 Cells Via Up-Regulation of cdc25A and Cyclin A ... Human Papillomavirus16 Variant E7 Gene Induces Transformation of NIH 3T3 Cells Via Up-Regulation of cdc25A and Cyclin A ...
Dive into the research topics of The Arabidopsis D-type cyclin CYCD2;1 and the inhibitor ICK2/KRP2 modulate auxin-induced ... The Arabidopsis D-type cyclin CYCD2;1 and the inhibitor ICK2/KRP2 modulate auxin-induced lateral root formation. ...
mir-34a targets cell cycle genes CCND1 (cyclin D1) and MYCN, while mir-21 does not target PTEN and PDCD4 in neuroblastoma. ... cyclin D1). Additionally, SIRT1 was a probable target of mir-34a. Two mRNAs that previously were shown to be targeted by mir-21 ...
HR+/HER2- Metastatic Breast Cancer: What Can You Do to Optimize Patient Access to Cyclin-dependent Kinase 4 and 6 Inhibitors ...
Maternal cyclin B levels "Chk" the onset of DNA replication checkpoint control in Drosophila. ... Dive into the research topics of Maternal cyclin B levels "Chk" the onset of DNA replication checkpoint control in Drosophila ...
... adenocarcinoma by suppressing cyclin B1. ... Ursolic acid regulates cell cycle and proliferation in colon adenocarcinoma by suppressing cyclin B1. - GreenMedInfo Summary ... The biological functions of cyclin B1 (CCNB1) in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) will be explored in this study. Furthermore, the ... Ursolic Acid Regulates Cell Cycle and Proliferation in Colon Adenocarcinoma by Suppressing Cyclin B1. ...
It has been shown that the oncogenic activity of G1 cyclin E (CCNE) can be amplified by generating hyperactive low molecular ... Impact of cyclins E, neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 expression levels on clinical outcome in primary breast cancer ... Impact of cyclins E, neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 expression levels on clinical outcome in primary breast cancer ... It has been shown that the oncogenic activity of G1 cyclin E (CCNE) can be amplified by generating hyperactive low molecular ...
Cyclin Missy said... Oh man. I cant imagine why you wouldnt come to Grand Rapids, Michigan to give away your free Knog stuff ...
The CCND2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called cyclin D2. Learn about this gene and related health conditions ... Cyclins are a family of proteins that control how cells proceed through the multi-step cycle of cell division. Cyclin D2 helps ... Cyclin D2s role in the cell division cycle makes it a key controller of the rate of cell growth and division (proliferation) ... The cyclin D2 protein is regulated by a chemical signaling pathway called the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. This signaling influences ...
A family of cyclin-like proteins that interact with the Pho85 cyclin-dependent kinase. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17, 1212-1223 (1997). ... Two cyclin-dependent kinases promote RNA polymerase II transcription and formation of the scaffold complex. Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 ... Ansari, A. Z., Ogirala, A. & Ptashne, M. Transcriptional activating regions target attached substrates to a cyclin-dependent ... Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain by the Bur1 cyclin-dependent kinase. Mol. Cell. Biol. 21, 4089 ...
PDB Description: structure of cdk2-cyclin a with pha-848125. PDB Compounds: (D:) Cyclin-A2. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d2wihd2: ... Protein Cyclin A [47956] (2 species). *. Species Human (Homo sapiens) [TaxId:9606] [47957] (89 PDB entries). Uniprot P20248 175 ... Fold a.74: Cyclin-like [47953] (1 superfamily). core: 5 helices; one helix is surrounded by the others. ... Superfamily a.74.1: Cyclin-like [47954] (4 families) duplication: consists of two domains of this fold. ...
... and decreased cyclin B1 levels. Superoxide dismutase, a scavenger of O2-, or sodium formate, an inhibitor of OH, had no ... leading to phosphorylation of Cdc2 and a slight increase in cyclin B1 expression as analyzed by Western blot. Catalase, a ... which results in phosphorylation of Cdc2 and possible inactivation of cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 8 mediates chemotherapy-induced tumor-promoting paracrine activities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2012, ...
Cell cycle progression is regulated by several key proteins, such as cyclin A2 and cyclin D1 (28). Cyclin A2 is a crucial ... such as cyclin A2 (22). After treatment with involucrasin A, the protein expression levels of cyclin A2 in p53 KO cells were ... Oakes V, Wang W, Harrington B, Lee WJ, Beamish H, Chia KM, Pinder A, Goto H, Inagaki M, Pavey S and Gabrielli B: Cyclin A/Cdk2 ... G and H) Protein expression levels of cyclin A2 were analyzed using western blotting. β-actin served as a loading control. All ...
  • Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. (nih.gov)
  • Because a variety of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) assist the effects of EZH2 and cyclin D1, the researchers wanted to see if targeting CDKs in ATRTs with the multi-CDK inhibitor TG02 could have therapeutic effects. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate lysosomal degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α to promote cell-cycle progression. (bvsalud.org)
  • Regulation of cell division is orchestrated by cyclins, which bind and activate their catalytic workmates, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (uic.es)
  • The product Assay kit for Rabbit Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 1(CKS1B) (ELISA) should be kept between two and eight degrees Celsius to ensure the retention of the stability and reactivity of the reagents included in the kit. (creatinekinases.com)
  • The product Assay kit for Rabbit Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 1(CKS1B) (ELISA) is intended to be used for research purposes only. (creatinekinases.com)
  • 2007) The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dacapo promotes replication licensing during Drosophila endocycles. (nih.gov)
  • Kinase enrichment analysis of hypo-phosphorylated proteins using the X2K Web tool identified ERK1, cyclin-dependant kinase 1 (CDK1), and CDK2 as downstream substrates of CAMKK2. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is a kinase involved in the regulation of cell cycle, being responsible for triggering DNA synthesis. (unito.it)
  • Here we report that HIF-1α physically and functionally interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and Cdk2. (bvsalud.org)
  • Skp2 was first identified in multi-protein complexes with cyclin A and Cdk2 in transformed cells. (yu.edu)
  • We show that Skp2cyclin A interaction is separable from Skp2's ability to mediate p27 ubiquitination, but can directly protect cyclin A/Cdk2 from inhibition by p27 through competitive binding. (yu.edu)
  • We also identified an eighteen-residue peptide from cyclin A binding sequences in Skp2 that can block Skp2-cyclin A/Cdk2 interaction but not p27-cyclin A/Cdk2 interaction and can therefore abolish Skp2's protective effects on cyclin A/Cdk2 activity. (yu.edu)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 modulates nociceptive signaling through direct phosphorylation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1. (nih.gov)
  • Vanadate also increased p21 and Chk1 levels and reduced Cdc25C expression, leading to phosphorylation of Cdc2 and a slight increase in cyclin B1 expression as analyzed by Western blot. (cdc.gov)
  • Catalase, a specific antioxidant for H2O2, decreased vanadate-induced expression of p21 and Chk1, reduced phosphorylation of Cdc2Tyr15, and decreased cyclin B1 levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Several regulatory pathways are involved: (1) activation of p21, (2) an increase of Chk1 expression and inhibition of Cdc25C, which results in phosphorylation of Cdc2 and possible inactivation of cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex. (cdc.gov)
  • PVDF membrane was probed with 0.05 µg/mL of Rabbit Anti-Human Cyclin B1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB60001) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Rabbit IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF008 ). (rndsystems.com)
  • Cyclin B1 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human squamous cell carcinoma using Rabbit Anti-Human Cyclin B1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB60001) at 3 µg/mL for 1 hour at room temperature followed by incubation with the Anti-Rabbit IgG VisUCyte™ HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC003 ). (rndsystems.com)
  • K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line was stained with Rabbit Anti-Human Cyclin B1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB60001, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # AB-105-C , open histogram), followed by Phycoerythrin-conjugated Anti-Rabbit IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # F0110 ). (rndsystems.com)
  • A specific band was detected for Cyclin B1 at approximately 64 kDa (as indicated) using 0.5 µg/mL of Rabbit Anti-Human Cyclin B1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB60001). (rndsystems.com)
  • Cyclin D1 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total Cyclin D1. (affbiotech.com)
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tissue microarrays containing bladder cancer specimens (n=212) and adjacent normal bladder tissues (n=131) were immunostained using an antibody against cyclin D1. (cornell.edu)
  • We demonstrated that the Skp2-cyclin A interaction is mediated by novel interaction sequences on both Skp2 and cyclin A, distinguishing it from the well-known RxL-HP interaction between cyclins and cyclin-binding proteins. (yu.edu)
  • Noteworthy, the Human Genome Sequence Project unveiled the existence of several other proteins containing the "cyclin box" domain. (uic.es)
  • ERβ inhibited the cell cycle-dependent stimulation of cyclin B1 mRNA and protein. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • RESULTS: Cyclin D1 mRNA and protein expression were significantly higher in UCB compared to adjacent non-malignant bladder tissue (for mRNA p=0.003, for protein p=0.001). (cornell.edu)
  • Cyclin B1 is the major activator of CDK1. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Our findings demonstrated that unliganded ERβ causes a G2 cell cycle arrest by inactivating CDK1 through the repression of cyclin B1 and stimulation of GADD45A and BTG2 expression. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Synthesis and Structure-Activity relationships of cyclin-dependent kinase 11 inhibitors based on a diaminothiazole scaffold. (harvard.edu)
  • High-throughput screening identified the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine and bisanilinopyrimidine series as inhibitors of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK4. (rcsb.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors have become standard of care in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. (hoelzel-biotech.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance throughout the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Inactivation of cyclin D2 gene in prostate cancers by aberrant promoter methylation. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated the epigenetic silencing of Cyclin D2 gene in prostate cancers and correlated the data with clinicopathological features. (nih.gov)
  • Estrogen-occupied estrogen receptor represses cyclin G2 gene expression and recruits a repressor complex at the cyclin G2 promoter. (nih.gov)
  • Because estradiol represses expression of the cyclin G2 gene, which encodes a negative regulator of the cell cycle, our aim was to understand the mechanism by which cyclin G2 is repressed by estrogen. (nih.gov)
  • We show that cyclin G2 is a primary ER target gene in MCF-7 breast cancer cells that is rapidly and robustly down-regulated by estrogen. (nih.gov)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulates cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity during pain signaling through transcriptional activation of p35. (nih.gov)
  • It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. (harvard.edu)
  • To understand the mechanisms underlined in this regulation in normal human cells, we have analysed in vivo protein-DNA interactions at the Cyclin A locus in primary T lymphocytes. (cnrs.fr)
  • Cyclin D1 protein expression was significantly higher in non-invasive tumors than in muscle-invasive UCB (p=0.016). (cornell.edu)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations in the cyclin A binding domain of Skp2 significantly compromise the proliferation-stimulating activity of Skp2 without affecting its ability to cause degradation of p27 and p21. (yu.edu)
  • This cyclin forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. (nih.gov)
  • Rotelli M, Policastro R, Bolling A, Killion A, Weinberg A, Dixon M, Zentner G, Walczak C, Lilly MA, Calvi B. (2019) A Cyclin A-Myb-Aurora B network regulates the choice between mitotic cycles and polyploid endoreplication cycles. (nih.gov)
  • 2006) Bruno inhibits the expression of mitotic cyclins during the prophase I meiotic arrest of Drosophila oocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Doxorubicin induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis and atrophy through cyclin-dependent kinase 2-mediated activation of forkhead box O1. (harvard.edu)
  • Defects in the expression of cyclin D1, a key cell-cycle regulator, have been implicated in progression of various types of cancer. (cornell.edu)
  • Cyclins have been traditionally defined by an oscillating (cyclic) pattern of expression and by the presence of a characteristic "cyclin box" that determines binding to the CDKs. (uic.es)
  • Detects human Cyclin B1 in direct ELISAs and Western blots. (rndsystems.com)
  • Mutational mapping of receptor reveals a requirement for its N-terminal region and DNA binding domain to support cyclin G2 repression. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin D2 promoter methylation was analyzed in 101 prostate cancer samples by methylation-specific PCR. (nih.gov)
  • The methylation status of Cyclin D2 was correlated with the methylation of nine other tumor suppressor genes published previously from our laboratory on the same set of samples (R. Maruyama et al. (nih.gov)
  • We also compared methylation of cyclin D2 with methylation of nine tumor suppressor genes [published previously from our laboratory (R. Maruyama et al. (nih.gov)
  • Although the high preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) group did not have significantly greater methylation frequency, methylation of Cyclin D2 had higher mean PSA value. (nih.gov)
  • Our results indicate that methylation of Cyclin D2 in prostate cancers correlates with clinicopathological features of poor prognosis. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we investigated whether cyclin D1 expression is associated with clinicopathological parameters and whether it has any potential prognostic value in determining risk of UCB recurrence. (cornell.edu)
  • The association between cyclin D1 and clinicopathological parameters including stage, lymph node metastasis, and disease-free survival, were evaluated. (cornell.edu)
  • Cyclin D1 expression, cell proliferation, and clonal persistence characterize primary cutaneous CD4(+) small or medium T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of cyclin d1 and its association with disease characteristics in bladder cancer. (cornell.edu)
  • Cyclin D1 mRNA expression data from human normal bladder (n=14) and cancer specimens (n=28) were extracted from the public Oncomine database. (cornell.edu)
  • CONCLUSION: Altered expression of cyclin D1 is associated with lymph node metastasis and risk of UCB recurrence. (cornell.edu)
  • Cyclin D1 expression may therefore have clinical value as a prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target. (cornell.edu)
  • The requirement for cyclin E in c-Myc overexpressing breast cancers. (harvard.edu)
  • Cyclin A was observed after 4 days of costimulation with anti CD2 + CD28 whereas stimulation by anti CD2 or anti CD28 alone was not effective. (cnrs.fr)
  • Cyclin B1 in Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma. (rndsystems.com)
  • Detection of Cyclin B1 in K562 Human Cell Line by Flow Cytometry. (rndsystems.com)
  • Cyclin A transcription is cell cycle regulated and induced by cell proliferative signals. (cnrs.fr)
  • A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. (musc.edu)
  • Activation of cyclin-dependent 5 mediates orofacial mechanical hyperalgesia. (nih.gov)
  • 1. The clinical significance of cyclin B1 (CCNB1) in invasive breast cancer with emphasis on its contribution to lymphovascular invasion development. (nih.gov)
  • Following estradiol treatment of cells, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses reveal recruitment of ER to the cyclin G2 regulatory region, dismissal of RNA polymerase II, and recruitment of a complex containing N-CoR and histone deacetylases, leading to a hypoacetylated chromatin state. (nih.gov)
  • The application of these criteria allows to systematically define, for the first time, the subfamily of atypical cyclins and enables the use of a common nomenclature for this extended family. (uic.es)
  • A specific band was detected for Cyclin B1 at approximately 52 kDa (as indicated). (rndsystems.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)