A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a role in the transition from G1 to S PHASE and in transcriptional regulation.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE infecting fish. Species include Walleye dermal sarcoma virus, Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 1, and Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 2.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A CYCLIN C dependent kinase that is an important component of the mediator complex. The enzyme is activated by its interaction with CYCLIN C and plays a role in transcriptional regulation by phosphorylating RNA POLYMERASE II.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F4 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene PROMOTER REGIONS through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130 and RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P107.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
A transcriptional elongation factor complex that is comprised of a heterodimer of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9 and one of several CYCLINS including TYPE T CYCLINS and cyclin K. It functions by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA POLYMERASE II.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing five ANKYRIN-LIKE REPEATS. Aberrant expression of this protein has been associated with deregulated EPITHELIAL CELL growth, organ enlargement, and a variety of NEOPLASMS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are biochemically distinct CTD kinases. (1/37)

Phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II is important for basal transcriptional processes in vivo and for cell viability. Several kinases, including certain cyclin-dependent kinases, can phosphorylate this substrate in vitro. It has been proposed that differential CTD phosphorylation by different kinases may regulate distinct transcriptional processes. We have found that two of these kinases, cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36, can specifically phosphorylate distinct residues in recombinant CTD substrates. This difference in specificity may be largely due to their varying ability to phosphorylate lysine-substituted heptapeptide repeats within the CTD, since they phosphorylate the same residue in CTD consensus heptapeptide repeats. Furthermore, this substrate specificity is reflected in vivo where cyclin C/ CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 can differentially phosphorylate an endogenous RNA polymerase II substrate. Several small-molecule kinase inhibitors have different specificities for these related kinases, indicating that these enzymes have diverse active-site conformations. These results suggest that cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are physically distinct enzymes that may have unique roles in transcriptional regulation mediated by their phosphorylation of specific sites on RNA polymerase II.  (+info)

Two novel 14-Epi-analogues of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. (2/37)

The biological activity of two novel 14-epi-analogues of 1,25(OH)2D3, 19-nor-14-epi-23-yne-1,25(OH)2D3 (TX 522) and 19-nor-14,20-bisepi-23-yne-1,25(OH)2D3 (TX 527), is described. Both analogues were at least 10 times more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation and had much lower in vivo calcemic effects than 1,25(OH)2D3. Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, TX 522, or TX 527 in vitro was accompanied by an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Protein levels of cyclin C and cyclin D1 in in vitro cultures of MCF-7 cells were down-regulated to 50 and 30%, respectively, of control levels at 72 and 120 h after stimulation. Protein levels of p21 and p27 at 72 h were significantly enhanced by 1,25(OH)2D3 and TX 522 but surprisingly not by TX 527. The inability of TX 527 to up-regulate p21 seemed to be cell type specific because p21 was induced in other cell types. Diminished phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein after treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, TX 522, or TX 527 may ultimately contribute to the growth inhibition caused by these compounds. According to the data presented, the induction of apoptosis seemed not to be a major mechanism responsible for the growth-inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 and analogues. Both 14-epianalogues significantly retarded tumor progression (40% reduced compared with control mice) in an in vivo model of MCF-7 breast cancer cells established in nude mice. In conclusion, these novel analogues have the eligible profile to be tested as therapeutic agents for the treatment of hyperproliferative diseases such as breast cancer.  (+info)

Human cyclin C protein is stabilized by its associated kinase cdk8, independently of its catalytic activity. (3/37)

Cyclin C belongs to the cyclin family of proteins that control cell cycle transitions through activation of specific catalytic subunits, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). However, there is as yet no evidence for any role of cyclin C and its partner, cdk8, in cell cycle regulation. Rather, the cyclin C-cdk8 complex was found associated with the RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. The periodic degradation of bona fide cyclins is crucial for cell-cycle progression and depends on the catalytic activity of the associated CDK. Here we show that endogenous cyclin C protein is quite stable with a half-life of 4 h. In contrast, exogenously expressed cyclin C is very unstable (half-life 15 min) and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Co-expression with its associated cdk, however, strongly stabilizes cyclin C and results in a protein half-life near that of endogenous cyclin C. In stark contrast to data reported for other members of the cyclin family, both catalytically active and inactive cdk8 induce cyclin C stabilization. Moreover, this stabilization is accompanied in both cases by phosphorylation of the cyclin, which is not detectable when unstable. Our results indicate that cyclin C has apparently diverged from other cyclins in the regulation of its stability by its CDK partner.  (+info)

Characterization of mediator complexes from HeLa cell nuclear extract. (4/37)

A number of mammalian multiprotein complexes containing homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator subunits have been described recently. High-molecular-mass complexes (1 to 2 MDa) sharing several subunits but apparently differing in others include the TRAP/SMCC, NAT, DRIP, ARC, and human Mediator complexes. Smaller multiprotein complexes (approximately 500 to 700 kDa), including the murine Mediator, CRSP, and PC2, have also been described that contain subsets of subunits of the larger complexes. To evaluate whether these different multiprotein complexes exist in vivo in a single form or in multiple different forms, HeLa cell nuclear extract was directly resolved over a Superose 6 gel filtration column. Immunoblotting of column fractions using antisera specific for several Mediator subunits revealed one major size class of high-molecular-mass (approximately 2-MDa) complexes containing multiple mammalian Mediator subunits. No peak was apparent at approximately 500 to 700 kDa, indicating that either the smaller complexes reported are much less abundant than the higher-molecular-mass complexes or they are subcomplexes generated by dissociation of larger complexes during purification. Quantitative immunoblotting indicated that there are about 3 x 10(5) to 6 x 10(5) molecules of hSur2 Mediator subunit per HeLa cell, i.e., the same order of magnitude as RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors. Immunoprecipitation of the approximately 2-MDa fraction with anti-Cdk8 antibody indicated that at least two classes of Mediator complexes occur, one containing CDK8 and cyclin C and one lacking this CDK-cyclin pair. The approximately 2-MDa complexes stimulated activated transcription in vitro, whereas a 150-kDa fraction containing a subset of Mediator subunits inhibited activated transcription.  (+info)

c-Myc initiates illegitimate replication of the ribonucleotide reductase R2 gene. (5/37)

The mechanisms through which the oncoprotein c-Myc initiates locus-specific gene amplification are not understood. When analysing the initiation mechanism of c-Myc-dependent amplification of the mouse ribonucleotide reductase R2 (R2) gene, we observe c-Myc-dependent initiation of illegitimate DNA replication of the R2 gene. We demonstrate multiple simultaneous c-Myc-induced R2 replication forks, whereas R2 normally replicates with a single fork. In contrast, cyclin C replicates with only a single replication fork irrespective of c-Myc deregulation. In addition to de novo replication forks, c-Myc also initiates bi-allelic replication of R2, abrogating its normal mono-allelic replication pattern. Moreover, several chromosomal regions also display c-Myc-induced illegitimate replication profiles. Thus, c-Myc can act as an illegitimate replication-licensing factor that promotes de novo replication initiation and illegitimate replication timing that adversely impacts upon genomic stability.  (+info)

Selenite and selenomethionine promote HL-60 cell cycle progression. (6/37)

The essential role of selenium (Se) in nutrition is well established. The elucidation of the mechanisms by which selenium regulates the cell cycle can lead to a better understanding of the nature of selenium's essentiality and its role in disease prevention. In this study, the effects of selenium deficiency or adequacy (0.25 micromol/L selenite or selenomethionine) on HL-60 cell cycle progression were examined in serum-free media. Selenium was critical for promotion of HL-60 cell growth. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that selenium deficiency caused a decrease in G1 phase cells that corresponded to an increase in G2 and sub-G1 phase cells. Gene array analysis suggested that c-Myc, cyclin C, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin B and cyclin D2 mRNA levels were lower in selenium-deficient cells than in the cells supplemented with 0.25 micromol/L selenomethionine. The decrease in the c-Myc mRNA level in selenium-deficient cells was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, the phosphorylation state of total cellular protein was higher (57%) in selenium-supplemented cells than in selenium-deficient cells. Collectively, these results suggest a novel role for selenium at 0.25 micromol/L in up-regulation of the expression of numerous cell cycle-related genes and total cellular phosphorylated proteins in HL-60 cells in serum-free culture media. This leads to the promotion of cell cycle progression, particularly G2/M transition and/or the reduction of apoptosis, primarily in G1 cells. These observations may have additional implications for understanding the nature of selenium's essentiality.  (+info)

Analysis of cell cycle gene expression responding to acetoxyscirpendiol isolated from Paecilomyces tenuipes. (7/37)

Paecilomyces tenuipes is believed to contain potential oncostatic and tumor-reducing components. Molecular mechanism, however, is poorly understood concerning the potential antitumor components and their biological function. We purified acetoxyscirpendiol (ASD) from methanolic extracts (MPT) of the fungus and tested the two compounds for the molecular profile of their antitumor potential. Using a differential display protocol, cyclin C and Mad-1 were identified as candidate genes responding to MPT. When a quantitative PCR was performed on the total RNA from MCF-7 treated by MPT or ASD, gene expressions of cyclin C and Mad-1 were greatly augmented. In terms of protein expression, cyclin C level increased up to 12 folds in response to ASD as well as MPT. Similar as MPT treatments, ASD-treated cells synthesize cyclin C as 2-4 fold compared to the control treatments. In terms of Mad-1 expression in cells treated with ASD, the level of Mad-1 expression increased up to 2.5 folds by MPT treatment. Cyclin C expression was compared with non-treated cells in various cell lines. MCF-7 cell was shown highly responsive to the MPT or ASD treatment. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that MPT contains potential antitumor components which might exert their action by modulating cell cycle-related genes such as cyclin C and Mad-1 in MCF-7. The major antioncogenic component in MPT may be ASD which modulates cyclin C and Mad-1 expression.  (+info)

c-Myc-induced extrachromosomal elements carry active chromatin. (8/37)

Murine Pre-B lymphocytes with experimentally activated MycER show both chromosomal and extrachromosomal gene amplification. In this report, we have elucidated the size, structure, and functional components of c-Myc-induced extrachromosomal elements (EEs). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that EEs isolated from MycER-activated Pre-B+ cells are an average of 10 times larger than EEs isolated from non-MycER-activated control Pre-B- cells. We demonstrate that these large c-Myc-induced EEs are associated with histone proteins, whereas EEs of non-MycER-activated Pre B- cells are not. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses using pan-histone-specific, histone H3 phosphorylation-specific, and histone H4 acetylation-specific antibodies indicate that a significant proportion of EEs analyzed from MycER-activated cells harbors transcriptionally competent and/or active chromatin. Moreover, these large, c-Myc-induced EEs carry genes. Whereas the total genetic make-up of these c-Myc-induced EEs is unknown, we found that 30.2% of them contain the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene, whereas cyclin C (CCNC) was absent. In addition, 50% of these c-Myc-activated Pre-B+ EEs incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), identifying them as genetic structures that self-propagate. In contrast, EEs isolated from non-Myc-activated cells neither carry the DHFR gene nor incorporate BrdU, suggesting that c-Myc deregulation generates a new class of EEs.  (+info)

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

The prognosis for mantle-cell lymphoma is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of approximately 40%. Treatment options include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and autologous stem-cell transplantation. The disease often recurs after initial therapy, and subsequent treatments may be less effective.

Mantle-cell lymphoma can be difficult to distinguish from other types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, such as follicular lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and a correct diagnosis is important for determining appropriate treatment.

Slide: Mantle Cell Lymphoma (Image courtesy of Nephron/Wikimedia Commons)

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

Word count: 190

... D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to S phase. G2/M cyclins - essential for ... The rise in presence of G1/S cyclins is paralleled by a rise in S cyclins. G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ... Note that the cyclins are now classified according to their conserved cyclin box structure, and not all these cyclins alter in ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ...
Cyclin-O is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNO gene. Cyclin O has been shown to interact with RPA2 and PCNA. ... "Entrez Gene: CCNO cyclin O". Otterlei M, Warbrick E, Nagelhus TA, Haug T, Slupphaug G, Akbari M, Aas PA, Steinsbekk K, Bakke O ... Hirst R, Gosden R, Miller D (June 2006). "The cyclin-like uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) of murine oocytes and its relationship ... Muller SJ, Caradonna S (January 1993). "Cell cycle regulation of a human cyclin-like gene encoding uracil-DNA glycosylase". The ...
Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Different cyclins ... Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ...
... is a member of the cyclin family, specifically the B-type cyclins. The B-type cyclins, B1 and B2, associate with ... Cyclin B1 co-localizes with microtubules, whereas cyclin B2 is primarily associated with the Golgi region. Cyclin B2 also binds ... Cyclin B2 has been shown to interact with TGF beta receptor 2. Cyclin B GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000157456 - Ensembl, ... "Cyclin B2-null mice develop normally and are fertile whereas cyclin B1-null mice die in utero". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
... is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin B is a mitotic cyclin. The amount of cyclin B (which binds to Cdk1) and the ... Because cyclin B is necessary for cells to enter mitosis and therefore necessary for cell division, cyclin B levels are often ... The fact that cyclin B is often disregulated in cancer cells makes cyclin B an attractive biomarker. Many studies have been ... Cyclin+B at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Cyclin B - The Interactive Fly (All ...
"Entrez Gene: CCNE1 cyclin E1". Shanahan F, Seghezzi W, Parry D, Mahony D, Lees E (February 1999). "Cyclin E associates with ... Mumberg D, Wick M, Bürger C, Haas K, Funk M, Müller R (1997). "Cyclin ET, a new splice variant of human cyclin E with a unique ... Cyclin E1 has been shown to interact with: CDC25A, CDKN1B, CUL3 Cdk1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, HERC5, P21, Retinoblastoma- ... Lew DJ, Dulić V, Reed SI (October 1991). "Isolation of three novel human cyclins by rescue of G1 cyclin (Cln) function in yeast ...
Other than Rb, viral cyclin D-Cdk6 complex also targets p27Kip, a Cdk inhibitor of cyclin E and A. In addition, viral cyclin D- ... The phosphorylation of Rb by cyclin A-Cdk2, cyclin B-Cdk1, and cyclin E-Cdk2 are unaffected. The C terminus has a stretch of 21 ... In mice and humans, two more cyclin D proteins have been identified. The three homologues, called cyclin D1, cyclin D2, and ... among which is cyclin D. In this way, cyclin D is synthesized as long as the growth factor is present. Cyclin D levels in ...
Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (Apr 1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... "The consensus motif for phosphorylation by cyclin D1-Cdk4 is different from that for phosphorylation by cyclin A/E-Cdk2". The ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDKs (Cyclin-dependent kinase). Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... cyclin D1 is translocated to the IgH promoter leading to cyclin D1 overexpression. Chromosomal translocation of the cyclin D1 ... Cyclin D1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND1 gene. The CCND1 gene encodes the cyclin D1 protein. The human ... Cyclin D1 and the mechanisms it regulates have the potential to be a therapeutic target for cancer drugs: Cyclin D1 has been ...
"Cyclin K inhibits HIV-1 gene expression and replication by interfering with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)-cyclin T1 ... "Entrez Gene: CCNK cyclin K". Baek K, Brown RS, Birrane G, Ladias JA (February 2007). "Crystal structure of human cyclin K, a ... Cyclin K also interacts with HIV nef protein. In the presence of overexpressed Nef protein, Cyclin k and CDK9 binding is ... Cyclin K is indispensable for Leukemia growth. SETD1A, is also known to bind Cyclin K through its FLOS domain. The interaction ...
"Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378-88. doi: ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNB1 gene. Cyclin B1 is a regulatory protein ... Like all cyclins, levels of cyclin B1 oscillate over the course of the cell cycle. Just prior to mitosis, a large amount of ... Cyclin B1 can reside in the nucleus or the cytoplasm which can have an effect on the malignant potential of cyclin B1 when ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNE2 gene. It is a G1 cyclin that binds Cdk2 and is inhibited by p27( ... Gudas JM, Payton M, Thukral S, Chen E, Bass M, Robinson MO, Coats S (January 1999). "Cyclin E2, a novel G1 cyclin that binds ... Zariwala, M.; Liu, J.; Xiong, Y. (1998-11-26). "Cyclin E2, a novel human G1 cyclin and activating partner of CDK2 and CDK3, is ...
Like all cyclin family members, cyclin E forms a complex with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2). Cyclin E/CDK2 regulates multiple ... Cyclin E is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin E binds to G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S ... Cyclin E/CDK2 plays a critical role in the G1 phase and in the G1-S phase transition. Cyclin E/CDK2 phosphorylates ... Dysregulation of cyclin E occurs in 18-22% of the breast cancers. Cyclin E is a prognostic marker in breast cancer, its altered ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns that ... Cyclin-T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin tightly associates with CDK9 kinase, and was found to be a major subunit of the transcription elongation factor p- ... This cyclin and its kinase partner were also found to be involved in the phosphorylation and regulation of the carboxy-terminal ...
Cyclin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA2 gene. It is one of the two types of cyclin A: cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A2 belongs to the cyclin family, whose members regulate cell cycle progression by interacting with CDK kinases. Cyclin ... The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex eventually phosphorylates E2F, turning off cyclin A2 transcription. E2F promotes cyclin A2 ... Cyclin A2 is synthesized at the onset of S phase and localizes to the nucleus, where the cyclin A2-CDK2 complex is implicated ...
... has been shown to interact with P53, Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and MNAT1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000134480 ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-H is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNH gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin forms a complex with CDK7 kinase and ring finger protein MAT1. The kinase complex is able to phosphorylate CDK2 and ...
... remains associated with CDK1 from late S into late G2 phase when it is replaced by cyclin B. Cyclin A/CDK1 is thought ... Cyclin A is the only cyclin that regulates multiple steps of the cell cycle. Cyclin A can regulate multiple cell cycle steps ... Cyclin A2 is expressed in dividing somatic cells. Cyclin A, along with the other members of the cyclin family, regulates cell ... P21 is a CDK inhibitor that binds to several cyclin/CDK complexes, including cyclin A-CDK2/1 and cyclin D/CDK4, and blocks the ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4, Cyclin-dependent kinase 6, EIF3K, and Retinoic acid receptor alpha. Cyclin Cyclin D GRCh38: Ensembl ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ...
CDK6; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK7; cyclin H CDK8; cyclin C CDK9; cyclin T1, cyclin T2a, cyclin T2b, cyclin K CDK10 ... cyclin A, cyclin B CDK2; cyclin A, cyclin E CDK3; cyclin C CDK4; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK5; CDK5R1, CDK5R2. See also ... Furthermore, cyclin binding determines the specificity of the cyclin-CDK complex for particular substrates. Cyclins can ... Viruses can encode proteins with sequence homology to cyclins. One much-studied example is K-cyclin (or v-cyclin) from Kaposi ...
E2F.2FpRb complexes Hyperphosphorylation cdc25 Maturation promoting factor CDK cyclin A cyclin B cyclin D cyclin E Wee (cell ... "Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378-1388. doi: ... Cyclin binding alters access to the active site of Cdk1, allowing for Cdk1 activity; furthermore, cyclins impart specificity to ... Furthermore, cyclins can target Cdk1 to particular subcellular locations. In addition to regulation by cyclins, Cdk1 is ...
"Entrez Gene: CDK10 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDC2-like) 10". Kasten M, Giordano A (Apr 2001). "Cdk10, a Cdc2-related kinase, ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 10 has been shown to interact with ETS2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000185324 - Ensembl, May ...
A Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 interacts with: CDKN2C, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3, P16, PPM1B, and PPP2CA. Cell cycle Cyclin-dependent ... It is regulated by cyclins, more specifically by Cyclin D proteins and Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins. The protein ... 1996). "Inhibition of Cyclin D-CDK4/CDK6 Activity Is Associated with an E2F-Mediated Induction of Cyclin Kinase Inhibitor ... 2003). "Expression of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6, but Not Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4, Alters Morphology of Cultured Mouse ...
... has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ... "Entrez Gene: CDK2 cyclin-dependent kinase 2". Echalier A, Endicott JA, Noble ME (March 2010). "Recent developments in cyclin- ... This protein associates with and is regulated by the regulatory subunits of the complex including cyclin E or A. Cyclin E binds ... Lacy S, Whyte P (May 1997). "Identification of a p130 domain mediating interactions with cyclin A/cdk 2 and cyclin E/cdk 2 ...
... has been shown to interact with: Androgen receptor, Cyclin H, GTF2H1, MNAT1, P53, SUPT5H, and XPB. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 7, or cell division protein kinase 7, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene. The ... The growth suppressor p53 has been shown to interact with cyclin H both in vitro and in vivo. Addition of wild type p53 was ... "Entrez Gene: CDK7 cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (MO15 homolog, Xenopus laevis, cdk-activating kinase)". Patel H, Abduljabbar R, Lai ...
"OMIM Entry - * 123831 - CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; CDK5". omim.org. Retrieved 2020-11-02. Tsai, Li-Huei. Cyclin Dependent ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is a protein, and more specifically an enzyme, that is encoded by the Cdk5 gene. It was discovered 15 ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5. Springer. 19 August 2008. ISBN 978-0-387-78886-9. Patrick GN, Zukerberg L, Nikolic M, de la Monte S ... Cyclin-Dependent+Kinase+5 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CDK5 human gene location in ...
During G2 phase, cyclin A is degraded, while cyclin B is synthesized and cyclin B-Cdk1 complexes form. Not only are cyclin B- ... cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), with a regulatory subunit, cyclin. Once cyclin-dependent kinases bind to cyclin, the formed ... Cyclin Cyclin-dependent kinase Malumbres M, Barbacid M. Mammalian cyclin-dependent kinases. Trends Biochem. Sci. 2005 Nov;30(11 ... cyclin D1-Cdk4 and cyclin D1-Cdk6 phosphorylate pRB, followed by additional phosphorylation from the cyclin E-Cdk2 CDKC. Once ...
"Entrez Gene: CDK4 cyclin-dependent kinase 4". "CDK4 - Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDK4 gene & protein". ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ... 1995). "Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
... or CDK9 is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found ... Cyclin-Dependent+Kinase+9 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Cyclin dependent ... "Entrez Gene: CDK9 cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDC2-related kinase)". MacLachlan TK, Sang N, De Luca A, Puri PL, Levrero M, ...
"Entrez Gene: CDK3 cyclin-dependent kinase 3". Bullrich F, MacLachlan TK, Sang N, et al. (1995). "Chromosomal mapping of members ... 2002). "ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3)". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (23): 6076-82. doi:10.1046/j. ... Ren S, Rollins BJ (2004). "Cyclin C/cdk3 promotes Rb-dependent G0 exit". Cell. 117 (2): 239-51. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00300 ... CDK3 can phosphorylate histone H1 and interacts with an unknown type of cyclin. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000250506 - ...
Background: Cyclin B1. Cyclin B1 (also CCNB1 and G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1) is a member of the cyclin AB subfamily, cyclin ... CCNB; CCNB1; Cyclin B1; G2/mitotic-specific cyclin B1; G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1 ... Human Cyclin B1 is 433 amino acids (aa) in length. It contains two cyclin box folds (aa 201‑290 and 298‑383) and two substrate ... Cyclin B1 in Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Cyclin B1 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human ...
Cyclin-Dependent Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.646.500]. *Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.646. ... It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA ... Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21. ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.200.323]. *Proline-Directed Protein Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
Kinase enrichment analysis of hypo-phosphorylated proteins using the X2K Web tool identified ERK1, cyclin-dependant kinase 1 ( ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 promotes cellular proliferation by activating cyclin-dependent kinases and ...
Cyclin A was observed after 4 days of costimulation with anti CD2 + CD28 whereas stimulation by anti CD2 or anti CD28 alone was ... Relief of cyclin A gene transcriptional inhibition during activation of human primary T lymphocytes via CD2 and CD28 adhesion ... Relief of cyclin A gene transcriptional inhibition during activation of human primary T lymphocytes via CD2 and CD28 adhesion ... Cyclin A transcription is cell cycle regulated and induced by cell proliferative signals. To understand the mechanisms ...
Cyclin Missy Grand Rapids, MI, United States. Welcome to Cyclin Missy! Im an avid cyclist and runner in Grand Rapids, ... Posted by Cyclin Missy at 8:11 AM Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Pinterest ...
A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.646.500]. *Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3 [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.646. ... "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3" by people in this website by year, ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is a kinase involved in the regulation of cell cycle, being responsible for triggering DNA ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is a kinase involved in the regulation of cell cycle, being responsible for triggering DNA ... Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the determinants of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibition by 5-nitrosopyrimidine ... Molecular dynamics, well-tempered metadynamics, drug design, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, 5-nitrosopyrimidines ...
... Ver/Abrir. Quandt Herrera, Eva [et al.]_Atypical Cyclins Extended_2019.pdf ( ... These potential "cyclins" have been named new, orphan or atypical, creating a conundrum in cyclins nomenclature. Moreover, ... Regulation of cell division is orchestrated by cyclins, which bind and activate their catalytic workmates, the cyclin-dependent ... Atypical cyclins: the extended family portrait. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2020, 77, p. 231-242. Disponible en: , ...
Hyperphosphorylation of tau on S202 and T205 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in SMA disease condition, because ... Hyperphosphorylation of tau on S202 and T205 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in SMA disease condition, because ... Hyperphosphorylation of tau on S202 and T205 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in SMA disease condition, because ... Hyperphosphorylation of tau on S202 and T205 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in SMA disease condition, because ...
Informations about Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2D (CDKN2D) Antibody (abx005030-20) ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been ...
Human Cyclin-dependent kinase 4,CDK-4 ELISA Kit. All. Elisa Kit (11.192). Laboratuvar Cihazları (88). Moleküler Genetik ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) complex is significantly over-activated in many cancers. While it makes CDK2 an attractive ... Inhibition of the CDK2 and Cyclin A complex leads to autophagic degradation of CDK2 in cancer cells. ... Inhibition of the CDK2 and Cyclin A complex leads to autophagic degradation of CDK2 in can ... between CDK2 and Cyclin A. To target the potential druggable pockets, we perform a LIVS in silico screening of a library ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 binds and phosphorylates DNA methyltransferase 1. Isamu Kameshita, Mari Sekiguchi, Daisuke ... Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 binds and phosphorylates DNA methyltransferase 1. In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... This 110-kDa kinase was identified as cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) by LC-MS/MS analysis. CDKL5 and Dnmt1 were found ... This 110-kDa kinase was identified as cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) by LC-MS/MS analysis. CDKL5 and Dnmt1 were found ...
CONCLUSION: Altered expression of cyclin D1 is associated with lymph node metastasis and risk of UCB recurrence. Cyclin D1 ... Expression of cyclin d1 and its association with disease characteristics in bladder cancer. Submitted by aii2002 on April 5, ... Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Cell Line, Tumor, Cyclin D1, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, RNA, Messenger, Urinary Bladder ... were immunostained using an antibody against cyclin D1. The association between cyclin D1 and clinicopathological parameters ...
cyclin-dependent kinase 2; Cyclin-dependent kinase 2; cyclin-dependent kinase 2; cell division protein kinase 2; cyclin ... FITC-linked Antibody to Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2) Form/Appearance. Supplied as solution form in PBS, pH7.4, containing ... This is an antibody designed to detect Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2) ; CDK2 ... dependent kinase 2-alpha; cyclin dependent kinase 2; Cell division protein kinase 2 ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a member of the Cdks family, is identified to play a critical role in the development of CNS ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a member of the Cdks family, is identified to play a critical role in the development of CNS ... The functional roles of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in neural development. by Fu Wing Yu THESIS 2002 ...
The Potential Role of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 in Focal Cortical Dysplasia ... The Potential Role of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 in Focal Cortical Dysplasia ...
The combined detection of Amphiregulin, Cyclin A1 and DDX20/Gemin3 expression predicts aggressive forms of oral squamous cell ...
Human Papillomavirus16 Variant E7 Gene Induces Transformation of NIH 3T3 Cells Via Up-Regulation of cdc25A and Cyclin A ... Human Papillomavirus16 Variant E7 Gene Induces Transformation of NIH 3T3 Cells Via Up-Regulation of cdc25A and Cyclin A ... Human Papillomavirus16 Variant E7 Gene Induces Transformation of NIH 3T3 Cells Via Up-Regulation of cdc25A and Cyclin A ...
Dive into the research topics of The Arabidopsis D-type cyclin CYCD2;1 and the inhibitor ICK2/KRP2 modulate auxin-induced ... The Arabidopsis D-type cyclin CYCD2;1 and the inhibitor ICK2/KRP2 modulate auxin-induced lateral root formation. ...
mir-34a targets cell cycle genes CCND1 (cyclin D1) and MYCN, while mir-21 does not target PTEN and PDCD4 in neuroblastoma. ... cyclin D1). Additionally, SIRT1 was a probable target of mir-34a. Two mRNAs that previously were shown to be targeted by mir-21 ...
HR+/HER2- Metastatic Breast Cancer: What Can You Do to Optimize Patient Access to Cyclin-dependent Kinase 4 and 6 Inhibitors ...
Maternal cyclin B levels "Chk" the onset of DNA replication checkpoint control in Drosophila. ... Dive into the research topics of Maternal cyclin B levels "Chk" the onset of DNA replication checkpoint control in Drosophila ...
... adenocarcinoma by suppressing cyclin B1. ... Ursolic acid regulates cell cycle and proliferation in colon adenocarcinoma by suppressing cyclin B1. - GreenMedInfo Summary ... The biological functions of cyclin B1 (CCNB1) in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) will be explored in this study. Furthermore, the ... Ursolic Acid Regulates Cell Cycle and Proliferation in Colon Adenocarcinoma by Suppressing Cyclin B1. ...
It has been shown that the oncogenic activity of G1 cyclin E (CCNE) can be amplified by generating hyperactive low molecular ... Impact of cyclins E, neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 expression levels on clinical outcome in primary breast cancer ... Impact of cyclins E, neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 expression levels on clinical outcome in primary breast cancer ... It has been shown that the oncogenic activity of G1 cyclin E (CCNE) can be amplified by generating hyperactive low molecular ...
The CCND2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called cyclin D2. Learn about this gene and related health conditions ... Cyclins are a family of proteins that control how cells proceed through the multi-step cycle of cell division. Cyclin D2 helps ... Cyclin D2s role in the cell division cycle makes it a key controller of the rate of cell growth and division (proliferation) ... The cyclin D2 protein is regulated by a chemical signaling pathway called the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. This signaling influences ...
Cyclin Missy said... Oh man. I cant imagine why you wouldnt come to Grand Rapids, Michigan to give away your free Knog stuff ...
... and decreased cyclin B1 levels. Superoxide dismutase, a scavenger of O2-, or sodium formate, an inhibitor of OH, had no ... leading to phosphorylation of Cdc2 and a slight increase in cyclin B1 expression as analyzed by Western blot. Catalase, a ... which results in phosphorylation of Cdc2 and possible inactivation of cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex. ...
PDB Description: structure of cdk2-cyclin a with pha-848125. PDB Compounds: (D:) Cyclin-A2. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d2wihd2: ... Protein Cyclin A [47956] (2 species). *. Species Human (Homo sapiens) [TaxId:9606] [47957] (89 PDB entries). Uniprot P20248 175 ... Fold a.74: Cyclin-like [47953] (1 superfamily). core: 5 helices; one helix is surrounded by the others. ... Superfamily a.74.1: Cyclin-like [47954] (4 families) duplication: consists of two domains of this fold. ...
And two drug classes on the list, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK 4 and CDK 6) inhibitors, showed potential links with ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK 4 and CDK 6) inhibitors ...
  • Because a variety of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) assist the effects of EZH2 and cyclin D1, the researchers wanted to see if targeting CDKs in ATRTs with the multi-CDK inhibitor TG02 could have therapeutic effects. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • To review palbociclib, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6, and its current place in therapy for the treatment of hormone receptor (HMR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2)-negative advanced breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. (affbiotech.com)
  • Regulation of cell division is orchestrated by cyclins, which bind and activate their catalytic workmates, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (uic.es)
  • The product Assay kit for Rabbit Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 1(CKS1B) (ELISA) should be kept between two and eight degrees Celsius to ensure the retention of the stability and reactivity of the reagents included in the kit. (creatinekinases.com)
  • The product Assay kit for Rabbit Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 1(CKS1B) (ELISA) is intended to be used for research purposes only. (creatinekinases.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate lysosomal degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α to promote cell-cycle progression. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2007) The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dacapo promotes replication licensing during Drosophila endocycles. (nih.gov)
  • Kinase enrichment analysis of hypo-phosphorylated proteins using the X2K Web tool identified ERK1, cyclin-dependant kinase 1 (CDK1), and CDK2 as downstream substrates of CAMKK2. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is a kinase involved in the regulation of cell cycle, being responsible for triggering DNA synthesis. (unito.it)
  • Skp2 was first identified in multi-protein complexes with cyclin A and Cdk2 in transformed cells. (yu.edu)
  • We show that Skp2cyclin A interaction is separable from Skp2's ability to mediate p27 ubiquitination, but can directly protect cyclin A/Cdk2 from inhibition by p27 through competitive binding. (yu.edu)
  • We also identified an eighteen-residue peptide from cyclin A binding sequences in Skp2 that can block Skp2-cyclin A/Cdk2 interaction but not p27-cyclin A/Cdk2 interaction and can therefore abolish Skp2's protective effects on cyclin A/Cdk2 activity. (yu.edu)
  • Here we report that HIF-1α physically and functionally interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and Cdk2. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 modulates nociceptive signaling through direct phosphorylation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1. (nih.gov)
  • Vanadate also increased p21 and Chk1 levels and reduced Cdc25C expression, leading to phosphorylation of Cdc2 and a slight increase in cyclin B1 expression as analyzed by Western blot. (cdc.gov)
  • Catalase, a specific antioxidant for H2O2, decreased vanadate-induced expression of p21 and Chk1, reduced phosphorylation of Cdc2Tyr15, and decreased cyclin B1 levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Several regulatory pathways are involved: (1) activation of p21, (2) an increase of Chk1 expression and inhibition of Cdc25C, which results in phosphorylation of Cdc2 and possible inactivation of cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex. (cdc.gov)
  • Both palbociclib and abemaciclib are, oral, highly selective inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6, which are proteins involved in cell differentiation and growth. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrated that the Skp2-cyclin A interaction is mediated by novel interaction sequences on both Skp2 and cyclin A, distinguishing it from the well-known RxL-HP interaction between cyclins and cyclin-binding proteins. (yu.edu)
  • Noteworthy, the Human Genome Sequence Project unveiled the existence of several other proteins containing the "cyclin box" domain. (uic.es)
  • Both palbociclib and abemaciclib were approved, however, ribociclib, the third cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor, has not been approved in Japan. (nih.gov)
  • PHA-690509 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor. (nih.gov)
  • PVDF membrane was probed with 0.05 µg/mL of Rabbit Anti-Human Cyclin B1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB60001) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Rabbit IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF008 ). (rndsystems.com)
  • Cyclin B1 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human squamous cell carcinoma using Rabbit Anti-Human Cyclin B1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB60001) at 3 µg/mL for 1 hour at room temperature followed by incubation with the Anti-Rabbit IgG VisUCyte™ HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC003 ). (rndsystems.com)
  • K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line was stained with Rabbit Anti-Human Cyclin B1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB60001, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # AB-105-C , open histogram), followed by Phycoerythrin-conjugated Anti-Rabbit IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # F0110 ). (rndsystems.com)
  • A specific band was detected for Cyclin B1 at approximately 64 kDa (as indicated) using 0.5 µg/mL of Rabbit Anti-Human Cyclin B1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB60001). (rndsystems.com)
  • Cyclin D1 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total Cyclin D1. (affbiotech.com)
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tissue microarrays containing bladder cancer specimens (n=212) and adjacent normal bladder tissues (n=131) were immunostained using an antibody against cyclin D1. (cornell.edu)
  • ERβ inhibited the cell cycle-dependent stimulation of cyclin B1 mRNA and protein. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • RESULTS: Cyclin D1 mRNA and protein expression were significantly higher in UCB compared to adjacent non-malignant bladder tissue (for mRNA p=0.003, for protein p=0.001). (cornell.edu)
  • Cyclin B1 is the major activator of CDK1. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Our findings demonstrated that unliganded ERβ causes a G2 cell cycle arrest by inactivating CDK1 through the repression of cyclin B1 and stimulation of GADD45A and BTG2 expression. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. (harvard.edu)
  • To understand the mechanisms underlined in this regulation in normal human cells, we have analysed in vivo protein-DNA interactions at the Cyclin A locus in primary T lymphocytes. (cnrs.fr)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance throughout the cell cycle. (affbiotech.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. (hoelzel-biotech.com)
  • Cyclin D1 protein expression was significantly higher in non-invasive tumors than in muscle-invasive UCB (p=0.016). (cornell.edu)
  • Inactivation of cyclin D2 gene in prostate cancers by aberrant promoter methylation. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated the epigenetic silencing of Cyclin D2 gene in prostate cancers and correlated the data with clinicopathological features. (nih.gov)
  • Estrogen-occupied estrogen receptor represses cyclin G2 gene expression and recruits a repressor complex at the cyclin G2 promoter. (nih.gov)
  • Because estradiol represses expression of the cyclin G2 gene, which encodes a negative regulator of the cell cycle, our aim was to understand the mechanism by which cyclin G2 is repressed by estrogen. (nih.gov)
  • We show that cyclin G2 is a primary ER target gene in MCF-7 breast cancer cells that is rapidly and robustly down-regulated by estrogen. (nih.gov)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulates cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity during pain signaling through transcriptional activation of p35. (nih.gov)
  • Synthesis and Structure-Activity relationships of cyclin-dependent kinase 11 inhibitors based on a diaminothiazole scaffold. (harvard.edu)
  • Cyclins have been traditionally defined by an oscillating (cyclic) pattern of expression and by the presence of a characteristic "cyclin box" that determines binding to the CDKs. (uic.es)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a member of the Cdks family, is identified to play a critical role in the development of CNS. (edu.hk)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (affbiotech.com)
  • Mutations in the cyclin A binding domain of Skp2 significantly compromise the proliferation-stimulating activity of Skp2 without affecting its ability to cause degradation of p27 and p21. (yu.edu)
  • Rotelli M, Policastro R, Bolling A, Killion A, Weinberg A, Dixon M, Zentner G, Walczak C, Lilly MA, Calvi B. (2019) A Cyclin A-Myb-Aurora B network regulates the choice between mitotic cycles and polyploid endoreplication cycles. (nih.gov)
  • Doxorubicin induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis and atrophy through cyclin-dependent kinase 2-mediated activation of forkhead box O1. (harvard.edu)
  • Defects in the expression of cyclin D1, a key cell-cycle regulator, have been implicated in progression of various types of cancer. (cornell.edu)
  • Detects human Cyclin B1 in direct ELISAs and Western blots. (rndsystems.com)
  • Mutational mapping of receptor reveals a requirement for its N-terminal region and DNA binding domain to support cyclin G2 repression. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin D2 promoter methylation was analyzed in 101 prostate cancer samples by methylation-specific PCR. (nih.gov)
  • The methylation status of Cyclin D2 was correlated with the methylation of nine other tumor suppressor genes published previously from our laboratory on the same set of samples (R. Maruyama et al. (nih.gov)
  • We also compared methylation of cyclin D2 with methylation of nine tumor suppressor genes [published previously from our laboratory (R. Maruyama et al. (nih.gov)
  • Although the high preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) group did not have significantly greater methylation frequency, methylation of Cyclin D2 had higher mean PSA value. (nih.gov)
  • Our results indicate that methylation of Cyclin D2 in prostate cancers correlates with clinicopathological features of poor prognosis. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we investigated whether cyclin D1 expression is associated with clinicopathological parameters and whether it has any potential prognostic value in determining risk of UCB recurrence. (cornell.edu)
  • The association between cyclin D1 and clinicopathological parameters including stage, lymph node metastasis, and disease-free survival, were evaluated. (cornell.edu)
  • The requirement for cyclin E in c-Myc overexpressing breast cancers. (harvard.edu)
  • Expression of cyclin d1 and its association with disease characteristics in bladder cancer. (cornell.edu)
  • Cyclin D1 mRNA expression data from human normal bladder (n=14) and cancer specimens (n=28) were extracted from the public Oncomine database. (cornell.edu)
  • CONCLUSION: Altered expression of cyclin D1 is associated with lymph node metastasis and risk of UCB recurrence. (cornell.edu)
  • Cyclin D1 expression may therefore have clinical value as a prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target. (cornell.edu)
  • 2006) Bruno inhibits the expression of mitotic cyclins during the prophase I meiotic arrest of Drosophila oocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Following estradiol treatment of cells, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses reveal recruitment of ER to the cyclin G2 regulatory region, dismissal of RNA polymerase II, and recruitment of a complex containing N-CoR and histone deacetylases, leading to a hypoacetylated chromatin state. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin A was observed after 4 days of costimulation with anti CD2 + CD28 whereas stimulation by anti CD2 or anti CD28 alone was not effective. (cnrs.fr)
  • Activation of cyclin-dependent 5 mediates orofacial mechanical hyperalgesia. (nih.gov)
  • A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. (musc.edu)
  • 1. The clinical significance of cyclin B1 (CCNB1) in invasive breast cancer with emphasis on its contribution to lymphovascular invasion development. (nih.gov)
  • The application of these criteria allows to systematically define, for the first time, the subfamily of atypical cyclins and enables the use of a common nomenclature for this extended family. (uic.es)
  • A specific band was detected for Cyclin B1 at approximately 52 kDa (as indicated). (rndsystems.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)