A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a role in the transition from G1 to S PHASE and in transcriptional regulation.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE infecting fish. Species include Walleye dermal sarcoma virus, Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 1, and Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 2.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A CYCLIN C dependent kinase that is an important component of the mediator complex. The enzyme is activated by its interaction with CYCLIN C and plays a role in transcriptional regulation by phosphorylating RNA POLYMERASE II.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F4 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene PROMOTER REGIONS through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130 and RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P107.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
A transcriptional elongation factor complex that is comprised of a heterodimer of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9 and one of several CYCLINS including TYPE T CYCLINS and cyclin K. It functions by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA POLYMERASE II.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing five ANKYRIN-LIKE REPEATS. Aberrant expression of this protein has been associated with deregulated EPITHELIAL CELL growth, organ enlargement, and a variety of NEOPLASMS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are biochemically distinct CTD kinases. (1/37)

Phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II is important for basal transcriptional processes in vivo and for cell viability. Several kinases, including certain cyclin-dependent kinases, can phosphorylate this substrate in vitro. It has been proposed that differential CTD phosphorylation by different kinases may regulate distinct transcriptional processes. We have found that two of these kinases, cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36, can specifically phosphorylate distinct residues in recombinant CTD substrates. This difference in specificity may be largely due to their varying ability to phosphorylate lysine-substituted heptapeptide repeats within the CTD, since they phosphorylate the same residue in CTD consensus heptapeptide repeats. Furthermore, this substrate specificity is reflected in vivo where cyclin C/ CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 can differentially phosphorylate an endogenous RNA polymerase II substrate. Several small-molecule kinase inhibitors have different specificities for these related kinases, indicating that these enzymes have diverse active-site conformations. These results suggest that cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are physically distinct enzymes that may have unique roles in transcriptional regulation mediated by their phosphorylation of specific sites on RNA polymerase II.  (+info)

Two novel 14-Epi-analogues of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. (2/37)

The biological activity of two novel 14-epi-analogues of 1,25(OH)2D3, 19-nor-14-epi-23-yne-1,25(OH)2D3 (TX 522) and 19-nor-14,20-bisepi-23-yne-1,25(OH)2D3 (TX 527), is described. Both analogues were at least 10 times more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation and had much lower in vivo calcemic effects than 1,25(OH)2D3. Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, TX 522, or TX 527 in vitro was accompanied by an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Protein levels of cyclin C and cyclin D1 in in vitro cultures of MCF-7 cells were down-regulated to 50 and 30%, respectively, of control levels at 72 and 120 h after stimulation. Protein levels of p21 and p27 at 72 h were significantly enhanced by 1,25(OH)2D3 and TX 522 but surprisingly not by TX 527. The inability of TX 527 to up-regulate p21 seemed to be cell type specific because p21 was induced in other cell types. Diminished phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein after treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, TX 522, or TX 527 may ultimately contribute to the growth inhibition caused by these compounds. According to the data presented, the induction of apoptosis seemed not to be a major mechanism responsible for the growth-inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 and analogues. Both 14-epianalogues significantly retarded tumor progression (40% reduced compared with control mice) in an in vivo model of MCF-7 breast cancer cells established in nude mice. In conclusion, these novel analogues have the eligible profile to be tested as therapeutic agents for the treatment of hyperproliferative diseases such as breast cancer.  (+info)

Human cyclin C protein is stabilized by its associated kinase cdk8, independently of its catalytic activity. (3/37)

Cyclin C belongs to the cyclin family of proteins that control cell cycle transitions through activation of specific catalytic subunits, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). However, there is as yet no evidence for any role of cyclin C and its partner, cdk8, in cell cycle regulation. Rather, the cyclin C-cdk8 complex was found associated with the RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. The periodic degradation of bona fide cyclins is crucial for cell-cycle progression and depends on the catalytic activity of the associated CDK. Here we show that endogenous cyclin C protein is quite stable with a half-life of 4 h. In contrast, exogenously expressed cyclin C is very unstable (half-life 15 min) and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Co-expression with its associated cdk, however, strongly stabilizes cyclin C and results in a protein half-life near that of endogenous cyclin C. In stark contrast to data reported for other members of the cyclin family, both catalytically active and inactive cdk8 induce cyclin C stabilization. Moreover, this stabilization is accompanied in both cases by phosphorylation of the cyclin, which is not detectable when unstable. Our results indicate that cyclin C has apparently diverged from other cyclins in the regulation of its stability by its CDK partner.  (+info)

Characterization of mediator complexes from HeLa cell nuclear extract. (4/37)

A number of mammalian multiprotein complexes containing homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator subunits have been described recently. High-molecular-mass complexes (1 to 2 MDa) sharing several subunits but apparently differing in others include the TRAP/SMCC, NAT, DRIP, ARC, and human Mediator complexes. Smaller multiprotein complexes (approximately 500 to 700 kDa), including the murine Mediator, CRSP, and PC2, have also been described that contain subsets of subunits of the larger complexes. To evaluate whether these different multiprotein complexes exist in vivo in a single form or in multiple different forms, HeLa cell nuclear extract was directly resolved over a Superose 6 gel filtration column. Immunoblotting of column fractions using antisera specific for several Mediator subunits revealed one major size class of high-molecular-mass (approximately 2-MDa) complexes containing multiple mammalian Mediator subunits. No peak was apparent at approximately 500 to 700 kDa, indicating that either the smaller complexes reported are much less abundant than the higher-molecular-mass complexes or they are subcomplexes generated by dissociation of larger complexes during purification. Quantitative immunoblotting indicated that there are about 3 x 10(5) to 6 x 10(5) molecules of hSur2 Mediator subunit per HeLa cell, i.e., the same order of magnitude as RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors. Immunoprecipitation of the approximately 2-MDa fraction with anti-Cdk8 antibody indicated that at least two classes of Mediator complexes occur, one containing CDK8 and cyclin C and one lacking this CDK-cyclin pair. The approximately 2-MDa complexes stimulated activated transcription in vitro, whereas a 150-kDa fraction containing a subset of Mediator subunits inhibited activated transcription.  (+info)

c-Myc initiates illegitimate replication of the ribonucleotide reductase R2 gene. (5/37)

The mechanisms through which the oncoprotein c-Myc initiates locus-specific gene amplification are not understood. When analysing the initiation mechanism of c-Myc-dependent amplification of the mouse ribonucleotide reductase R2 (R2) gene, we observe c-Myc-dependent initiation of illegitimate DNA replication of the R2 gene. We demonstrate multiple simultaneous c-Myc-induced R2 replication forks, whereas R2 normally replicates with a single fork. In contrast, cyclin C replicates with only a single replication fork irrespective of c-Myc deregulation. In addition to de novo replication forks, c-Myc also initiates bi-allelic replication of R2, abrogating its normal mono-allelic replication pattern. Moreover, several chromosomal regions also display c-Myc-induced illegitimate replication profiles. Thus, c-Myc can act as an illegitimate replication-licensing factor that promotes de novo replication initiation and illegitimate replication timing that adversely impacts upon genomic stability.  (+info)

Selenite and selenomethionine promote HL-60 cell cycle progression. (6/37)

The essential role of selenium (Se) in nutrition is well established. The elucidation of the mechanisms by which selenium regulates the cell cycle can lead to a better understanding of the nature of selenium's essentiality and its role in disease prevention. In this study, the effects of selenium deficiency or adequacy (0.25 micromol/L selenite or selenomethionine) on HL-60 cell cycle progression were examined in serum-free media. Selenium was critical for promotion of HL-60 cell growth. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that selenium deficiency caused a decrease in G1 phase cells that corresponded to an increase in G2 and sub-G1 phase cells. Gene array analysis suggested that c-Myc, cyclin C, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin B and cyclin D2 mRNA levels were lower in selenium-deficient cells than in the cells supplemented with 0.25 micromol/L selenomethionine. The decrease in the c-Myc mRNA level in selenium-deficient cells was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, the phosphorylation state of total cellular protein was higher (57%) in selenium-supplemented cells than in selenium-deficient cells. Collectively, these results suggest a novel role for selenium at 0.25 micromol/L in up-regulation of the expression of numerous cell cycle-related genes and total cellular phosphorylated proteins in HL-60 cells in serum-free culture media. This leads to the promotion of cell cycle progression, particularly G2/M transition and/or the reduction of apoptosis, primarily in G1 cells. These observations may have additional implications for understanding the nature of selenium's essentiality.  (+info)

Analysis of cell cycle gene expression responding to acetoxyscirpendiol isolated from Paecilomyces tenuipes. (7/37)

Paecilomyces tenuipes is believed to contain potential oncostatic and tumor-reducing components. Molecular mechanism, however, is poorly understood concerning the potential antitumor components and their biological function. We purified acetoxyscirpendiol (ASD) from methanolic extracts (MPT) of the fungus and tested the two compounds for the molecular profile of their antitumor potential. Using a differential display protocol, cyclin C and Mad-1 were identified as candidate genes responding to MPT. When a quantitative PCR was performed on the total RNA from MCF-7 treated by MPT or ASD, gene expressions of cyclin C and Mad-1 were greatly augmented. In terms of protein expression, cyclin C level increased up to 12 folds in response to ASD as well as MPT. Similar as MPT treatments, ASD-treated cells synthesize cyclin C as 2-4 fold compared to the control treatments. In terms of Mad-1 expression in cells treated with ASD, the level of Mad-1 expression increased up to 2.5 folds by MPT treatment. Cyclin C expression was compared with non-treated cells in various cell lines. MCF-7 cell was shown highly responsive to the MPT or ASD treatment. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that MPT contains potential antitumor components which might exert their action by modulating cell cycle-related genes such as cyclin C and Mad-1 in MCF-7. The major antioncogenic component in MPT may be ASD which modulates cyclin C and Mad-1 expression.  (+info)

c-Myc-induced extrachromosomal elements carry active chromatin. (8/37)

Murine Pre-B lymphocytes with experimentally activated MycER show both chromosomal and extrachromosomal gene amplification. In this report, we have elucidated the size, structure, and functional components of c-Myc-induced extrachromosomal elements (EEs). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that EEs isolated from MycER-activated Pre-B+ cells are an average of 10 times larger than EEs isolated from non-MycER-activated control Pre-B- cells. We demonstrate that these large c-Myc-induced EEs are associated with histone proteins, whereas EEs of non-MycER-activated Pre B- cells are not. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses using pan-histone-specific, histone H3 phosphorylation-specific, and histone H4 acetylation-specific antibodies indicate that a significant proportion of EEs analyzed from MycER-activated cells harbors transcriptionally competent and/or active chromatin. Moreover, these large, c-Myc-induced EEs carry genes. Whereas the total genetic make-up of these c-Myc-induced EEs is unknown, we found that 30.2% of them contain the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene, whereas cyclin C (CCNC) was absent. In addition, 50% of these c-Myc-activated Pre-B+ EEs incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), identifying them as genetic structures that self-propagate. In contrast, EEs isolated from non-Myc-activated cells neither carry the DHFR gene nor incorporate BrdU, suggesting that c-Myc deregulation generates a new class of EEs.  (+info)

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DISCUSSIONSrb11p-Srb10p C-type cyclin-Cdk represses several genes required for the cellular response to stress. To relieve this repression, Srb11p is destroyed in cells subjected to stress such as heat shock or oxidative stress. We provide evidence here that Ask10p is a direct mediator of the normal ROS-induced destruction of Srb11p. First, Ask10p associates with Srb11p and two additional components of the RNA Pol II holoenzyme in vivo. Second, mutants lacking ASK10 display a threefold reduction in cyclin degradation kinetics after oxidative stress. The physiological relevance of this regulatory circuit is underscored by the ability of srb11 mutations to suppress the H2O2 hypersensitivity displayed in ask10 mutant strains. Interestingly, heat-induced destruction of Srb11p is independent of Ask10p, suggesting that the heat shock and oxidative stress pathways do not converge prior to triggering cyclin degradation. In addition, Ask10p is rapidly phosphorylated in ROS-treated cells but not in ...
Component of the Integrator complex, a complex involved in the small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) U1 and U2 transcription and in their 3-box-dependent processing. The Integrator complex is associated with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II largest subunit (POLR2A) and is recruited to the U1 and U2 snRNAs genes. Plays a role in DNA damage response (DDR) signaling during the S phase ...
Adaptive responses to stress are essential for cell and organismal survival. In metazoans, little is known about the impact of environmental stress on RNA homeostasis. By studying the regulation of a cadmium-induced gene named numr-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans, we discovered that disruption of RNA processing acts as a signal for environmental stress. We find that NUMR-1 contains motifs common to RNA splicing factors and influences RNA splicing in vivo. A genome-wide screen reveals that numr-1 is strongly and specifically induced by silencing of genes that function in basal RNA metabolism including subunits of the metazoan integrator complex. Human integrator processes snRNAs for functioning with splicing factors, and we find that silencing of C. elegans integrator subunits disrupts snRNA processing, causes aberrant pre-mRNA splicing, and induces the heat shock response. Cadmium, which also strongly induces numr-1, has similar effects on RNA and the heat shock response. Lastly, we find that heat shock
Adaptive responses to stress are essential for cell and organismal survival. In metazoans, little is known about the impact of environmental stress on RNA homeostasis. By studying the regulation of a cadmium-induced gene named numr-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans, we discovered that disruption of RNA processing acts as a signal for environmental stress. We find that NUMR-1 contains motifs common to RNA splicing factors and influences RNA splicing in vivo. A genome-wide screen reveals that numr-1 is strongly and specifically induced by silencing of genes that function in basal RNA metabolism including subunits of the metazoan integrator complex. Human integrator processes snRNAs for functioning with splicing factors, and we find that silencing of C. elegans integrator subunits disrupts snRNA processing, causes aberrant pre-mRNA splicing, and induces the heat shock response. Cadmium, which also strongly induces numr-1, has similar effects on RNA and the heat shock response. Lastly, we find that heat shock
Catalytic component of the Integrator (INT) complex, a complex involved in the small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) U1 and U2 transcription and in their 3-box-dependent processing. The Integrator complex is associated with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II largest subunit (POLR2A) and is recruited to the U1 and U2 snRNAs genes. Mediates the snRNAs 3 cleavage. Mediates recruitment of cytoplasmic dynein to the nuclear envelope, probably as component of the INT complex (PubMed:23904267).
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Cyclacel Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: CYCC) stock research, profile, news, analyst ratings, key statistics, fundamentals, stock price, charts, earnings, guidance and peers on Benzinga.
Friday, January 10 8:30 - 12:30 T1: Tutorial #1 - 6G: The Next Frontier, Academic, Industrial and Standard Perspective Speaker: Emilio Calvanese Strinati, CEA-LETI, Grenoble, France Room: LAUGHLIN I T2: Tutorial #2 - The Internet of Underwater Things: From Design to Experimentation Speaker: Stefano Basagni, Northeastern University, USA
Complete information for INTS6 gene (Protein Coding), Integrator Complex Subunit 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
This gene encodes a subunit of the Integrator complex. This protein complex binds the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and likely plays a role in small nuclear RNA processing. The encoded protein has similarities to the subunits of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor complex. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010 ...
Treatment guidelines can be found here. To read over the treatments for the developed CCNC multimedia please follow the corresponding module page; ...
In a 40 year old man with a 1 month total occlusion of a dominant right coronary artery, persistent angina despite medical… Expand ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synergistic repression of thyroid hyperplasia by cyclin C and Pten. AU - Jezek, Jan. AU - Wang, Kun. AU - Yan, Ruilan. AU - Di Cristofano, Antonio. AU - Cooper, Katrina F.. AU - Strich, Randy. PY - 2019/8/15. Y1 - 2019/8/15. N2 - The cyclin C-Cdk8 kinase has been identified as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene depending on the cell type. The genomic locus encoding cyclin C (Ccnc) is often deleted in aggressive anaplastic thyroid tumors. To test for a potential tumor suppressor role for cyclin C, Ccnc alone, or Ccnc in combination with a previously described thyroid tumor suppressor Pten, was deleted late in thyroid development. Although mice harboring individual Pten or Ccnc deletions exhibited modest thyroid hyperplasia, the double mutant demonstrated dramatic thyroid expansion resulting in animal death by 22 weeks. Further analysis revealed that Ccncthyr-/- tissues exhibited a reduction in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) phosphorylation at ...
Predicted to be involved in snRNA processing. Predicted to localize to integrator complex and nucleolus. Is expressed in axial musculature; medulla oblongata basal plate; olfactory cortex marginal layer; submandibular gland primordium; and telencephalon ventricular layer. Orthologous to human INTS4 (integrator complex subunit 4 ...
Sans aller trop loin dans vos fausses accusations sur les habitudes alimentaires et la consommation de chauves-souris réfutée, cette question a été complètement démystifiée par les journalistes du monde entier. Soyons clairs: nous ne mangeons pas de chauves-souris (et vous ne devriez pas non plus).. Donc, Joe Public, si cest votre vrai nom (bien que ladresse IP 104.205.57.148 soit assez bonne pour nous), et Jim (99.253.55.50, donc nous ne vous confondons pas avec quelquun dautre), vous vous trompez lorsque vous confondre le mensonge de manger des chauves-souris avec la transmission du virus - et le blâme. Et bien que nous puissions convenir que le COVID-19 a été détecté pour la première fois en Chine, le gouvernement de ce pays nassimile pas la représentation de la myriade didentités détenues par des millions de Chinois de souche à travers le monde.. En tant que Canadiens impartiaux, il est assez raciste de blâmer une race entière de personnes pour une épidémie de ...
ProSpecs Protein Kinases include: ATF-2, 14-3-3 Tau, 14-3-3 Epsilon, 14-3-3 Gamma, ErbB-2, ErbB3, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4, EGFR, C-JUN, CK2a, CK2b, CK2h, CCNC, CDKN2A
The Animal Naturopath is the official website for Thomas Sandberg, CSAN, CCNC, ADDP a certified animal naturopath, researcher, an author specializing in holistic animal care. Animal Naturopaths help the body heal itself.
EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval-pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity ...
Data/links for these compounds: TCMDC-123563, CHEMBL546966, CHEMBL page: 637010 Cc1ccc(cc1)n2c(cc(c2C)C(=O)CN3C(=O)C(NC3=O)Cc4ccccc4)C TCMDC-125698, CHEMBL587989, CHEMBL: 627784 Cc1cc(c(n1c2ccc(cc2)Cl)C)C=C3C(=O)N(C(=Nc4ccccc4)S3)C5CCCC5 TCMDC-125697, CHEMBL581336, CHEMBL: 640978 CCOC(=O)c1ccc(cc1)n2c(cc(c2C)C=C3C(=O)N(C(=Nc4ccccc4)S3)C5CCCC5)C TCMDC-125659, CHEMBL528140, CHEMBL: 626220 Cc1ccnc(c1)n2c(cc(c2C)C=C3C(=O)N(C(=Nc4ccccc4)S3)Cc5ccco5)C TCMDC-124103, CHEMBL588465, CHEMBL: 643107 Cc1cc(cc(c1)n2c(cc(c2C)C=C3C(=O)NC(=Nc4ccc(cc4)Cl)S3)C)C TCMDC-124456, CHEMBL548395, CHEMBL: 640006 CCn1c(cc(c1C)C=C2C(=O)NC(=Nc3ccccc3)S2)C ...
Expression of CNGA3 (ACHM2, CCNC1, CCNCa, CNCG3, CNG3) in ovary tissue. Antibody staining with HPA049378 in immunohistochemistry.
CTD kinases are critical for the elongation of HIV transcription and co-transcriptional processing of viral transcripts. They function after chromatin remodelin...
DISCONTINUED BY MANUFACTURER. FOR YOUR INFORMATION PURPOSES, WE HAVE KEPT THIS ITEM PLACEMENT AS COURTESY TO OUR CUSTOMERSYou may search for a related or...
Miconazolnitraat / Hydrocortison PCH is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Miconazolnitraat / Hydrocortison PCH is available on the Drugs.com website.
Thiamini hydrochloridum PCH is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Thiamini hydrochloridum PCH is available on the Drugs.com website.
1. Dannappel MV, Sooraj D, Loh JJ, Firestein R. Molecular and in vivo Functions of the CDK8 and CDK19 Kinase Modules. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2018;6:171 2. Borggrefe T, Yue X. Interactions between subunits of the Mediator complex with gene-specific transcription factors. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2011;22:759-68 3. Putlyaev EV, Ibragimov AN, Lebedeva LA, Georgiev PG, Shidlovskii YV. Structure and Functions of the Mediator Complex. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2018;83:423-36 4. Poss ZC, Ebmeier CC, Taatjes DJ. The Mediator complex and transcription regulation. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;48:575-608 5. Soutourina J. Transcription regulation by the Mediator complex. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2018;19:262-74 6. Roeder RG. Transcriptional regulation and the role of diverse coactivators in animal cells. FEBS letters. 2005;579:909-15 7. Schiano C, Casamassimi A, Vietri MT, Rienzo M, Napoli C. The roles of mediator complex in cardiovascular diseases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1839:444-51 8. Allen BL, Taatjes DJ. The ...
Transforming growth factor alpha- and c-myc-induced mammary carcinogenesis in transgenic mice.: The growth factor transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) an
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Community Care of North Carolina (CCNC), Medicaid-enrolled primary care.. for asthma, diabetes, congestive heart failure (CHF), and chronic obstructive.
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ... CDK4, CMM3, PSK-J3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin dependent kinase 4. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5[edit]. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a kinase that has been previously hypothesized to ...
Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are a group of several different kinases involved in regulation of the cell cycle. They ... Lim, S.; Kaldis, P. (16 July 2013). "Cdks, cyclins and CKIs: roles beyond cell cycle regulation". Development. 140 (15): 3079- ... Different combinations of specific CDKs and cyclins mark different parts of the cell cycle. Additionally, the phosphorylation ... Harper, J. W.; Adams, P. D. (August 2001). "Cyclin-Dependent Kinases". Chemical Reviews. 101 (8): 2511-2526. doi:10.1021/ ...
Different classes of cyclins are up- and down-regulated at different parts of the cell cycle. Measurement of the cyclins from ... For example, a peak of cyclin E protein would indicate the G1/S transition, a cyclin A peak would indicate late G2 phase, and a ... Cyclins are proteins that control progression through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases. Destruction of a ... This can actually be used to destroy phase-specific cyclins beyond just G2 - for instance, destruction of cyclin D1 mRNA by ...
... cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin B1, each in relation to DNA content Concurrent measurement of DNA content and of incorporation of ... Darzynkiewicz Z, Gong JP, Juan G, Ardelt B, Traganos F (1996). "Cytometry of cyclin proteins". Cytometry. 25 (1): 1-13. doi: ... cell cycle compartments are also recognized by multiparameter analysis that includes measurement of expression of cyclin D1, ...
... contain a cyclin box motif and have structural similarity to the cyclins. The encoded protein may play an important role in ... Cyclin M2 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CNNM2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ancient conserved domain ... provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]. "Entrez Gene: Cyclin M2". Retrieved 2013-02-23. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) v t e. ...
... activates cyclin dependent kinases by removing phosphate from residues in the Cdk active site. In turn, the ... Cyclin "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. cdc25+ ... May 1991). "Dephosphorylation and activation of a p34cdc2/cyclin B complex in vitro by human CDC25 protein". Nature. 351 (6323 ... By removing inhibitory phosphate residues from target cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), Cdc25 proteins control entry into and ...
Cyclins are proteins that play a key role in regulating the cell-division cycle. Hunt found that cyclins begin to be ... He and others subsequently showed that cyclins bind and activate a family of protein kinases, now called the cyclin-dependent ... the protein cyclin which is a component of cyclin dependent kinases, demonstrating his ability to grasp the significance of the ... He showed that cyclins are degraded periodically at each cell division, a mechanism proved to be of general importance for cell ...
The mitotic cyclins can be grouped as cyclins A & B. These cyclins have a nine residue sequence in the N-terminal region called ... Cyclin, a regulatory subunit. The cyclins are necessary for the kinase subunit to function with the appropriate substrate. ... As the concentration of Cyclin B/CDK1 increases, the heterodimer promotes APC to polyubiquitinate Cyclin B/CDK1. Smith LD, ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), the cyclin-dependent kinase subunit. It uses ATP to phosphorylate specific serine and ...
... , a cyclin protein. This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title CYCB. If an internal link led you ...
Cyclin-L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNL2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to cyclin family. ... 2004). "Cyclin L2, a novel RNA polymerase II-associated cyclin, is involved in pre-mRNA splicing and induces apoptosis of human ... 2004). "Characterization of cyclin L2, a novel cyclin with an arginine/serine-rich domain: phosphorylation by DYRK1A and ... "Entrez Gene: CCNL2 cyclin L2". Human CCNL2 genome location and CCNL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Maruyama K, ...
p16 inhibits cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6) and thereby activates the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of proteins ... "CDKN2A cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-10-11. ... CDKN2A, also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, is a gene which in humans is located at chromosome 9, band p21.3. ... "CDKN2A - Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDKN2A gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2016- ...
2004). "Characterization of cyclin L2, a novel cyclin with an arginine/serine-rich domain: phosphorylation by DYRK1A and ... "Entrez Gene: CCNL1 cyclin L1". Human CCNL1 genome location and CCNL1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Zhang QH, Ye ... Cyclin-L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNL1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163660 - Ensembl, May ... 2006). "Cyclin L1 (CCNL1) gene alterations in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma". Br. J. Cancer. 94 (7): 1041-4. doi: ...
He holds a US and international patent on Activators of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (ACDK) and has mentored many doctoral scholars ... 19-. ISBN 978-94-007-0265-3. She, Jin-Xiong; Wang, Cong-Yi; Kumar, G. Pradeep (20 December 2017). "Activators of cyclin- ...
Also involved in the phosphorylation and regulation of the RPB1 CTD is cyclin T1 (CCNT1). Cyclin T1 tightly associates and ... CDK8 and cyclin C (CCNC) are components of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme that phosphorylate the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD ... 2002). "A kinase-cyclin pair in the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme". Nature. 374 (6518): 193-6. doi:10.1038/374193a0. PMID ... TFIIH is a large protein complex that contains among others the CDK7/cyclin H kinase complex and a DNA helicase. TFIIH has ...
... cyclin box.' In mammalian cells, 9 cyclin species have been identified, and they are referred to as cyclins A through I. Cyclin ... Cyclin G-associated kinase received its name because it immunoprecipitated with cyclin G though it now appears to not be ... Cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK) is a serine/threonine kinase that in humans is encoded by the GAK gene. In all eukaryotes, the ... Cyclin G-associated kinase is a two domain cystolic protein. The domain of interest is the C-terminal domain which consists of ...
"Entrez Gene: RUNX1T1 runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1 (cyclin D-related)". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T ...
Jain SK, Bharate SB, Vishwakarma RA (2012). "Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition by flavoalkaloids". Mini Rev Med Chem. 12 (7): ... Bose P, Simmons GL, Grant S (2013). "Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor therapy for hematologic malignancies". Expert Opin ...
... has been shown to interact with: CDC45-related protein and CDC6, Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase, Cyclin- ... Laman H, Peters G, Jones N (Dec 2001). "Cyclin-mediated export of human Orc1". Experimental Cell Research. 271 (2): 230-7. doi: ... "Human CDC6/Cdc18 associates with Orc1 and cyclin-cdk and is selectively eliminated from the nucleus at the onset of S phase". ... "Human CDC6/Cdc18 associates with Orc1 and cyclin-cdk and is selectively eliminated from the nucleus at the onset of S phase". ...
Cyclin D-bound cdks 4 and 6 are activated by cdk-activating kinase and drive the cell towards the restriction point. Cyclin D, ... Sustained mitogen signaling promotes cell cycle entry largely through regulation of the G1 cyclins (cyclin D1-3) and their ... including the major G1 cyclin, cyclin D1. Myc also regulates expression of a wide variety of pro-proliferative and pro-growth ... The defining biochemical feature of the restriction point is the activation of G1/S- and S-phase cyclin-CDK complexes, which in ...
Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathan (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors come of age". Cell. 79 (4): 573-582. ... "Human cyclin A is adenovirus E1A-associated protein p60 and behaves differently from cyclin B". Nature. 346 (6286): 760-763. ... Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1991). "Cyclins and cancer". Cell. 66 (6): 1071-1074. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90028-W. PMID ...
This discovery was essential to the subsequent cloning of Xenopus cyclins and kept the Hunt lab at the forefront of cyclin ... Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors come of age". Cell. 79 (4): 573-582. ... Subsequently he cloned and characterised the first human cyclins with Tony Hunter. This was crucial to recognising that cyclins ... and identified the first link between cyclins and oncoproteins by showing that cyclin A bound to adenovirus E1A, thus linking ...
It has also been shown that Cdk2 complexes with both cyclin A and cyclin E and this complex is critical for centrosome ... by cyclin-dependent kinase 2-cyclin E and its role in centrosome duplication". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (24): ... "CDK2 cyclin dependent kinase 2 [Homo sapiens (human)]". Gene - NCBI. Retrieved 1 December 2019. Hinchcliffe EH, Li C, Thompson ... This link between the cell cycle and the centrosome cycle is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2). Cdk2 is a protein ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase 12 is a protein kinase that in humans is encoded by the CDK12 gene. This enzyme is a member of ... "Entrez Gene: CDK12 cyclin-dependent kinase 12". Human CDK12 genome location and CDK12 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... cyclin-dependent kinase protein family. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167258 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release ...
"Targets of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1". Nature. 425 (6960): 859-864. Bibcode:2003Natur.425..859U. doi:10.1038/nature02062 ...
The degradation of cyclins is the key step that governs the exit from mitosis and progress into the next cell cycle. Cyclins ... The cyclins are removed via a ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic pathway. Caspases are an important group of proteases involved in ... Cyclins are a group of proteins that activate kinases involved in cell division. ... Glotzer M, Murray AW, Kirschner MW (1991). "Cyclin is degraded by the ubiquitin pathway". Nature. 349 (6305): 132-8. Bibcode: ...
"Cyclin G1 and cyclin G2 comprise a new family of cyclins with contrasting tissue-specific and cell cycle-regulated expression ... Cyclin-G1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNG1 gene. The eukaryotic cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent ... "Entrez Gene: CCNG1 cyclin G1". Zhao L, Samuels T, Winckler S, Korgaonkar C, Tompkins V, Horne MC, Quelle DE (Jan 2003). "Cyclin ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin family and contains the cyclin box. The encoded protein lacks the ...
First, cyclin must bind to the Cdk. In the second step, CAK must phosphorylate the cyclin-Cdk complex on the threonine residue ... In budding yeast, activating phosphorylation by CAK can take place before cyclin binding. In both humans and yeast, cyclin ... Since Cdks need to be free of Cdk inhibitor proteins (CKIs) and associated with cyclins in order to be activated, CAK activity ... Lolli G, Johnson LN (April 2005). "CAK-Cyclin-dependent Activating Kinase: a key kinase in cell cycle control and a target for ...
In the late G2 phase, it is present as an inactive complex of tyrosine-phosphorylated p34cdc2 and unphosphorylated cyclin ... Meijer L, Azzi L, Wang JY (1991). "Cyclin B targets p34cdc2 for tyrosine phosphorylation". EMBO J. 10 (6): 1545-54. doi:10.1002 ...
Xu W, Ji JY (2011). "Dysregulation of CDK8 and Cyclin C in tumorigenesis". J Genet Genomics. 38 (10): 439-52. doi:10.1016/j.jgg ... Another example of structural variability is seen in vertebrates, in which 3 paralogues of subunits of the cyclin-dependent ...
cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ... cyclin D (Cdk4) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ...
Source for information on cyclin: A Dictionary of Biology dictionary. ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. Cyclin A is also produced, which ... Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... Cyclin Dependent Kinases in the Cell Cycle. Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene ...
... like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. Thanks. Mike * ... Cyclin E-Fix. micro-mike micro-mike at cox.net Sun Mar 3 16:33:22 EST 2002 *Previous message: THE SECRET the IRS is TERRIFIED ... But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the ...
CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... Cyclin I: a new cyclin encoded by a gene isolated from human brain. Nakamura T, et al. Exp Cell Res, 1995 Dec. PMID 7493655 ...
Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does ... cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha ... Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box ... The structural results indicate a role for the cyclin-box fold both as a template for the cyclin family and as a generalised ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
... é regulado pelos cyclins, um tipo de proteína que liga e activa quinase do dependente do cyclin (CDKs). Crédito de imagem: ... Para cada fase, há um grupo correspondente de cyclins: Cyclins G1, cyclins de G1/S, cyclins de S e cyclins de M, cada um com ... A função dos cyclins no ciclo de pilha. Cyclins não tem nenhuma função enzimático do seus próprios, e liga-a pelo contrário a ... Descoberta de Cyclins. Cyclins foi descoberto pela caça de Timothy, pelo Leland H. Hartwell e pela enfermeira de Paul M, que ...
... Charles Yang cyang at jhunix.hcf.jhu.edu Fri Oct 6 15:33:24 EST 1995 *Previous message: luciferase ... My problem: I cant find the nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the Cyclin H gene (the human counterpart to CCL1) and its ...
Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ...
Protein levels of cyclin B1 and cdc2 for each selected population are shown in Fig. 4B. Levels of cyclin B1 protein in cyclin ... Cyclin A regulates the initiation and maintenance of DNA synthesis whereas B cyclins control mitosis (32, 33). Cyclin B mRNA ... Cyclin B1/cdc2 kinase activity is shown in Fig. 4C. Cyclin B1 rescues the p53-dependent drop in cdc2 kinase activity in Ts- ... Cyclin B1 Expression Rescues p53-Mediated G2 Arrest.. To determine whether the decrease in cyclin B1 mRNA was the primary ...
Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis. W Meikrantz, S Gisselbrecht, S W Tam, and R Schlegel ... These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent ... Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. Stable ... to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. ...
... the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its ... the cyclin), led to a simple model for cell cycle control. Modulation of cyclin accumulation, and thereby Cdk activation, was ... CDK CKI Zellzyklus biochemistry biology cancer cell cell cycle cellular differentiation cellular growth cyclin-dependent kinase ... More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell ...
E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins ... However, endoreplication of trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes is severely impaired in the absence of cyclin E. Cyclin ... Cyclin E ablation in the mouse.. Geng Y., Yu Q., Sicinska E., Das M., Schneider J.E., Bhattacharya S., Rideout W.M., Bronson R. ... These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for ...
Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, ... Bienvenu et al. have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated ... Endogenous cyclin D1 associated with STAT3 in cells treated for 2 hours after treatment with interleukin 6 (IL-6), an activator ... F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. ...
Cyclin D1 governs microRNA processing in breast cancer Cyclin D1 controls cell cycle progression and microRNA biogenesis ... Cyclin D1 governs microRNA processing in breast cancer. Thomas Jefferson University. Journal. Nature Communications. Keywords. ... regulates expression of cyclin D1. Furthermore, the group showed that many cancer patients encode a form of cyclin D1 that ... Because the cyclin D1 gene has been implicated in a variety of other human cancers these findings may have broad implications ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
... balczonr at my-dejanews.com balczonr at my-dejanews.com Tue Sep 22 13:25:16 EST 1998 ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase synonyms, Cyclin-dependent kinase pronunciation, Cyclin-dependent kinase translation, English ... dictionary definition of Cyclin-dependent kinase. n. Any of various enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group ... Targeting cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in cancer: lessons from mice, hopes for therapeutic applications in human.. The ... STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS: DYNAMICS AND FLEXIBILITY ARE THE STORY.. STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF CYCLIN ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B regulates efferocytosis and atherosclerosis. Yoko Kojima, Kelly Downing, Ramendra Kundu, ... We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), ... See the related article at Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B regulates efferocytosis and atherosclerosis. ...
We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), ...
... Carmela Rinaldi,1 Natalia Maria Malara,2 Rosalia DAngelo,1 ... Carmela Rinaldi, Natalia Maria Malara, Rosalia DAngelo, et al., "Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer," ...
The results obtained suggest that the increment of the levels of cyclin D1 in intra-ductal breast tumors in older woman that we ... have examined is significantly associated with a lower proliferation rate.Conclusion: Cyclin D1, which characterizes tumor in ... Cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) plays pivotal roles in the development of several human cancers, including breast cancer, functioning as ... Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer. Carmela Rinaldi. ,1 Natalia Maria Malara. ,2 Rosalia DAngelo. ,1 ...
These thresholds are sequentially triggered as cyclin increases, yielding reliable order and timing. In many biological ... We conclude that mitotic events are regulated by discrete cyclin-CDK thresholds. ... Rising cyclin-CDK levels order cell cycle events PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e20788. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020788. Epub 2011 Jun ... Background: Diverse mitotic events can be triggered in the correct order and time by a single cyclin-CDK. A single regulator ...
... Cancer Chemother Biol Response Modif. 2002;20:169-96. ...
Download the full report: https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/5190761 Summary Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase ... This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found ... The latest report Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Cyclin ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cyclin T1 antibody validated for WB, IP, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 10 ... Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation ... Anti-Cyclin T1 antibody (ab2098) at 1/10000 dilution + HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cell line) Whole Cell Lysate at 10 µg. ... ab2098 (2µg/ml) staining Cyclin T1 in human lymph node using an automated system (DAKO Autostainer Plus). Using this protocol ...
Compare Anti-Cyclin K Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... Anti-Cyclin K Antibody Products. Anti-Cyclin K antibodies are available from several suppliers. In humans, this protein is ...
  • Cyclins, when bound with the dependent kinases , such as the p34 / cdc2 / cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • They act in conjunction with cyclin-dependent protein kinases, which are proteins that phosphorylate other proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • What are Cyclin-Dependent Kinases? (news-medical.net)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell cycle. (news-medical.net)
  • Cyclin dependent kinases are present at constant levels throughout the cell cycle, but are only active in the presence of cyclins. (news-medical.net)
  • Eukaryotic cell cycle progression is regulated by cyclin dependent protein kinases (CDKs) whose activity is regulated by association with cyclins and by reversible phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • p53 inhibits G 1 /S transition in cells exposed to DNA-damaging agents by causing accumulation of p21 CIP1/WAF1 ( 6 , 15 ), a protein that binds to and inactivates the cyclin-dependent kinases necessary for initiating DNA synthesis ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases, is also an important event during apoptosis. (pnas.org)
  • Not only were both of the known cell cycle transitions, from G 1 to S phase and G2 to M phase, found to be dependent on these protein kinases, but the reg- ulatory assumption intrinsic to cyclin-dependent kinases, a stable inactive catalytic subunit (the Cdk) and an unstable requisite positive regulatory activating subunit (the cyclin), led to a simple model for cell cycle control. (springer.com)
  • Targeting cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in cancer: lessons from mice, hopes for therapeutic applications in human. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is known as the cell cycle and cyclins and their partners, cyclin-dependant kinases, are its master control proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • NEW YORK - Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases like CDK7 and CDK12 are recurrently altered genetically in a range of cancer types, providing insight into potential treatment strategies, according to a new study. (genomeweb.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) typically bind cyclins and regulate a number of downstream proteins that are key components of cell division and transcription. (genomeweb.com)
  • Cyclin A1 is a member of the highly conserved cyclin family whose members are able to control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 1991). Cyclin A family members are characterized by a typical periodicity in protein abundance through the cell division cycle functioning as activating subunits of enzymatic complexes, together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) (Lapenna and Giordano, 2009). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The D‐type cyclins (cyclin D1, D2, and D3) promote cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase by binding to and activating the cyclin dependent kinases Cdk4 and Cdk6. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • D-type cyclins associate with partner cyclin-dependent kinases, CDK4 and CDK6, and promote phosphorylation and subsequent inactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product, RB and RB-related proteins. (nature.com)
  • They also interact with cyclin-dependent kinases to control cell cycle progression in plants. (mdpi.com)
  • This cyclin binds both CDK2 and CDC2 kinases, which give two distinct kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2, and thus regulate separate functions in cell cycle. (novusbio.com)
  • Cyclins are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance throughout the cell cycle and function as regulators of CDK kinases. (rockland-inc.com)
  • CAK activates the cyclin-associated kinases CDK1, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 by threonine phosphorylation. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Cyclins are regulatory subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) and they control transition at different specific phases of the cell cycle. (fishersci.com)
  • The key cell-cycle regulator Cdc2 belongs to a family of cyclin-dependent kinases in higher eukaryotes. (sciencemag.org)
  • A dominant-negative Cdc2 mutant arrested cells at the G2 to M phase transition, whereas mutants of the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk2 and Cdk3 caused a G1 block. (sciencemag.org)
  • The induction of cyclin D1 can also be mediated by a target of p53, the p21 (WAF1/CIP1) inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclins bind to and regulate the activity of the Cyclin dependent protein kinases (CDKs). (thermofisher.com)
  • Strikingly, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is itself a substrate for two protein kinases-the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk7 and Cdk9-that are activated by hypertrophic cues. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cyclins are eukaryotic proteins that play an active role in controlling nuclear cell division cycles [ ( PUBMED:12910258 ) ], and regulate cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). (embl.de)
  • Cyclins, together with the p34 (cdc2) or cdk2 kinases, form the Maturation Promoting Factor (MPF). (embl.de)
  • For example, in all eukaryotes mitosis (M phase) is initiated by high levels of cyclin B, which combines with a protein kinase to form the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF). (encyclopedia.com)
  • To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G 2 , we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G 2 arrest at 32°C. We have found that p53 prevents G 2 /M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. (pnas.org)
  • To study G 2 regulation by p53, we have established a human cell line, Ts-SKOV3, that stably expresses a temperature-sensitive p53 allele and undergoes G 2 arrest at 32°C. Using this cell line we have found that p53 arrests cell cycle in G 2 by lowering intracellular levels of cyclin B1, a protein absolutely required for mitotic initiation. (pnas.org)
  • The more aggressive basal-like subtype of breast cancers, however, exhibited lower levels of cyclin D1 and Dicer, which would in turn globally reduce the level of mature miRNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study involved cancer samples from 264 Taiwanese male oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and the results showed that increased levels of cyclin D1 were linked with later stage cancer and increased chance of the tumor spreading, as well as a reduced chance of survival. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • More research is needed, but assessing levels of cyclin D1 at diagnosis could help to personalize treatment. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Of the seven patients who had a recurrence, six had high levels of cyclin E activity. (scienceblog.com)
  • RESULTS- Mice treated with exendin-4 showed increased β-cell proliferation, elevated islet protein levels of cyclin A2 with unchanged D-type cyclins, elevated PDX-1 and Skp2 levels, and reduced p27 levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Human prostate carcinoma cell lines frequently express elevated levels of cyclin D1 protein, although the gene is not amplified in these cells ( 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin A is also produced, which binds to CDK2 and stimulates DNA replication. (news-medical.net)
  • Analysis of residues that are conserved throughout the A, B, and E cyclins identifies two exposed clusters of residues, one of which has recently been shown to be involved in the association with human CDK2. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does not undergo any significant conformational changes on complex formation. (nih.gov)
  • Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. (pnas.org)
  • However, their research also showed that treating breast cancer cells with a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) inhibitor can reverse letrozole resistance. (scienceblog.com)
  • After confirming that the LMW forms of cyclin E suppress the anti-proliferative effects of letrozole, the researchers examined whether a CDK2 inhibitor could reverse the drug resistance in the unresponsive breast cancer cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • We challenged the aromatase-overexpressing cells with either the wild-type or the low forms of cyclin E and then treated them with the CDK2 inhibitor roscovitine," Keyomarsi said. (scienceblog.com)
  • Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and interacting with viral proteins (Giordano et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2005). Human cyclin A1 interacts with CDK2 in vitro and in vivo (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2001). Moreover the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex regulates DNA double-strand break repair following radiation damage (Müller-Tidow et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2004) by competing with CDK2-cyclin A2 for the binding to Ku70, a pivotal player in the non-homologous end-joining double strand break repair pathway, and inhibiting apoptosis through modulating RB functions in leukemia cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, and is essential for cell cycle G1⁄S phase transition. (fishersci.ca)
  • Cdk2 and cyclin E, long thought to be essential, are largely dispensable. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cyclin E forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK2, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cyclin A binds to S phase Cdk2 and is required for the cell to progress through the S phase. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Cyclin A/ Cdk2 is inhibited by the complex p21CIP. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Cyclin E binds to the G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle that determines cell division. (rockland-inc.com)
  • The Cyclin E/CDK2 complex phosphorylates p27Kip1, tagging it for degradation, thus promoting expression of Cyclin A, allowing progression to S phase. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Hbo1 is a cyclin E/CDK2 substrate that enriches breast cancer stem-like cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) enzymes . (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the amino-terminal regions of S and M cyclins contain short destruction-box motifs that target these proteins for proteolysis in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cyclin is a family of proteins that controls the progression of a cell through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) enzymes or group of enzymes required for synthesis of cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once bound to a cyclin they act to phosphorylate many target proteins on serine or threonine amino acid residues. (news-medical.net)
  • Each interacts with a different cyclin at a different phase, stimulating various target proteins and ensuring that vital stages of each phase are carried out before a cell moves onto the next phase. (news-medical.net)
  • I wonder if the cytoplasmic staining we are getting is real or whether the methacarn is modifying other cytoplasmic proteins (like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. (bio.net)
  • Threading analysis shows that the cyclin-box fold is consistent with the sequences of the transcription factor TFIIB and other functionally related proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular analyses revealed that cells lacking cyclin E fail to normally incorporate MCM proteins into DNA replication origins during G(0)-->S progression. (uniprot.org)
  • The work supports the idea that cancer-causing proteins like cyclin D1 may drive cancer progression in part via miRNA biogenesis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dr Bill Wickstead, who along with his master's student Alexander Douglass characterised cyclin-like genes across Apicomplexa, said: "Cyclins are a really diverse class of proteins comprising many different types in different organisms. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cyclin E is one of the proteins that regulates the cell cycle, influencing how rapidly a cell passes through the four phases and divides. (scienceblog.com)
  • This cyclin was found to bind to important cell cycle regulators, such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho and nonphospho cyclin D1 proteins are captured by the coated antibody. (cellsignal.com)
  • Transcription of these particular cyclins is proposed to monitor the growth factor signal and the encoded proteins participate in G1 progression. (bl.uk)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cyclin H Antibodies (129) and Cyclin H Proteins (15) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cyclin K Kits (12) and Cyclin K Proteins (7) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Proteolytically processed forms of cyclin E proteins, which are specifically generated in tumors that overexpress cyclin E proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • There are 14939 Cyclin_C domains in 14900 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. (embl.de)
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing Cyclin_C domain. (embl.de)
  • The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with Cyclin_C domain is also avaliable . (embl.de)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing Cyclin_C domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • Cyclins themselves have no enzymatic activity but have binding sites for some substrates and target the Cdks to specific subcellular locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cyclins oscillate, increasing and decreasing at different stages, binding to CDKs and driving the cell cycle forward. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition to cyclin levels, this provides and additional way to control the activity of CDKs. (news-medical.net)
  • Cyclins also determine the subcellular location and substrate specificity of CDKs. (nih.gov)
  • O ciclo de pilha é regulado pelos cyclins, um tipo de proteína que liga e activa quinase do dependente do cyclin (CDKs). (news-medical.net)
  • Cyclins não tem nenhuma função enzimático do seus próprios, e liga-a pelo contrário a CDKs para ativá-los. (news-medical.net)
  • More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its control. (springer.com)
  • For example, although Cdks appear to be highly conserved phylogenetically, cyclins are much less so. (springer.com)
  • In a new study, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania now analyzed copy number gains and losses as well as other alterations affecting cyclins and CDKs in more than 10,000 tumors. (genomeweb.com)
  • As they reported in Cell Reports on Tuesday , the researchers found that cell cycle-related cyclins and CDKs were often amplified in tumors, but that copy number losses, especially affecting CDK7 and CDK12, also occurred. (genomeweb.com)
  • They identified more than two dozen CDKs and cyclins that were recurrently altered. (genomeweb.com)
  • Cell cycle-linked CDKs and cyclins were often amplified in cancers, but transcription-linked CDKs and cyclins tended to experience copy number losses. (genomeweb.com)
  • Our genomic analysis provided an additional rationale for the clinical development of targeting transcriptional CDKs/cyclins, especially for CDK7-targeted therapy," Zhang and his colleagues wrote. (genomeweb.com)
  • The temporal expression of cyclins is tightly regulated and subsequently plays a critical role in controlling the enzymatic activity of cdks. (fishersci.com)
  • Multiple cyclins activate CDKs in all eukaryotes, but it is unclear whether multiple cyclins are really required for cell cycle progression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dowejko, Bauer, Bauer, Müller-Richter, Reichert: The human HECA interacts with cyclins and CDKs to antagonize Wnt-mediated proliferation and chemoresistance of head and neck cancer cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • There are currently no images for Cyclin C Antibody (NB120-2950). (novusbio.com)
  • Western Blot: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-02902] - Cyclin A1 western with U2OS cells. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-02902] - Human testis after heat-induced antigen retrieval. (novusbio.com)
  • The absorbance readings at 450 nm are shown in the top figure, while the corresponding western blot using Cyclin D1 Antibody #2922, is shown in the bottom figure. (cellsignal.com)
  • A Cyclin D1 Rabbit Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. (cellsignal.com)
  • Following extensive washing, Cyclin D1 Mouse Detection Antibody is added to detect the captured cyclin D1 protein. (cellsignal.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Cyclin E1 Monoclonal Antibody (4H7) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # BSM-52048R. (thermofisher.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Cyclin B1 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 55004-1-AP. (thermofisher.com)
  • WB analysis of extracts from various cell lines using Cyclin H antibody. (genetex.com)
  • ICC/IF analysis of HeLa cells using Cyclin H antibody (green) and DAPI (blue). (genetex.com)
  • Cyclin B1 antibody detects Cyclin B1 protein at cytoplasm on mouse ovary by immunohistochemical analysis. (genetex.com)
  • But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the literature I have read. (bio.net)
  • Anti-Cyclin K antibodies are available from several suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 117 Cyclin K Antibodies across 20 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 1 cyclin Q Antibodies across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • Anti-Cyclin Antibodies are ideal for investigators involved in Cell Signaling, cell biology and Signal Transduction research. (rockland-inc.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 17 Cyclin H (CCNH) ELISA Kits from 4 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Tumor samples were immunostained for cyclin B using commercial antibodies. (kb.se)
  • This cyclin shows the highest similarity with cyclin G. The transcript of this gene was found to be expressed constantly during cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin I is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), in mice promotes vascular SMC apoptosis and aneurysm progression. (jci.org)
  • The role of cyclins in controlling G1 progression in mammalian cells was tested by construction of fibroblasts that constitutively overexpress human cyclin E. This was found to shorten the duration of G1, decrease cell size, and diminish the serum requirement for the transition from G1 to S phase. (sciencemag.org)
  • These observations show that cyclin levels can be rate-limiting for G1 progression in mammalian cells and suggest that cyclin synthesis may be the target of physiological signals that control cell proliferation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cyclin A1 primarily functions in the meiotic cell cycle, but it also seems to contribute to G1/S cell cycle progression in somatic cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Taken together, our results demonstrate that cyclin D2 has a critical role in cell cycle progression and the tumorigenicity of GSCs. (nature.com)
  • D-type cyclins are known to have critical roles in cell cycle progression. (nature.com)
  • Because cyclin A2 was stimulated by cAMP, we assessed the role of cylcin A2 in cell cycle progression in Min6 and isolated islet β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cyclin E is an important regulator of cell cycle progression. (springer.com)
  • Destruction of Cyclin B1 is required for cell cycle progression. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cyclin E deregulation impairs mitotic progression through premature activation of Cdc25C. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We hypothesized that intrapituitary cyclin E signaling regulates corticotroph tumor POMC transcription independently of cell cycle progression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 9q34.1 that encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase, which regulates cell cycle progression. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cyclin D1 oncogene encodes the regulatory subunit of a holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the Rb protein and promotes progression through G 1 to S phase of the cell cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and prostate tumor progression has yet to be clearly characterized. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin D2, a positive regulator of G1 progression, shows a unique localization within radial glial (RG) cells (i.e., the neural progenitor in the developing neocortex). (wiley.com)
  • Using antisense RNA, Dr. Pestell's group was the first to show that cyclin D1 drives mammary tumor growth in vivo. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here we show that cyclin D2 is the cyclin that is predominantly expressed in GSCs and suppression of its expression by RNA interference causes G1 arrest in vitro and growth retardation of GSCs xenografted into immunocompromised mice in vivo . (nature.com)
  • In conclusion, the findings of this study show that cyclin D1 has separate roles, and proliferation is driven by different mechanisms in ER positive and negative breast cancers. (kb.se)
  • Western blotting was used to measure cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27 that arrest cell cycle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • p27(KIP1) is a member of the CIP1/KIP1 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and is a potential tumor suppressor gene. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of the non-biological drugs, known as Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, are currently being tested for use in cancer treatment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Altered prostatic epithelial proliferation and apoptosis, prostatic development and serum testosterone in mice lacking cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors," Biology of Reproduction 73(5): 951-958. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • in opposition to this idea, it has been argued that cyclins might target the activated CDK to particular substrates or inhibitors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • AIMS: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) play a critical role in negatively regulating the proliferation of cardiomyocytes, although their role in cardiac differentiation remains largely undetermined. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Pituitary cyclin E/E2F1 signaling is a previously unappreciated molecular mechanism underlying neuroendocrine regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, providing a subcellular therapeutic target for small molecule cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitors of pituitary ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism, ie, Cushing disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In thisreview, we focus our attention on cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase complexes,cyclin kinase inhibitors, genes of the retinoblastoma family, p53 and N-Myc, and we aim to summarize the latest evidence indicating their involvement in thecontrol of the cell cycle and induction of differentiation in different celltypes of the peripheral and central nervous systems. (embl.de)
  • Cell changes in the cell cycle like the assembly of mitotic spindles and alignment of sister-chromatids along the spindles are induced by M cyclin- Cdk complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It depicts the many complexes of cyclin and Cdk (cyclin/Cdk) as fulfilling unique and essential steps that dictate the sequential order of cell cycle events. (sciencemag.org)
  • These cyclin/cdk complexes are essential for passage through specific stages in the cell cycle. (fishersci.com)
  • Cyclin B1 complexes with p34 (cdc2) to form the maturation-promoting factor (MPF). (thermofisher.com)
  • SETD1A and cyclin K complexes may represent a therapeutic opportunity for acute myeloid leukemia and, potentially, for other cancers. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin K-containing kinase complexes maintain self-renewal in murine embryonic stem cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • It is known that the cell cycle and cell proliferation are regulated by the sequential activation of cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin complexes. (wiley.com)
  • This cyclin and its kinase partner are components of TFIIH, as well as RNA polymerase II protein complexes. (genetex.com)
  • Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. (pnas.org)
  • This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found to interact with CDK9 and cyclin T, which suggested a possible involvement of this protein in AIDS. (medindia.net)
  • Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation factor B (P-TEFb), which is proposed to facilitate the transition from abortive to productive elongation by phosphorylating the CTD (carboxy-terminal domain) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). (abcam.com)
  • In budding yeast, commitment occurs when the catalytic subunit of a protein kinase, encoded by the CDC28 gene (the homolog of the fission yeast cdc2+ gene), binds to a positively acting regulatory subunit, a cyclin. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cyclin D1 forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell cycle G 1 /S transition. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) usually functions to inhibit the transcription factor E2F, however, when cyclin-D-CDK4 phosphorylates the Rb protein, this relinquishes inhibition of E2F and leads to the production of genes required for entering the S phase. (news-medical.net)
  • These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. (news-medical.net)
  • For their analysis, the researchers determined the somatic copy number alterations, mutations, and transcript fusions affecting 21 CDK genes and 26 cyclin genes within The Cancer Genome Atlas. (genomeweb.com)
  • Here, we have investigated a series of 110 primary malignant gliomas and 8 glioma cell lines for amplification and expression of the D‐type cyclin genes CCND1 (11q13), CCND2 (12p13), and CCND3 (6p21). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • 5 Three D-type cyclins, cyclin D1, D2 and D3, are encoded by distinct genes, but show significant amino-acid similarity. (nature.com)
  • Our genome-wide analysis identified 52 expressed cyclin genes in tomato. (mdpi.com)
  • Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicates that the expression patterns of tomato cyclin genes were significantly different in vegetative and reproductive stages. (mdpi.com)
  • Transcription of most cyclin genes can be enhanced or repressed by exogenous application of gibberellin, which implies that gibberellin maybe a direct regulator of cyclin genes. (mdpi.com)
  • Cyclin C was originally identified by a genetic screen for human and Drosophila cDNAs that complement a triple knock-out of the CLN genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (novusbio.com)
  • The treatment of quiescent cells with growth factors results in the transcriptional activation of the D-type cyclin genes during G1. (bl.uk)
  • Comparison of these results with those for the cyclin D1 and D2 genes should elucidate how transcription of these genes is co-ordinately regulated by growth factors. (bl.uk)
  • It is normally activated by cyclin C and is required for transcription elongation of the serum response genes (immediate early genes [IEGs]) FOS, EGR1, and cJUN. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • RV-cyclin does not control CDK8 specificity but instead enhances CDK8's effects on regulated genes, an important distinction for its use to delineate natural CDK8 targets. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae C-type cyclin and its cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk8p) repress the transcription of several stress response genes. (genetics.org)
  • A cyclin forms a complex with Cdk, which begins to activate but the complete activation requires phosphorylation, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination of cyclin E by the SCFFbw7 ubiquitin ligase. (addgene.org)
  • The cyclin H / cdk7 (show CDK7 ELISA Kits )/ Mat1 (show MAT1A ELISA Kits ) kinase activity is regulated by CK2 (show CSNK2A1 ELISA Kits ) phosphorylation of cyclin H . (antibodies-online.com)
  • Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. (mdpi.com)
  • RV-cyclin does not increase activating phosphorylation events in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and does not inhibit decay of IEG mRNAs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The levels of S cyclins remain high, not only throughout S phase, but through G2 and early mitosis as well to promote early events in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • M cyclin concentrations rise as the cell begins to enter mitosis and the concentrations peak at metaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The destruction of M cyclins during metaphase and anaphase, after the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint is satisfied, causes the exit of mitosis and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, cyclin B binds to CDK-1 to drive the cycle forward into M phase, stimulating mitosis. (news-medical.net)
  • Cyclin B1 is a regulatory protein involved in mitosis. (rockland-inc.com)
  • The D and E type cyclins regulate the passage of G1, while cyclin B is a critical regulator of mitosis. (fishersci.com)
  • Cyclin B1 is not ubiquitinated during G2/M phase, resulting in its steady accumulation during G2 phase, followed by abrupt APC dependent destruction at the end of mitosis. (thermofisher.com)
  • The cyclin concentration increases during the cycle until halfway to the mitosis stage, when it drops to zero. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyclin may act as a molecular switch that activates mitosis when its concentration reaches a certain point. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Low molecular weight cyclin E overexpression shortens mitosis, leading to chromosome missegregation and centrosome amplification. (semanticscholar.org)
  • During RG division, Cyclin D2 protein is asymmetrically distributed to two daughter cells following mitosis. (wiley.com)
  • There are two main groups of cyclins, G1/S cyclins, which are essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G1/S (start) transition, and G2/M cyclins, which are essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G2/M (mitosis) transition. (embl.de)
  • G2/M cyclins accumulate steadily during G2 and are abruptly destroyed as cells exit from mitosis (at the end of the M-phase). (embl.de)
  • Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) - Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. (medindia.net)
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) pipeline Target constitutes close to 26 molecules. (medindia.net)
  • It also reviews key players involved in Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (medindia.net)
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 7 (39 kDa Protein Kinase or CDK Activating Kinase 1 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 7 or TFIIH Basal Transcription Factor Complex Kinase Subunit or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 or CDK7 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) - Cell division protein kinase 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 7 (39 kDa Protein Kinase or CDK Activating Kinase 1 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 7 or TFIIH Basal Transcription Factor Complex Kinase Subunit or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 or CDK7 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) pipeline Target constitutes close to 11 molecules. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • In prior work, they showed that cyclin D1 regulates the non coding genome, and that the non-coding genome, in turn, regulates expression of cyclin D1. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the current study, the group sought to investigate the mechanism by which cyclin D1 regulates the biogenesis of non coding miRNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • Finally, two results suggest that cyclin C regulates programmed cell death independently of its function as a transcriptional repressor. (genetics.org)
  • Unlike other cyclins that positively regulate the cell cycle, cyclin G2 (CCNG2) regulates cell proliferation as a tumor suppressor gene. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus ( KSHV ) encodes a D-type cyclin (ORF72) that binds CDK6 and is likely to contribute to KSHV-related cancers [9] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene expression, which binds to CDK4. (news-medical.net)
  • It binds to cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) and enhances its kinase activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In tumor cells, cyclin E is converted to low-molecular weight forms, an event that does not occur in normal cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. (harvard.edu)
  • Cyclin E and E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection was performed in murine corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells to elucidate mechanisms for drug action. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • R-roscovitine inhibits human pituitary corticotroph tumor ACTH by targeting the cyclin E/E2F1 pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These data indicated that the tumor-promoting activity of cyclin D1 may be tissue specific. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This supports results from earlier studies that suggest that cyclin D1 could be used as a prognostic biomarker. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • We suggest that cyclin B might be a potent prognostic factor in this low-risk patient group. (kb.se)
  • This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin T2 has been shown to interact with CDK9 and Retinoblastoma protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin K interacts with CDK12 and CDK13 but not CDK9 in cells, and is required to maintain self-renewal in ES cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin K inhibits HIV-1 gene expression and replication by interfering with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)-cyclin T1 interaction in Nef-dependent manner. (antibodies-online.com)
  • These results reveal an unexpectedly direct role for CDK9-cyclin K in checkpoint pathways that maintain genome integrity in response to replication stress. (antibodies-online.com)
  • P-TEFb containing cyclin K and Cdk9 can activate transcription via RNA. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. (mdpi.com)
  • HIV-1 Tat protein interacts with CDK9 and cyclin T, suggesting CDK9 may have a role in AIDS. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Study TPI-ALV-201 is examining the efficiency of alvocidib, an investigational inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), in combination with the authorized agents cytarabine and mitoxantrone in relapsed/refractory AML patients whose leukemia depends on MCL-1. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Biopharmaceutical company Probiodrug AG revealed on Friday the transfer of its experimental cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) inhibitor programme to AstraZeneca (LSE:AZN)(NYSE:AZN) for an undisclosed amount. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyclin specificity: how many wheels do you need on a unicycle? (biomedsearch.com)
  • The sensitivity and specificity of cyclin B was 65% and 92%, respectively. (kb.se)
  • The p-TEFb complex containing this cyclin was reported to interact with, and act as a negative regulator of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single regulator could confer order and timing on multiple events if later events require higher cyclin-CDK than earlier events, so that gradually rising cyclin-CDK levels can sequentially trigger responsive events: the "quantitative model" of ordering. (nih.gov)
  • They did this by expressing the cell-cycle regulator, a protein called cyclin A2. (rxpgnews.com)
  • These results define both a new function for SNIP1 and identify a previously unrecognized regulator of the cell cycle and cyclin D1 expression. (nature.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. (curehunter.com)
  • Second, the human cyclin C, which does not repress transcription in yeast, does regulate ROS sensitivity. (genetics.org)
  • Cyclins positively regulate cell proliferation to a large extent. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. (uniprot.org)
  • It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins are critically required for proliferation of all cell types. (uniprot.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that E type cyclins are largely dispensable for mouse development. (uniprot.org)
  • These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for cyclin E in normal versus oncogenic proliferation. (uniprot.org)
  • b ) The mRNA levels of D-type cyclins in undifferentiated (stem) or differentiated (diff) GB1-3 and 5 cells were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. (nature.com)
  • CBP-S436A islets exhibited elevated cyclin A2, reduced p27, and no changes in D-type cyclins, PDX-1, or Skp2. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • C-, H- and J18 types only contain a cyclin-C domain, and U-type cyclins contain another potential cyclin domain. (mdpi.com)
  • NMB or NMBR silencing inhibited M-CSF (zeige CSF1R Proteine )/ c-Fms (zeige CSF1R Proteine )-mediated downstream signaling pathways like activation of ERK (zeige EPHB2 Proteine ) and Akt (zeige AKT1 Proteine ) and induction of D-type cyclins, cyclin D1 and D2. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • We show here that accumulation of the wild-type p53 protein in either human or murine cells markedly increases expression of cyclin D1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The expression of cyclin H and CDK7 (show CDK7 ELISA Kits ) protein in proliferating hemangiomas was significantly higher than that in involuting hemangiomas and normal skin tissues. (antibodies-online.com)
  • We found that low-risk node negative patients with high expression of cylin B had a significantly worse outcome than patients with low expression of cyclin B. Cyclin B could separate patients with poor survival from those with good survival with 80% accuracy. (kb.se)
  • By the way, the name cyclin, which I coined, was really a joke, it's because I liked cycling so much at the time, but they did come and go in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of human cyclins through the cell cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclins were originally named because their concentration varies in a cyclical fashion during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the cyclins are now classified according to their conserved cyclin box structure, and not all these cyclins alter in level through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] ) The oscillations of the cyclins, namely fluctuations in cyclin gene expression and destruction by the ubiquitin mediated proteasome pathway, induce oscillations in Cdk activity to drive the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclins can be divided into four classes based on their behavior in the cell cycle of vertebrate somatic cells and yeast cells: G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not universal as some cyclins have different functions or timing in different cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyclins also promote other activities to progress the cell cycle, such as centrosome duplication in vertebrates or spindle pole body in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in that the concentrations increase gradually (with no oscillation), throughout the cell cycle based on cell growth and the external growth-regulatory signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of G cyclins coordinate cell growth with the entry to a new cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Expression of cyclins detected immunocytochemically in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase), [7] or in relation to initiation and termination of DNA replication during S-phase, can be measured by flow cytometry . (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclins were originally discovered by R. Timothy Hunt in 1982 while studying the cell cycle of sea urchins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several different cyclins that are active in different parts of the cell cycle and that cause the Cdk to phosphorylate different substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC28 was identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which bound to cyclins and drove the cell through the various transitions of the cell cycle. (news-medical.net)
  • Knockdown of Cyclin I induced cell cycle arrest at S/G2/M phases. (nih.gov)
  • Modulation of cyclin accumulation, and thereby Cdk activation, was proposed to be the overarching principle governing the passage through cell cycle phases. (springer.com)
  • However, endoreplication of trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes is severely impaired in the absence of cyclin E. Cyclin E-deficient cells proliferate actively under conditions of continuous cell cycling but are unable to reenter the cell cycle from the quiescent G(0) state. (uniprot.org)
  • In addition to its role in regulating the cell cycle, cyclin D1 induces Dicer and thereby promotes the maturation of miRNA," says lead researcher Richard Pestell, M.D., Ph.D., Director of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University and Chair of the Department of Cancer Biology. (eurekalert.org)
  • Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of the cell cycle-driving molecule, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), in HCC was significantly reduced by the treatments with vitamin K2, K3 and K5. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyclin A1 transfected 293T cell line lysate. (abcam.com)
  • Dr Magali Roques, who is the lead author said: "This first functional study of cyclin in the malaria parasite and its consequences in parasite development within pathogen-carrying mosquitoes will definitely further our understanding of parasite cell division, which I hope will lead to the elimination of this disease in the future. (eurekalert.org)
  • The research, focused on the role of cyclin, one of the most important protein molecules needed for cell division. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, until now, very little was known about cyclins in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, which undergoes atypical types of cell cycle during its development both in the human host where the disease is manifested and in the vector mosquito which transmits the disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • 6-Gingerol induces cell-cycle G1-phase arrest through AKT-GSK 3β-cyclin D1 pathway in renal-cell carcinoma. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Human F-box protein hCdc4 targets cyclin E for proteolysis and is mutated in a breast cancer cell line. (addgene.org)
  • It is unique in its control at two major transitions of the cell cycle and is the only cyclin that is completely silenced after birth in mice, rats and humans. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Cyclin A1 is also expressed in several myeloid leukemia cell lines and various other tumour types (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2004). Cyclin A1 has an important role in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): its localization in normal hematopoietic cells is nuclear, whereas in leukemic cells from AML patients and cell lines, it is predominantly cytoplasmic (Ekberg et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Male knockout mice lacking cyclin A1 are infertile owing to a cell cycle arrest before the first meiotic division (Liu et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Here, we discuss the phenotypes of these and other cyclin/Cdk mutants in genetically tractable metazoa (mouse, fly, and nematode) and explore possible reasons behind similarities and differences among experimental systems and cell types. (sciencemag.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Changes in islet protein levels of cyclins and of two critical cell cycle regulators cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) were assessed in mice treated with exendin-4 and in a mouse model with specific upregulation of nuclear cAMP signaling exhibiting increased β-cell proliferation (CBP-S436A mouse). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS- Cyclin A2 is required for β-cell proliferation, exendin-4 stimulates cyclin A2 expression via the cAMP pathway, and exendin-4 stimulation of cAMP requires PDX-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cyclins play important roles in cell division and cell expansion. (mdpi.com)
  • The cyclin encoded by this gene was shown to be expressed in testis and brain, as well as in several leukemic cell lines, and is thought to primarily function in the control of the germline meiotic cell cycle. (novusbio.com)
  • In addition to its role in regulating the cell cycle cyclin D1 induc. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, this kit has a low detection level for cyclin D1 in some cell lines, such as HeLa, Mv 1 Lu or NIH/3T3. (cellsignal.com)
  • Cyclin D1 is unsuitable for minimal residual disease monitoring in bone marrow of patients with mantle cell lymphoma. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Overexpression of cyclin D1 results in dysregulated CDK (zeige CDK4 Proteine ) activity, rapid cell growth under conditions of restricted mitogenic signaling, bypass of key cellular checkpoints, and ultimately, neoplastic growth. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • in its absence, cyclins D2 and D3 are also not expressed, preventing hematopoietic cell division and differentiation at its earliest stage. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Induction of mammary gland hyperplasia and carcinomas in transgenic mice expressing human cyclin E. Mol Cell Biol. (springer.com)
  • Expression of cell cycle regulators p27Kip1 and cyclin E, alone and in combination, correlate with survival in young breast cancer patients. (springer.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity is essential for eukaryotic cell cycle events. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Experimental data has suggested that cyclin D1 and E mediate cell proliferation by different mechanisms in estrogen receptor (ER) positive and negative breast cancer. (kb.se)
  • Cyclin B1 is overexpressed in various cancers, including breast, prostate, and non-small cell lung cancer. (thermofisher.com)
  • that cyclin K may be a novel molecular link between germ cell development, cancer development and embryonic stem cell maintenance. (antibodies-online.com)
  • P16-INK4a interacts strongly with cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 and inhibits their ability to interact with cyclins D. P16-INK4a induces cell cycle arrest at G1 and G2/M checkpoints, blocking them from phosphorylating RB1 and preventing exit from G1 phase of the cell cycle. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The distribution patterns of pUL97 and cyclin T1 were independent of HCMV strain and host cell type. (mdpi.com)
  • Here we show that constitutive expression of RV-cyclin in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line significantly increases the level of IEG expression in response to serum stimulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These findings demonstrate a new role for the Slt2p MAP kinase cascade in protecting the cell from programmed cell death through cyclin C destruction. (genetics.org)
  • Several prostate cancer cell lines and a subset of primary prostate cancer samples have increased cyclin D1 protein expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The data showed that overexpression of cyclin D1 in the initiated BPH-1 cell line increased cell proliferation rate but did not elicit tumorigenicity in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies have shown that mouse prostatic normal and Rb −/− epithelial cells have elevated cyclin D1 expression as they enter the cell cycle ( 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin D2 accumulates at the very basal tip of the RG cell (i.e., the basal endfoot) via a unique cis -regulatory sequence found in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of its mRNA. (wiley.com)
  • The daughter cell that inherits Cyclin D2 mRNA maintains its self-renewal capability, while its sibling undergoes differentiation. (wiley.com)
  • Aim We evaluated epidermal cell turnover and thickness, as well as the expression of cyclins D1, B and A in psoriatic skin before and after therapy with cyclosporin. (wiley.com)
  • Methods Epidermal thickness, mitotic and apoptotic indices (MI, AI), as well as the percentages of epidermal cell nuclei positive for Ki-67 and cyclins D1, B and A were calculated. (wiley.com)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of p53 to control mitotic initiation by regulating intracellular cyclin B1 levels suggests that the cyclin B-dependent G 2 checkpoint has a role in preventing neoplastic transformation. (pnas.org)
  • For all of the apoptosis-inducing agents tested, the appearance of condensed chromatin was accompanied by 2- to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. (pnas.org)
  • Diverse mitotic events can be triggered in the correct order and time by a single cyclin-CDK. (nih.gov)
  • We titrated the budding yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 within its endogenous expression range to a stable, fixed level and measured time to occurrence of three mitotic events: growth depolarization, spindle formation, and spindle elongation, as a function of fixed Clb2 level. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that mitotic events are regulated by discrete cyclin-CDK thresholds. (nih.gov)
  • G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B2, HsT17299, cyclin B2. (prospecbio.com)
  • The structural results indicate a role for the cyclin-box fold both as a template for the cyclin family and as a generalised adaptor molecule in the regulation of transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, suggesting a mechanism whereby STAT3-dependent transcription could be immediately attenuated. (sciencemag.org)
  • Moreover, SNIP1 depletion results in inhibition of cyclin D1 promoter activity in a manner dependent upon a previously characterized binding site for the AP-1 transcription factor family. (nature.com)
  • PDX-1 knockdown reduced exendin-4-stimulated cAMP synthesis and cyclin A2 transcription. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Human cdk8-cyclin C might be functionally associated with the mammalian transcription apparatus, perhaps involved in relaying growth-regulatory signals. (novusbio.com)
  • I have been defining the cis -acting elements and trans -acting factors that control transcription of the human cyclin D3 gene in T-cells. (bl.uk)
  • The minimal cyclin D3 promoter sequence was identified as a region 173bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. (bl.uk)
  • The protein encoded by CCNK is a member of the transcription cyclin family. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Retroviral cyclin controls cyclin-dependent kinase 8-mediated transcription elongation and reinitiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Previous work showed that the retroviral cyclin (RV-cyclin), encoded by WDSV, has separable cyclin box and transcription activation domains. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and nuclear run-on assays provide evidence that RV-cyclin does not alter the initiation of IEG transcription but does enhance the overall rate of transcription elongation and maintains transcription reinitiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1997). The cyclin A1 promoter does not possess a TATA box, whereas the region upstream of the transcriptional start site region contains four GC boxes, with multiple Sp1-binding sites important for the regulation of cyclin A1 expression (Müller et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Cyclin H is implicated in the regulation of the transcriptional machinery during midblastula transition and is therefore an essential gene in early zebrafish larval development. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cyclin E-Mediated Human Proopiomelanocortin Regulation as a Therapeutic Target for Cushing Disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cyclin E and E2F1 exhibit reciprocal positive regulation in corticotroph tumors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Alvocidib is an investigational small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 , a protein important to the regulation of Myc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Microarray analysis showed that the expression profiles between CAFs and NPF cyclin D1 cells were highly concordant including cyclin D1 up-regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, all members of the cyclin family are similar in 100 amino acids that make up the cyclin box. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the protein the cyclin box is a region of protein sequence homology that is common to all members of the cyclin family and is required for interaction with the CDK partner. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In contrast to mammalian cells, these yeast cells had only one CDK which interacted with various cyclins. (news-medical.net)
  • Mammalian cyclin A1 is primarily localized in the nuclei of spermatocytes in mouse and human (Liu et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In mammalian somatic cells, cyclin A is required for S-phase and passage through G2-phase. (fishersci.com)
  • Cyclin K is highly expressed in mammalian testes in a developmentally regulated manner. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Here, we discuss our findings and the Cyclin D2 function in mammalian brain development and evolution. (wiley.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) bound to the inhibitor ribociclib (detail view). (news-medical.net)
  • Verzenio is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4 & 6 inhibitor that will be available as 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg tablets. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • HOUSTON - Overexpression of low-molecular-weight (LMW-E) forms of the protein cyclin E renders the aromatase inhibitor letrozole ineffective among women with estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers, researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center report in Clinical Cancer Research . (scienceblog.com)
  • The M. D. Anderson team hypothesized that ER+ breast cancer patients whose tumors express the LMW forms of cyclin E would be less responsive to treatment with an aromatase inhibitor. (scienceblog.com)
  • This arrest is characterized by accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (WAF1/CIP1) and of underphosphorylated forms of retinoblastoma protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cardiac differentiation in Xenopus requires the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27Xic1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Belongs to the cdkn2 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor family. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Cyclin A2 overexpression in primary islets increased proliferation and reduced p27. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In Min6 cells, cyclin A2 knockdown prevented exendin-4-stimulated proliferation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To test this hypotheses in large breast cancer material and to clarify the histopathological correlations of cyclin E and D1, especially the association with proliferation, we analyzed cyclin E and D1 immunohistochemical expression on breast tumour microarrays consisting of 1348 invasive breast cancers. (kb.se)
  • The differences at each stage are due to a balance between the gene expression of each cyclin and the ubiquitin-proteasome system which breaks them down. (news-medical.net)
  • Overexpression of cyclin D1 reduced STAT3-dependent gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • At the EGR1 gene locus, RV-cyclin increases and maintains RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy after serum stimulation, in conjunction with increased and extended EGR1 gene expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Donnellan R, Kleinschmidt I, Chetty R. Cyclin E immunoexpression in breast ductal carcinoma: pathologic correlations and prognostic implications. (springer.com)
  • We wanted to examine cyclin B as a prognostic factor in low-risk breast cancer patients. (kb.se)
  • The aim was to investigate whether R-roscovitine inhibits human ACTH in corticotroph tumors by targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase 2/cyclin E signaling pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A similar localization pattern of Cyclin D2 protein has been observed in the human fetal cortical primordium, suggesting a common mechanism of maintenance of neural progenitors that may be evolutionarily conserved across higher mammals such as primates. (wiley.com)
  • S cyclins bind to Cdk and the complex directly induces DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cdk- G1/S cyclin complex begins to induce the initial processes of DNA replication, primarily by arresting systems that prevent S phase Cdk activity in G1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Confocal immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of pUL97 with cyclin T1 in subnuclear compartments, most pronounced in viral replication centres. (mdpi.com)
  • The mechanism behind this is that the low forms of cyclin E increase the activity of the cyclin E complex, and this complex is what mediates the negative effects. (scienceblog.com)
  • However, overexpression of cyclin D1 in normal prostate fibroblasts (NPF) that were subsequently recombined with BPH-1 did induce malignant transformation of the epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Overexpression of cyclin D1 plays important roles in the development of human cancers, including breast, colon, and melanoma ( 11 , 13 - 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because the cyclin D1 gene has been implicated in a variety of other human cancers these findings may have broad implications for processing of non coding RNA in human tumorigenesis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Background: Cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) plays pivotal roles in the development of several human cancers, including breast cancer, functioning as an oncogene. (hindawi.com)
  • A second prediction of the model is that increasing the rate of cyclin accumulation should globally advance timing of all events. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclins are generally very different from each other in primary structure, or amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box. (nih.gov)
  • My problem: I can't find the nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the Cyclin H gene (the human counterpart to CCL1) and its corresponding protein. (bio.net)
  • It recognizes a protein of 54kDa, which is identified as cyclin A. Its epitope is located amino acids 144-148 of human Cyclin A2. (fishersci.com)
  • The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231-280. (mdpi.com)
  • We have solved the crystal structure, at 2.0 A resolution, of an active recombinant fragment of bovine cyclin A, cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha helices. (nih.gov)
  • Recombinant human Cyclin E1 protein, around 100-200aa. (thermofisher.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Cyclin B1. (genetex.com)
  • We found that we could negate the growth inhibitory effects of letrozole with the low forms of cyclin E but not with the wild-type cyclin E," said Keyomarsi, the study's senior author. (scienceblog.com)
  • Of those, 100 expressed normal levels of wild-type cyclin E, and 28 overexpressed the low forms," Keyomarsi said. (scienceblog.com)
  • When we looked at recurrence, three of the hundred with wild-type cyclin E had experienced a recurrence compared to four of the twenty-eight with the low forms. (scienceblog.com)
  • Graf L, Webel R, Wagner S, Hamilton ST, Rawlinson WD, Sticht H, Marschall M. The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins. (mdpi.com)
  • Exendin-4 stimulated cyclin A2 promoter activity via the cAMP-cAMP response element binding protein pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The human cyclin D3 gene has a TATA-less promoter and a single dominant initiation site. (bl.uk)
  • Transient transfections using CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) reporter constructs containing sequential deletions of the cyclin D3 promoter defined positively and negatively regulated regions. (bl.uk)
  • Cyclin K1 is the primary cyclin partner for CDK12/CrkRS and it is required for activation of CDK12/CrkRS to phosphorylate the C-terminal domain of RNA Pol II. (antibodies-online.com)