A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An aspect of protein kinase (EC in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
CELL CYCLE regulatory signaling systems that are triggered by DNA DAMAGE or lack of nutrients during G2 PHASE. When triggered they restrain cells transitioning from G2 phase to M PHASE.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.

The mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway stimulates mos mRNA cytoplasmic polyadenylation during Xenopus oocyte maturation. (1/760)

The Mos protein kinase is a key regulator of vertebrate oocyte maturation. Oocyte-specific Mos protein expression is subject to translational control. In the frog Xenopus, the translation of Mos protein requires the progesterone-induced polyadenylation of the maternal Mos mRNA, which is present in the oocyte cytoplasm. Both the Xenopus p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) signaling pathways have been proposed to mediate progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation. In this study, we have determined the relative contributions of the MAPK and MPF signaling pathways to Mos mRNA polyadenylation. We report that progesterone-induced Mos mRNA polyadenylation was attenuated in oocytes expressing the MAPK phosphatase rVH6. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling blocked progesterone-induced Mos protein accumulation. Activation of the MAPK pathway by injection of RNA encoding Mos was sufficient to induce both the polyadenylation of synthetic Mos mRNA substrates and the accumulation of endogenous Mos protein in the absence of MPF signaling. Activation of MPF, by injection of cyclin B1 RNA or purified cyclin B1 protein, also induced both Mos protein accumulation and Mos mRNA polyadenylation. However, this action of MPF required MAPK activity. By contrast, the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of maternal cyclin B1 mRNA was stimulated by MPF in a MAPK-independent manner, thus revealing a differential regulation of maternal mRNA polyadenylation by the MAPK and MPF signaling pathways. We propose that MAPK-stimulated Mos mRNA cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a key component of the positive-feedback loop, which contributes to the all-or-none process of oocyte maturation.  (+info)

p53 regulates a G2 checkpoint through cyclin B1. (2/760)

The p53 tumor suppressor controls multiple cell cycle checkpoints regulating the mammalian response to DNA damage. To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G2, we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G2 arrest at 32 degrees C. We have found that p53 prevents G2/M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. The ability of p53 to control mitotic initiation by regulating intracellular cyclin B1 levels suggests that the cyclin B-dependent G2 checkpoint has a role in preventing neoplastic transformation.  (+info)

Activation of integrin and ceramide signalling pathways can inhibit the mitogenic effect of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in human breast cancer cell lines. (3/760)

Cell counting, cell cycle analysis and Western immunoblotting were used to examine the effects of non-apoptotic doses of a ceramide analogue, C2, and a synthetic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-containing peptide, RGD, in MCF-7 and T47D cells to determine whether activation of these signalling pathways could alter the mitogenic potential of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). IGF-I alone increased total cell number in both cell lines, associated with a rise in the percentage of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle and a co-incident increase in cyclin A production. Treatments alone had no effects on cell number or cyclin A production relative to controls. C2 inhibited IGF-I-induced mitogenesis in both lines, whereas RGD was only effective in the T47D line. Despite inhibition of cell proliferation, IGF-I stimulation of cells in S-phase and of cyclin A levels were unaffected; however, an IGF-I-induced increase in cyclin B1 levels was inhibited by 30%. Low-dose induction of integrin and ceramide signalling pathways causes cells to be blocked in S-phase, thereby inhibiting the normal cycle of events associated with the IGF-I-induced mitotic signal. Activating these pathways may not only restrict tumour growth by induction of apoptosis but they may also directly inhibit IGF-I-induced cell proliferation.  (+info)

Posttranslational regulation of the retinoblastoma gene family member p107 by calpain protease. (4/760)

The retinoblastoma protein plays a critical role in regulating the G1/S transition. Less is known about the function and regulation of the homologous pocket protein p107. Here we present evidence for the posttranslational regulation of p107 by the Ca2+-activated protease calpain. Three negative growth regulators, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin, the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil, and the cyclic nucleotide dibutyryl cAMP were found to induce cell type-specific loss of p107 protein which was reversible by the calpain inhibitor leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal but not by the serine protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, caspase inhibitors, or lactacystin, a specific inhibitor of the 26S proteasome. Purified calpain induced Ca2+-dependent p107 degradation in cell lysates. Transient expression of the specific calpain inhibitor calpastatin blocked the loss of p107 protein in lovastatin-treated cells, and the half-life of p107 was markedly lengthened in lovastatian-treated cells stably transfected with a calpastatin expression vector versus cells transfected with vector alone. The data presented here demonstrate down-regulation of p107 protein in response to various antiproliferative signals, and implicate calpain in p107 posttranslational regulation.  (+info)

Alteration in p53 pathway and defect in apoptosis contribute independently to cisplatin-resistance. (5/760)

The accumulation of molecular genetic defects selected during the adaptation process in the development of cisplatin-resistance was studied using progressive cisplatin-resistant variants (L1210/DDP2, L1210/DDP5, L1210/DDP10) derived from a murine leukemia cell line (L1210/0). Of these cell lines, only the most resistant L1210/DDP10 was cross-resistant to etoposide and deficient in apoptosis induced by these two drugs, indicating that resistance to DNA-damaging agents correlates with a defect in apoptosis. This defect was tightly associated with the loss of a Ca2+/Mg2+-dependent nuclear endonuclease activity present in the less cisplatin-resistant cells. Evidence is presented that p53-dependent function (a) is lost not only in the apoptosis defective L1210/DDP10 cells, but also in the apoptosis susceptible L1210/DDP5 cells; (b) is unrelated to drug-induced cell cycle perturbations. These results suggest that deficiency in the p53 pathway and resistance to DNA-damaging agents due to a defect in apoptosis are independent events.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements mediate masking and unmasking of cyclin B1 mRNA. (6/760)

During oocyte maturation, cyclin B1 mRNA is translationally activated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation. This process is dependent on cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs) in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA. To determine whether a titratable factor might be involved in the initial translational repression (masking) of this mRNA, high levels of cyclin B1 3' UTR were injected into oocytes. While this treatment had no effect on the poly(A) tail length of endogenous cyclin B1 mRNA, it induced cyclin B1 synthesis. A mutational analysis revealed that the most efficient unmasking element in the cyclin 3' UTR was the CPE. However, other U-rich sequences that resemble the CPE in structure, but which do not bind the CPE-binding polyadenylation factor CPEB, failed to induce unmasking. When fused to the chloramphenical acetyl transferase (CAT) coding region, the cyclin B1 3' UTR inhibited CAT translation in injected oocytes. In addition, a synthetic 3' UTR containing multiple copies of the CPE also inhibited translation, and did so in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, efficient CPE-mediated masking required cap-dependent translation. During the normal course of progesterone-induced maturation, cytoplasmic polyadenylation was necessary for mRNA unmasking. A model to explain how cyclin B1 mRNA masking and unmasking could be regulated by the CPE is presented.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP delays G2 progression and prevents efficient accumulation of cyclin B1 proteins in mouse macrophage cells. (7/760)

In mouse macrophage cells, the increase of the intracellular cAMP level activates protein kinase A (PKA) and results in inhibition of cell cycle progression in both G1 and G2/M phases. G1 arrest is mediated by a cdk inhibitor, p27Kip1, which prevents G1 cyclin/cdk complexes from being activated in response to colony stimulating factor-1, whereas inhibition of G2/M progression has not been fully elucidated. In this report we analyzed the effect of cAMP on G2/M progression in a mouse macrophage cell line, BAC1.2F5A. Flow cytometric analysis and mitotic index measurement using both synchronized and asynchronized cells revealed that addition of cAMP-elevating agents (8-bromoadenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate and 3-isobutyl-methyl-xanthine), although they did not affect S phase progression or M/G1 transition, temporarily arrested cells in G2 but eventually the cells proceeded to M phase, resulting in about 4 hours delay of G2 progression. Timing of cyclin B1/Cdc2 kinase activation was also retarded by about 4 hours, which was accompanied by inhibition of efficient accumulation of cyclin B1 proteins. Initial induction and accumulation of cyclin B1 mRNA were not hampered, but the half life of cyclin B1 proteins was significantly shorter during G2 phase in the presence of cAMP-elevating agents compared with that of the cells blocked from progressing through M phase by nocodazole. These results imply that the cAMP/PKA pathway regulates G2 phase progression by altering the stability of a crucial cell cycle regulator.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic localization of human cdc25C during interphase requires an intact 14-3-3 binding site. (8/760)

cdc25C induces mitosis by activating the cdc2-cyclin B complex. The intracellular localization of cyclin B1 is regulated in a cell cycle-specific manner, and its entry into the nucleus may be required for the initiation of mitosis. To determine the cellular localization of cdc25C, monoclonal antibodies specific for cdc25C were developed and used to demonstrate that in human cells, cdc25C is retained in the cytoplasm during interphase. A deletion analysis identified a 58-amino-acid region (amino acids 201 to 258) in cdc25C that was required for the cytoplasmic localization of cdc25C. This region contained a specific binding site for 14-3-3 proteins, and mutations in cdc25C that disrupted 14-3-3 binding also disrupted the cytoplasmic localization of cdc25C during interphase. cdc25C proteins that do not contain a binding site for 14-3-3 proteins showed a pancellular localization and an increased ability to induce premature chromosome condensation. The cytoplasmic localization of cdc25C was not altered by gamma irradiation or treatment with the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B. These results suggest that 14-3-3 proteins may negatively regulate cdc25C function by sequestering cdc25C in the cytoplasm.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclin B in fish oocytes. T2 - Its cDNA and amino acid sequences, appearance during maturation, and induction of p34cdc2 activation. AU - Hirai, T.. AU - Yamashita, M.. AU - Yoshikuni, M.. AU - Lou, Y. ‐H. AU - Nagahama, Y.. PY - 1992/10. Y1 - 1992/10. N2 - Under the influence of maturation‐inducing hormone (MIH) secreted from follicle cells, oocyte maturation is finally triggered by maturation‐promoting factor (MPF), which consists of a homolog of the cdc2+ gene product of fission yeast (p34cdc2) and cyclin B. Two species of cyclin B clones were isolated from a cDNA library constructed from mature goldfish oocytes. Sequence comparisons revealed that these two clones are highly homologous (95%) and were found to be similar to Xenopus cyclin B1. Using monocional antibodies against Escherichia coli produced goldfish cyclin B and the PSTAIR sequence of p34cdc2, we examined the levels of cyclin B and p34cdc2 proteins during goldfish oocyte maturation induced in vitro by ...
In the present study, we identified three proteins (cyclin B1, TfR1, and fibronectin) that were highly expressed in metastatic ACC in the TCPA database. With a median follow-up of 3.1 years, high expression of each of these three proteins was associated with a poor survival rate. Subjects with high expression levels of a combination of two DEPs were at a higher risk for mortality than those with a high expression levels of only one DEP. Cyclin B1, TfR1, and all combinations of the three DEPs showed meaningful prognostic performance independent of age and staging. Moreover, among non-metastatic patients, combinations of these three DEPs showed significant or near-significant associations with mortality. The reason for the non-significance of fibronectin alone needs to be elucidated, but the small number of patients may have contributed to this finding. In addition, the C-index and cfNRI values of high cyclin B1/high TfR1/high fibronectin were the same as those of high cyclin B1/high fibronectin. ...
ViraQuest Inc. , Uncategorized , Estrogen receptor ? causes a G2 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting CDK1 activity through the regulation of cyclin B1, GADD45A, and BTG2 ...
10 products from 6 suppliers. Compare and order Cyclin B1 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products for the most popular species. Our scientists will help you find the right ELISA kit for your needs.
Achetez les anticorps cyclin b1 de Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. Des anticorps monoclonaux sont disponibles pour la plupart des immunogènes protéiques.
Wee1 acts as a negative regulator of entry into mitosis (G2 to M transition) by protecting the nucleus from cytoplasmically activated cyclin B1-complexed CDK1 before the onset of mitosis. The activity of wee1 increases during the S and G2 phases, and decreases in M phase when it is hyperphosphorylated. A correlated decrease in wee1 protein level occurs at M/G1 phase, probably due to its degradation. Wee1 specifically phosphorylates and inactivates cyclin B1-complexed CDK1 reaching a maximum during G2 phase and a minimum as cells enter M phase. The phosphorylation of cyclin B1-CDK1 occurs exclusively on Tyr-15 and phosphorylation of monomeric CDK1 does not occur ...
CCNB2 Human Recombinant produced E. coli is a single polypeptide chain containing 422 amino acids (1-398) and having a molecular mass of 47.9 kDa.
CCNB1 Human Recombinant produced in E. coli is a single polypeptide chain containing 457 amino acids (1-433) and having a molecular mass of 50.9 kDa.
Complete information for CCNB2 gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin B2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
NU6102, CDK1/cyclin B and CDK2/cyclin A3 inhibitor (CAS 444722-95-6), with |98% purity. Join researchers using our high quality biochemicals.
We investigated the occurrence of transcription during mitosis on an RNA pol II‐transcribed gene. We have found that the human cyclin B1 gene is actively transcribed at the mitotic stage. This result is surprising, since it is widely accepted that transcription is repressed during mitosis in higher eukaryotes. Interestingly, in fission yeast the rate of RNA synthesis is maintained during passage through mitosis (Baum et al., 1998). In mammalian cells, until now, no RNA pol II‐dependent transcription has been reported in mitotic cells, although there is evidence showing that 10-20% of the TFIID population remains associated with the condensed mitotic chromatin (Segil et al., 1996). Whether the transcription of the cyclin B1 gene occurs during all the four mitosis phases remains to be elucidated. The cyclin B1 protein is quickly degraded at the metaphase. Whenever a spindle checkpoint is imposed during metaphase, there is a reappearance of cyclin B1 protein due to a loss of cyclin B1 ...
Cyclin B1 (G2- & M-phase Cyclin) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone V92.1 ] validated in IF, FC, IP (AH10827-100), Abgent
Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) exhibit indicators and useful properties of pericytes and, in mixture with endothelial cells (ECs), are capable to create multilayer useful boats super model tiffany livingston of coculturing ECs with ASCs in a program formulated with serum but no additional exogenous cytokines or extracellular matrix (ECM) meats. ASCs in EC-fibroblast cocultures in a low small fraction stimulated VNF efficiently. These results demonstrate that the vasculogenesis-promoting potential of ASCs is dependent on relationship with ECs concerning get in touch with and most likely bi-directional relationship, causing in modulated release of cytokines and ECM protein. Launch Advancement of vascular systems that can adequately carry out bloodstream movement to underperfused tissue is certainly one of the main healing goals for dealing with sufferers with ischemic disorders Rabbit polyclonal to Cyclin B1.a member of the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a ...
Manni I., Tunici P., Cirenei N., Albarosa R., Colombo B.M., Roz L., Sacchi A., Piaggio G., Finocchiaro G.. Mxi1 is a Mad family member that plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation. To test the role of Mxi1 on tumorigenesis of glioma cells we transfected a CMV-driven MXI1 cDNA in U87 human glioblastoma cells. Two clones were isolated expressing MXI1 levels 18- and 3.5-fold higher than wild-type U87 cells (clone U87.Mxi1.14 and U87.Mxi1.22, respectively). In vivo, U87.Mxi1.14 cells were not tumorigenic in nude mice and delayed development of tumours was observed with U87.Mxi1.22 cells. In vitro, the proliferation rate was partially and strongly inhibited in U87.Mxi1.22 and U87.Mxi1.14 cells respectively. The cell cycle analysis revealed a relevant accumulation of U87.Mxi1.14 cells in the G(2)/M phase. Interestingly, the expression of cyclin B1 was inhibited to about 60% in U87.Mxi1.14 cells. This inhibition occurs at the transcriptional level and depends, at least in part, on the ...
Abstract. γ-Radiation is a potent inducer of apoptosis. There are multiple pathways regulating DNA damage-induced apoptosis, and we set out to identify novel me
Metafase di anafase transizione viene attivato attraverso la promozione anafase-complesso (APC / C)-dipendente ubiquitinazione e la...
Cell Cycle, Genes, Tumor, Cell Cycle Genes, Human, Repression, Gene, Dream, Proteins, Regulation, Cell, Cyclin, Cyclin B2, Elements, Mitosis, DNA, Family, Transcription Factors, Apoptosis, DNA Damage
Dominik Schnerch is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Studieren Proteolyse von Cyclin B an der Single Cell Level in Whole Cell Populationen
amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;div><img src=https://mc.yandex.ru/watch/35930735 style=position:absolute; left:-9999px; alt= /></div&gt ...
Fertilization of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs results in resumption of meiosis and a decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities; the decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity precedes the decrease in MAP kinase activity. Cycloheximide treatment of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs also results in resumption of meiosis but bypasses the fertilization-induced Ca2+ transient. However, it is not known if cycloheximide treatment results in the same temporal changes in cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that are intimately associated with resumption of meiosis. We report that cycloheximide-treated mouse eggs manifest similar temporal changes in the decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that occur following fertilization, although cortical granule exocytosis is not stimulated. The decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity, however, does not seem to be required for the decrease in MAP kinase activity, since the decrease in MAP kinase activity ...
Activation of the Cyclin B/Cdc2 kinase complex triggers entry into mitosis in all eukaryotic cells. Cyclin B1 localization changes dramatically during the cell cycle, precipitously transiting from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at the beginning of mitosis. Presumably, this relocalization promotes the phosphorylation of nuclear targets critical for chromatin condensation and nuclear envelope breakdown. We show here that the previously characterized cytoplasmic retention sequence of Cyclin B1, responsible for its interphase cytoplasmic localization, is actually an autonomous nuclear export sequence, capable of directing nuclear export of a heterologous protein, and able to bind specifically to the recently identified export mediator, CRM1. We propose that the observed cytoplasmic localization of Cyclin B1 during interphase reflects the equilibrium between ongoing nuclear import and rapid CRM1-mediated export. In support of this hypothesis, we found that treatment of cells with leptomycin B, which ...
We show that a splice variant-derived cyclin B is produced in sea urchin oocytes and embryos. This splice variant protein lacks highly conserved sequences in the COOH terminus of the protein. It is found strikingly abundant in growing oocytes and cells committed to differentiation during embryogenesis, Cyclin B splice variant (CBsv) protein associates weakly in the cell with Xenopus cdc2 and with budding yeast CDC28p, In contrast to classical cyclin B, CBsv very poorly complements a triple CLN deletion in budding yeast, and its microinjection prevents an initial step in MPF activation, leading to an important delay in oocyte meiosis reinitiation, CBsv microinjection in fertilized eggs induces cell cycle delay and abnormal development. We assume that CBsv is produced in growing oocytes to keep them in prophase, and during embryogenesis to slow down cell cycle in cells that will be committed to differentiation.. ...
When the APC complex was inhibited by siRNA of APC3, the level of BubR1 remained constant for 60 min after nocodazole release in the presence of CHX, whereas it declined in control cells (Figure 8B). This result was corroborated by the finding from live‐cell assay for proteolysis that depleting APC3 expression abrogated the degradation of BubR1, and concomitantly cells did not enter anaphase for more than 5 h (Supplementary Figure 12 and Supplementary movie 7). When we compared the timing of BubR1 degradation with the degradation of other players in mitosis, such as Cdc20, Cyclin B, Plk1, and Aurora A, we found that BubR1 degradation began before that of Cyclin B (Supplementary Figure 13).. Next, we tested whether Cdc20 was responsible for BubR1 degradation during mitosis. To prevent the cells from exiting mitosis before the analysis began, HeLa cells were transfected with an expression construct to force moderate expression of Cyclin B. siRNA for GFP, Cdc20, or Cdh1 was simultaneously ...
Sea urchin eggs exhibit a cap-dependent increase in protein synthesis within minutes after fertilization. This rise in protein synthesis occurs at a constant rate for a great number of proteins translated from the different available mRNAs. Surprisingly, we found that cyclin B, a major cell-cycle regulator, follows a synthesis pattern that is distinct from the global protein population, so we developed a mathematical model to analyze this dissimilarity in biosynthesis kinetic patterns. The model includes two pathways for cyclin B mRNA entry into the translational machinery: one from immediately available mRNA (mRNAcyclinB) and one from mRNA activated solely after fertilization (XXmRNAcyclinB). Two coefficients, α and β, were added to fit the measured scales of global protein and cyclin B synthesis, respectively. The model was simplified to identify the synthesis parameters and to allow its simulation. The calculated parameters for activation of the specific cyclin B synthesis pathway after
The aim of this thesis was to investigate the prognostic role of the proliferation markers cyclin B1 and Phosphorylated Histone 3 (PPH3) in breast cancer (BC).. In paper I we used an experimental study design, we compared women dying early from their BC with women free from relapse more than eight years after initial diagnosis. All women had stage I, node-negative and hormone receptor positive disease. None had received adjuvant chemotherapy. We found that low-risk node negative patients with high expression of cyclin B1 had a significantly worse outcome than patients with low expression of cyclin B1.. In paper II a population-based case control study was performed to further investigate the prognostic value of cyclin B1. One hundred and ninety women who died from BC were defined as cases and 190 women alive at the time for the corresponding cases death were defined as controls. Inclusion criteria were tumor size 50 mm, no lymph node metastases, and no adjuvant chemotherapy. Two investigators ...
For example, in frogs, cyclin dependent protein kinase 2 (CDK2) binds to cyclin B to form an active kinase which phosphorylates a prereplication complex initiating S phase and mitosis. Cyclin B, a 45Kd protein, accumulates to high levels just before S phase. Its concentration drops sharply at the end of mitosis. The kinase, a 34 Kd protein, is encoded by the CDC2 gene (for cell division cycle gene). A homologous gene exists in humans - the CDK2 gene (cyclin dependent kinase 2) - and controls entry in S phase. These kinases can be considered heterodimers with a kinase catalytic subunit and a cyclin regulatory subunit. In animal cells, there are at least ten different cyclins (A, B, .....) and at least eight different cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK1-8). Another Look at Neurotransmission and Ion Channels. You may have noticed above that some signaling molecules, whose effects are regulated by kinases (b-adrenergic and some olfactory signals by PKA and acetylcholine by PKC for example), are ...
Separase löst alle eukaryotischen Anaphasen aus, indem sie kohäsionsvermittelndes Cohesin spaltet. Bis dahin wird diese essentielle Protease durch Securin inhibiert. Separase kann alternativ durch Assoziation mit Cdk1-Cyclin B1 gehemmt werden, aber der entsprechende Komplex ist in der frühen Mitose wenig abundant und kann nicht erklären, warum Securin in Vertebraten entbehrlich ist. Die Proteinphosphatase 2A (PP2A) bindet Separase ebenfalls, aber die physiologische Rolle dieser Interaktion bleibt rätselhaft. Durch die Inaktivierung des spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) in der Metaphase kann die Ubiquitin-Ligase APC/C die proteasomale Zerstörung von Securin (und Cyclin B1) vermitteln und dadurch Separase aktivieren. Obwohl sie strukturell mit Caspasen verwandt ist, wurde Separase bisher nicht mit der Apoptose in Verbindung gebracht. Stattdessen wurde in zwei Studien eine Rolle der Hefe-Separase bei der Reparatur von DNS-Schäden vorgeschlagen. Die Frage, ob diese nichtkanonische ...
近 几年我们针对癌细胞中的标靶基因survivin及securin等,进行深入的研究。例如多种人类癌细胞(包括肺癌、乳癌、大肠癌及子宫颈癌等)会大量 表达survivin蛋白,但在正常成人细胞不会表达survivin。Survivin蛋白具有抗细胞凋亡及促细胞分裂的功能,调控癌细胞中 survivin蛋白的表达,与癌症的发生有密切的关系,而抑制survivin蛋白的表达,也可能应用于治疗癌症。我们建立了cyclin B1/cdc2与p38 MAP kinase可分别为正调控及负调控survivin基因及蛋白的表现(Chao et al., 2004, JBC)。此外,利用共轭焦显微镜及免疫萤光染色,建立survivin蛋白会大量表达于癌细胞之有丝分裂期,并会聚集于细胞质分裂期的midbody位 置(Kuo et al., 2004, JBC)。同时我们发现将survivin基因阻断,会促进抗癌药物抑制癌细胞的生长及促细胞凋亡之作用(Chao and Liu, 2006, Mol. ...
Data Availability StatementAll data analyzed or generated through the present research are one of them published content. the thickness from the pulmonary arterial tunica mass media in the model group had been 58.342.01 mmHg, 0.640.046 and 65.33.3%, respectively, that have been higher in comparison to 23 significantly.301.14 mmHg, 0.320.028 and 16.21.3% in the control group, respectively purchase Rocilinostat (P 0.01). The mean pulmonary artery pressure, correct ventricular hypertrophy thickness and index from the pulmonary arterial tunica media in the PTX group had been 42.351.53 mmHg, 0.440.029 and 40.52.6%, respectively, that have been significantly lower in comparison to the model group (P 0.01). Weighed against the control group, the appearance degrees of Ki67 and cyclin B1 in the model group had been considerably elevated (P 0.01), while p27Kip1 appearance was significantly reduced (P 0.01). Pursuing PTX involvement, the appearance degrees of Ki67 and cyclin B1 had been considerably ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic phosphopeptide of CCNB1. Synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding S147 of human CCNB1. (PAB25912) - Products - Abnova
Order monoclonal and polyclonal Cyclin B2 antibodies for many applications. Selected quality suppliers for anti-Cyclin B2 antibodies.
The cyclin E oncogene activates CDK2 to drive cells from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle to commence DNA replication. It coordinates essential cellular functions with the cell cycle including histone biogenesis, splicing, centrosome duplication and origin firing for DNA replication. The two E-cyclins, E1 and E2, are assumed to act interchangeably in these functions. However recent reports have identified unique functions for cyclins E1 and E2 in different tissues, and particularly in breast cancer. Cyclins E1 and E2 localise to distinct foci in breast cancer cells as well as co-localising within the cell. Both E-cyclins are found in complex with CDK2, at centrosomes and with the splicing machinery in nuclear speckles. However cyclin E2 uniquely co-localises with NPAT, the main activator of cell-cycle regulated histone transcription. Increased cyclin E2, but not cyclin E1, expression is associated with high expression of replication-dependent histones in breast cancers. The preferential localisation of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen peroxide induces Sp1 methylation and thereby suppresses cyclin B1 via recruitment of Suv39H1 and HDAC1 in cancer cells. AU - Chuang, Jian Ying. AU - Chang, Wen Chang. AU - Hung, Jan Jong. PY - 2011/12/15. Y1 - 2011/12/15. N2 - Sp1 is an important transcription factor for a number of genes that regulate cell growth and survival. Sp1 is an anchor protein that recruits other factors to regulate its target genes positively or negatively, but the mechanism of its functional switch by which positive or negative coregulators are recruited is not clear. In this study, we found that Sp1 could be methylated and that methylation was maintained by treatment with pargyline, a lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) inhibitor or knock LSD1 down directly. Hydrogen peroxide treatment increased the methylation of Sp1 and repressed Sp1 transcriptional activity. Investigation of the mechanism by which methylation decreased Sp1 activity found that methylation of Sp1 increased the recruitment ...
The key conceptual move, as a biology student, is to be able to see how this system enables the cell (which of course doesnt have any consciousness or intention) to control its passage through the cell cycle every time it needs to divide. A new daughter cell will have very low cyclin levels, which includes the level of the cyclin weve been focused on, cyclin B. As the cell grows and it moves through G1, S, and G2, its level of cyclin B will rise. At a certain concentration of cyclin B, enough MPF is formed to enable to cell to enter M phase. But just at the same moment that the machinery for mitosis and cytokinesis is put into place, cyclin disintegrates. As a result, when the new daughter cells begin their independent existence, cyclin levels are once again very low…setting the stage for another cell cycle.. Note that in addition to these internal signals, external signals also influence cell division. For example, PDGF (platelet derived growth factor) stimulates a variety of cells to ...
CDK2_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the control of the cell cycle; essential for meiosis, but dispensable for mitosis. Phosphorylates CTNNB1, USP37, p53/TP53, NPM1, CDK7, RB1, BRCA2, MYC, NPAT, EZH2. Interacts with cyclins A, B1, B3, D, or E. Triggers duplication of centrosomes and DNA. Acts at the G1-S transition to promote the E2F transcriptional program and the initiation of DNA synthesis, and modulates G2 progression; controls the timing of entry into mitosis/meiosis by controlling the subsequent activation of cyclin B/CDK1 by phosphorylation, and coordinates the activation of cyclin B/CDK1 at the centrosome and in the nucleus. Crucial role in orchestrating a fine balance between cellular proliferation, cell death, and DNA repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Activity of CDK2 is maximal during S phase and G2; activated by interaction with cyclin E during the early stages of DNA synthesis to permit G1-S transition, and subsequently activated by cyclin A2 (cyclin ...
Cyclin E (G1/S-Phase Cyclin) MonoSpecific Antibody. Reactivity Human. Tested In IHC. Formats Unconjugated. Isotype IgG, kappa. From: $199.
Ccnb1ip1 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN302805G1|/strong|, Ccnb1ip1 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
Ribociclib D6 (LEE011 D6) is a deuterium labeled Ribociclib. Ribociclib is a highly specific CDK4/6 inhibitor with IC50 values of 10 nM and 39 nM, respectively, and is over 1,000-fold less potent against the cyclin B/CDK1 complex. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
The activation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C requires the phosphorylation of multiple subunits. Because depletion or inactivation of the Xenopus Polo-like kinase 1 (Plx1) in meiotically arrested egg extracts blocks APC/C-dependent degradation of cyclin B ( 5), many investigators have tried to directly link the activities of Plk1 and APC/C. Although Plk1 is able to phosphorylate subunits of the APC/C in vitro, this phosphorylation contributes only marginally to its activation ( 6). In contrast, cyclin B/Cdk1 seems to have a major role in the phosphorylation and activation of the APC/C, thereby triggering its own inactivation at the end of mitosis ( 7).. Although Plk1 can contribute synergistically to the cyclin B/Cdk1-mediated activation of the APC/C ( 6), this observation is not sufficient to explain the crucial role of Plk1/Plx1 in the activation of the APC/C. Intriguing insights have come from studies of the cytostatic factor (CSF) in Xenopus oocytes, where CSF activity prevents parthogenetic ...
To determine whether Trim39 could inhibit the APC/C, we added either maltose-binding protein (MBP) or MBP-Trim39 protein to lysates prepared from HeLa cells that had been synchronized in nocodazole and then released (by washout of the nocodazole). As shown in Fig. 1 C, cyclin B1 was quickly degraded in the presence of recombinant MBP protein as these lysates exited from the mitotic arrest, whereas degradation of endogenous cyclin B1 was nearly abolished by addition of recombinant MBP-Trim39. This inhibition was not observed using the C44A mutant, suggesting that E3 ubiquitin ligase activity is required for APC/C inhibition (Fig. 1 C). Indeed, cyclin B1 was more rapidly degraded in the presence of the catalytically inactive Trim39 mutant, suggesting that this protein might interfere with the functioning of the endogenous protein. To confirm a direct role for Trim39 in APC/C inhibition, we incubated APC/C immunoprecipitated from HeLa cells with MBP or MBP-Trim39, E1, E2, ubiquitin, and ...
We show that in fission yeast the mitotic B type cyclin Cdc13/Cdc2 kinase associates with replication origins in vivo. This association is dependent on the origin recognition complex (ORC), is established as chromosomes are replicated, and is maintained during G2 and early mitosis. Cells expressing …
The effect was found to be associated with increased expression of E2F-1 in cervical cancer cells as there is no CAPE-mediated induction of E2F-1 in the precancerous cervical Z172 cells. CAPE also upregulated the E2F-1 target genes cyclin A, cyclin E, and apoptotic protease activation of factor 1 (Apaf-1) but down regulated cyclin B and myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein (Mcl-1). These results suggested the involvement of E2F-1 in CAPE-mediated growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest. Transient transfection studies with luciferase reporters revealed that CAPE altered transcriptional activity of the apaf-1 and mcl-1 promoters. Further studies using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated that in CAPE-treated cells, E2F-1 binding to the apaf-1 and cyclin B promoters was increased and decreased, respectively. Furthermore, E2F-1 silencing abolished CAPE-mediated effects on cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and related gene expression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of interaction partners and substrates of the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex. AU - Diederichs, Sven. AU - Bäumer, Nicole. AU - Ji, Ping. AU - Metzelder, Stephan K.. AU - Idos, Gregory E.. AU - Cauvet, Thomas. AU - Wang, Wenbing. AU - Möller, Maria. AU - Pierschalski, Sarah. AU - Gromoll, Jörg. AU - Schrader, Mark G.. AU - Koeffler, H. Phillip. AU - Berdel, Wolfgang E.. AU - Serve, Hubert. AU - Müller-Tidow, Carsten. PY - 2004/8/6. Y1 - 2004/8/6. N2 - The CDK2-associated cyclin A1 is essential for spermatogenesis and contributes to leukemogenesis. The detailed molecular functions of cyclin A1 remain unclear, since the molecular networks involving cyclin A1-CDK2 have not been elucidated. Here, we identified novel cyclin A1/CDK2 interaction partners in a yeast triple-hybrid approach. Several novel proteins (INCA1, KARCA1, and PROCA1) as well as the known proteins GPS2 (G-protein pathway suppressor 2), Ku70, receptor for activated protein kinase C1/guanine ...
We report the isolation of UME3, a C‐type cyclin that is required for the full repression of several early meiotic genes (e.g. SPO13) and SSA1, a member of the HSP70 superfamily. Similarly to other cyclin C family members, UME3 mRNA and protein levels remained unchanged throughout the mitotic cell cycle. However, under conditions that induce SSA1 or SPO13 transcription, we demonstrate that Ume3p is subjected to degradation. This destruction is required for normal meiotic gene induction, as a mutation that stabilizes Ume3p resulted in a 2‐fold reduction in SPO13 mRNA accumulation. These findings reveal the first observed regulation of a C‐type cyclin. Moreover, the destruction of Ume3p in response to heat shock or developmental cues represents a new set of regulatory signals by which any cyclin is controlled. We identified three cis‐acting domains (PEST‐rich, RXXL and the cyclin box) that contribute to the destruction of Ume3p during heat shock. In cultures exposed to heat shock, Ume3p ...
CCNE1 / Cyclin E1 Protein LS-G97233 is a Recombinant Human CCNE1 / Cyclin E1 produced in Baculovirus Met 1-Ala 410 with His tag(s). It is low in endotoxin; Less than 1.0 EU/µg protein (determined by LAL method).
Around 10.000 - 150.000 endogenous DNA damage-induced lesions occur in a human body per day and cell. Accumulation of unrepaired lesions can lead to aneuploidy and the loss of genomic integrity which in turn contributes to tumor formation. Therefore, an efficient DNA damage response has to be initiated, in the end leading to cell cycle inhibition and induction of repair. Since it is known that a recently characterized human multiprotein complex named LINC (or human dREAM) together with B-MYB is involved in the regulation of G2/M gene expression (Plk1, cyclin B1, cdc2 etc.), its function in the DNA damage response was analyzed in this study. In growing cells B-MYB is associated to the LIN core complex which consists of 5 different proteins named LIN-9, LIN-54, LIN-52, LIN-37 and RbAp48. After induction of DNA damage B-MYB leaves the complex and binding of E2F4 and p130 to LINC is induced. Importantly, the upstream pathway leading to LINC rearrangement is dependent on the activation of p53 and ...
Natural borneol (NB) has been used as a promoter of drug absorption and widely used in candies, beverages, baked goods, chewing gum and other foods. Thus, we investigated whether NB could potentiate the cellular uptake of BDCur, and elucidated the molecular mechanisms of their combined inhibitory effects on HepG2 cells. Our results demonstrate that NB significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of BDCur. Induction of cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells by NB and BDCur in combination was evidenced by accumulation of the G2/M cell population. Further investigation on the molecular mechanism showed that NB and BDCur in combination resulted in a significant decrease in the expression level of Cdc2 and cyclin B ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Eunju Kim, Se-Jin Yoon, Eun-Young Kim, Yunna Kim, Hyun-Seo Lee, Kyeoung-Hwa Kim, Kyung-Ah Lee].
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
"Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378-88. doi: ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNB1 gene. Cyclin B1 is a regulatory protein ... Cyclin B1 can reside in the nucleus or the cytoplasm which can have an effect on the malignant potential of cyclin B1 when ... Once cyclin B1-Cdk1 is activated, it remains stably active for the rest of mitosis. Another mechanism by which cyclin B1-Cdk1 ...
"Entrez Gene: CCNB1IP1 cyclin B1 interacting protein 1". Human CCNB1IP1 genome location and CCNB1IP1 gene details page in the ... Alters Mitotic Progression through Regulation of Cyclin B Levels". Mol Cell Biol. 23 (6): 2109-2122. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.6.2109- ...
ISBN 978-0-19-920610-0. Clute P, Pines J (June 1999). "Temporal and spatial control of cyclin B1 destruction in metaphase". ... Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to S phase. G2/M cyclins - essential for ... The rise in presence of G1/S cyclins is paralleled by a rise in S cyclins. G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ...
De Moor, C.H.; Richter, J.D. (1999). "Cytoplasmic polyadenylation mediate masking and unmasking of cyclin B1 mRNA". EMBO J. 18 ...
de Moor, C.H.; Richter, J.D. (1999). "Cytoplasmic polyadenylation mediate masking and unmasking of cyclin B1 mRNA". EMBO J. 18 ...
Jin P, Hardy S, Morgan DO (1998). "Nuclear Localization of Cyclin B1 Controls Mitotic Entry After DNA Damage". J. Cell Biol. ... CDC25B activates the cyclin dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups and it is required for entry into mitosis. ... Galaktionov K, Beach D (February 1992). "Specific activation of cdc25 tyrosine phosphatases by B-type cyclins: evidence for ... multiple roles of mitotic cyclins". Cell. 67 (6): 1181-94. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90294-9. PMID 1836978. S2CID 9659637. " ...
"Upregulation of Cyclin B1 by miRNA and its implications in cancer". Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (4): 1695-707. doi:10.1093/nar/ ...
... phosphorylation leads to a stable association with CDK1-cyclin B1. Securin or CDK1-cyclin B binding is mutually ... In 2021, structures of human separase were determined in complex with either securin or CDK1-cyclin B1-CKS1 using cryo-EM by ... August 2021). "Structural basis of human separase regulation by securin and CDK1-cyclin B1". Nature. 596 (7870): 138-142. doi: ... However, while securin contains its own pseudosubstrate motifs to occlude substrate binding, the CDK1-cyclin B complex inhibits ...
Lindqvist A, van Zon W, Karlsson Rosenthal C, Wolthuis RM (May 2007). "Cyclin B1-Cdk1 activation continues after centrosome ... As the amount of cyclin increases, more and more cyclin dependent kinases attach to cyclin signaling the cell further into ... At the peak of the cyclin, attached to the cyclin dependent kinases this system pushes the cell out of interphase and into the ... The control of each checkpoint is controlled by cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinases. The progression of interphase is the ...
Wolthuis (2007). "Cyclin B1-Cdk1 Activation Continues after Centrosome Separation to Control Mitotic Progression". PLOS Biology ... Many factors including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), ubiquitin ligases, inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, and ... APC ubiquitinates nine-amino acid motif known as the destruction box (D box) in the NH2-terminal domain of mitotic cyclins for ... Cdc20 and Cdh1, which are the activators of APC, recruit substrates such as securin and B-type cyclins(Clb) for ubiquitination ...
Its expression induces cyclin B1 expression, whilst knockdown sees a resultant decreased level of mouse cyclin B through the ... 2012). "Upregulation of Cyclin B1 by miRNA and its implications in cancer". Nucleic Acids Res. 40 (4): 1695-707. doi:10.1093/ ...
This enzyme enhances the cyclin B1-Cdk1-dependent mitotic phosphorylation events during mitosis. Although Mastl kinase is not ...
Members of this protein family regulate translation of cyclin B1 during embryonic cell divisions. Multiple transcript variants ... of Aurora-A targets cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein and promotes mRNA polyadenylation of Cdk1 and cyclin B1 ...
Cyclin B1, essential in the entry into mitosis, is targeted by SCFNIPA in interphase. Phosphorylation of NIPA occurs in G2 ... Oscillating ubiquitination of nuclear cyclin B1 driven by the SCFNIPA complex contributes to the timing of mitotic entry. NIPA ... at G2/M involves cyclin B1/Cdk1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (22): 15965-72. doi:10.1074/jbc.M610819200. PMID ...
... has been shown to interact with: Cyclin B1, HSF1, RALA, RALB, and REPS2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000017797 - ...
Recent studies have shown that the cyclin A2-CDK1 complex triggers cyclin B1-CDK1 activation which results in chromatin ... Cyclin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA2 gene. It is one of the two types of cyclin A: cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A2 belongs to the cyclin family, whose members regulate cell cycle progression by interacting with CDK kinases. Cyclin ... The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex eventually phosphorylates E2F, turning off cyclin A2 transcription. E2F promotes cyclin A2 ...
"Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378-1388. doi: ... E2F.2FpRb complexes Hyperphosphorylation cdc25 Maturation promoting factor CDK cyclin A cyclin B cyclin D cyclin E Wee (cell ... Cyclin binding alters access to the active site of Cdk1, allowing for Cdk1 activity; furthermore, cyclins impart specificity to ... Furthermore, cyclins can target Cdk1 to particular subcellular locations. In addition to regulation by cyclins, Cdk1 is ...
"Mxi1 inhibits the proliferation of U87 glioma cells through down-regulation of cyclin B1 gene expression". Br. J. Cancer. 86 (3 ...
Cyclin D1, phosphofructokinase-muscle isoform, nuclear factor of activated T-cell, Cyclin B1, Tissue Factor and tissue factor ... "Downregulation of p21-activated kinase-1 inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells involving cyclin B1". International ... PAK1 has been shown to interact with: ARHGEF2, ARPC1B, BMX, C-Raf, CDC42, Cyclin-dependent kinase 5, DYNLL1, LIMK1, NCK1, ... and the cyclin D1 promoter". Cancer Research. 63 (20): 6802-8. PMID 14583477. Dadke D, Fryer BH, Golemis EA, Field J (December ...
... is a member of the cyclin family, specifically the B-type cyclins. The B-type cyclins, B1 and B2, associate with ... Cyclin B1 co-localizes with microtubules, whereas cyclin B2 is primarily associated with the Golgi region. Cyclin B2 also binds ... Jackman M, Firth M, Pines J (1995). "Human cyclins B1 and B2 are localized to strikingly different structures: B1 to ... "Cyclin B2-null mice develop normally and are fertile whereas cyclin B1-null mice die in utero". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
"Restoring p53 Function in Human Melanoma Cells by Inhibiting MDM2 and Cyclin B1/CDK1-Phosphorylated Nuclear iASPP". Cancer Cell ...
Cyclin B1 and B2 can localize Cdk1 to the nucleus and the Golgi, respectively, through a localization sequence outside the CDK- ... CDK6; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK7; cyclin H CDK8; cyclin C CDK9; cyclin T1, cyclin T2a, cyclin T2b, cyclin K CDK10 ... cyclin A, cyclin B CDK2; cyclin A, cyclin E CDK3; cyclin C CDK4; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK5; CDK5R1, CDK5R2. See also ... Furthermore, cyclin binding determines the specificity of the cyclin-CDK complex for particular substrates. Cyclins can ...
1999). "Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. ... "Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. 18 (18 ... Vairapandi M, Balliet AG, Hoffman B, Liebermann DA (September 2002). "GADD45b and GADD45g are cdc2/cyclinB1 kinase inhibitors ...
"Cyclin B1, unlike cyclin G1, increases significantly during colorectal carcinogenesis and during later metastasis to lymph ... "Cyclin G1 overcomes radiation-induced G2 arrest and increases cell death through transcriptional activation of cyclin B1". Cell ... "Cyclin G1 and cyclin G2 comprise a new family of cyclins with contrasting tissue-specific and cell cycle-regulated expression ... Cyclin-G1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNG1 gene. The eukaryotic cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent ...
CDK1 (also called CDC2) is considered the main mitotic kinase in mammalian cells and is activated by Cyclin B1. Aurora kinases ... Cyclin dependent kinase complexes (CDKs) are activated by mitotic cyclins, whose translation increases during mitosis. ...
Klf4 inhibits proliferation through activation of p21Cip1/Waf1, and direct suppression of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1 gene ...
June 2009). "Integrative analysis of cyclin protein levels identifies cyclin b1 as a classifier and predictor of outcomes in ... as well as Cyclin E genes. The Cyclin D-CDK4/CDK6 complex phosphorylates RB and promotes cell entry into the S phase by ... Deletion of RB gene and overexpression of cyclin E play a significant role in the malignant proliferation of BLBC. More and ... releasing the E2F family of transcription factors (inducing CyclinE expression). Additionally, Cyclin E1 is more easily ...
It has been shown that on a molecular level, Runx associates with the cdc2 partner cyclin B1 during mitosis. The ... Furthermore, Runx2 controls the gene expression of cyclin D2, D3, and the CDK inhibitor p21(cip1) in hematopoietic cells. ...
Cyclin B1 Cyclin B2 PDB: 2B9R​; Petri, E.T.; Errico, A.; Escobedo, L.; Hunt, T. & Basavappa, R. (2007). "The crystal structure ... Cyclin B is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin B is a mitotic cyclin. The amount of cyclin B (which binds to Cdk1) and the ... "Integrative analysis of cyclin protein levels identifies cyclin b1 as a classifier and predictor of outcomes in breast cancer ... Zheng H, Hu W, Deavers MT, Shen DY, Fu S, Li YF, Kavanagh JJ (October 2009). "Nuclear cyclin B1 is overexpressed in low- ...
"G2 delay induced by nitrogen mustard in human cells affects cyclin A/cdk2 and cyclin B1/cdc2-kinase complexes differently". J. ... Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Different cyclins ... Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ...
... as CDC2 in unable to form the required heterodimer with cyclin B1 for the meiotic cell cycle to progress beyond S phase. ... where it is necessary for the formation of the complex between CDC2 and cyclin B1. It later becomes incorporated into the ...
... may stand for: Collège communautaire du Nouveau-Brunswick Cyclin B1 This disambiguation page lists articles associated ...
... cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin B1, each in relation to DNA content Concurrent measurement of DNA content and of incorporation of ... Darzynkiewicz Z, Gong JP, Juan G, Ardelt B, Traganos F (1996). "Cytometry of cyclin proteins". Cytometry. 25 (1): 1-13. doi: ... cell cycle compartments are also recognized by multiparameter analysis that includes measurement of expression of cyclin D1, ...
... and the iridoid glycosides scyphiphorin A1-A2 and scyphiphorin B1-B2. Alvocidib is a synthetic analog of rohitukine that acts ... "Successful treatment of animal models of rheumatoid arthritis with small-molecule cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors". J. ...
In addition, cyclin B1- CDK activates Drp1, causing fragmentation and ensuring mitochondria are distributed to each daughter ...
... such as cyclin A2, cyclin B1, cyclin E2, and survivin, and upregulation of genes involved in the regulation of transcription ... Immunoprecipitation kinase assays revealed that cyclin C has Rb kinase activity. Furthermore, unlike cyclins D and E, cyclin ... Further observations revealed that levels of cyclin C mRNA are highest when human cells exit G0, suggesting that cyclin C may ... confirmed the suspicion that cyclin C promotes G0 exit as repression of endogenous cyclin C by RNAi in mammalian cells ...
March 2003). "MTA1 interacts with MAT1, a cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase complex ring finger factor, and regulates ... "Structure-function analysis of the estrogen receptor alpha corepressor scaffold attachment factor-B1: identification of a ... AKAP13 AHR BRCA1 CAV1 CCNC CDC25B CEBPB COBRA1 COUP-TFI CREBBP CRSP3 Cyclin D1 DDX17 DDX5 DNTTIP2 EP300 ESR2 FOXO1 GREB1 GTF2H1 ... "CDK-independent activation of estrogen receptor by cyclin D1". Cell. 88 (3): 405-415. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81879-6. hdl: ...
During G2 phase of the cell cycle, Cdk1 and cyclin B1 makes a complex and forms maturation promoting factor (MPF). The complex ... The system cannot be stable at intermediate levels of Cyclin B1, and the transition between the two stable states is abrupt ... Exhibiting hysteresis, for different levels of Cyclin B1, the switches from low to high and high to low states vary. However, ... Additionally, positive feedback can induce bistability in Cyclin B1- by the two regulators Wee1 and Cdc25C, leading to the ...
... cyclin D1. The recruitment of TLS to the promoter of cyclin D1 is directed by long ncRNAs expressed at low levels and tethered ... Many of the ncRNAs that interact with general transcription factors or RNAP II itself (including 7SK, Alu and B1 and B2 RNAs) ... Yik JH, Chen R, Nishimura R, Jennings JL, Link AJ, Zhou Q (October 2003). "Inhibition of P-TEFb (CDK9/Cyclin T) kinase and RNA ... The short interspersed nuclear (SINE) Alu elements in humans and analogous B1 and B2 elements in mice have succeeded in ...
Removal of cyclin E with antibodies blocks replication. Cyclin E-CDk2 is also important in Drosophila. Levels of cyclin E rise ... It was identified in S. cerevisiae by its ability to bind the conserved A and B1 elements of yeast origins. It is a conserved ... In S. cerevisiae, the S cyclins Clb5 and Clb6 play and important role in initiating replication. In frog embryos, cyclin E-Cdk2 ... At the same time, S-Cdks suppress formation of new pre-RCs during S phase, G2 and early M, when S cyclin levels remains high. ...
These molecules include regulatory proteins such as Rev, MAPK/MEK1, c-Abl, Cyclin B1, MDM2/p53, IkB, MPF, and PKA. The most ...
Since almost all cyclin B1-Cdk 1 complexes are found in the cytoplasm, Myt 1 may be the most important inhibitory kinase for ... of human Myt1 kinase induces a G2 cell cycle delay by interfering with the intracellular trafficking of Cdc2-cyclin B1 ...
... cyclin B1, cdc25C and wee1, and in the concentration of these proteins and their transcripts". Journal of Cell Science. 109 (9 ... performed DNA arrays and Northern blots to characterize the molecular differences in M-phase entry and found that cyclin B1 and ... They also found that wee1, the gene for a kinase that inhibits mitosis by inactivating CDC2/cyclin B, was negatively correlated ...
... differential signaling requirements for activation of assembled cyclin D3-cdk4 complexes in B-1 and B-2 lymphocyte subsets". ... Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (Apr 1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... "The consensus motif for phosphorylation by cyclin D1-Cdk4 is different from that for phosphorylation by cyclin A/E-Cdk2". The ...
Effect of betulinic acid on the regulation of Hiwi and cyclin B1 in human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells ... Effect of betulinic acid on the regulation of Hiwi and cyclin B1 in human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells Li-jing Yang, Yan ... The expression of Hiwi and Cyclin B1 was down-regulated in BA-treated AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner.. Conclusion: BA ... Both FCM and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technologies were applied to detect the expression of Hiwi and Cyclin B1.. ...
Phosphorylation of Cyclin B1 in the CRS domain (Homo sapiens) * Translocation of CRS phosphorylated Cyclin B1:Cdc2 complexes ( ... Wee1-mediated phosphorylation of Cyclin B1:phospho-Cdc2 complexes (Homo sapiens) * Translocation of Cyclin B1:phospho-Cdc2 to ... Cyclin B2 suppresses mitotic failure and DNA re-replication in human somatic cells knocked down for both cyclins B1 and B2 ... Myt-1 mediated phosphorylation of Cyclin B:Cdc2 complexes (Homo sapiens) * Translocation of Cyclin B1:phospho-Cdc2 complexes to ...
Equally, directing cyclin B2 to the cytoplasm with the NH2 terminus of cyclin B1 confers the broader properties of cyclin B1. ... Equally, directing cyclin B2 to the cytoplasm with the NH2 terminus of cyclin B1 confers the broader properties of cyclin B1. ... Equally, directing cyclin B2 to the cytoplasm with the NH2 terminus of cyclin B1 confers the broader properties of cyclin B1. ... Equally, directing cyclin B2 to the cytoplasm with the NH2 terminus of cyclin B1 confers the broader properties of cyclin B1. ...
Since cyclin B1 is important for CDK1 activation needed for G2 to M phase transition, the reduction in cyclin B1 by dinaciclib ... Knockdown of cyclin B1 and CDK1 inhibited cell proliferation in TNBC. Since cyclin B1 in complex with CDK1 drives the ... Dinaciclib targets cyclin B1 through CDK9-MYC axis in breast cancer cells. We next investigated the mechanisms of cyclin B1 ... Inverse regulation of cyclin B1 by c-Myc and p53 and induction of tetraploidy by cyclin B1 overexpression. Cancer Res. 2001; 61 ...
... aberrant morphogenesis and cyclin B1;1 stability. Development, 137(6), 953-961. doi:10.1242/dev.041939. ... A conditional mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana separase induces chromosome non-disjunction, aberrant morphogenesis and cyclin ...
... including cyclin B1 and securin.. Cyclin B1. A regulatory protein of the cell cycle that binds to CDK1, generating the cyclin ... Aneuploidy in oocytes is prevented by sustained CDK1 activity through degron masking in cyclin B1. Dev. Cell 48, 672-684 (2019 ... B1-CDK1 complex that phosphorylates target proteins to promote cell cycle progression. ...
Cyclin B1 * Fzr1 protein, mouse * Mad2 Proteins * Mad2l1 protein, mouse * Microtubule-Associated Proteins ...
... and decreased cyclin B1 levels. Superoxide dismutase, a scavenger of O2-, or sodium formate, an inhibitor of OH, had no ... leading to phosphorylation of Cdc2 and a slight increase in cyclin B1 expression as analyzed by Western blot. Catalase, a ... which results in phosphorylation of Cdc2 and possible inactivation of cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex. ...
Induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest by carnosol and carnosic acid is associated with alteration of cyclin A and cyclin B1 ... cyclin B1 ↓ RB ↓ SOX2 ↓ GFAP. [70]. NGF (nerve growth factor), Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2), HO-1 (heme oxygenase- ... Furthermore, in GBM glioblastoma cells, CA promoted apoptosis by inducing cell cycle arrest and degradation of cyclin B1, RB, ... Carnosic acid induces proteasomal degradation of Cyclin B1, RB and SOX2 along with cell growth arrest and apoptosis in GBM ...
Enhanced radiosensitivity by cyclin G1 was correlated with increased cyclin B1, CDC2/cyclin B1 complex, and MPM2. Cell cycle ... Enhanced radiosensitivity by cyclin G1 was correlated with increased cyclin B1, CDC2/cyclin B1 complex, and MPM2. Cell cycle ... Enhanced radiosensitivity by cyclin G1 was correlated with increased cyclin B1, CDC2/cyclin B1 complex, and MPM2. Cell cycle ... Enhanced radiosensitivity by cyclin G1 was correlated with increased cyclin B1, CDC2/cyclin B1 complex, and MPM2. Cell cycle ...
CryoEM structure of the human Separase-Cdk1-cyclin B1-Cks1 complex ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1: B. G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1,G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1: C. Cyclin-dependent kinases ... CryoEM structure of the human Separase-Cdk1-cyclin B1-Cks1 complex Coordinates. PDB Format Method. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY Oligo ... Yu, J. et al., Structural basis of human separase regulation by securin and CDK1-cyclin B1. Nature (2021) Release Date. 2021-08 ...
CCNB1; cyclin B1 [KO:K05868]. 9133 CCNB2; cyclin B2 [KO:K21770]. 85417 CCNB3; cyclin B3 [KO:K21771]. ... CDK2; cyclin dependent kinase 2 [KO:K02206] [EC:]. 3276 PRMT1; protein arginine methyltransferase 1 [KO:K11434] [EC: ...
... which indicated that cyclin‑dependent kinase 1, insulin, aurora kinase A, cyclin B1 and DNA topoisomerase II alpha underlaid ... Cylin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), insulin (INS), aurora kinase A (AURKA), cyclin B1 (CCNB1) and DNA topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) ... cyclin B1; TOP2A, DNA topoisomerase IIα; NUSAP1, nucleolar and spindle-associated protein 1; CENPF, centromere protein F; ASPM ...
Charrier-Savournin FB, Chateau MT, Gire V, Sedivy J, Piette J, Dulic V. p21-Mediated nuclear retention of cyclin B1-Cdk1 in ... cyclin B1). ENSG00000134057. Activated gene product complexes with cdk1 to form the maturation promoting factor (MPF). The ... cyclin A2). ENSG00000145386. The protein forms complex with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) to promotes transition through G1/ ... Cyclin A2 is an RNA binding protein that controls Mre11 mRNA translation. Science. 2016;353:1549-52 ...
cyclin B1. protein-coding. CROT. carnitine O-octanoyltransferase. protein-coding. COMMD5. COMM domain containing 5. protein- ... cyclin dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit 2. protein-coding. CMPK2. cytidine/uridine monophosphate kinase 2. protein-coding ...
Overexpression of Ki-67 and cyclins A and B1 in JC virus-infected cells of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J ...
Cyclin D1 Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (SP4). Advanced Verification 293 References Advanced Verification 293 ...
CDKB1;1 (CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE B1;1); cyclin-dependent protein kinase/ kinase/ protein binding [Arabidopsis thalian.... ... B1-type cyclin dependent kinase [Solanum lycopersicum]. Match: gi,34907628,ref,NP_915161.1,. score: 60.85. e-value: 1.5e-08. ... gi,9885801,gb,AAG01533.1, cyclin-dependent kinase B1-2 [Nicotiana tabacum]. Match: gi,9885799,gb,AAG01532.1,. score: 60.85. e- ... gi,9885799,gb,AAG01532.1, cyclin-dependent kinase B1-1 [Nicotiana tabacum]. Match: gi,5921446,sp,Q38774,CC2C_ANTMA. score: ...
G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1. 119. PLAT. Tissue-type plasminogen activator. 120 ...
Cyclin B1 increases in the G2 phase, peaks in metaphase, and is degraded during anaphase. By coupling with cyclin B1, Cdc2 ... The cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex is regulated by Cdc25c via removing the inhibitory phosphorylation of Thr14/Tyr15 residues on Cdc2 ... Our results indicated that cyclin B1 expression was upregulated, while Cdc25c and p-Cdc2 (Thr161) levels were downregulated ( ... Grana, X., and Reddy, E. P. (1995). Cell Cycle Control in Mammalian Cells: Role of Cyclins, Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKs), ...
Two examples are MUC1 and cyclin B1. Normally, MUC1 is covered in sugar molecules, whereas Cyclin B1 appears only in a cells ... However, under stress, cells can produce a "naked" MUC1 not covered by sugar, and cyclin B1 can leave the nucleus and enter a ...
Genes altered at both time points included cell cycle control genes (cyclin B1 and D3); transcription factors (TCFE2a, ATF3) ...
Chen, N.-P.; Aretz, J.; Fässler, R.: CDK1-cyclin-B1-induced kindlin degradation drives focal adhesion disassembly at mitotic ...
Quantitative analysis of in vitro ubiquitinated cyclin B1 reveals complex chain topology. Nat Cell Biol. 2006 Jul; 8(7):700-10. ... APC/C-mediated multiple monoubiquitylation provides an alternative degradation signal for cyclin B1. Nat Cell Biol. 2012 Jan 29 ... Antizyme targets cyclin D1 for degradation. A novel mechanism for cell growth repression. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 01; 279(40): ... p34Cdc28-mediated control of Cln3 cyclin degradation. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Feb; 15(2):731-41. PMID: 7823941. ...
In a number of cancers, over expression of cyclin A and cyclin B1 proteins has been reported and in some instances the level of ... Evaluation of cyclins a and b1 expression in classical and nonclassical variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Naze M , ... In the present study, we analyzed, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of cyclins A and B1, proteins enable passing G(2)- ...
Cyclin A2+CDK1+Cyclin B1+Cyclin E1+Cdk9+Chk1+GSK3 beta+Cdk4+CDK2+CDK5+Cyclin A1+Cyclin B2/CCNB2+DYRK (1). ... CDK1+Cyclin B1+GSK3 beta+p35+TDP1+CDK2+GSK3 alpha+CDK5+Cyclin B2/CCNB2+Smad3+CCNB3 (1). ... CDK1+Cyclin B1+Liver Arginase+Acetylcholinesterase+GSK3 beta+Cdk6+p35+GSK3 alpha+Casein Kinase 2 al (1). ... Cyclin E2+PAK1 + PAK2 + PAK3+CaMKII+PHKG2+MAP4K5+MAP4K3/GLK+CCNB3 (1). ...
V. Huang, R. F. Place, V. Portnoy et al., "Upregulation of Cyclin B1 by miRNA and its implications in cancer," Nucleic Acids ... T. R. Porter, F. M. Richards, R. S. Houlston, and et al, "Contribution of cyclin d1 (CCND1) and E-cadherin (CDH1) polymorphisms ... and cyclin D1 (CCND1) genes," International Journal of Colorectal Disease, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 147-154, 2008. ...
... isothiocyanate induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth in canine mammary carcinoma via down-regulation of the cyclin B1/ ...
Nuclear localization of cyclin B1 mediates its biological activity and is regulated by phosphorylation[J]. Proceedings of the ... B99和CyclinB1表达水平间的差异无统计学意义(P,0.05)(图 3)。在不同海拔条件下,高原鼢鼠肝脏组织中细胞周期相关基因p21、CyclinD1、CDK6、CyclinE、CDK2、14-3-3-σ、Gadd45α、B99和CyclinB1的 ... 22个物种细胞周期相关因子p21、CyclinD1、CDK6、CyclinE、CDK2、14-3-3-σ、Gadd45α、B99和CyclinB1(由于NCBI中无牦牛p21和CyclinB1基因序列,分别选用
  • Enhanced radiosensitivity by cyclin G1 was correlated with increased cyclin B1, CDC2/cyclin B1 complex, and MPM2. (elsevier.com)
  • Vanadate also increased p21 and Chk1 levels and reduced Cdc25C expression, leading to phosphorylation of Cdc2 and a slight increase in cyclin B1 expression as analyzed by Western blot. (cdc.gov)
  • Several regulatory pathways are involved: (1) activation of p21, (2) an increase of Chk1 expression and inhibition of Cdc25C, which results in phosphorylation of Cdc2 and possible inactivation of cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex. (cdc.gov)
  • ATL induced ATC cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, and downregulated the expression of cyclin B1 and CDC2. (bvsalud.org)
  • DIM inhibited survivin mRNA expression and promoted survivin protein degradation through inhibition of p34 cdc2 -cyclin B1-mediated survivin Thr 34 phosphorylation. (scialert.net)
  • Flow cytometry and Western blot analysis showed that flavonoids induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M checkpoint by controlling the proteins expression level of cyclin B1, cdc2, cdc25c and p21(WAF1/CIP1). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Furthermore, we show that the disassembly of the Golgi apparatus initiated by either mitotic cyclin-CDK complex does not require mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) activity. (elsevier.com)
  • We further demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of CDK9, the kinase subunit of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), instead of CDK1 or CDK2, reduced the levels of cyclin B1 and MYC in TNBC cell lines. (oncotarget.com)
  • The potential genes underlying the differential effects of G‑SCs and P‑SCs on bone invasion in OSCC were evaluated using a microarray, which indicated that cyclin‑dependent kinase 1, insulin, aurora kinase A, cyclin B1 and DNA topoisomerase II alpha underlaid these differential effects. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • cyclin-dependent protein kinase/ kinase/ protein binding [Arabidopsis thalian. (cornell.edu)
  • The two B-type cyclins localize to different regions within the cell and are thought to have specific roles as CDK1-activating subunits (see Bellanger et al. (reactome.org)
  • The difference in localization of the B-type cyclin-CDKs underlies the ability of cyclin B1-CDK1 to cause chromosome condensation, reorganization of the microtubules, and disassembly of the nuclear lamina and of the Golgi apparatus, while it restricts cyclin B2-CDK1 to disassembly of the Golgi apparatus. (elsevier.com)
  • These changes were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of CDK1 and retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and decreased protein levels of cyclin B1, cMYC and survivin. (oncotarget.com)
  • Structural basis of human separase regulation by securin and CDK1-cyclin B1. (expasy.org)
  • CDK1-cyclin-B1-induced kindlin degradation drives focal adhesion disassembly at mitotic entry. (mpg.de)
  • controls the timing of entry into mitosis/meiosis by controlling the subsequent activation of cyclin B/CDK1 by phosphorylation, and coordinates the activation of cyclin B/CDK1 at the centrosome and in the nucleus. (proteopedia.org)
  • In this paper, we show that substrate specificity is primarily conferred on human mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) by their subcellular localization. (elsevier.com)
  • Depletion of cyclin G1 by interference RNA revealed that cyclin G1 regulated transcription of cyclin B1 in a p53-independent manner, and confirmed that the increased mitotic cells and cell death by cyclin G1 were dependent upon cyclin B1. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we report hitherto unknown mechanism by which cyclin G1 increases radiation sensitivity by regulating the level of cyclin B1. (elsevier.com)
  • Cell cycle progression is regulated by cyclin-dependent protein kinases at both the G1/S and the G2/M transitions. (reactome.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are potential cancer therapeutic targets because of their critical role in promoting cell growth. (oncotarget.com)
  • Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are key positive regulators of cell cycle progression, transcription, and mRNA processing [ 6 , 8 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • Reciprocal activation by cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 7 is directed by substrate specificity determinants outside the T loop. (proteopedia.org)
  • The extract also increased the accumulation of cyclin B1 protein in the cells. (who.int)
  • These findings indicate that C. asiatica extract inhibited cell proliferation of Caco-2 cells through modification of the cell cycle events and this cell cycle arrest is associated, at least in part, with increased accumulation of cyclin B1 protein. (who.int)
  • Catalase, a specific antioxidant for H2O2, decreased vanadate-induced expression of p21 and Chk1, reduced phosphorylation of Cdc2Tyr15, and decreased cyclin B1 levels. (cdc.gov)
  • The expression of Hiwi and Cyclin B1 was down-regulated in BA-treated AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. (chinaphar.com)
  • Zhao J, Kennedy BK, Lawrence BD, Barbie DA, Matera AG, Fletcher JA, Harlow E. NPAT links cyclin E-Cdk2 to the regulation of replication-dependent histone gene transcription. (proteopedia.org)
  • Cyclin E/CDK2 prevents oxidative stress-mediated Ras-induced senescence by phosphorylating MYC. (proteopedia.org)
  • NPM1 phosphorylation by cyclin E/CDK2 promotes its dissociates from unduplicated centrosomes, thus initiating centrosome duplication. (proteopedia.org)
  • Cyclin E/CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of NPAT at G1-S transition and until prophase stimulates the NPAT-mediated activation of histone gene transcription during S phase. (proteopedia.org)
  • Cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of p220(NPAT) by cyclin E/Cdk2 in Cajal bodies promotes histone gene transcription. (proteopedia.org)
  • BA exerted potent effect on growth inhibition, G 2 /M cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in AGS cells in vitro , possibly associated with the down-regulation of Hiwi and its downstream target Cyclin B1 expression. (chinaphar.com)
  • WCE decreased the expression of CDK4, cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and increased the expression of p27. (cranberryinstitute.org)
  • 2007). Cyclin B1 is primarily cytoplasmic during interphase and translocates into the nucleus at the onset of mitosis (Jackman et al. (reactome.org)
  • 1999). Cyclin B2 colocalizes with the Golgi apparatus and contributes to its fragmentation during mitosis (Jackman et al. (reactome.org)
  • activated by interaction with cyclin E during the early stages of DNA synthesis to permit G1-S transition, and subsequently activated by cyclin A2 (cyclin A1 in germ cells) during the late stages of DNA replication to drive the transition from S phase to mitosis, the G2 phase. (proteopedia.org)
  • The C-terminal regulatory domain of p53 contains a functional docking site for cyclin A. J Mol Biol. (proteopedia.org)
  • A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. (bvsalud.org)
  • We identify the region of cyclin B2 responsible for its localization and show that this will direct cyclin B1 to the Golgi apparatus and confer upon it the more limited properties of cyclin B2. (elsevier.com)
  • SIFT test showed that 27 and 105 variation sites might influence the regulation of p21 and CyclinB1, respectively. (rhhz.net)
  • Both FCM and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technologies were applied to detect the expression of Hiwi and Cyclin B1. (chinaphar.com)
  • Moreover, no significant differences of the expression levels of cell cycle G2-related genes such as Gadd45α , B99 , 14-3-3-δ and CyclinB1 were detected in M. baileyi and R. norvegicus under different altitudes. (rhhz.net)
  • The expression of Ki67, cyclin B1, cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase 3, and IL-1ß in the animal tumor tissues was profiled using immunohistochemistry analyses. (bvsalud.org)
  • abstract = "Although cyclin G1 has been implicated in certain p53-related biological phenomena, other aspects of its function remain unclear. (elsevier.com)
  • Irradiation of human lung cells with cyclin G1 overexpression resulted in increased cell death and γ-H2AX foci suggesting that cyclin G1 rendered the cells more susceptible to DNA damage. (elsevier.com)
  • Cell cycle synchronization clearly showed coexpression of cyclin G1 and cyclin B1 in G2/M phase. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, our data suggest that cyclin G1 enhanced radiation sensitivity by overriding radiation-induced G2 arrest through transcriptional upregulation of cyclin B1. (elsevier.com)
  • TOPK supported mitotic advance via the cdk1/cyclin B1-dependent phosphorylation of PRC1. (nih.gov)
  • TOPK induced the phosphorylation of PRC1 at T481 only when the cdk1/cyclin B1 existed simultaneously in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • TOPK binds to cdk1/cyclin B1, microtubules and PRC1 via its unique region near the C terminus. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, these data indicate that TOPK, which makes a kinase-substrate complex with cdk1/cyclin B1 and PRC1 on microtubules during mitosis, enhances the cdk1/cyclin B1-dependent phosphorylation of PRC1 and thereby strongly promotes cytokinesis. (nih.gov)
  • V92.1 can immunoprecipitate active CDK1/cyclin B1 complexes. (abcam.co.jp)
  • CDK1-cyclin-B1-induced kindlin degradation drives focal adhesion disassembly at mitotic entry. (mpg.de)
  • Death-effector domain-containing protein DEDD is an inhibitor of mitotic Cdk1/cyclin B1. (kumamoto-u.ac.jp)
  • Vanadate also increased p21 and Chk1 levels and reduced Cdc25C expression, leading to phosphorylation of Cdc2 and a slight increase in cyclin B1 expression as analyzed by Western blot. (cdc.gov)
  • Several regulatory pathways are involved: (1) activation of p21, (2) an increase of Chk1 expression and inhibition of Cdc25C, which results in phosphorylation of Cdc2 and possible inactivation of cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the kinase was likely not cyclin B1/Cdc2, since cyclin B1/Cdc2 was not detectable in Bcl-2 immunoprecipitates, nor was recombinant Bcl-2 phosphorylated in vitro by cyclin B1/Cdc2. (nih.gov)
  • CDKN2A also induces G2 arrest and apoptosis, independent of p53, by preventing the activation of cyclin B1/CDC2 complexes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • PLB arrested SCC25 cells at the G2/M phase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with a decrease in the expression level of cell division cycle protein 2 homolog (Cdc2) and cyclin B1 and increase in the expression level of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53 in SCC25 cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that oridonin treatment increased expression levels of p-JNK, p-p38, p-p53 and p21, elevated the level of cyclin B1/p-Cdc2 (Tyr15) complex, and inhibited the expression of p-ERK. (edu.hk)
  • MPT0B271 also caused G2/M cell-cycle arrest, accompanied by the up-regulation of cyclin B1, p-Thr161 Cdc2/p34, serine/threonine kinases polo-like kinase 1, aurora kinase A and B and the downregulation of Cdc25C and p-Tyr15 Cdc2/p34 protein levels. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • it decreased the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins including cyclin b1, cdc2 and cdc25c in u87 gbm cells [134]. (docskill.com)
  • Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell types using Cyclin B1 Antibody. (cellsignal.com)
  • Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HeLa cells using Cyclin B1 Antibody (green) and β-Tubulin (9F3) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor ® 555 Conjugate) #2116 (red) showing concentrated cyclin B1 staining surrounding mitotic chromatin. (cellsignal.com)
  • Figure 1 : Separation of JURKAT cells stained using anti-Cyclin B1 (V152) purified antibody (concentration in sample 5,0 µg/ml, GAM APC, red-filled) from JURKAT cells unstained by primary antibody (GAM APC, black-dashed) in flow cytometry analysis (intracellular staining). (abeomics.com)
  • Specificity : The mouse monoclonal antibody V152 recognizes cyclin B1, a 48 kDa intracellular protein necessary for G2/M phase transition of the cell cycle. (abeomics.com)
  • The CCNB1 gene (encoding cyclin B1) positively regulates cell proliferation, a key component of in-stent restenosis. (nih.gov)
  • Objective : Cyclin is a family of regulatory proteins that play a key role in controlling the cell cycle. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Methods : A quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis were used to analyze the expression of cyclin B1, D1 mRNA and proteins, respectively, in fresh invasive cervical cancer (n=41) and normal cervix tissue (n=10). (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Four cell cycle-related proteins were selected from an RNA-sequencing study on a distinct set of samples: RAD9, cyclin B1, survivin, and RAF1. (nih.gov)
  • These roles are monitored by sets of proteins like CyclinA, Cyclin B1, Cyclin E etc. and they act at different time and phases. (uohyd.ac.in)
  • The methodologies range from simple DNA profile analysis, the use of bromodeoxyuridine to cell cycle-associated proteins such as the cyclins. (scirp.org)
  • Subsequently, it was found that Lamins A and C were coded for by a single gene (2), while the Lamin B band may contain two proteins encoded by two genes now called Lamin B1 and Lamin B2. (immunologicalsciences.com)
  • Abnormalities of cell cycle regulators, including cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), have been reported in malignant tumors. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Reciprocal activation by cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 7 is directed by substrate specificity determinants outside the T loop. (proteopedia.org)
  • M. Cheng, P. Olivier, J. A. Diehl, M. Fero, M. F. Roussel, J. M. Roberts and C. J. Sherr, The p21(cip1) and p27(kip1) cdk 'inhibitors' are essential activators of cyclin d-dependent kinases in murine fibroblasts , Embo. (aimsciences.org)
  • AML1/RUNX1 phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases regulates the degradation of AML1/RUNX1 by the anaphase-promoting complex. (cocites.com)
  • There is remarkable redundancy between the Cyclin-Cdk complexes that comprise the cell cycle machinery. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Cyclin E/CDK2 prevents oxidative stress-mediated Ras-induced senescence by phosphorylating MYC. (proteopedia.org)
  • NPM1 phosphorylation by cyclin E/CDK2 promotes its dissociates from unduplicated centrosomes, thus initiating centrosome duplication. (proteopedia.org)
  • Cyclin E/CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of NPAT at G1-S transition and until prophase stimulates the NPAT-mediated activation of histone gene transcription during S phase. (proteopedia.org)
  • Zhao J, Kennedy BK, Lawrence BD, Barbie DA, Matera AG, Fletcher JA, Harlow E. NPAT links cyclin E-Cdk2 to the regulation of replication-dependent histone gene transcription. (proteopedia.org)
  • Cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of p220(NPAT) by cyclin E/Cdk2 in Cajal bodies promotes histone gene transcription. (proteopedia.org)
  • Sch B markedly arrested cells in G 1 phase in both cell lines, accompanied by the down-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and cyclin D1 and up-regulation of p27 Kip1 and checkpoint kinase 1. (dovepress.com)
  • In cancers, expression of cyclin A, p53 and Ki67 was positively correlated to grade, and cyclin A was positively correlated with cdk2, p21, Ki67, cyclin E and p53. (bmj.com)
  • p21(Waf1/Cip1) inhibition of cyclin E/Cdk2 activity prevents endoreduplication after mitotic spindle disruption. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Mice treated with exendin-4 showed increased β-cell proliferation, elevated islet protein levels of cyclin A2 with unchanged D-type cyclins, elevated PDX-1 and Skp2 levels, and reduced p27 levels. (medscape.com)
  • Moreover, in prolonged arrest caused by nocodazole treatment, the overall levels of the CDC20-MAD2 complex are gradually, but significantly, reduced and this is associated with lower levels of cyclin B1, which brings a new insight into the mechanism of mitotic "slippage" of the arrested cells. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • The complex prevents the premature degradation of cyclin B1. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • In our study, in order to suppress the progression of lung cancer metastasis in mice, we developed sticky siRNA (ssiRNA) to inhibit survivin and cyclin B1, the two candidates involved in cell survival and proliferation. (polyplus-transfection.com)
  • More importantly, we showed in vivo by luciferase dosage, bioimaging and tissue section, an inhibition of lung tumor metastases after systemic delivery of cyclin B1 and survivin ssiRNA complexed with PEI. (polyplus-transfection.com)
  • Nuclear translocation of Cyclin B1 marks the restriction point for terminal cell cycle exit in G2 phase. (cytoo.com)
  • The appearance of MPM2 and the nuclear translocation of cyclin B1 denoted M phase arrest in MPT0B271-treated cells. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • ALKBH5 knockdown resulted in the downregulation of genes promoting G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and up-regulation of CYCLIN B1 on a basis of PER1-loss, whereas PER1 overexpression partially reversed these abnormalities. (figshare.com)
  • Among those, over half had less than five neighbors, while two genes, cyclin b1 and zona pellucida glycoprotein 3, had over 100 first degree neighbors, and were neighbors to one another. (rti.org)
  • Changes in islet protein levels of cyclins and of two critical cell cycle regulators cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) were assessed in mice treated with exendin-4 and in a mouse model with specific upregulation of nuclear cAMP signaling exhibiting increased β-cell proliferation (CBP-S436A mouse). (medscape.com)
  • Restoring p53 Function in Human Melanoma Cells by Inhibiting MDM2 and Cyclin B1/CDK1-Phosphorylated Nuclear iASPP. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It has therefore been unclear why, in mammalian oocyte meiosis, cyclin B1 destruction begins before chromosome alignment is complete. (mpg.de)
  • RAD9, cyclin B1, and RAF1-of tumor and of adjacent normal tissues-were also not associated with recurrence. (nih.gov)
  • Central towards the checkpoint control may be the ubiquitin pathway comprising an E3 ligase, the APC/C, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2C, and their mitotic substrates securin and cyclin-B1 (23). (world-of-links.com)
  • The G2/M phase transition of cell cycle is controlled by a protein called cyclin B1. (uohyd.ac.in)
  • In the transition of this phase, cyclin B1 degradation has to be prevented from APC/C to promote proper G2 to M phase transition. (uohyd.ac.in)
  • Farshadi E, Yan J, Leclere P, Goldbeter A , Chaves I, van der Horst GTJ (2019) The positive circadian regulators CLOCK and BMAL1 control G2/M cell cycle transition through Cyclin B1. (ulb.be)
  • PDX-1 knockdown reduced exendin-4-stimulated cAMP synthesis and cyclin A2 transcription. (medscape.com)
  • A conditional mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana separase induces chromosome non-disjunction, aberrant morphogenesis and cyclin B1;1 stability. (mpg.de)
  • Cyclin B1 overexpression in conventional oral squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma- A correlation with clinicopathological features. (medscape.com)
  • a) ALKBH5 overexpression leads to the upregulated protein level of p-CDK1 and downregulated protein level of Cyclin B1 in BxPC-3cells. (figshare.com)
  • The C-terminal regulatory domain of p53 contains a functional docking site for cyclin A. J Mol Biol. (proteopedia.org)
  • A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE . (nih.gov)
  • A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. (bvsalud.org)
  • The ordered destruction of the two forms of cyclin B1 is brought about by a previously unidentified motif that is accessible in free cyclin B1 but masked when cyclin B1 is in complex with CDK1. (mpg.de)
  • The cyclin E/E2F complex is detected mainly throughout the G1 phase with the cell cycle and decreases as cells enter S phase. (glucagon-receptor.com)
  • Once cyclin B1 is degraded by another protein complex, APC/C, the cell starts entering M phase from G2 phase. (uohyd.ac.in)
  • This model is not sensitive to small changes in the parameters used and it reproduces the observed behavior of the transcription factor E2F and different Cyclins in continuous or regulated cycling conditions. (aimsciences.org)
  • Starting from serum antibodies to eight known breast cancer antigens, we first identified four serum antibodies, HER2/neu, p53, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and cyclin B1, which are significantly increased in the sera collected from patients with breast cancer at the time of treatment. (nih.gov)
  • b) The protein level of p-CDK1 and Cyclin B1 was significantly downregulated and upregulated according to the knocking down of ALKBH5 in BxPC-3cells. (figshare.com)
  • This conclusion is supported by data showing that BI6727/paclitaxel-co-treatment stabilizes FBW7, a component of SCF-type ubiquitin ligases that bind and regulate key modulators of cell division and growth including MCL-1 and Cyclin E. This identification of a novel synthetic lethality of PLK1 inhibitors and a microtubule-stabilizing drug has important implications for developing PLK1 inhibitor-based combination treatments in CCNE1 -amplified HGSOC cells. (oncotarget.com)