A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
CELL CYCLE regulatory signaling systems that are triggered by DNA DAMAGE or lack of nutrients during G2 PHASE. When triggered they restrain cells transitioning from G2 phase to M PHASE.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.

The cyclin B2 promoter depends on NF-Y, a trimer whose CCAAT-binding activity is cell-cycle regulated. (1/43)

Cyclin B2 is a regulator of p34cdc2 kinase, involved in G2/M progression of the cell cycle, whose gene is strictly regulated at the transcriptional level in cycling cells. The mouse promoter was cloned and three conserved CCAAT boxes were found. In this study, we analysed the mechanisms leading to activation of the cyclin B2 CCAAT boxes: a combination of (i) genomic footprinting, (ii) transfections with single, double and triple mutants, (iii) EMSAs with nuclear extracts, antibodies and NF-Y recombinant proteins and (iv) transfections with an NF-YA dominant negative mutant established the positive role of the three CCAAT sequences and proved that NF-Y plays a crucial role in their activation. NF-Y, an ubiquitous trimer containing histone fold subunits, activates several other promoters regulated during the cell cycle. To analyse the levels of NF-Y subunits in the different phases of the cycle, we separated MEL cells by elutriation, obtaining fractions >80% pure. The mRNA and protein levels of the histone-fold containing NF-YB and NF-YC were invariant, whereas the NF-YA protein, but not its mRNA, was maximal in mid-S and decreased in G2/M. EMSA confirmed that the CCAAT-binding activity followed the amount of NF-YA, indicating that this subunit is limiting within the NF-Y complex, and suggesting that post-transcriptional mechanisms regulate NF-YA levels. Our results support a model whereby fine tuning of this activator is important for phase-specific transcription of CCAAT-containing promoters.  (+info)

A CDE/CHR tandem element regulates cell cycle-dependent repression of cyclin B2 transcription. (2/43)

Cyclin B is an important regulator of progression through the cell division cycle. The oscillating appearance of cyclin B1 and B2 proteins during the cell cycle is in part due to fluctuating mRNA levels. We had identified earlier a tandem promoter element named cell cycle-dependent element (CDE) and cell cycle genes homology region (CHR) which regulates cell cycle-dependent transcription of cdc25C, cyclin A and cdc2. Here we describe that cyclin B2 transcription is repressed through a novel CDE/CHR element in resting and G(1) cells. By relief of this repression in S and G(2) oscillating expression of cyclin B2 mRNA is achieved during the cell cycle.  (+info)

The tumour suppressor protein p53 can repress transcription of cyclin B. (3/43)

The tumour suppressor protein p53 has functions in controlling the G(1)/S and G(2)/M transitions. Central regulators for progression from G(2) to mitosis are B-type cyclins complexed with cdc2 kinase. In mammals two cyclin B proteins are found, cyclin B1 and B2. We show that upon treatment of HepG2 cells with 5-fluorouracil or methotrexate, p53 levels increase while concentrations of cyclin B2 mRNA, measured by RT-PCR with the LightCycler system, are reduced. In DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (DLD-1-tet-off-p53) cyclin B1 and B2 mRNA levels drop after expression of wild-type p53 but not after induction of a DNA binding-deficient mutant of p53. Analysis of the cyclin B2 promoter reveals specific repression of this gene by p53. Transfection of wild-type p53 into SaOS-2 cells shuts off transcription from a cyclin B2 promoter-luciferase construct whereas a p53 mutant protein does not. The cyclin B2 promoter does not contain a consensus p53 binding site. Most of the p53-dependent transcriptional responsiveness resides in its 226 bp core promoter. Taken together with earlier observations on p53-dependent transcription of cyclin B1, our results suggest that one way of regulating G(2) arrest may be a reduction in cyclin B levels through p53-dependent transcriptional repression.  (+info)

The localization of human cyclins B1 and B2 determines CDK1 substrate specificity and neither enzyme requires MEK to disassemble the Golgi apparatus. (4/43)

In this paper, we show that substrate specificity is primarily conferred on human mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) by their subcellular localization. The difference in localization of the B-type cyclin-CDKs underlies the ability of cyclin B1-CDK1 to cause chromosome condensation, reorganization of the microtubules, and disassembly of the nuclear lamina and of the Golgi apparatus, while it restricts cyclin B2-CDK1 to disassembly of the Golgi apparatus. We identify the region of cyclin B2 responsible for its localization and show that this will direct cyclin B1 to the Golgi apparatus and confer upon it the more limited properties of cyclin B2. Equally, directing cyclin B2 to the cytoplasm with the NH(2) terminus of cyclin B1 confers the broader properties of cyclin B1. Furthermore, we show that the disassembly of the Golgi apparatus initiated by either mitotic cyclin-CDK complex does not require mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) activity.  (+info)

Meiotic maturation of the mouse oocyte requires an equilibrium between cyclin B synthesis and degradation. (5/43)

Among the proteins whose synthesis and/or degradation is necessary for a proper progression through meiotic maturation, cyclin B appears to be one of the most important. Here, we attempted to modulate the level of cyclin B1 and B2 synthesis during meiotic maturation of the mouse oocyte. We used cyclin B1 or B2 mRNAs with poly(A) tails of different sizes and cyclin B1 or B2 antisense RNAs. Oocytes microinjected with cyclin B1 mRNA showed two phenotypes: most were blocked in MI, while the others extruded the first polar body in advance when compared to controls. Moreover, these effects were correlated with the length of the poly(A) tail. Thus it seems that the rate of cyclin B1 translation controls the timing of the first meiotic M phase and the transition to anaphase I. Moreover, overexpression of cyclin B1 or B2 was able to bypass the dbcAMP-induced germinal vesicle block, but only the cyclin B1 mRNA-microinjected oocytes did not extrude their first polar body. Oocytes injected with the cyclin B1 antisense progressed through the first meiotic M phase but extruded the first polar body in advance and were unable to enter metaphase II. This suggested that inhibition of cyclin B1 synthesis only took place at the end of the first meiotic M phase, most likely because the cyclin B1 mRNA was protected. The injection of cyclin B2 antisense RNA had no effect. The life observation of the synthesis and degradation of a cyclin B1-GFP chimera during meiotic maturation of the mouse oocyte demonstrated that degradation can only occur during a given period of time once it has started. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the rates of cyclin B synthesis and degradation determine the timing of the major events taking place during meiotic maturation of the mouse oocyte.  (+info)

Overexpression of B-type cyclins alters chromosomal segregation. (6/43)

To identify genes which overexpression results into chromosomal instability (CIN), we developed a biological approach based on a yeast indicator strain in which CIN can be detected by a sectoring phenotype. Screening in this strain of a yeast genomic library cloned into a high copy vector led us to identify, among the clones generating 100% of sectoring colonies, Clb5, one of the six B-type cyclins present in yeast. Overexpression of cyclin B2 and cyclin B1, the two human homologs of Clb5, in the CIN indicator strain resulted also into a sectoring phenotype and induced, like overexpression of Clb5, an abnormal sensitivity to benomyl, indicating that overexpression of B-type cyclins alters the spindle checkpoint. In a series of 38 primary colorectal cancers, we detected in five tumors (13%) an accumulation of cyclin B1, which was neither related to mRNA overexpression nor to mutation within the coding region, and in five other tumors (13%) a 2-10-fold increase of cyclin B2 mRNA which was not related to gene amplification. These results suggest that overexpression of cyclins B, resulting from different mechanisms, could contribute, through an alteration of the spindle checkpoint, to the chromosomal instability observed in cancer.  (+info)

Mos is not required for the initiation of meiotic maturation in Xenopus oocytes. (7/43)

In Xenopus oocytes, the c-mos proto-oncogene product has been proposed to act downstream of progesterone to control the entry into meiosis I, the transition from meiosis I to meiosis II, which is characterized by the absence of S phase, and the metaphase II arrest seen prior to fertilization. Here, we report that inhibition of Mos synthesis by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides does not prevent the progesterone-induced initiation of Xenopus oocyte meiotic maturation, as previously thought. Mos-depleted oocytes complete meiosis I but fail to arrest at metaphase II, entering a series of embryonic-like cell cycles accompanied by oscillations of Cdc2 activity and DNA replication. We propose that the unique and conserved role of Mos is to prevent mitotic cell cycles of the female gamete until the fertilization in Xenopus, starfish and mouse oocytes.  (+info)

Increased hepatic Forkhead Box M1B (FoxM1B) levels in old-aged mice stimulated liver regeneration through diminished p27Kip1 protein levels and increased Cdc25B expression. (8/43)

Recent liver regeneration studies indicate that maintaining hepatic Forkhead Box M1B (FoxM1B) expression in 12-month-old (old-aged) Transthyretin-FoxM1B transgenic mice increases hepatocyte proliferation and expression of cell cycle regulatory genes. Because these transgenic CD-1 mice maintain FoxM1B levels during the aging process, we conducted the current study to determine whether adenovirus delivery of the FoxM1B gene (AdFoxM1B) is sufficient to stimulate liver regeneration in old-aged Balb/c mice. Here we show that AdFoxM1B infection of old-aged mice caused a significant increase in FoxM1B expression, hepatocyte DNA replication, and mitosis following partial hepatectomy. This stimulation in hepatocyte S-phase progression was associated with diminished protein expression and perinuclear localization of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27(Kip1) (p27) protein following partial hepatectomy. In contrast, old-aged mice infected with control virus displayed high hepatocyte levels of p27 protein, which had been localized to the nucleus prior to S-phase. Furthermore, we found that restoring FoxM1B expression did not influence p27 mRNA levels, and this new finding implicates FoxM1B in regulation of p27 protein levels. Likewise, AdFoxM1B-infected regenerating livers displayed elevated S-phase levels of Cdk2 kinase activity compared with old-aged mice infected with control virus. Furthermore, restoring FoxM1B expression in old-aged mice caused elevated levels of Cyclin B1, Cyclin B2, Cdc25B, Cdk1, and p55CDC mRNA as well as stimulating Cdc25B nuclear localization during liver regeneration, all of which are required for mitosis. These studies indicated that an acute delivery of the FoxM1B gene in old-aged mice is sufficient to re-establish proliferation of regenerating hepatocytes, suggesting that FoxM1B can be used for therapeutic intervention to alleviate the reduction in cellular proliferation observed in the elderly.  (+info)

Activation of HO in yeast involves recruitment of transcription factors in two waves. The first is triggered by inactivation of Cdk1 at the end of mitosis, which promotes import into the nucleus of the Swi5 transcription factor. Swi5 recruits the Swi/Snf chromatin-remodeling complex, which then facilitates recruitment of the SAGA histone acetylase, which in turn permits the binding of the SBF transcription factor. We show here that SBF then recruits the SRB/mediator complex and that this process occurs in the absence of Cdk1 activity. The second wave is triggered by reactivation of Cdk1, which leads to recruitment of PolII, TFIIB, and TFIIH. RNA polymerase is, therefore, recruited to HO in two steps and not as a holoenzyme. A similar sequence of events occurs at other SBF-regulated promoters, such as CLN1, CLN2, and PCL1.
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Mooer MMB1 Micro Buffer Pedal Increased signal quality especially for setups using extended routing and longer cables. The Buffer will boost the signal up to 6dB. The is a toggle switch for high and low cut. True By-Pass. Requires DC 9V Adapter p
Complete information for CCNB2 gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin B2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic phosphopeptide of CCNB1. Synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding S147 of human CCNB1. (PAB25912) - Products - Abnova
Ccnb1ip1 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN302805G1|/strong|, Ccnb1ip1 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
RR2_AETGR (A4QJI8 ), RR2_AGRST (A1EA01 ), RR2_AMBTC (Q70Y11 ), RR2_ARAHI (A4QK07 ), RR2_ARATH (P56797 ), RR2_ATRBE (Q7FNT2 ), RR2_BARVE (A4QK94 ), RR2_BIGNA (Q06J20 ), RR2_BUXMI (A6MM25 ), RR2_CALFG (Q7YJY1 ), RR2_CAPBU (A4QKI1 ), RR2_CARPA (B1A924 ), RR2_CERDE (A8SE74 ), RR2_CHAGL (Q8MA09 ), RR2_CHAVU (Q1ACN3 ), RR2_CHLAT (Q19VA1 ), RR2_CHLSC (A6MMB1 ), RR2_COFAR (A0A324 ), RR2_CRUWA (A4QKS0 ), RR2_CUCSA (Q4VZP4 ), RR2_CUSEX (A8W3B3 ), RR2_CUSGR (A7M8Z3 ), RR2_CUSOB (A8W3H9 ), RR2_CUSRE (A7M955 ), RR2_CYACA (Q9TM33 ), RR2_CYAM1 (Q85FR5 ), RR2_CYAPA (P48132 ), RR2_CYCTA (A6H5F6 ), RR2_DAUCA (Q0G9X3 ), RR2_DIOEL (A6MMJ6 ), RR2_DRANE (A4QL08 ), RR2_DRIGR (Q06H08 ), RR2_EMIHU (Q4G3A3 ), RR2_EUCGG (Q49L09 ), RR2_EUGGR (P30389 ), RR2_EUGLO (P24352 ), RR2_GALSU (P35014 ), RR2_GOSBA (A0ZZ24 ), RR2_GOSHI (Q2L8Z6 ), RR2_GRATL (Q6B8R5 ), RR2_GUIAB (B2LMI3 ), RR2_GUITH (O78482 ), RR2_HELAN (Q1KXW9 ), RR2_HORVU (A1E9I4 ), RR2_ILLOL (A6MMT3 ), RR2_IPOPU (A7Y3B3 ), RR2_JASNU (Q06RE2 ), RR2_LACSA (Q56P10 ), ...
CCNB2 Human Recombinant produced E. coli is a single polypeptide chain containing 422 amino acids (1-398) and having a molecular mass of 47.9 kDa.
CCNB1 Human Recombinant produced in E. coli is a single polypeptide chain containing 457 amino acids (1-433) and having a molecular mass of 50.9 kDa.
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
This study aimed to investigate effects of citrus flavanones naringenin (NAR) and hesperetin (HES) on liver antioxidant status and membrane phospholipid composition in 24-month-old rats. NAR and HES (15 mg/kg) were administrated orally to male Wistar rats, once per day, for 4 weeks. Control group received either vehicle (sunflower oil) or remained intact. The results showed decreased (p , 0.05) activity of antioxidant enzymes (AOE), specifically catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver of intact control old-aged rats in comparison to young intact controls. Flavanone administration to old-aged males increased (p , 0.05) examined AOE activities in comparison to vehicle-administered animals. Namely, NAR was more potent in comparison to HES regarding the increase (p , 0.05) in activities of examined antioxidant enzymes (SOD 1 and 2, glutathione peroxidase-GPx and GR) and the liver glutathione (GSH), while HES elevated (p , 0.05) only activity of CAT ...
Adaptation requires genetic variation, but founder populations are generally genetically depleted. Here we sequence two populations of an inbred ant that diverge in phenotype to determine how variability is generated. Cardiocondyla obscurior has the smallest of the sequenced ant genomes and its structure suggests a fundamental role of transposable elements (TEs) in adaptive evolution. Accumulations of TEs (TE islands) comprising 7.18% of the genome evolve faster than other regions with regard to single-nucleotide variants, gene/exon duplications and deletions and gene homology. A non-random distribution of gene families, larvae/adult specific gene expression and signs of differential methylation in TE islands indicate intragenomic differences in regulation, evolutionary rates and coalescent effective population size. Our study reveals a tripartite interplay between TEs, life history and adaptation in an invasive species. ...
Thats news to me. Sounded like someone other than Carl Grapentine on that clip, but it could be one of any number of things.. 1. Carl lives in Chicago and travels to and from Ann Arbor every week to do the games. It could be likely they just got someone else to sit in so he didnt have to come all the way up.. 2. Wouldnt surprise me if Carl decided to go back to just announcing the Band. I know he pretty much gets zero break from before kickoff to after the MMB postgame show, and thats certainly grueling.. 3. Carl had some health issues in 04, also wouldnt be surprised if he decided enough was enough. Hes been the voice of the Michigan Marching Band since 1970. Sometimes you just want to move on. Though I think we would have heard something if he was giving everything up entirely.. I tend to think #1 is the most likely scenario.. ...
Publix Associate Resources provides its employees a self operated portal where they could check every detail, updates and also the payments that done by them.The individual who is an employee of Publix Passport organisation will truly utilize this portal for your different purpose to make good use of Public Passport.Publix Associate Resources portal www.publix.org where a staff member can check all the details of benefits of employee, Financial Resources, carrier, work resources and self development.Every employee is likely to make an effective use of publix.org and are a member of publix family. Publix Associate Resource offers a good good things about all its employees.To know all the details of the advantages that granted through the PAR is uploaded through its official site www.publix.org. When you are log in using the site it is possible to understand the information of total work completed by you, working hours, Income you earned.. Publix Passport log in is definitely not but publix ...
Sea urchin eggs exhibit a cap-dependent increase in protein synthesis within minutes after fertilization. This rise in protein synthesis occurs at a constant rate for a great number of proteins translated from the different available mRNAs. Surprisingly, we found that cyclin B, a major cell-cycle regulator, follows a synthesis pattern that is distinct from the global protein population, so we developed a mathematical model to analyze this dissimilarity in biosynthesis kinetic patterns. The model includes two pathways for cyclin B mRNA entry into the translational machinery: one from immediately available mRNA (mRNAcyclinB) and one from mRNA activated solely after fertilization (XXmRNAcyclinB). Two coefficients, α and β, were added to fit the measured scales of global protein and cyclin B synthesis, respectively. The model was simplified to identify the synthesis parameters and to allow its simulation. The calculated parameters for activation of the specific cyclin B synthesis pathway after
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
What is Cell Cycle Gene? Definition of Cell Cycle Gene. Cell Cycle Gene FAQ. Learn more about Cell Cycle Gene. Cell Cycle Gene facts.
Charging and discharging batteries is really a chemical reaction, but lithium battery pack is claimed to get the exception. Battery scientists talk about energies flowing out and in in the battery as part of ion movement between anode and cathode. This claim carries merits however, if the scientists were totally right, then a battery would live forever. They blame capacity fade on ions getting trapped, but as with most battery systems, internal corrosion along with other degenerative effects also referred to as parasitic reactions about the electrolyte and electrodes till be involved. (See BU-808b: The causes of Li-ion to die?.). The Li ion charger is really a voltage-limiting device containing similarities towards the lead acid system. The differences with Li-ion lie inside a higher voltage per cell, tighter voltage tolerances and the absence of trickle or float charge at full charge. While lead acid offers some flexibility with regards to voltage cut off, manufacturers of Li-ion cells are ...
RICentral.com is a portal site designed to give you easy access to the websites of your favorite publications in Southern Rhode Island. The Kent County Daily Times is a daily
Bulan 7( 3rd month with Shaklee).. wahh.. ramai btny n ramai yg oder.. oder Kat ita brg.. dia lak kena blik johor.. so nak xnak kena drive sdiri g Shaklee...gamble jer.. alhamdulillah smpi dgn selamat .. n wat belian rm14++( duit biz n duit beberapa cust yg dh bayar).. fuhh.. dlm ati blh habis ke ni.. n Uv yg dpt dlm 450uv.. ( sdiri punya sale juga).. xpa...yakin blh+doa byk2 :)..pejam celik uv yg saya kumpul dlm 8++.. :) minggu ptama bulan 7 dpt msg dr mmb n customer juga.. bminat nak jd ahli n wat side income ( sy xpaksa pun dia masuk.. kan wina cuk.. my 1st ank).. dasyat gak sale dia bulan ni 3++uv.. kalah ibu dia..mula2 msuk pun 150 Uv..hehehe.. Hujung bulan.. seminggu sebelum phabisan bulan 7.. sorg lagi.. dari Sarawak.. kak zu :).. volunteer nak jd ahli.. YA.. ALLAH...ni la satu2 MLM yg saya masuk xcari ahli.. ahli dtg dgn sdiri bila mereka mcuba produk tu sdiri.. kak zu ni da kedai so jualan dia mmg laris... tip topla...dlm seminggu je dpt kumpul 9++uv.. Fuh !!! ank ni lagi dasyat ...
Bulan 7( 3rd month with Shaklee).. wahh.. ramai btny n ramai yg oder.. oder Kat ita brg.. dia lak kena blik johor.. so nak xnak kena drive sdiri g Shaklee...gamble jer.. alhamdulillah smpi dgn selamat .. n wat belian rm14++( duit biz n duit beberapa cust yg dh bayar).. fuhh.. dlm ati blh habis ke ni.. n Uv yg dpt dlm 450uv.. ( sdiri punya sale juga).. xpa...yakin blh+doa byk2 :)..pejam celik uv yg saya kumpul dlm 8++.. :) minggu ptama bulan 7 dpt msg dr mmb n customer juga.. bminat nak jd ahli n wat side income ( sy xpaksa pun dia masuk.. kan wina cuk.. my 1st ank).. dasyat gak sale dia bulan ni 3++uv.. kalah ibu dia..mula2 msuk pun 150 Uv..hehehe.. Hujung bulan.. seminggu sebelum phabisan bulan 7.. sorg lagi.. dari Sarawak.. kak zu :).. volunteer nak jd ahli.. YA.. ALLAH...ni la satu2 MLM yg saya masuk xcari ahli.. ahli dtg dgn sdiri bila mereka mcuba produk tu sdiri.. kak zu ni da kedai so jualan dia mmg laris... tip topla...dlm seminggu je dpt kumpul 9++uv.. Fuh !!! ank ni lagi dasyat ...
Contributors All persons who meet authorship criteria are listed as authors, and all authors certify (as per submitted document) that they have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. MMB: involved in the concept and design of the case. Carried out literature search. Involved in drafting the article and revising it for intellectual content. Involved in final approval of the version to be published. Is in agreement to be accountable for the article and to ensure that all questions regarding the accuracy or integrity of the article are investigated and resolved. ML: involved in the concept and design of the case. Involved in revising the article for its intellectual content. Involved in final approval of the version to be published. Is in agreement to be accountable for the article and to ensure that all questions regarding the accuracy or integrity of the article are investigated and resolved. CM: involved in the concept and design of the case. ...
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SWIFT is the StateWide Integrated Financial Tool. All entities doing business with the State of Minnesota are required to register and obtain a Vendor ID, also called a Supplier ID. Applications for this grant must include a valid Supplier/Vendor ID and Location Code. To register as a supplier/vendor with the State of Minnesota, please access the Minnesota Management and Budget (MMB) supplier/vendor portal website at http://mn.gov/supplier. Click on Register for Account then choose Register as a Supplier and follow the instructions in the fillable form. Please direct any questions you have to the contacts provided on the MMB website.. If you have questions about obtaining a Vendor/Supplier ID number prior to the submission deadline, please contact: 651.201.8100, Option 1.. If you need to look up your Vendor ID number, please call: 651.296.2600. Vendor Location Codes are associated with your Vendor ID number and are set up in the SWIFT Supplier Portal.. More information is available through ...
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8-week old male mice, C57B1/6J were given whole body gamma-radiation with a single dose of 25 Gy using Cobalt 60 irradiator. At different times 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24hr after irradiation, mice were killed and brain tissues were collected. Apoptotic cells were scored by TUNEL assay. Expression of p53, Bcl-2, and Bax and cell cycle regulating molecules; cyclins B1, D1, E and cdk2, cdk4, p34cdc2 were analysed by Western blotting. Cell cycle was analysed by Flow cytometry ...
To investigate the relationship between cyclin B1 (CCNB1) gene expression and cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas. Twenty-four pituitary adenoma tissue samples were examined by RT-qPCR and Western blot to assess the mRNA expression levels and protein levels of CCNB1, E-cadherin and N-cadherin. Correlation analyses between the expression levels of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and CCNB1 were performed. After lentivirus-mediated knockdown of CCNB1 in rat pituitary adenoma cell lines (GH3 and GT1-1), cell function changes were studied. The relationship between CCNB1 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was further verified by animal experiments. CCNB1 and N-cadherin gene expression were significantly higher in the invasive pituitary adenomas than in the non-invasive pituitary adenomas. Conversely, E-cadherin expression in the invasive pituitary adenomas was significantly lower. CCNB1 gene expression was downregulated in the GH3 and GT1-1 pituitary adenoma cell lines; N-cadherin expression was
Chromatin organization and dynamics is studied at scales ranging from single nucleosome to nucleosomal array by using a unique combination of biochemical assays, single molecule imaging technique, and numerical modeling. We show that a subtle modification in the nucleosome structure induced by the histone variant H2A.Bbd drastically modifies the higher order organization of the nucleosomal arrays. Importantly, as directly visualized by atomic force microscopy, conventional H2A nucleosomal arrays exhibit specific local organization, in contrast to H2A.Bbd arrays, which show beads on a string structure. The combination of systematic image analysis and theoretical modeling allows a quantitative description relating the observed gross structural changes of the arrays to their local organization. Our results suggest strongly that higher-order organization of H1-free nucleosomal arrays is determined mainly by the fluctuation properties of individual nucleosomes. Moreover, numerical simulations suggest the
"Interactions between p300 and multiple NF-Y trimers govern cyclin B2 promoter function". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
"Interactions between p300 and multiple NF-Y trimers govern cyclin B2 promoter function". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (9): 6642-50. doi: ...
Specifically, miR-427 targets include cell cycle regulators such as Cyclin A1 and Cyclin B2. Lee, Miler T.; Bonneau, Ashley R ...
It is known that cyclin B1 can compensate for loss of both cyclin B2 (and vice versa in Drosophila). Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... FoxM1 and B-Myb by upstream G1 and G1/S cyclin-CDK complexes. Increased levels of cyclin B1 cause rising levels of cyclin B1- ... In vertebrates, there are five cyclin B isoforms (B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5), but the specific role of each of these isoforms in ... However, cyclin A2/CDK complexes do not function strictly as activators of cyclin B1/CDK1 in G2, as CDK2 has been shown to be ...
... followed by a buildup of cyclin B2 (CLB2) protein (resulting from increased CLB2 mRNA concentration that codes for the CLB2 ...
... cyclin B2, Nek2 and CENPF, and plays an important role in maintenance of chromosomal segregation and genomic stability. FOXM1 ...
... differential signaling requirements for activation of assembled cyclin D3-cdk4 complexes in B-1 and B-2 lymphocyte subsets". ... Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (Apr 1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... "The consensus motif for phosphorylation by cyclin D1-Cdk4 is different from that for phosphorylation by cyclin A/E-Cdk2". The ...
"Human cyclins B1 and B2 are localized to strikingly different structures: B1 to microtubules, B2 primarily to the Golgi ... "Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378-88. doi: ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNB1 gene. Cyclin B1 is a regulatory protein ... Like all cyclins, levels of cyclin B1 oscillate over the course of the cell cycle. Just prior to mitosis, a large amount of ...
Gong D, Ferrell JE (Sep 2010). "The roles of cyclin A2, B1, and B2 in early and late mitotic events". Mol. Biol. Cell. 21 (18 ... Cyclin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA2 gene. It is one of the two types of cyclin A: cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A2 belongs to the cyclin family, whose members regulate cell cycle progression by interacting with CDK kinases. Cyclin ... The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex eventually phosphorylates E2F, turning off cyclin A2 transcription. E2F promotes cyclin A2 ...
... is a member of the cyclin family, specifically the B-type cyclins. The B-type cyclins, B1 and B2, associate with ... Cyclin B1 co-localizes with microtubules, whereas cyclin B2 is primarily associated with the Golgi region. Cyclin B2 also binds ... Cyclin B2 has been shown to interact with TGF beta receptor 2. Cyclin B GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000157456 - Ensembl, ... "Cyclin B2-null mice develop normally and are fertile whereas cyclin B1-null mice die in utero". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
Cyclin B1 and B2 can localize Cdk1 to the nucleus and the Golgi, respectively, through a localization sequence outside the CDK- ... CDK6; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK7; cyclin H CDK8; cyclin C CDK9; cyclin T1, cyclin T2a, cyclin T2b, cyclin K CDK10 ... cyclin A, cyclin B CDK2; cyclin A, cyclin E CDK3; cyclin C CDK4; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK5; CDK5R1, CDK5R2. See also ... Furthermore, cyclin binding determines the specificity of the cyclin-CDK complex for particular substrates. Cyclins can ...
... 1 Cyclin B2 PDB: 2B9R​; Petri, E.T.; Errico, A.; Escobedo, L.; Hunt, T. & Basavappa, R. (2007). "The crystal structure ... Cyclin B is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin B is a mitotic cyclin. The amount of cyclin B (which binds to Cdk1) and the ... Because cyclin B is necessary for cells to enter mitosis and therefore necessary for cell division, cyclin B levels are often ... The fact that cyclin B is often disregulated in cancer cells makes cyclin B an attractive biomarker. Many studies have been ...
... *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... cyclin D (Cdk4) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, ... cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... CDK4, CMM3, PSK-J3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin dependent ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... CDK8, K35, cyclin-dependent kinase 8, cyclin dependent kinase 8 ... Rickert P, Corden JL, Lees E (Jan 1999). "Cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are biochemically distinct CTD kinases". Oncogene ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK8 and cyclin C associate ... "Entrez Gene: CDK8 cyclin-dependent kinase 8".. *^ Nemet J, Jelicic B, Rubelj I, Sopta M (Feb 2014). "The two faces of Cdk8, a ...
Interactions of this protein with the v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 gene product p185 interferes ... This protein inhibits T cell proliferation and transcription of cytokines and cyclins. The protein interacts with both mothers ... associates with a component of the CCR4 transcriptional regulatory complex capable of binding cyclin-dependent kinases". ... associates with a component of the CCR4 transcriptional regulatory complex capable of binding cyclin-dependent kinases". ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ... cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ... p21Cip1 (alternatively p21Waf1), also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin- ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)".. *^ Gartel AL, Radhakrishnan SK (May 2005). "Lost in ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ...
... the iridoid flavopiridol and the iridoid glycosides scyphiphorin A1-A2 and scyphiphorin B1-B2. Flavopiridol (known also as ... "Successful treatment of animal models of rheumatoid arthritis with small-molecule cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors". J. ...
"Lycopene inhibition of cell cycle progression in breast and endometrial cancer cells is associated with reduction in cyclin D ... levels and retention of p27(Kip1) in the cyclin E-cdk2 complexes". Oncogene 20 (26): 3428-436. ...
The lamins are type V intermediate filaments which can be categorized as either A-type (lamin A, C) or B-type (lamin B1, B2) ... After phosphorylation by cyclin B/Cdk1, the nuclear lamina depolymerises and B-type lamins stay associated with the fragments ... The major types are LI and LII, which are considered homologs of lamin B1 and B2. LA are considered homologous to lamin A and ... Lamin B1 reaches the highest expression level, whereas the expression of B2 is relatively constant in the early stages and ...
... cyclin D1. The recruitment of TLS to the promoter of cyclin D1 is directed by long ncRNAs expressed at low levels and tethered ... Many of the ncRNAs that interact with general transcription factors or RNAP II itself (including 7SK, Alu and B1 and B2 RNAs) ... Yik JH, Chen R, Nishimura R, Jennings JL, Link AJ, Zhou Q (October 2003). "Inhibition of P-TEFb (CDK9/Cyclin T) kinase and RNA ... Espinoza CA, Allen TA, Hieb AR, Kugel JF, Goodrich JA (September 2004). "B2 RNA binds directly to RNA polymerase II to repress ...
Rapamycin induces dephosphorylation of 4EBP1 as well, resulting in an increase in p27 and a decrease in cyclin D1 expression. ... Example of these growth factors are angiopoietin 1 (ANG1), ANG 2, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), ephrin-B2, vascular ...
By contrast, the roles of the B2 and B3 elements are less clear. The B2 region is similar to the ACS in sequence and has been ... In S-phase, Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) and Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phosphorylate several Mcm2-7 subunits and additional ... These ARS regions are approximately 100-200 bp long and exhibit a multipartite organization, containing A, B1, B2, and ... Wilmes GM, Bell SP (January 2002). "The B2 element of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARS1 origin of replication requires specific ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... cyclin-dependent kinases, and other cell cycle proteins. The ... All these phases in the cell cycle are highly regulated by cyclins, ...
... cyclin a MeSH D23.348.353.120 - cyclin b MeSH D23.348.353.161 - cyclin d1 MeSH D23.348.353.180 - cyclin e MeSH D23.348.383.110 ... ephrin-b2 MeSH D23.348.479.500.800 - ephrin-b3 MeSH D23.348.479.750 - fibroblast growth factors MeSH D23.348.479.750.110 - ... thromboxane b2 MeSH D23.469.050.300 - histamine MeSH D23.469.050.375 - kinins MeSH D23.469.050.375.110 - bradykinin MeSH ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ...
... a G-protein coupled receptor Resolvin D2 Cyclin D2 (CCND2) Vitamin D2, or ergocalciferol D02, the ICD-10 Chapter II: Neoplasms ... a standard paper size between B2 and A1 D2 Subway, a planned Dallas, Texas light rail tunnel 2D (disambiguation) DII ( ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 MeSH D12.644.360.250.067.900 - cyclin-dependent kinase 9 MeSH D12.644.360.250.323 - cyclin-dependent ... ephrin-b2 MeSH D12.644.276.500.800 - ephrin-b3 MeSH D12.644.276.625 - epidermal growth factor MeSH D12.644.276.750 - fibroblast ... kinase 2 MeSH D12.644.360.250.451 - cyclin-dependent kinase 4 MeSH D12.644.360.250.515 - cyclin-dependent kinase 6 MeSH D12.644 ... cyclin-dependent kinases MeSH D12.644.360.250.067 - cdc2-cdc28 kinases MeSH D12.644.360.250.067.249 - cdc2 protein kinase MeSH ...
細胞週期的進行是由不同的週期素(Cyclin)所調控。週期素意味著這些蛋白質的表現量會隨著細胞週期的進行而有所變化,進而確認週期素原來是扮演細胞週期調控的角色。依照目前的認知,就如同細胞週期G1期→S期→G2期→M期的進行,在G1期大量表現的週期素D( ... 兩類關鍵
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ...
"CDK-dependent Hsp70 Phosphorylation controls G1 cyclin abundance and cell-cycle progression". Cell. 151 (6): 1308-18. doi ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ...
negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • lung development. • cytokine-mediated ...
Sustained D1 receptor activity is kept in check by Cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Dopamine receptor activation of Ca2+/calmodulin- ...
CDKN2C, INK4C, p18, p18-INK4C, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C. ... B (B1, B2, B3). *بروتين سيكلين دي (D1, D2, D3). *E (E1, E2) ... CDKN2C‏ (Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين CDKN2C في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN2C cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4)". مؤرشف من الأصل في 05 ديسمبر 2010.. الوسيط , ...
Zhao L, Samuels T, Winckler S, Korgaonkar C, Tompkins V, Horne MC, Quelle DE (January 2003). "Cyclin G1 has growth inhibitory ... "The MDM2 C-terminal region binds to TAFII250 and is required for MDM2 regulation of the cyclin A promoter". The Journal of ...
The first to be discovered was its capability to drive cell proliferation (upregulates cyclins, downregulates p21), but it also ...
Takahashi-Yanaga F, Sasaguri T (Apr 2008). "GSK-3beta regulates cyclin D1 expression: a new target for chemotherapy". Cellular ...
Example of these growth factors are angiopoietin 1 (ANG1), ANG 2, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), ephrin-B2, vascular ... Rapamycin induces dephosphorylation of 4EBP1 as well, resulting in an increase in p27 and a decrease in cyclin D1 expression. ...
"Genetic evidence for the essential role of beta-transducin repeat-containing protein in the inducible processing of NF-kappa B2 ... by driving the degradation of mitotic CDK1 activating cyclin subunits). Furthermore, βTrCP controls APC/C by targeting REST, ...
Cyclin B2 is a member of the cyclin family, specifically the B-type cyclins. The B-type cyclins, B1 and B2, associate with ... Cyclin B1 co-localizes with microtubules, whereas cyclin B2 is primarily associated with the Golgi region. Cyclin B2 also binds ... Cyclin B2 has been shown to interact with TGF beta receptor 2. Cyclin B GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000157456 - Ensembl, ... "Cyclin B2-null mice develop normally and are fertile whereas cyclin B1-null mice die in utero". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B2, HsT17299, cyclin B2.. Introduction. CCNB2 is a member of the cyclin family. CCNB2 is vital for ...
... whereas cyclin B2 is primarily associated with the Golgi region. In contrast to cyclin B1, cyclin B2 does not relocate to the ... We have raised and characterized antibodies specific for human cyclin B2 and have compared the properties of cyclins B1 and B2 ... Cyclin B1 and B2 levels are very low in G1 phase, increase in S and G2 phases and peak at mitosis. Both B-type cyclins ... Human cyclins B1 and B2 are localized to strikingly different structures: B1 to microtubules, B2 primarily to the Golgi ...
Dephosphorylation of cytoplasmic Cyclin B1/B2:phospho-Cdc2 (Thr 14, Tyr 15) complexes by CDC25B (Caenorhabditis elegans) ... Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events during G2/M transition Stable Identifier ... Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events during G2/M transition (Caenorhabditis elegans) ... Phosphorylation of Cyclin B1 in the CRS domain (Caenorhabditis elegans) * Translocation of CRS phosphorylated Cyclin B1:Cdc2 ...
Dephosphorylation of cytoplasmic Cyclin B1/B2:phospho-Cdc2 (Thr 14, Tyr 15) complexes by CDC25B (Drosophila melanogaster) ... Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events during G2/M transition Stable Identifier ... Formation of Cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes (Drosophila melanogaster) * Translocation of Cyclin A:phospho-Cdc2 (Thr 14) to the nucleus ... Formation of Cyclin B:Cdc2 complexes (Drosophila melanogaster) * Myt-1 mediated phosphorylation of Cyclin B:Cdc2 complexes ( ...
Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events during G2/M transition (Homo sapiens) * Dephosphorylation of cytoplasmic Cyclin B1/B2:phospho- ... The RRASK motif in Xenopus cyclin B2 is required for the substrate recognition of Cdc25C by the cyclin B-Cdc2 complex. J. Biol ... cyclin B1:Cdc2 and cyclin-B2:Cdc2) complexes occurs in the cytoplasm in prophase (Jackman et al., 2003). CDC25B, which is ... Dephosphorylation of cytoplasmic Cyclin B1/B2:phospho-Cdc2 (Thr 14, Tyr 15) complexes by CDC25B Stable Identifier ...
Selection de fournisseur de qualité pour anti-Cyclin B2 anticorps. ... Commander Cyclin B2 anticorps monoclonal et polyclonal pour beaucoup dapplications. ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B2 , G2/mitotic-specific cyclin B2 , cyclin B2 , C-B2 ... Cyclin B2 (CCNB2) profil antigène Profil protéine Cyclin B2 is a member of the cyclin family, specifically the B-type cyclins. ...
Cyclin B2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Cyclin B2 is a member of the cyclin family, specifically the B-type cyclins. The B-type cyclins, B1 and B2, associate with ... Cyclin B1 co-localizes with microtubules, whereas cyclin B2 is primarily associated with the Golgi region. Cyclin B2 also binds ... Cyclin B2 suppresses mitotic failure and DNA re-replication in human somatic cells knocked down for both cyclins B1 and B2. ( ...
cyclin B2. −1.70104. Regulation of cell cycle. CDKN3. cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3. −1.8019. Cell cycle. ... cyclin A2. −1.67413. Regulation of cell cycle. CCNB2. ...
value = 0.026338, which involved cell division cycle 20, CDC20; cyclin B2, CCNB2; and mitotic arrest deficient 2-like 1, MAD2L1 ... S. Takashima, H. Saito, N. Takahashi et al., "Strong expression of cyclin B2 mRNA correlates with a poor prognosis in patients ...
cyclin B2. 19. 9. 8. 29. Sequence references in MGI J:259852 Mouse Genome Informatics and the WTSI Mouse Genomes Project, MGI ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit 2, cell division cycle associated 3, cyclin B2 and A2). Among these genes, we ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21). 2.5. Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type M -1.9. ... After treatment with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), expression of high-mobility group protein B2 ( ... After selection, 27 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated genes were detected, some related to cell cycle (cyclin-dependent kinase ...
B1 and B2. Cyclin B2 is not essential for mouse development, and mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the cyclin B2 gene ... Protein levels of cyclin B1 and cdc2 for each selected population are shown in Fig. 4B. Levels of cyclin B1 protein in cyclin ... Cyclin A regulates the initiation and maintenance of DNA synthesis whereas B cyclins control mitosis (32, 33). Cyclin B mRNA ... Cyclin B1/cdc2 kinase activity is shown in Fig. 4C. Cyclin B1 rescues the p53-dependent drop in cdc2 kinase activity in Ts- ...
Cyclin B2 mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Cyclin B2 mediated events, organism-specific biosystem ... Cyclin A/B1 associated events during G2/M transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Cyclin A/B1 associated events ... regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS Traceable Author Statement. more info ... Inactivation of the cdc2-cyclin B kinase complex through Cdc25c and arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle has been mapped to ...
CCNB1; cyclin B1 [KO:K05868]. 9133 CCNB2; cyclin B2 [KO:K21770]. 85417 ...
cB2, Xenopus cyclin B2; NS, Influenza virus NS protein. E, model representing the signaling cascade that regulates AR ... was placed between the Xenopus cyclin B open reading frame (ORF) and the influenza virus NS ORF. Under normal conditions, ...
G2/M cyclins accumulate steadily during G2 and are abruptly destroyed at mitosis. ... R-SCE-69231. Cyclin D associated events in G1. R-SCE-69273. Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events during G2/M transition. R-SCE- ... IPR013763. Cyclin-like. IPR036915. Cyclin-like_sf. IPR004367. Cyclin_C-dom. IPR006671. Cyclin_N. ... IPR013763. Cyclin-like. IPR036915. Cyclin-like_sf. IPR004367. Cyclin_C-dom. IPR006671. Cyclin_N. ...
R-DME-69273. Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events during G2/M transition. R-DME-69478. G2/M DNA replication checkpoint. R-DME-75035 ... R-DME-69273. Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events during G2/M transition. R-DME-69478. G2/M DNA replication checkpoint. R-DME-75035 ... R-DME-174048. APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of Cyclin B. R-DME-174184. Cdc20:Phospho-APC/C mediated degradation of Cyclin A ... R-DME-174048. APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of Cyclin B. R-DME-174184. Cdc20:Phospho-APC/C mediated degradation of Cyclin A ...
Cyclin B1. NM_031966. Gene Info. CCNB2. Cyclin B2. NM_004701. Gene Info. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2. NM_001798. NM_052827. Gene Info. CDKN1A. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1). NM_ ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1). NM_004064. Gene Info. CDKN2A. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A. NM_ ... Cyclin G2. NM_004354. Gene Info. CDC14B. CDC14 cell division cycle 14 homolog B (S. cerevisiae). NM_033331. NM_003671. NM_ ...
Cyclin B2. gene_10225. 5.91. 0.13. 7.51. −5.70. 1.01E-02. Down ...
Cyclin B2 and p53 control proper timing of centrosome separation. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16(6):538-549.. View this article via: ... Cyclin A2 is an RNA binding protein that controls Mre11 mRNA translation. Science. 2016;353(6307):1549-1552.. View this article ... allowing APC/CCDC20 to mediate the proteasomal degradation of cyclin B1 and securin, thereby triggering sister chromatid ...
This stock is used to translate proteins necessary for maturation (for example, mRNA encoding mos; cyclins A1, B1, and B2; and ... Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks)1 and their specific regulators cyclins are the best described regulators monitoring the cell ... we demonstrated previously that Hsp/Hsc70 was O-GlcNAcylated and that cyclin B2 was associated with an O-GlcNAcylated partner ( ... The phosphorylation status of both residues is critical for the activation of the MPF (cdk1-cyclin B) (5, 6). Concomitantly to ...
Cyclin B2 - Bud3 marks the spot Journal of Cell Science 2003 116: e2005 ... Differential cellular localization among mitotic cyclins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a new role for the axial budding ...
cyclin B2. component of MPF. is a substrate for the c-. mos. (xe) proto-oncogene product., Cell 1990 ... Cyclin N , Cyclin , Cyclin-like , Cyclin-like sf [+] , Cyclin C-dom , TPR-contain dom , TPR repeat , TPR-like helical dom sf , ... Q498K5,>sp,P13351.1,CCNB2_XENLA RecName: Full=G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B2 ... NP_001081268,G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B2 [Xenopus laevis] ... cyclin B2 Synonyms:. C-B2 , cyclin B2 , cyclinb2 ( Add synonyms ...
2008) Requirement of B2-type cyclin-dependent kinases for meristem integrity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 20:88-100. ... 2006) Expression of B2-type cyclin-dependent kinase is controlled by protein degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell ... Transcripts of mitotic cyclins normally accumulate as cells enter the G2 phase (within 12 h after subculturing; ref. 23), but ... Among cell cycle-related genes, we found that many genes for cyclins A (CYCA) and B (CYCB) were down-regulated upon zeocin ...
1991) Cyclin B2 and pre-MPF activation in Xenopus oocytes. EMBO J 10, 177-182. ... In oogenesis, both cyclin A RNA and a shorter form of the cyclin B transcript are seen in the cells of the germarium that are ... Both cyclin A RNA and a longer form of the cyclin B RNA are then synthesised in the nurse cells during stages 9-11, to be ... 1990) Human cyclin A is adenovirus E1A associated p60 and behaves differently from cyclin B. Nature 346, 760-763. ...
Xenopus laevis cyclin B2. To gerate mRNA for injection. Sequence:. Full length sequence: GST-cycA2_FullLength. [+]. g ...
The roles of cyclin A2, B1, and B2 in early and late mitotic events.. Gong D, Ferrell JE Jr.. Mol Biol Cell. 2010 Sep 15;21(18 ... Cyclin A2 regulates nuclear-envelope breakdown and the nuclear accumulation of cyclin B1.. Gong D, Pomerening JR, Myers JW, ... AP-2-associated protein kinase 1 and cyclin G-associated kinase regulate hepatitis C virus entry and are potential drug targets ...
... expression of cyclin B2 during spermatogenesis. The expression of cyclin B1 overlaps the expression of cyclin B2 in the mature ... Mutation of Cyclin B. Two B-type cyclins (B1 and B2), have been identified in mammals. Proliferating cells express both cyclins ... These observations suggest that cyclin B1 may compensate for the loss of cyclin B2 in the mutant mice, and implies that cyclin ... one lacking cyclin B1 and the other lacking cyclin B2. Cyclin B1 proves to be an essential gene; no homozygous B1-null pups are ...
Recombinant Protein and G2/mitotic-specific cyclin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B2. G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B2 ELISA Kit. G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B2 Recombinant. G2/mitotic- ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin C13-1. G2/mitotic-specific cyclin C13-1 ELISA Kit. G2/mitotic-specific cyclin C13-1 Recombinant. G2/ ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin S13-6. G2/mitotic-specific cyclin S13-6 ELISA Kit. G2/mitotic-specific cyclin S13-6 Recombinant. G2/ ...
  • Cyclin B2 also binds to transforming growth factor beta RII and thus cyclin B2/cdc2 may play a key role in transforming growth factor beta-mediated cell cycle control. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial activation of the CCNB:CDK1 (cyclin B1:Cdc2 and cyclin-B2:Cdc2) complexes occurs in the cytoplasm in prophase (Jackman et al. (reactome.org)
  • Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. (pnas.org)
  • The encoded protein directs dephosphorylation of cyclin B-bound CDC2 and triggers entry into mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • 1989 ) cdc2 protein kinase is complexed with both cyclin A and B: Evidence for proteolytic inactivation of MPF. (biologists.org)
  • also termed p34 cdc2 ) and Cyclin B (B1, B2 and B3, a regulatory subunit). (springer.com)
  • NIMA promotes entry into mitosis in late G2 by some mechanism that is after activation of the Aspergillus nidulans G2 cyclin-dependent kinase, NIMX CDC2 /NIME Cyclin B . Here we present two independent lines of evidence which indicate that this mechanism involves control of NIMX CDC2 /NIME Cyclin B localization. (rupress.org)
  • NIMX CDC2 colocalized with NIME Cyclin B in G2 cells. (rupress.org)
  • Although inactivation of NIMA using either the nimA1 or nimA5 temperature-sensitive mutations blocked cells in G2, NIMX CDC2 /NIME Cyclin B localization was predominantly cytoplasmic rather than nuclear. (rupress.org)
  • The sonA1 suppressor alleviated the nuclear division and NIME Cyclin B localization defects of nimA1 cells without markedly increasing NIMX CDC2 or NIMA kinase activity. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that NIMA promotes the nuclear localization of the NIMX CDC2 / NIME Cyclin B complex, by a process involving SONA. (rupress.org)
  • Here we employ species-specific antibodies to monitor changes in quantity and location of four maize cyclins and maize Cdc2-kinase in dividing maize root tip cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cyclin II and Cdc2 also occur in the PPB. (deepdyve.com)
  • Occurrence of cyclin Ib and Cdc2 at the PPB concurrent with initiation of breakdown is consistent with previous studies in which microinjection of cyclin-dependent protein kinase indicated that removal of the PPB at the time of nuclear-envelope breakdown is catalysed by a CDK. (deepdyve.com)
  • From Cdc2 to Cdk1: when did the cell cycle kinase join its cyclin partner? (biologists.org)
  • The idea that Cdc2 and cyclins play a key role in the control of the G2/M transition of the cell cycle came largely from genetic analysis of fission yeast and physiological studies of clam, frog, sea urchin and starfish eggs and oocytes. (biologists.org)
  • However, it took a long time to realise that Cdc2 and cyclins form a stoichiometric complex and that a cyclin subunit is necessary for the Cdc2 subunit to gain its protein kinase activity. (biologists.org)
  • This concept of a direct association between a cyclin subunit and a cell cycle kinase subunit (Cdc2) emerged from analysis of the G2/M transition. (biologists.org)
  • Fission yeast mutants that are prematurely advanced into mitosis and thus enter prophase at reduced size focused attention on Cdc2, but gave no clues about cyclins. (biologists.org)
  • p53 inhibits G 1 /S transition in cells exposed to DNA-damaging agents by causing accumulation of p21 CIP1/WAF1 ( 6 , 15 ), a protein that binds to and inactivates the cyclin-dependent kinases necessary for initiating DNA synthesis ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) 1 and their specific regulators cyclins are the best described regulators monitoring the cell cycle progression. (mcponline.org)
  • These signaling pathways govern the expression of distinct sets of cell-cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent kinases and their suppressors. (pnas.org)
  • Progression from one phase to another is controlled by cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) and their activators, cyclins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • These ChIP-chip data indicate that FLP/MYB88 target the upstream regions especially of cell cycle genes, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and components of the prereplication complex. (plantcell.org)
  • Cyclins are eukaryotic proteins that form holoenzymes with cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdk), which they activate. (academic.ru)
  • Although cyclins were initially characterized as molecules whose expression "cycled" (hence the name) once per cell cycle, it is now known that they function both as activating regulatory subunits and substrate specificity-determining components for cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) ( 9 , 27 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Their sub-cellular location, as well as their fluctuating abundance and their affinities for the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) to which they bind, determine their successive roles during the cell cycle. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is now firmly established that progression of the cell cycle- that is, transitions between one phase of the cycle and the next- are controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (biologists.org)
  • The mammalian cell cycle control system is regulated by a group of protein kinases called cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and their activators, Cyclins, drive progression through the cell cycle. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNB2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G 2 , we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G 2 arrest at 32°C. We have found that p53 prevents G 2 /M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. (pnas.org)
  • To study G 2 regulation by p53, we have established a human cell line, Ts-SKOV3, that stably expresses a temperature-sensitive p53 allele and undergoes G 2 arrest at 32°C. Using this cell line we have found that p53 arrests cell cycle in G 2 by lowering intracellular levels of cyclin B1, a protein absolutely required for mitotic initiation. (pnas.org)
  • After treatment with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b ]pyridine (PhIP), expression of high-mobility group protein B2 (HMGB2) was up-regulated in rat ventral prostate. (go.jp)
  • Mitotic cyclins stably associate with this protein and function as regulatory subunits. (antibodies-online.com)
  • It is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase, and essential for cell cycle G1/S phase transition. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This motif also is present in the tobacco kinesin-like protein gene NACK1 , which is expressed with timing similar to that of B-type cyclin genes. (plantcell.org)
  • Cyclin D is a member of the cyclin protein family that is involved in regulating cell cycle progression. (academic.ru)
  • Cyclin D protein is anywhere from 155 (in zebra mussel) to 477 (in Drosophila) amino acids in length. (academic.ru)
  • The abundance of cyclins is generally regulated by protein synthesis and degradation through an APC/c dependent pathway. (academic.ru)
  • Mice, Drosophila and many other organisms only have one cyclin D protein. (academic.ru)
  • The yeast homologue of cyclin D, referred to as Cln3 , interacts with Cdc28 (cell division control protein) during G1. (academic.ru)
  • One of the best known substrates of cyclin D/Cdk4 and -6 is the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein ( Rb ). (academic.ru)
  • Both isoforms possess the N-terminal domain, necessary for retinoblastoma protein (pRb) binding, the cyclin box, required for cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) binding and activation and the central region, implicated in transcriptional regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The PEST sequence which controls protein turn-over and the threonine 286 (Thr286), the site of phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase-3β which promotes the nuclear export of cyclin D1 and its degradation through the proteasome pathway [ 2 , 3 ], are present only in cyclin D1a. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cyclin A is nuclear and cyclin B1 is a cytoplasmic protein. (nih.gov)
  • Conversely, deleting the cytoplasmic retention signal region from cyclin B1 causes the protein to become nuclear. (nih.gov)
  • 5 ug of preimmune rabbit IgG, C. Immunoprecipitation of Cyclin A2 protein by 2. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Cyclin B-dependent kinase (CDK1-CCNB1) promotes entry into mitosis. (rupress.org)
  • The two crucial targets ubiquitylated by the APC/C to promote mitotic exit are securin, the inhibitor of separase, and most important for this work, cyclin B, the activating subunit of a cyclin-dependent mitotic kinase (CDK1). (rupress.org)
  • The cyclin subunit imparts substrate specificity to the complex. (genecards.org)
  • Examination of the distributions of RNAs transcribed from chimeric cyclin genes indicates that sequences in the 3′ untranslated region of the larger cyclin B RNA are required both for it to become concentrated at the posterior pole and to direct those transcripts in the body of the syncytial embryo to their peri-nuclear localisation. (biologists.org)
  • These genes form two classes based on sequence relatedness: CLB1 and CLB2 show highest homology to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cyclin-B homolog cdc13 involved in the initiation of mitosis, whereas CLB3 and CLB4 are more highly related to the S. pombe cyclin-B homolog cig1, which appears to play a role in G1 or S phase. (sdbonline.org)
  • Plant B-type cyclin genes are expressed specifically in late G2- and M-phases during the cell cycle. (plantcell.org)
  • During the cell cycle, the level of NtmybB mRNA did not change significantly, whereas the levels of NtmybA1 and A2 mRNAs fluctuated and peaked at M-phase, when B-type cyclin genes were maximally induced. (plantcell.org)
  • Our data show that a group of plant Myb proteins that are structurally similar to animal c-Myb proteins have unexpected roles in G2/M-phase by modulating the expression of B-type cyclin genes and may regulate a suite of coexpressed genes. (plantcell.org)
  • During the G1-to-S transition, a set of specific genes are induced, including G1 cyclin genes and several genes involved in DNA synthesis in yeast ( Koch and Nasmyth, 1994 ), animal ( Müller, 1995 ), and plant cells ( Ito, 1998 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Later in the cell cycle, during G2- and M-phases, another set of genes is expressed, among which B-type cyclin genes are the best characterized. (plantcell.org)
  • Namely, cyclin D-Cdk4/6 complex partially phosphorylates Rb, which is able to induce expression of some genes (for example: cyclin E) important for S phase progression. (academic.ru)
  • [ 4 ] Viral cyclin D binds human Cdk6 and inhibits Rb by phosphorylating it, which subsequently inhibits expression of genes important for DNA synthesis. (academic.ru)
  • One of the members of the pathways, MAPK activates a transcription factor Myc, which alters transcription of genes important in cell cycle, among which is cyclin D. In this way, cyclin D is synthesized as long as the growth factor is present. (academic.ru)
  • In its un-phosphorylated form, Rb binds a member of E2F family of transcription factors which controls expression of several genes involved in cell cycle progression (example, cyclin E). Rb acts as a repressor, so in complex with E2F it prevents expression of E2F regulates genes, and this inhibits cells from progressing through G1. (academic.ru)
  • Importantly, cyclin K and cyclin D1b have no major action on cell cycle or apoptosis regulatory genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, paradoxically, the wealth of information about cell cycle genes in S. cerevisiae provided only a limited number of clues at first in putting cyclins together with CDKs. (biologists.org)
  • Overexpression of Bmi1 in granule cell progenitors (GCPs) led to a decrease in cerebellar size due to decreased GCP proliferation and repression of the expression of cyclin genes, whereas Bmi1 overexpression in postmitotic granule cells improved cell survival in response to stress by altering the expression of genes in the mitochondrial cell death pathway and of Myc and Lef-1 . (biologists.org)
  • Transcripts predominantly expressed at 0 and 4 dpp included homologs of histones, cyclins, and plastid and photosynthesis related genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CDKs are called "cyclin-dependent" because their activity requires their association with activating subunits called cyclins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While the number of CDKs in a cell remains constant during the cell cycle, the levels of cyclins oscillate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although levels of Cdks remain constant throughout the cell cycle, their activities oscillate, mostly owing to complex cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation events and changes in the abundance of Cyclins [ 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The different subcellular locations of human cyclins B1 and B2 implicate them in the reorganization of different aspects of the cellular architecture at mitosis and indicate that different mitotic cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase complexes may have distinct roles in the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Accordingly, specific cyclin-CDK complexes persist in an active form for a very short period of time after translation, and are then degraded or inactivated by the time that particular phase of the cell cycle completes. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Activation of specific cyclin-CDK complexes are characteristic for the different cell cycle phases, and drive production of specific molecules associated with, and necessary for that phase of division. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In general, all stages of the cell cycle are chronologically separated in humans and are triggered by cyclin-Cdk complexes which are periodically expressed and partially redundant in function. (academic.ru)
  • Even though cyclin D levels in proliferating cells are sustained as long as the growth factors are present, a key player for G1/S transition is active cyclin D-Cdk4/6 complexes. (academic.ru)
  • It is known that the cell cycle and cell proliferation are regulated by the sequential activation of cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin complexes. (wiley.com)
  • Thus we propose that the subcellular distribution of the B-type cyclins is determined primarily by a small region of the N-terminus which targets the cyclin--CDK complexes to particular structures in the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • The differential localization of human cyclins A and B is due to a cytoplasmic retention signal in cyclin B". EMBO J. 13 (16): 3772-81. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial cytoplasmic retention of cyclins Ib and II correlates with their possession of a sequence similar to the cytoplasmic-retention signal of animal cyclin B1. (deepdyve.com)
  • Although the cytoplasmic retention signal region is outside the cyclin box, its sequence is well conserved in human cyclin B2, and is both necessary and sufficient to keep cyclin B2 in the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • However, human cyclins B1 and B2 differ dramatically in their subcellular localization. (nih.gov)
  • In proliferating cells, cyclin D-Cdk4/6 complex accumulation is of great importance for cell cycle progression. (academic.ru)
  • Active cyclin D/Cdk4 and -6 inhibit Rb by partial phosphorylation, reducing its binding to E2F and thereby allowing E2F-mediated activation of the transcription of the cyclin E gene and the cell progresses towards S-phase. (academic.ru)
  • Persistence of mitotic cyclins and CDK after mitosis into the cytokinetic stage, as seen in maize, is not paralleled in animal cells, where the cytokinetic mid-body is not so labelled, presumably reflecting the key role of the phragmoplast apparatus in plant cell division. (deepdyve.com)
  • In humans, in addition to the mouse homologue, two more cyclin D proteins have been identified. (academic.ru)
  • These human proteins, called cyclin D1 , cyclin D2 , and cyclin D3 are expressed in most proliferating cells and the relative amounts expressed differs in various cell types. (academic.ru)
  • however, none of these proteins have been shown to contribute to cyclin B1 localization. (rupress.org)
  • CCND1 gene is alternatively spliced to produce two cyclin D1 mRNA isoforms which are translated in two proteins: cyclin D1a and cyclin D1b. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The two corresponding proteins cyclin D1a and D1b differ only in the last 55 amino acids of the carboxy-terminus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • John, Peter 2005-02-23 00:00:00 Cyclin proteins are components of the regulatory system that controls the orderly progression of the events of cell division. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cyclin proteins are components of the regulatory system that controls the orderly progression of the events of cell division. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cyclins were first recognized as proteins whose abundance oscillates during the early cell cycles of marine invertebrate eggs and their connection with MPF (maturation-promoting factor), the entity defined in frog and starfish oocytes whose activity controls entry into M phase, was far from clear at first. (biologists.org)
  • To test the tumorigenic potential of cyclin D1b in vivo , we generated cell clones derived from the non- CCND1 expressing MM LP-1 cell line, synthesizing either cyclin D1b or cyclin K, a structural homolog and viral oncogenic form of cyclin D1a. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Western Blot: Cyclin A2 Antibody [NBP1-31330] - Various whole cell extracts (30 ug) were separated by 10% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with Cyclin A2 antibody diluted at a dilution of 1:1000. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Western Blot: Cyclin A2 Antibody [NBP1-31330] - A. 30 ug 293T whole cell lysate/extract, B. 30 ug HeLa whole cell lysate/extract, C. 30 ug A37C whole cell lysate/extract 10% SDS-PAGE gel, antibody dilution 1:1000. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: Cyclin A2 Antibody [NBP1-31330] - Analysis of HeLa, using NBP1-31330 antibody at 1:200 dilution. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Immunofluorescence: Cyclin A2 Antibody [NBP1-31330] - 293T cells stained with Cyclin A2 antibody. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Immunoprecipitation: Cyclin A2 Antibody [NBP1-31330] - Sample: 1000 ug 293T whole cell lysate/extract A. 30 ug 293T whole cell lysate/extract, B. Control with 2. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • 5 ug of Cyclin A2 antibody 10% SDS-PAGE gel. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Cyclin B1 and B2 levels are very low in G1 phase, increase in S and G2 phases and peak at mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • their associated kinase activities appear when cells enter mitosis and disappear as the cyclins are destroyed in anaphase. (nih.gov)
  • G2/M cyclins accumulate steadily during G2 and are abruptly destroyed at mitosis. (uniprot.org)
  • In oogenesis, both cyclin A RNA and a shorter form of the cyclin B transcript are seen in the cells of the germarium that are undergoing mitosis. (biologists.org)
  • 2/mitotic-specific cyclin essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G2/M (mitosis) transition. (mybiosource.com)
  • During G2-phase, B-type cyclins interact with and activate the cyclin-dependent kinase, which is critical for entry into mitosis ( Pines and Hunter, 1990 ). (plantcell.org)
  • This indicates that distinct properties of cyclin A and B are required to initiate and then sustain mitosis ( Gong and Ferrell, 2010 ). (rupress.org)
  • While cyclins Ia and III are predominantly nuclear prior to mitosis, cyclins Ib and II are predominantly cytoplasmic until prophase then become nuclear. (deepdyve.com)
  • Further network analysis of jointly regulated kinase groups suggested that Cyclin-dependent kinase- and mitogen-activated kinase-centered interaction networks are coordinately down- and up-regulated in late mitosis, respectively. (mcponline.org)
  • CLB1 and CLB2 mRNA levels peak late in the cell cycle, whereas CLB3 and CLB4 are expressed earlier in the cell cycle but peak later than the G1-specific cyclin, CLN1. (sdbonline.org)
  • We have characterised forms of the Drosophila cyclin B transcript that differ as a result of a splicing event which removes a nucleotide segment from the 3′ untranslated region. (biologists.org)
  • 1989 ) Expression and function of Drosophila cyclin A during embryonic cell cycle progression. (biologists.org)
  • 1990 ) The role of Drosophila cyclins A and B in mitotic control. (biologists.org)
  • The B-type cyclins, B1 and B2, associate with p34cdc2 and are essential components of the cell cycle regulatory machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • During progression through S phase and G2/M, Cdc28 is activated by the B-type cyclins Clb1-6. (sdbonline.org)
  • Surprisingly, the E-type cyclins appear to be dispensable for cell cycle progression in normally cycling cells, but they are essential for cell cycle reentry ( 13 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Cyclin D1 is a key actor for the development and progression of various cancers including hematological malignancies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclin II binds to all microtubule arrays during the cell cycle, becoming markedly concentrated in the phragmoplast, and cyclin III associates with the spindle and then the phragmoplast. (deepdyve.com)
  • B1 and B2 differ in their subcellular localization. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate the role of cyclin F in vivo, we generated mice deficient for cyclin F and conditionally deficient mice as well as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) conditionally deficient for cyclin F. Heterozygous animals are normal and fertile, but CycF −/− animals, with a myriad of developmental anomalies due in large part to failures in yolk sac and chorioallantoic placentation, die around embryonic day 10.5. (asm.org)
  • In addition, cyclin E expression from the cyclin D1 promoter completely rescues phenotypic consequences of cyclin D1 loss by bypassing cyclin D1's function in the cell cycle ( 12 ), suggesting that the essential role of cyclin D is to activate cyclin E expression. (asm.org)
  • However, a role of cyclin D1b in the leukemogenic process cannot be ruled out. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aberrant expression of cyclin D1 is a common feature in multiple myeloma (MM) and always associated with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mechanisms of cyclin D1b-mediated tumorigenesis are not fully understood and could depend on the cellular context and in particular on the concomitant expression of cyclin D1a. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle in G2 by inhibiting the activation of p34cdc2-cyclin B". J. Virol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to cyclin B1, cyclin B2 does not relocate to the nucleus at prophase, but becomes uniformly distributed throughout the cell. (nih.gov)
  • The transcription factor p53, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21, and Cdc25 phosphatase are downstream regulators that control cell-cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. (pnas.org)
  • The B-type cyclins of S. cerevisiae are diversified with respect to time of expression during the cell cycle as well as biological function. (sdbonline.org)
  • The CLN cyclins are required for activation of Clb-Cdc28p kinase in addition to other cell cycle roles. (sdbonline.org)
  • In contrast, MEFs lacking cyclin F, while viable, do exhibit cell cycle defects, including reduced population-doubling time and a delay in cell cycle reentry from quiescence, indicating that cyclin F plays a role in cell cycle regulation. (asm.org)
  • Cyclins are key components of the core cell cycle machinery. (asm.org)
  • Genome-wide analysis of LP-1-derived cells indicated that several cellular processes were altered by cyclin D1b and/or cyclin K expression such as cell metabolism, signal transduction, regulation of transcription and translation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to study the oncogenic potential of cyclins D1b and K in the context of mature B cells, we generated several cell clones derived from LP-1 MM cell line, expressing either cyclin D1b, Myc or cyclin K oncogenes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LP-1 cell line was chosen because this MM cell line does not express any cyclin D1 isoform. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aim We evaluated epidermal cell turnover and thickness, as well as the expression of cyclins D1, B and A in psoriatic skin before and after therapy with cyclosporin. (wiley.com)
  • Methods Epidermal thickness, mitotic and apoptotic indices (MI, AI), as well as the percentages of epidermal cell nuclei positive for Ki-67 and cyclins D1, B and A were calculated. (wiley.com)
  • There are G 1 cyclins, S-phase cyclins, and G 2 /M cyclins, each of which interact differently with CDK subunits to regulate the various phases of the cell cycle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Transcriptional activation contributes to accumulation of Cyclins when they are needed to orchestrate entry into a new cell cycle phase [ 6 , 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cyclin B1 co-localizes with microtubules, whereas cyclin B2 is primarily associated with the Golgi region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that mice lacking two D cyclins exhibit more exacerbated phenotypes in certain tissues than the mice lacking either cyclin D alone also supports the notion that they have similar biochemical functions ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • These transcripts become evenly distributed throughout the oocyte cytoplasm but, in addition, those of cyclin B become concentrated at the posterior pole. (biologists.org)
  • We find that the N-terminus of cyclin B1 contains a 42 amino acid region that is sufficient to retain the normally nuclear cyclin A in the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a single cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc28, regulates both G1/S and G2/M phase transitions by associating with stage-specific cyclins. (sdbonline.org)
  • Four cyclin-B homologs , CLB1-CLB4, have been cloned from Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the polymerase chain reaction and low stringency hybridization approaches. (sdbonline.org)
  • Human cyclin F was originally isolated as a cDNA capable of suppressing the temperature sensitivity of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc4 - 1 mutant. (asm.org)
  • Once the nuclear envelope has broken down, cyclin A is rapidly destroyed, while cyclin B1 associates with the condensed chromosomes and the spindle apparatus and is stabilized by the spindle checkpoint ( Pines and Hunter, 1991 ). (rupress.org)
  • We report here that cyclin D1b- and cyclin K-expressing LP-1 cells are tumorigenic in vivo in xenograft models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ability of p53 to control mitotic initiation by regulating intracellular cyclin B1 levels suggests that the cyclin B-dependent G 2 checkpoint has a role in preventing neoplastic transformation. (pnas.org)
  • Crystal structure of human cyclin D1 (blue/green) in complex with cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (yellow/red). (academic.ru)
  • Loss-of-function studies in mice have proven particularly useful in understanding specific roles carried out by cyclins and the tissues which are exquisitely dependent upon their activity. (asm.org)
  • First, we found that NIME Cyclin B localized to the nucleus and the nucleus-associated organelle, the spindle pole body, in a NIMA-dependent manner. (rupress.org)
  • cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18. (broadinstitute.org)
  • 1999 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Percent *** 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Percent *** Interaction between cyclin D1 and RAD51 facilitates efficient homologous recombination Valerie et al. (slideshare.net)
  • Analysis of cells from asynchronous cultures, synchronous cultures, and cultures arrested in S or G2 showed that NIME Cyclin B was predominantly nuclear during interphase, with maximal nuclear accumulation in late G2. (rupress.org)
  • Maize cyclin Ia occurs in the nuclear matrix and is released when the nuclear envelope breaks down. (deepdyve.com)
  • The mitotic A- and B-type cyclins are not formally interchangeable, since animals carrying single mutations of cyclin A2 or cyclin B1 result in embryonic lethality ( 3 , 23 ). (asm.org)