A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An aspect of protein kinase (EC in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
CELL CYCLE regulatory signaling systems that are triggered by DNA DAMAGE or lack of nutrients during G2 PHASE. When triggered they restrain cells transitioning from G2 phase to M PHASE.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Pathological processes involving the PERITONEUM.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.

C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. (1/1429)

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

The mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway stimulates mos mRNA cytoplasmic polyadenylation during Xenopus oocyte maturation. (2/1429)

The Mos protein kinase is a key regulator of vertebrate oocyte maturation. Oocyte-specific Mos protein expression is subject to translational control. In the frog Xenopus, the translation of Mos protein requires the progesterone-induced polyadenylation of the maternal Mos mRNA, which is present in the oocyte cytoplasm. Both the Xenopus p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) signaling pathways have been proposed to mediate progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation. In this study, we have determined the relative contributions of the MAPK and MPF signaling pathways to Mos mRNA polyadenylation. We report that progesterone-induced Mos mRNA polyadenylation was attenuated in oocytes expressing the MAPK phosphatase rVH6. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling blocked progesterone-induced Mos protein accumulation. Activation of the MAPK pathway by injection of RNA encoding Mos was sufficient to induce both the polyadenylation of synthetic Mos mRNA substrates and the accumulation of endogenous Mos protein in the absence of MPF signaling. Activation of MPF, by injection of cyclin B1 RNA or purified cyclin B1 protein, also induced both Mos protein accumulation and Mos mRNA polyadenylation. However, this action of MPF required MAPK activity. By contrast, the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of maternal cyclin B1 mRNA was stimulated by MPF in a MAPK-independent manner, thus revealing a differential regulation of maternal mRNA polyadenylation by the MAPK and MPF signaling pathways. We propose that MAPK-stimulated Mos mRNA cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a key component of the positive-feedback loop, which contributes to the all-or-none process of oocyte maturation.  (+info)

Involvement of p21 in the PKC-induced regulation of the G2/M cell cycle transition. (3/1429)

Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibits cell cycle progression at the G1/S and G2/M transitions. We found that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced upregulation of p21, not only in MCF-7 cells arrested in the G1 phase as previously shown, but also in cells delayed in the G2 phase. This increase in p21 in cells accumulated in the G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle after PMA treatment was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. This indicates that PKC activity is required for PMA-induced p21 upregulation and cell cycle arrest in the G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. To further assess the role of p21 in the PKC-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest independently of its G1 arrest, we used aphidicolin-synchronised MCF-7 cells. Our results show that, in parallel with the inhibition of cdc2 activity, PMA addition enhanced the associations between p21 and either cyclin B or cdc2. Furthermore, we found that after PMA treatment p21 was able to associate with the active Tyr-15 dephosphorylated form of cdc2, but this complex was devoid of kinase activity indicating that p21 may play a role in inhibition of cdc2 induced by PMA. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that p21 is involved in integrating the PKC signaling pathway to the cell cycle machinery at the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint.  (+info)

p53 regulates a G2 checkpoint through cyclin B1. (4/1429)

The p53 tumor suppressor controls multiple cell cycle checkpoints regulating the mammalian response to DNA damage. To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G2, we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G2 arrest at 32 degrees C. We have found that p53 prevents G2/M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. The ability of p53 to control mitotic initiation by regulating intracellular cyclin B1 levels suggests that the cyclin B-dependent G2 checkpoint has a role in preventing neoplastic transformation.  (+info)

gigas, a Drosophila homolog of tuberous sclerosis gene product-2, regulates the cell cycle. (5/1429)

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder leading to the widespread development of benign tumors that often contain giant cells. We show that the Drosophila gene gigas encodes a homolog of TSC2, a gene mutated in half of TSC patients. Clones of gigas mutant cells induced in imaginal discs differentiate normally to produce adult structures. However, the cells in these clones are enlarged and repeat S phase without entering M phase. Our results suggest that the TSC disorder may result from an underlying defect in cell cycle control. We have also identified a Drosophila homolog of TSC1.  (+info)

Activation of integrin and ceramide signalling pathways can inhibit the mitogenic effect of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in human breast cancer cell lines. (6/1429)

Cell counting, cell cycle analysis and Western immunoblotting were used to examine the effects of non-apoptotic doses of a ceramide analogue, C2, and a synthetic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-containing peptide, RGD, in MCF-7 and T47D cells to determine whether activation of these signalling pathways could alter the mitogenic potential of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). IGF-I alone increased total cell number in both cell lines, associated with a rise in the percentage of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle and a co-incident increase in cyclin A production. Treatments alone had no effects on cell number or cyclin A production relative to controls. C2 inhibited IGF-I-induced mitogenesis in both lines, whereas RGD was only effective in the T47D line. Despite inhibition of cell proliferation, IGF-I stimulation of cells in S-phase and of cyclin A levels were unaffected; however, an IGF-I-induced increase in cyclin B1 levels was inhibited by 30%. Low-dose induction of integrin and ceramide signalling pathways causes cells to be blocked in S-phase, thereby inhibiting the normal cycle of events associated with the IGF-I-induced mitotic signal. Activating these pathways may not only restrict tumour growth by induction of apoptosis but they may also directly inhibit IGF-I-induced cell proliferation.  (+info)

Posttranslational regulation of the retinoblastoma gene family member p107 by calpain protease. (7/1429)

The retinoblastoma protein plays a critical role in regulating the G1/S transition. Less is known about the function and regulation of the homologous pocket protein p107. Here we present evidence for the posttranslational regulation of p107 by the Ca2+-activated protease calpain. Three negative growth regulators, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin, the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil, and the cyclic nucleotide dibutyryl cAMP were found to induce cell type-specific loss of p107 protein which was reversible by the calpain inhibitor leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal but not by the serine protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, caspase inhibitors, or lactacystin, a specific inhibitor of the 26S proteasome. Purified calpain induced Ca2+-dependent p107 degradation in cell lysates. Transient expression of the specific calpain inhibitor calpastatin blocked the loss of p107 protein in lovastatin-treated cells, and the half-life of p107 was markedly lengthened in lovastatian-treated cells stably transfected with a calpastatin expression vector versus cells transfected with vector alone. The data presented here demonstrate down-regulation of p107 protein in response to various antiproliferative signals, and implicate calpain in p107 posttranslational regulation.  (+info)

The cyclin B2 promoter depends on NF-Y, a trimer whose CCAAT-binding activity is cell-cycle regulated. (8/1429)

Cyclin B2 is a regulator of p34cdc2 kinase, involved in G2/M progression of the cell cycle, whose gene is strictly regulated at the transcriptional level in cycling cells. The mouse promoter was cloned and three conserved CCAAT boxes were found. In this study, we analysed the mechanisms leading to activation of the cyclin B2 CCAAT boxes: a combination of (i) genomic footprinting, (ii) transfections with single, double and triple mutants, (iii) EMSAs with nuclear extracts, antibodies and NF-Y recombinant proteins and (iv) transfections with an NF-YA dominant negative mutant established the positive role of the three CCAAT sequences and proved that NF-Y plays a crucial role in their activation. NF-Y, an ubiquitous trimer containing histone fold subunits, activates several other promoters regulated during the cell cycle. To analyse the levels of NF-Y subunits in the different phases of the cycle, we separated MEL cells by elutriation, obtaining fractions >80% pure. The mRNA and protein levels of the histone-fold containing NF-YB and NF-YC were invariant, whereas the NF-YA protein, but not its mRNA, was maximal in mid-S and decreased in G2/M. EMSA confirmed that the CCAAT-binding activity followed the amount of NF-YA, indicating that this subunit is limiting within the NF-Y complex, and suggesting that post-transcriptional mechanisms regulate NF-YA levels. Our results support a model whereby fine tuning of this activator is important for phase-specific transcription of CCAAT-containing promoters.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - EWS/FLI1 up regulates mE2-C, a cyclin-selective ubiquitin conjugating enzyme involved in cyclin B destruction. AU - Arvand, Afsane. AU - Bastians, Holger. AU - Welford, Scott M.. AU - Thompson, Andrew D.. AU - Ruderman, Joan V.. AU - Denny, Christopher T.. PY - 1998/10/22. Y1 - 1998/10/22. N2 - The EWS/FLI1 fusion gene found in Ewings sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor, is able to transform certain cell lines by acting as an aberrant transcription factor. The ability of EWS/FLI1 to modulate gene expression in cells transformed and resistant to transformation by EWS/FLI1, was assessed by Representational Difference Analysis (RDA). We found that the cyclin selective ubiquitin conjugase murine E2-C, was up regulated in NIH3T3 cells transformed by EWS/FLI1 but not in a nontransformed NIH3T3 clone expressing EWS/FLI1. We also found that mE2-C is upregulated in NIH3T3 cells transformed by other genes including activated cdc42, v-ABL and c-myc. We demonstrated that expression ...
Fertilization of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs results in resumption of meiosis and a decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities; the decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity precedes the decrease in MAP kinase activity. Cycloheximide treatment of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs also results in resumption of meiosis but bypasses the fertilization-induced Ca2+ transient. However, it is not known if cycloheximide treatment results in the same temporal changes in cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that are intimately associated with resumption of meiosis. We report that cycloheximide-treated mouse eggs manifest similar temporal changes in the decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that occur following fertilization, although cortical granule exocytosis is not stimulated. The decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity, however, does not seem to be required for the decrease in MAP kinase activity, since the decrease in MAP kinase activity ...
We show that in fission yeast the mitotic B type cyclin Cdc13/Cdc2 kinase associates with replication origins in vivo. This association is dependent on the origin recognition complex (ORC), is established as chromosomes are replicated, and is maintained during G2 and early mitosis. Cells expressing …
Cyclin E (G1/S-Phase Cyclin) MonoSpecific Antibody. Reactivity Human. Tested In IHC. Formats Unconjugated. Isotype IgG, kappa. From: $199.
Overexpression of mitotic cyclin CLB2 results in premature spindle elongation in swe1Δ mutants.A. Overexpression of CLB2 is toxic to swe1Δ mutants. WT and swe
In contrast to the absence of any significant requirement for Clb3 proteolysis for mitotic exit, mitotic Clb3 proteolysis is required for control of Start. Start is conditional on cells attaining a sufficient cell size; it depends on Cln3 as an initial upstream signal, and on the Cln1,2-dependent positive feedback loop (Cross and Tinkelenberg 1991; Dirick and Nasmyth 1991; Cross 1995; Skotheim et al. 2008). Start is also specifically blocked by mating pheromones (Cross 1995). All of these controls are abrogated by removal of the Clb3 D box: CLB3∆db cells pass Start even when very small, as indicated by the absence of nuclear Whi5, and by accelerated budding and DNA replication, in a Cln3-independent fashion; CLB3∆db results in mating factor insensitivity, and eliminates the requirement for any of CLN1,2,3 CLB5,6. Rescue of CLN deficiency by cyclins has been previously reported, but has involved expression of the rescuing cyclins from a strong promoter such as ADH1 (Koff et al. 1991; Léopold ...
Metafase di anafase transizione viene attivato attraverso la promozione anafase-complesso (APC / C)-dipendente ubiquitinazione e la...
Analysis of TNF-α-induced p65 nuclear entry, phosphorylation (Ser 536), promoter activity and IκBα degradation during DMF treatment. a Nuclear p65 translocat
M. Ivačić, Kako se kalio češki krimić. Umjetnost krimića Jana Cigáneka i nova kriminalistička proza 1960, Književna smotra, vol.49, no. 183(1), pp. 51-57, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://hrcak.srce.hr/188604. [Accessed: 18 September 2021 ...
为研究酚类物质在卷烟主流烟气气溶胶中的粒径分布,采用单通道吸烟机-电子低压撞击器(ELPI),通过12级聚酯薄膜捕集烟气气溶胶粒相物,采用超高效液相色谱-荧光检测方法测定了14种酚类在不同粒径气溶胶中的分布。实验结果表明,本方法捕集得到气溶胶粒相物质量的相对标准偏差小于10%,具有较好的稳定性;超高效液相色谱-荧光检测方法测定14种酚类的线性相关系数R2均大于0.9959,检出限低于1.2 ng/cig,回收率在80.1%-115.0%之间,方法简单快速,准确可靠。采用本方法研究了卷烟主流烟气气溶胶中14种酚类物质含量和浓度的粒径分布,发现除了4-乙基愈创木酚在捕集的气溶胶中未检出外,其它13种酚类物质在不同粒径气溶胶粒相物中的含量分布随粒径增加呈现先增加后减小的趋势,与粒相物质量分布一致,并主要集中在中等粒径(0.261~0.722 ...
I have been followed by a cardiologist and a pulmonologist. I have moderate regurgitation in the Aortic, tricuspid and one other valve .. I also have COPD that is being treated by Advair and a handiha...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclin B in fish oocytes. T2 - Its cDNA and amino acid sequences, appearance during maturation, and induction of p34cdc2 activation. AU - Hirai, T.. AU - Yamashita, M.. AU - Yoshikuni, M.. AU - Lou, Y. ‐H. AU - Nagahama, Y.. PY - 1992/10. Y1 - 1992/10. N2 - Under the influence of maturation‐inducing hormone (MIH) secreted from follicle cells, oocyte maturation is finally triggered by maturation‐promoting factor (MPF), which consists of a homolog of the cdc2+ gene product of fission yeast (p34cdc2) and cyclin B. Two species of cyclin B clones were isolated from a cDNA library constructed from mature goldfish oocytes. Sequence comparisons revealed that these two clones are highly homologous (95%) and were found to be similar to Xenopus cyclin B1. Using monocional antibodies against Escherichia coli produced goldfish cyclin B and the PSTAIR sequence of p34cdc2, we examined the levels of cyclin B and p34cdc2 proteins during goldfish oocyte maturation induced in vitro by ...
Sea urchin eggs exhibit a cap-dependent increase in protein synthesis within minutes after fertilization. This rise in protein synthesis occurs at a constant rate for a great number of proteins translated from the different available mRNAs. Surprisingly, we found that cyclin B, a major cell-cycle regulator, follows a synthesis pattern that is distinct from the global protein population, so we developed a mathematical model to analyze this dissimilarity in biosynthesis kinetic patterns. The model includes two pathways for cyclin B mRNA entry into the translational machinery: one from immediately available mRNA (mRNAcyclinB) and one from mRNA activated solely after fertilization (XXmRNAcyclinB). Two coefficients, α and β, were added to fit the measured scales of global protein and cyclin B synthesis, respectively. The model was simplified to identify the synthesis parameters and to allow its simulation. The calculated parameters for activation of the specific cyclin B synthesis pathway after
Activation of the Cyclin B/Cdc2 kinase complex triggers entry into mitosis in all eukaryotic cells. Cyclin B1 localization changes dramatically during the cell cycle, precipitously transiting from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at the beginning of mitosis. Presumably, this relocalization promotes the phosphorylation of nuclear targets critical for chromatin condensation and nuclear envelope breakdown. We show here that the previously characterized cytoplasmic retention sequence of Cyclin B1, responsible for its interphase cytoplasmic localization, is actually an autonomous nuclear export sequence, capable of directing nuclear export of a heterologous protein, and able to bind specifically to the recently identified export mediator, CRM1. We propose that the observed cytoplasmic localization of Cyclin B1 during interphase reflects the equilibrium between ongoing nuclear import and rapid CRM1-mediated export. In support of this hypothesis, we found that treatment of cells with leptomycin B, which ...
In the present study, we identified three proteins (cyclin B1, TfR1, and fibronectin) that were highly expressed in metastatic ACC in the TCPA database. With a median follow-up of 3.1 years, high expression of each of these three proteins was associated with a poor survival rate. Subjects with high expression levels of a combination of two DEPs were at a higher risk for mortality than those with a high expression levels of only one DEP. Cyclin B1, TfR1, and all combinations of the three DEPs showed meaningful prognostic performance independent of age and staging. Moreover, among non-metastatic patients, combinations of these three DEPs showed significant or near-significant associations with mortality. The reason for the non-significance of fibronectin alone needs to be elucidated, but the small number of patients may have contributed to this finding. In addition, the C-index and cfNRI values of high cyclin B1/high TfR1/high fibronectin were the same as those of high cyclin B1/high fibronectin. ...
ViraQuest Inc. , Uncategorized , Estrogen receptor ? causes a G2 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting CDK1 activity through the regulation of cyclin B1, GADD45A, and BTG2 ...
10 products from 6 suppliers. Compare and order Cyclin B1 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products for the most popular species. Our scientists will help you find the right ELISA kit for your needs.
Wee1 acts as a negative regulator of entry into mitosis (G2 to M transition) by protecting the nucleus from cytoplasmically activated cyclin B1-complexed CDK1 before the onset of mitosis. The activity of wee1 increases during the S and G2 phases, and decreases in M phase when it is hyperphosphorylated. A correlated decrease in wee1 protein level occurs at M/G1 phase, probably due to its degradation. Wee1 specifically phosphorylates and inactivates cyclin B1-complexed CDK1 reaching a maximum during G2 phase and a minimum as cells enter M phase. The phosphorylation of cyclin B1-CDK1 occurs exclusively on Tyr-15 and phosphorylation of monomeric CDK1 does not occur ...
CCNB2 Human Recombinant produced E. coli is a single polypeptide chain containing 422 amino acids (1-398) and having a molecular mass of 47.9 kDa.
CCNB1 Human Recombinant produced in E. coli is a single polypeptide chain containing 457 amino acids (1-433) and having a molecular mass of 50.9 kDa.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
NU6102, CDK1/cyclin B and CDK2/cyclin A3 inhibitor (CAS 444722-95-6), with |98% purity. Join researchers using our high quality biochemicals.
Zwacka, RM and Zhang, Y and Zhou, W and Halldorson, J and Engelhardt, JE (1998) Ischemia/reperfusion injury in the liver of BALB/c mice activates AP-1 and nuclear factor κB independently of IκB degradation. Hepatology, 28 (4 I). 1022 - 1030. ISSN 0270-9139 ...
We investigated the occurrence of transcription during mitosis on an RNA pol II‐transcribed gene. We have found that the human cyclin B1 gene is actively transcribed at the mitotic stage. This result is surprising, since it is widely accepted that transcription is repressed during mitosis in higher eukaryotes. Interestingly, in fission yeast the rate of RNA synthesis is maintained during passage through mitosis (Baum et al., 1998). In mammalian cells, until now, no RNA pol II‐dependent transcription has been reported in mitotic cells, although there is evidence showing that 10-20% of the TFIID population remains associated with the condensed mitotic chromatin (Segil et al., 1996). Whether the transcription of the cyclin B1 gene occurs during all the four mitosis phases remains to be elucidated. The cyclin B1 protein is quickly degraded at the metaphase. Whenever a spindle checkpoint is imposed during metaphase, there is a reappearance of cyclin B1 protein due to a loss of cyclin B1 ...
Cyclin B1 (G2- & M-phase Cyclin) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone V92.1 ] validated in IF, FC, IP (AH10827-100), Abgent
Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) exhibit indicators and useful properties of pericytes and, in mixture with endothelial cells (ECs), are capable to create multilayer useful boats super model tiffany livingston of coculturing ECs with ASCs in a program formulated with serum but no additional exogenous cytokines or extracellular matrix (ECM) meats. ASCs in EC-fibroblast cocultures in a low small fraction stimulated VNF efficiently. These results demonstrate that the vasculogenesis-promoting potential of ASCs is dependent on relationship with ECs concerning get in touch with and most likely bi-directional relationship, causing in modulated release of cytokines and ECM protein. Launch Advancement of vascular systems that can adequately carry out bloodstream movement to underperfused tissue is certainly one of the main healing goals for dealing with sufferers with ischemic disorders Rabbit polyclonal to Cyclin B1.a member of the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a ...
This work delineates roles of Zn2+ and Ca2+ during mammalian mII and mII exit. From the results obtained, it can be argued that Zn2+ is required for mII arrest and that Ca2+i release during fertilization is not essential for full-term development. The work provides evidence that Zn2+ is required for the Emi2-mediated regulation of meiotic arrest in mouse mII oocytes. Meiotic resumption after Zn2+ depletion is not accompanied either by Ca2+ release or Emi2 degradation, both of which are induced by Ca2+-dependent oocyte activation (Fig. 2A-C; Fig. 3A). Furthermore, events of mII exit that depend on the APC-proteasome pathway, including cyclin B degradation and chromosome separation (Peters, 2006), occur with similar kinetics whether or not Ca2+ is mobilized (Fig. 1A-C; Fig. 3B,C). This observation implies that Zn2+ depletion activates or unmasks the APC-proteasome pathway, even in the presence of Emi2. Indeed, TPEN-induced mII exit is prevented by proteasome inhibitors (Fig. 3E,F) or removal of ...
Manni I., Tunici P., Cirenei N., Albarosa R., Colombo B.M., Roz L., Sacchi A., Piaggio G., Finocchiaro G.. Mxi1 is a Mad family member that plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation. To test the role of Mxi1 on tumorigenesis of glioma cells we transfected a CMV-driven MXI1 cDNA in U87 human glioblastoma cells. Two clones were isolated expressing MXI1 levels 18- and 3.5-fold higher than wild-type U87 cells (clone U87.Mxi1.14 and U87.Mxi1.22, respectively). In vivo, U87.Mxi1.14 cells were not tumorigenic in nude mice and delayed development of tumours was observed with U87.Mxi1.22 cells. In vitro, the proliferation rate was partially and strongly inhibited in U87.Mxi1.22 and U87.Mxi1.14 cells respectively. The cell cycle analysis revealed a relevant accumulation of U87.Mxi1.14 cells in the G(2)/M phase. Interestingly, the expression of cyclin B1 was inhibited to about 60% in U87.Mxi1.14 cells. This inhibition occurs at the transcriptional level and depends, at least in part, on the ...
Achetez les anticorps cyclin b1 de Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. Des anticorps monoclonaux sont disponibles pour la plupart des immunogènes protéiques.
CDK2_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the control of the cell cycle; essential for meiosis, but dispensable for mitosis. Phosphorylates CTNNB1, USP37, p53/TP53, NPM1, CDK7, RB1, BRCA2, MYC, NPAT, EZH2. Interacts with cyclins A, B1, B3, D, or E. Triggers duplication of centrosomes and DNA. Acts at the G1-S transition to promote the E2F transcriptional program and the initiation of DNA synthesis, and modulates G2 progression; controls the timing of entry into mitosis/meiosis by controlling the subsequent activation of cyclin B/CDK1 by phosphorylation, and coordinates the activation of cyclin B/CDK1 at the centrosome and in the nucleus. Crucial role in orchestrating a fine balance between cellular proliferation, cell death, and DNA repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Activity of CDK2 is maximal during S phase and G2; activated by interaction with cyclin E during the early stages of DNA synthesis to permit G1-S transition, and subsequently activated by cyclin A2 (cyclin ...
For example, in frogs, cyclin dependent protein kinase 2 (CDK2) binds to cyclin B to form an active kinase which phosphorylates a prereplication complex initiating S phase and mitosis. Cyclin B, a 45Kd protein, accumulates to high levels just before S phase. Its concentration drops sharply at the end of mitosis. The kinase, a 34 Kd protein, is encoded by the CDC2 gene (for cell division cycle gene). A homologous gene exists in humans - the CDK2 gene (cyclin dependent kinase 2) - and controls entry in S phase. These kinases can be considered heterodimers with a kinase catalytic subunit and a cyclin regulatory subunit. In animal cells, there are at least ten different cyclins (A, B, .....) and at least eight different cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK1-8). Another Look at Neurotransmission and Ion Channels. You may have noticed above that some signaling molecules, whose effects are regulated by kinases (b-adrenergic and some olfactory signals by PKA and acetylcholine by PKC for example), are ...
Complete information for CCNB2 gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin B2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Cell Cycle, Genes, Tumor, Cell Cycle Genes, Human, Repression, Gene, Dream, Proteins, Regulation, Cell, Cyclin, Cyclin B2, Elements, Mitosis, DNA, Family, Transcription Factors, Apoptosis, DNA Damage
Cyclin F兔多克隆抗体(ab123601)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Dominik Schnerch is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Studieren Proteolyse von Cyclin B an der Single Cell Level in Whole Cell Populationen
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Medicines and drugs known as pain killers work in two major and quite different ways: one is to stop the pain signals and the other is to stop the cause of
We show that a splice variant-derived cyclin B is produced in sea urchin oocytes and embryos. This splice variant protein lacks highly conserved sequences in the COOH terminus of the protein. It is found strikingly abundant in growing oocytes and cells committed to differentiation during embryogenesis, Cyclin B splice variant (CBsv) protein associates weakly in the cell with Xenopus cdc2 and with budding yeast CDC28p, In contrast to classical cyclin B, CBsv very poorly complements a triple CLN deletion in budding yeast, and its microinjection prevents an initial step in MPF activation, leading to an important delay in oocyte meiosis reinitiation, CBsv microinjection in fertilized eggs induces cell cycle delay and abnormal development. We assume that CBsv is produced in growing oocytes to keep them in prophase, and during embryogenesis to slow down cell cycle in cells that will be committed to differentiation.. ...
The cyclin E oncogene activates CDK2 to drive cells from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle to commence DNA replication. It coordinates essential cellular functions with the cell cycle including histone biogenesis, splicing, centrosome duplication and origin firing for DNA replication. The two E-cyclins, E1 and E2, are assumed to act interchangeably in these functions. However recent reports have identified unique functions for cyclins E1 and E2 in different tissues, and particularly in breast cancer. Cyclins E1 and E2 localise to distinct foci in breast cancer cells as well as co-localising within the cell. Both E-cyclins are found in complex with CDK2, at centrosomes and with the splicing machinery in nuclear speckles. However cyclin E2 uniquely co-localises with NPAT, the main activator of cell-cycle regulated histone transcription. Increased cyclin E2, but not cyclin E1, expression is associated with high expression of replication-dependent histones in breast cancers. The preferential localisation of
Initiation of DNA replication during the mitotic cell cycle requires the activation of a cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK). The B-type cyclins Clb5 and Clb6 are the primary activators of the S phase function of the budding yeast CDK Cdc28. However, in mitotically growing cells this role can be fulfilled by the other B-type cyclins Clb1-Clb4. We report here that cells undergoing meiotic development also require Clb dependent CDK activity for DNA replication. Diploid clb5/clb5 clb6/clb6 mutants are unable to perform premeiotic DNA replication. Despite this defect, the mutant cells progress into the meiotic program and undergo lethal segregation of unreplicated DNA suggesting that they fail to activate a checkpoint that restrains meiotic M phase until DNA replication is complete. We have found that a DNA replication checkpoint dependent on the ATM homolog MEC1 operates in wild-type cells during meiosis and can be invoked in response to inhibition of DNA synthesis. Although cells that lack clb5 and clb6
The activation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C requires the phosphorylation of multiple subunits. Because depletion or inactivation of the Xenopus Polo-like kinase 1 (Plx1) in meiotically arrested egg extracts blocks APC/C-dependent degradation of cyclin B ( 5), many investigators have tried to directly link the activities of Plk1 and APC/C. Although Plk1 is able to phosphorylate subunits of the APC/C in vitro, this phosphorylation contributes only marginally to its activation ( 6). In contrast, cyclin B/Cdk1 seems to have a major role in the phosphorylation and activation of the APC/C, thereby triggering its own inactivation at the end of mitosis ( 7).. Although Plk1 can contribute synergistically to the cyclin B/Cdk1-mediated activation of the APC/C ( 6), this observation is not sufficient to explain the crucial role of Plk1/Plx1 in the activation of the APC/C. Intriguing insights have come from studies of the cytostatic factor (CSF) in Xenopus oocytes, where CSF activity prevents parthogenetic ...
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Due to early detection and the use of screening programs approximately 60% of all new cases lack lymph node involvement. Today, a substantial proportion of these women will be offered adjuvant systemic chemotherapy. However, better proliferation markers are needed to predict patient outcome and to avoid overtreatment. Cyclin A, cyclin E and Ki-67 are all markers for proliferation and involved in the regulation of the cell cycle. Overexpression has been associated with disease recurrence in several studies, but the results have not been consistent. However, none of these studies has investigated aberrant expression of cyclin E (the expression of cyclin E during phases of the cell cycle other than late G1 and early S-phase). Studies have shown that aberrant cyclin E might provide additional prognostic information compared to cyclin E alone.. The aims of this thesis were 1.to investigate the prognostic value of cyclin A, cyclin E and ...
When the APC complex was inhibited by siRNA of APC3, the level of BubR1 remained constant for 60 min after nocodazole release in the presence of CHX, whereas it declined in control cells (Figure 8B). This result was corroborated by the finding from live‐cell assay for proteolysis that depleting APC3 expression abrogated the degradation of BubR1, and concomitantly cells did not enter anaphase for more than 5 h (Supplementary Figure 12 and Supplementary movie 7). When we compared the timing of BubR1 degradation with the degradation of other players in mitosis, such as Cdc20, Cyclin B, Plk1, and Aurora A, we found that BubR1 degradation began before that of Cyclin B (Supplementary Figure 13).. Next, we tested whether Cdc20 was responsible for BubR1 degradation during mitosis. To prevent the cells from exiting mitosis before the analysis began, HeLa cells were transfected with an expression construct to force moderate expression of Cyclin B. siRNA for GFP, Cdc20, or Cdh1 was simultaneously ...
Abstract. γ-Radiation is a potent inducer of apoptosis. There are multiple pathways regulating DNA damage-induced apoptosis, and we set out to identify novel me
Ribociclib D6 (LEE011 D6) is a deuterium labeled Ribociclib. Ribociclib is a highly specific CDK4/6 inhibitor with IC50 values of 10 nM and 39 nM, respectively, and is over 1,000-fold less potent against the cyclin B/CDK1 complex. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
G. To evaluate effects of IKBKE/TBK1 inhibition on NF-κB signaling in Ewing, TC32 cells were incubated with CYT387 for six hours prior to stimulation with TNF-α (30 ng/mL). IκBα degradation was measured by harvesting TC32 cells thirty minutes after stimulation with TNF-α. TNF-α stimulation resulted in degradation of IκBα, and this effect was attenuated with CYT387 treatment. Parthenolide, an inhibitor of IκBα phosphorylation was used as a positive control. Similar effects of CYT387 activity were seen in HEK-293T cells which also express IKBKΕ. Nuclear extracts were prepared from TC32 cells harvested following forty-five minutes of TNF-α stimulation. Treatment with CYT387 resulted in decreased nuclear localization of NF-κB family proteins RelA/p65 and c-Rel. There was a modest impairment of p50 nuclear localization as compared to parthenolide and DMSO controls and no change in p52 nuclear localization. RelB (not shown) is not expressed in TC32 cells. ...
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... D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to S phase. G2/M cyclins - essential for ... The rise in presence of G1/S cyclins is paralleled by a rise in S cyclins. G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ... Note that the cyclins are now classified according to their conserved cyclin box structure, and not all these cyclins alter in ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ...
Cyclin-O is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNO gene. Cyclin O has been shown to interact with RPA2 and PCNA. ... "Entrez Gene: CCNO cyclin O". Otterlei M, Warbrick E, Nagelhus TA, Haug T, Slupphaug G, Akbari M, Aas PA, Steinsbekk K, Bakke O ... Hirst R, Gosden R, Miller D (June 2006). "The cyclin-like uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) of murine oocytes and its relationship ... Muller SJ, Caradonna S (January 1993). "Cell cycle regulation of a human cyclin-like gene encoding uracil-DNA glycosylase". The ...
Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Different cyclins ... Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ...
... is a member of the cyclin family, specifically the B-type cyclins. The B-type cyclins, B1 and B2, associate with ... Cyclin B1 co-localizes with microtubules, whereas cyclin B2 is primarily associated with the Golgi region. Cyclin B2 also binds ... Cyclin B2 has been shown to interact with TGF beta receptor 2. Cyclin B GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000157456 - Ensembl, ... "Cyclin B2-null mice develop normally and are fertile whereas cyclin B1-null mice die in utero". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
... is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin B is a mitotic cyclin. The amount of cyclin B (which binds to Cdk1) and the ... Because cyclin B is necessary for cells to enter mitosis and therefore necessary for cell division, cyclin B levels are often ... The fact that cyclin B is often disregulated in cancer cells makes cyclin B an attractive biomarker. Many studies have been ... Cyclin+B at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Cyclin B - The Interactive Fly (All ...
"Entrez Gene: CCNE1 cyclin E1". Shanahan F, Seghezzi W, Parry D, Mahony D, Lees E (February 1999). "Cyclin E associates with ... Mumberg D, Wick M, Bürger C, Haas K, Funk M, Müller R (1997). "Cyclin ET, a new splice variant of human cyclin E with a unique ... Cyclin E1 has been shown to interact with: CDC25A, CDKN1B, CUL3 Cdk1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, HERC5, P21, Retinoblastoma- ... Lew DJ, Dulić V, Reed SI (October 1991). "Isolation of three novel human cyclins by rescue of G1 cyclin (Cln) function in yeast ...
Other than Rb, viral cyclin D-Cdk6 complex also targets p27Kip, a Cdk inhibitor of cyclin E and A. In addition, viral cyclin D- ... The phosphorylation of Rb by cyclin A-Cdk2, cyclin B-Cdk1, and cyclin E-Cdk2 are unaffected. The C terminus has a stretch of 21 ... In mice and humans, two more cyclin D proteins have been identified. The three homologues, called cyclin D1, cyclin D2, and ... among which is cyclin D. In this way, cyclin D is synthesized as long as the growth factor is present. Cyclin D levels in ...
Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (Apr 1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... "The consensus motif for phosphorylation by cyclin D1-Cdk4 is different from that for phosphorylation by cyclin A/E-Cdk2". The ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDKs (Cyclin-dependent kinase). Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... cyclin D1 is translocated to the IgH promoter leading to cyclin D1 overexpression. Chromosomal translocation of the cyclin D1 ... Cyclin D1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND1 gene. The CCND1 gene encodes the cyclin D1 protein. The human ... Cyclin D1 and the mechanisms it regulates have the potential to be a therapeutic target for cancer drugs: Cyclin D1 has been ...
"Cyclin K inhibits HIV-1 gene expression and replication by interfering with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)-cyclin T1 ... "Entrez Gene: CCNK cyclin K". Baek K, Brown RS, Birrane G, Ladias JA (February 2007). "Crystal structure of human cyclin K, a ... Cyclin K also interacts with HIV nef protein. In the presence of overexpressed Nef protein, Cyclin k and CDK9 binding is ... Cyclin K is indispensable for Leukemia growth. SETD1A, is also known to bind Cyclin K through its FLOS domain. The interaction ...
"Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378-88. doi: ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNB1 gene. Cyclin B1 is a regulatory protein ... Like all cyclins, levels of cyclin B1 oscillate over the course of the cell cycle. Just prior to mitosis, a large amount of ... Cyclin B1 can reside in the nucleus or the cytoplasm which can have an effect on the malignant potential of cyclin B1 when ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNE2 gene. It is a G1 cyclin that binds Cdk2 and is inhibited by p27( ... Gudas JM, Payton M, Thukral S, Chen E, Bass M, Robinson MO, Coats S (January 1999). "Cyclin E2, a novel G1 cyclin that binds ... Zariwala, M.; Liu, J.; Xiong, Y. (1998-11-26). "Cyclin E2, a novel human G1 cyclin and activating partner of CDK2 and CDK3, is ...
Like all cyclin family members, cyclin E forms a complex with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2). Cyclin E/CDK2 regulates multiple ... Cyclin E is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin E binds to G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S ... Cyclin E/CDK2 plays a critical role in the G1 phase and in the G1-S phase transition. Cyclin E/CDK2 phosphorylates ... Dysregulation of cyclin E occurs in 18-22% of the breast cancers. Cyclin E is a prognostic marker in breast cancer, its altered ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns that ... Cyclin-T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin tightly associates with CDK9 kinase, and was found to be a major subunit of the transcription elongation factor p- ... This cyclin and its kinase partner were also found to be involved in the phosphorylation and regulation of the carboxy-terminal ...
Cyclin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA2 gene. It is one of the two types of cyclin A: cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A2 belongs to the cyclin family, whose members regulate cell cycle progression by interacting with CDK kinases. Cyclin ... The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex eventually phosphorylates E2F, turning off cyclin A2 transcription. E2F promotes cyclin A2 ... Cyclin A2 is synthesized at the onset of S phase and localizes to the nucleus, where the cyclin A2-CDK2 complex is implicated ...
... has been shown to interact with P53, Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and MNAT1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000134480 ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-H is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNH gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin forms a complex with CDK7 kinase and ring finger protein MAT1. The kinase complex is able to phosphorylate CDK2 and ...
... remains associated with CDK1 from late S into late G2 phase when it is replaced by cyclin B. Cyclin A/CDK1 is thought ... Cyclin A is the only cyclin that regulates multiple steps of the cell cycle. Cyclin A can regulate multiple cell cycle steps ... Cyclin A2 is expressed in dividing somatic cells. Cyclin A, along with the other members of the cyclin family, regulates cell ... P21 is a CDK inhibitor that binds to several cyclin/CDK complexes, including cyclin A-CDK2/1 and cyclin D/CDK4, and blocks the ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4, Cyclin-dependent kinase 6, EIF3K, and Retinoic acid receptor alpha. Cyclin Cyclin D GRCh38: Ensembl ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Brooks AR, Shiffman D, Chan CS, Brooks EE, Milner PG (1996). "Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 ... G1/S-specific cyclin-D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ...
CDK6; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK7; cyclin H CDK8; cyclin C CDK9; cyclin T1, cyclin T2a, cyclin T2b, cyclin K CDK10 ... cyclin A, cyclin B CDK2; cyclin A, cyclin E CDK3; cyclin C CDK4; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK5; CDK5R1, CDK5R2. See also ... Furthermore, cyclin binding determines the specificity of the cyclin-CDK complex for particular substrates. Cyclins can ... Viruses can encode proteins with sequence homology to cyclins. One much-studied example is K-cyclin (or v-cyclin) from Kaposi ...
E2F.2FpRb complexes Hyperphosphorylation cdc25 Maturation promoting factor CDK cyclin A cyclin B cyclin D cyclin E Wee (cell ... "Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378-1388. doi: ... Cyclin binding alters access to the active site of Cdk1, allowing for Cdk1 activity; furthermore, cyclins impart specificity to ... Furthermore, cyclins can target Cdk1 to particular subcellular locations. In addition to regulation by cyclins, Cdk1 is ...
"Entrez Gene: CDK10 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDC2-like) 10". Kasten M, Giordano A (Apr 2001). "Cdk10, a Cdc2-related kinase, ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 10 has been shown to interact with ETS2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000185324 - Ensembl, May ...
A Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 interacts with: CDKN2C, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3, P16, PPM1B, and PPP2CA. Cell cycle Cyclin-dependent ... It is regulated by cyclins, more specifically by Cyclin D proteins and Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins. The protein ... 1996). "Inhibition of Cyclin D-CDK4/CDK6 Activity Is Associated with an E2F-Mediated Induction of Cyclin Kinase Inhibitor ... 2003). "Expression of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6, but Not Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4, Alters Morphology of Cultured Mouse ...
... has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ... "Entrez Gene: CDK2 cyclin-dependent kinase 2". Echalier A, Endicott JA, Noble ME (March 2010). "Recent developments in cyclin- ... This protein associates with and is regulated by the regulatory subunits of the complex including cyclin E or A. Cyclin E binds ... Lacy S, Whyte P (May 1997). "Identification of a p130 domain mediating interactions with cyclin A/cdk 2 and cyclin E/cdk 2 ...
... has been shown to interact with: Androgen receptor, Cyclin H, GTF2H1, MNAT1, P53, SUPT5H, and XPB. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 7, or cell division protein kinase 7, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene. The ... The growth suppressor p53 has been shown to interact with cyclin H both in vitro and in vivo. Addition of wild type p53 was ... "Entrez Gene: CDK7 cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (MO15 homolog, Xenopus laevis, cdk-activating kinase)". Patel H, Abduljabbar R, Lai ...
"OMIM Entry - * 123831 - CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; CDK5". omim.org. Retrieved 2020-11-02. Tsai, Li-Huei. Cyclin Dependent ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is a protein, and more specifically an enzyme, that is encoded by the Cdk5 gene. It was discovered 15 ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5. Springer. 19 August 2008. ISBN 978-0-387-78886-9. Patrick GN, Zukerberg L, Nikolic M, de la Monte S ... Cyclin-Dependent+Kinase+5 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CDK5 human gene location in ...
During G2 phase, cyclin A is degraded, while cyclin B is synthesized and cyclin B-Cdk1 complexes form. Not only are cyclin B- ... cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), with a regulatory subunit, cyclin. Once cyclin-dependent kinases bind to cyclin, the formed ... Cyclin Cyclin-dependent kinase Malumbres M, Barbacid M. Mammalian cyclin-dependent kinases. Trends Biochem. Sci. 2005 Nov;30(11 ... cyclin D1-Cdk4 and cyclin D1-Cdk6 phosphorylate pRB, followed by additional phosphorylation from the cyclin E-Cdk2 CDKC. Once ...
"Entrez Gene: CDK4 cyclin-dependent kinase 4". "CDK4 - Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDK4 gene & protein". ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ... 1995). "Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
... or CDK9 is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found ... Cyclin-Dependent+Kinase+9 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Cyclin dependent ... "Entrez Gene: CDK9 cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDC2-related kinase)". MacLachlan TK, Sang N, De Luca A, Puri PL, Levrero M, ...
"Entrez Gene: CDK3 cyclin-dependent kinase 3". Bullrich F, MacLachlan TK, Sang N, et al. (1995). "Chromosomal mapping of members ... 2002). "ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3)". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (23): 6076-82. doi:10.1046/j. ... Ren S, Rollins BJ (2004). "Cyclin C/cdk3 promotes Rb-dependent G0 exit". Cell. 117 (2): 239-51. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00300 ... CDK3 can phosphorylate histone H1 and interacts with an unknown type of cyclin. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000250506 - ...
Activation of cyclin D1 and D2 promoters by human T-cell leukemia virus type I tax protein is associated with IL-2-independent ... Our data suggest that induction of cyclins D1 and D2 by Tax is involved in IL-2-independent cell-cycle progression as well as ... A Tax mutant that did not activate NF-{kappa}B failed to activate cyclin D1 and D2 promoters. Inhibitors of NF-{kappa}B ( ... Our findings link HTLV-I infection to changes in cellular D-type cyclin gene expression, transformation of T cells and ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cyclin A1 antibody. Validated in WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Cited in 24 publication(s). ... I attach you a picture of wb in which the anti-cyclin A E23.1 ab38 is a good antibody to recognize the cyclin A2 on wb but the ... Anti-Cyclin A1 + Cyclin A2 antibody [EPR18054] (ab185619) *Research with confidence - consistent and reproducible results with ... and I have been to order the antibody anti-cyclin A1 ab53699 and anti-cyclin A E23.1 ab38 to abcam. I have a technical problem ...
cyclin dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit 2provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:1776 See related. Ensembl: ... enables cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. ... CDK5R2 cyclin dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 8941, updated on 22-Sep-2022 ... enables cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity ISS Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity ...
J:306141 Franken GAC, et al., Cyclin M2 (CNNM2) knockout mice show mild hypomagnesaemia and developmental defects. Sci Rep. ...
Crystal structure of the Cyclin A-CDK2-ORC1 complex ... The complex of Cyclin A with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) ... The complex of Cyclin A with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) controls the DNA replication activity through phosphorylation of ... The structure revealed that the ORC1 peptide interacts with a hydrophobic groove, termed cyclin binding groove (CBG), of Cyclin ... Progression of cell cycle is regulated by sequential expression of cyclins, which associate with distinct cyclin kinases to ...
Highly specific and rigorously validated in-house, Cyclin D2 (D52F9) Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (CST #3741) is ready to ship. ... Monoclonal Antibody for studying Cyclin D2. Cited in 111 publications. Validated for Western Blotting, Immunoprecipitation. ... Cyclin D2 (D52F9) Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of total cyclin D2 protein. It does not cross-react with other family ... Activity of the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6 is regulated by T-loop phosphorylation, by the abundance of their cyclin ...
CDK4 functions as a cell-cycle initiator protein. This protein is coexpressed and copurified with CyclinD1.
View Mouse Monoclonal anti-Cyclin D1 Antibody (SPM587) (NBP2-32840). Validated Applications: WB, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. ... Cyclin D1 Antibody (SPM587) Summary. Immunogen. Human recombinant full length cyclin D1 protein (Uniprot: P24385) ... Western Blot: Cyclin D1 Antibody (SPM587) [NBP2-32840] - analysis of Cyclin D1 in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 cell ... Diseases for Cyclin D1 Antibody (NBP2-32840). Discover more about diseases related to Cyclin D1 Antibody (NBP2-32840). ...
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory domain of the yeast Sic1 protein is contained within the C-terminal 70 amino acids. ... BACKGROUND: The p13suc1 gene product is a member of the cks (cyclin-dependent protein kinase subunit) protein family and has ...
Use of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/6 Inhibitor with Hormonal Therapy in Metastatic Breast Cancer-Efficacy in Patient Subgroups * ... Use of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/6 Inhibitor with Hormonal Therapy in Metastatic Breast Cancer-Efficacy in Patient Subgroups ... Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are enzymes that play an important role in cell division, making them attractive therapeutic ... Abbreviations: CDKI, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; CI, confidence interval; MNE, median not estimable; NE, not estimable; ...
... human and yeast cyclins, thus identifying p35 as a cyclin-like regulatory subunit. The greatest sequence similarity of human ... is itself a Cdc2-related cyclin-dependent protein kinase that associates with cyclin H. The present study utilized specific ... The activation of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdks) is dependent upon site-specific phosphorylation and dephosphorylation ... cyclin H), and a 35-kDa protein that was further characterized herein. Microsequence analysis obtained after limited ...
IER3, BCL2A1 and cyclin D2 mRNA expression were detected using RT-qPCR, 48 h after transfection with miR-30a. As demonstrated ... Wang T, Li F and Tang S: MiR-30a upregulates BCL2A1, IER3 and cyclin D2 expression by targeting FOXL2. Oncol Lett 9: 967-971, ... miR-30a promotes BCL2A1, IER3 and cyclin D2 gene expression by suppressing FOXL2. The consequences of miR-30a knockdown and ... Wang, T., Li, F., Tang, S.MiR-30a upregulates BCL2A1, IER3 and cyclin D2 expression by targeting FOXL2. Oncology Letters 9.2 ...
... CCND2 protein solution (1mg/ml) containing 20mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0), 10% glycerol, 2mM DTT ... Cyclins serve as regulators of CDK kinases. Various cyclins demonstrate distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... CCND2 is a member of the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein ...
CyclinA2-Cyclin-dependent Kinase Regulates SAMHD1 Protein Phosphohydrolase Domain.. Yan J, Hao C, DeLucia M, Swanson S, Florens ...
Herein, we show that cyclin D1 enhanced H3K9 dimethylation though direct association with G9a. Endogenous cyclin D1 was ... The finding that cyclin D1 is required for recruitment of G9a to target genes in chromatin and for H3K9 dimethylation, ... The cyclin D1 gene product encodes the regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that phosphorylates pRB and NRF1 thereby governing ... Herein, we show that cyclin D1 enhanced H3K9 dimethylation though direct association with G9a. Endogenous cyclin D1 was ...
3-[(6,7-Dimethoxy-4-quinazolinyl)amino]-phenol (Janex 3; WHI-P180) Cyclin-dependent Kinase (CDK) Inhibitor
Suppression of cell transformation by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57KIP2 requires binding to proliferating cell ...
Proteintechs Mouse Monoclonal Cyclin B2 antibody is validated in IF and shows reactivity with Human, mouse samples. ... Cyclin B2 (CCNB2) is a member of cyclin family proteins, which regulate the activities of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and ... Cyclin B2 serves a key role in progression of G2/M transition. Cyclin B2 has been found to be up-regulated in a variety of ... CoraLite®488-conjugated Cyclin B2 Monoclonal antibody. Cyclin B2 Monoclonal Antibody for IF. ...
The level of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 Kip1 after DNA damage is retained in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells ...
... cyclin D1 and c-myc, and the similar eye phenotypes of cyclin D1 and meis1 morphants, prompted us to ask whether cyclin D1 and ... meis1 morphants show a dramatic reduction in cyclin D1 and c-myc in the eye (red arrowheads). cyclin D1 and c-myc are still ... meis1 morphants show a dramatic reduction in cyclin D1 and c-myc in the eye (red arrowheads). cyclin D1 and c-myc are still ... Co-injection of meis1 mRNA rescues the loss of cyclin D1 expression in meis1-morphant embryos.cyclin D1 in situ hybridization ...
... such as MYC and cyclin D1 (Shtutman et al., 1999; Tetsu and McCormick, 1999). The cyclin D1 protein is a major player in the ... 1999) Cyclins and cell cycle checkpoints Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 39:295-312. ... 2008) Transcriptional regulation of the cyclin D1 gene at a glance Journal of Cell Science 121:3853-3857. ... 2000) Beta-catenin, a novel prognostic marker for breast cancer: its roles in cyclin D1 expression and cancer progression PNAS ...
Kumagai, Akiko and Dunphy, William G. (1995) Control of the Cdc2/cyclin B complex in Xenopus egg extracts arrested at a G2/M ... Control of the Cdc2/cyclin B complex in Xenopus egg extracts arrested at a G2/M checkpoint with DNA synthesis inhibitors ... However, at threshold concentrations, a Cdc2/cyclin B complex containing a mutant Cdc2 subunit that cannot be phosphorylated on ... We provide evidence that the checkpoint-dependent suppression of the Cdc2/cyclin B complex involves a titratable inhibitor that ...
This was associated with a fall in cyclin D1 levels, a reduction in the half-life of cyclin D1 protein and a decline in cyclin ... and cyclin E-cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2 activity demonstrated that overexpression of cyclin D1 decreased sensitivity to ... and the maintenance of cyclin E-p27 association in the cyclin E-overexpressing cells. These data confirm that cyclin D1 ... The potential roles of cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression as markers of therapeutic responsiveness to the pure steroidal ...
Effect of betulinic acid on the regulation of Hiwi and cyclin B1 in human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells ... Effect of betulinic acid on the regulation of Hiwi and cyclin B1 in human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells Li-jing Yang, Yan ... The expression of Hiwi and Cyclin B1 was down-regulated in BA-treated AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner.. Conclusion: BA ... Both FCM and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technologies were applied to detect the expression of Hiwi and Cyclin B1.. ...
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae G1 Cyclins Are Differentially Involved in Invasive and Pseudohyphal Growth Independent of the ... Saccharomyces Cerevisiae G1 Cyclins Are Differentially Involved in Invasive and Pseudohyphal Growth Independent of the ... Resources relating to Saccharomyces Cerevisiae G1 Cyclins Are Differentially Involved in Invasive and Pseudohyphal Growth ...
... those synthesizing the delayed response genes and cyclin D/Cdk4 in response to growth signals; (c) the E2F-dependent cyclin E/ ... those synthesizing the delayed response genes and cyclin D/Cdk4 in response to growth signals; (c) the E2F-dependent cyclin E/ ... those synthesizing the delayed response genes and cyclin D/Cdk4 in response to growth signals; (c) the E2F-dependent cyclin E/ ... those synthesizing the delayed response genes and cyclin D/Cdk4 in response to growth signals; (c) the E2F-dependent cyclin E/ ...
Cks proteins have been implicated in entry into and exit from mitosis, by promoting Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity on ... Cks30A mutants are compromised for Cyclin A destruction, resulting in an arrest or delay at the metaphase/anaphase transition, ... Cks30A appears to regulate Cyclin A levels through the activity of a female germline-specific anaphase-promoting complex, CDC20 ... Cks proteins have been implicated in entry into and exit from mitosis, by promoting Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity on ...
The indirubins are known inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), including CRK3 from the protozoan parasite Leishmania ... Indirubin inhibitors of Leishmania mexicana CRK3 Cyclin Dependent Kinase Poster Published: March 7, 2007 ... The indirubins are known inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), including CRK3 from the protozoan parasite Leishmania ... and 5-positions exhibit significant selectivity as inhibitors of CRK3 compared with CDK1/cyclin B in vitro. ...
The p21WAF1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor plays a key role in senescence and in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage. Here, ... Tbx2 Directly Represses the Expression of the p21WAF1 Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Share Share Share ... The p21WAF1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor plays a key role in senescence and in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage. Here, ... Tbx2 Directly Represses the Expression of the p21WAF1 Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor ...
  • Progression of cell cycle is regulated by sequential expression of cyclins, which associate with distinct cyclin kinases to drive the transition between different cell cycle phases. (rcsb.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are enzymes that play an important role in cell division, making them attractive therapeutic targets for certain cancers, including some types of breast cancer. (fda.gov)
  • The activation of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdks) is dependent upon site-specific phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions, as well as positive and negative regulatory subunits. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases: initial approaches to exploit a novel therapeutic target. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cyclins serve as regulators of CDK kinases. (neuromics.com)
  • Cyclin B2 (CCNB2) is a member of cyclin family proteins, which regulate the activities of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and different cyclins function spatially and temporally in specific phases of the cell cycle. (ptglab.com)
  • The indirubins are known inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), including CRK3 from the protozoan parasite Leishmania mexicana, which is essential for proliferation of the disease Leishmaniasis. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Cyclin F, unlike canonical and transcriptional cyclins, does not bind or activate any cyclin-dependent kinases. (aging-us.com)
  • Orderly progression through the cell cycle is driven by the periodic oscillations in the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) [ 1 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • The eukaryotic cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) whose activities are regulated by cyclins and CDK inhibitors. (fishersci.no)
  • Cell cycle progression is regulated by cyclin-dependent protein kinases at both the G1/S and the G2/M transitions. (reactome.org)
  • In light of investigations documenting a central role for cyclin-dependent kinases in controlling the cell cycle, we addressed the hypothesis that P. carinii inhibits epithelial cell growth by interfering with host epithelial cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) activity. (elsevier.com)
  • In this paper, we show that substrate specificity is primarily conferred on human mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) by their subcellular localization. (elsevier.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) are key drivers from the cell routine and are necessary for the initiation and development of varied malignancies1,2. (woofahs.com)
  • Binding of cyclin D1 to its kinase partners, the cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4\6) results in the formation of active complexes that phosphorylate the Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases. (who.int)
  • PFTAIRE-2 shares sequence similarity with Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDKs), which belong to a large family of STKs that are regulated by their cognate cyclins. (umbc.edu)
  • The activity of CDKs, in turn, is controlled by their binding to allosteric regulatory proteins called cyclins. (aging-us.com)
  • However, unlike cyclin A and many other cyclins, cyclin F does not bind or activate CDKs [ 3 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • The difference in localization of the B-type cyclin-CDKs underlies the ability of cyclin B1-CDK1 to cause chromosome condensation, reorganization of the microtubules, and disassembly of the nuclear lamina and of the Golgi apparatus, while it restricts cyclin B2-CDK1 to disassembly of the Golgi apparatus. (elsevier.com)
  • Together, CDKs and cyclins are involved in the control of cell-cycle progression, transcription, and neuronal function. (umbc.edu)
  • CDER researchers analyzed data from patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer to determine whether any patient or tumor characteristics were associated with more (or less) benefit from adding a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor to a hormonal agent. (fda.gov)
  • All patient subgroups benefited from the addition of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor to hormonal therapy. (fda.gov)
  • Addgene: Suppression of cell transformation by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57KIP2 requires binding to proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (addgene.org)
  • The p21WAF1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor plays a key role in senescence and in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Using cell-free extracts from Xenopus eggs, we have investigated the mechanisms underlying the inability of a recombinant Cdc2/cyclin B complex to induce mitosis in the presence of incompletely replicated DNA. (caltech.edu)
  • However, at threshold concentrations, a Cdc2/cyclin B complex containing a mutant Cdc2 subunit that cannot be phosphorylated on either tyrosine 15 or threonine 14 displays a markedly reduced capacity to induce mitosis in the presence of aphidicolin. (caltech.edu)
  • Cks proteins have been implicated in entry into and exit from mitosis, by promoting Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity on mitotic substrates. (uwindsor.ca)
  • 2007). Cyclin B1 is primarily cytoplasmic during interphase and translocates into the nucleus at the onset of mitosis (Jackman et al. (reactome.org)
  • 1999). Cyclin B2 colocalizes with the Golgi apparatus and contributes to its fragmentation during mitosis (Jackman et al. (reactome.org)
  • The CDK4 activity associated with this cyclin was reported to be necessary for cell cycle progression through G2 phase into mitosis after UV radiation. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Cyclin A triggers Mitosis either via the Greatwall kinase pathway or Cyclin B. (bvsalud.org)
  • Two mitotic cyclin types, cyclin A and B, exist in higher eukaryotes , but their specialised functions in mitosis are incompletely understood. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cells lacking cyclin B can enter mitosis and phosphorylate most mitotic proteins , because of parallel PP2AB55 phosphatase inactivation by Greatwall kinase . (bvsalud.org)
  • In ICI 182780-treated cyclin D1-overexpressing cells, sufficient Cdk activity was retained to allow retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and cell proliferation, despite an increase in the association of p21 and p27 with cyclin D1-Cdk4/6 and cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes. (garvan.org.au)
  • Furthermore, evaluation of The Cancers Genome Atlas (TCGA) data7 uncovered that breasts malignancies harboring cyclin D1 amplification (i.e., improved CDK4/6 activity) screen significantly lower appearance of and than non-amplified tumors (Prolonged Data Fig. 2d). (woofahs.com)
  • This cyclin forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activtiy is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Kisqali is a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor. (vsyl.net)
  • Various cyclins demonstrate distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (neuromics.com)
  • Furthermore, we show that the disassembly of the Golgi apparatus initiated by either mitotic cyclin-CDK complex does not require mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Shape 2 LMW-E overexpression results in mitotic defects Cyclin E expression cooperates with p53 loss in causing mitotic defects and chromosome missegregation Presence of the tumor suppressor p53 is known to Clofibrate be a crucial component of a checkpoint that limits the accumulation of cells with supernumerary centrosomes (24). (immune-source.com)
  • To examine whether p53 loss cooperates with cyclin E overexpression (EL or LMW-E) to induce mitotic defects we introduced EL and LMW-E by adenoviral contamination into human mammary epithelial 76NF2V and 76NE6 cells (Fig. 3A). (immune-source.com)
  • Loss of cyclin A in G2-phase prevents mitotic entry. (bvsalud.org)
  • The final barrier to mitotic establishment corresponds to nuclear envelope breakdown, which requires a decisive shift in the balance of cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 and PP2AB55 activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Beyond this point, cyclin B /Cdk1 is essential for phosphorylation of a distinct subset of mitotic Cdk1 substrates that are essential to complete cell division . (bvsalud.org)
  • Our results identify how cyclin A , cyclin B and Greatwall kinase coordinate mitotic progression by increasing levels of Cdk1-dependent substrate phosphorylation . (bvsalud.org)
  • Our findings link HTLV-I infection to changes in cellular D-type cyclin gene expression, transformation of T cells and subsequent development of T-cell leukemia. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The cyclin D1 gene product encodes the regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that phosphorylates pRB and NRF1 thereby governing cell-cycle progression and mitochondrial metabolism. (jefferson.edu)
  • have now examined how the activities of β-catenin and the cyclin D1 gene change in living human cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • These analyses were initially performed in a population of cells, and confirmed that β-catenin rapidly accumulates after a Wnt signal and that the cyclin D1 gene becomes activated. (elifesciences.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin family and contains the cyclin box. (fishersci.no)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • The CCND2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called cyclin D2. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The molecular consequence of translocation is overexpression of the protein cyclin D1 (coded by the PRAD1 gene located close to the breakpoint). (medscape.com)
  • 2008. Rac-dependent cyclin D1 gene expression regulated by cadherin- and integrin-mediated adhesion. . (ucsf.edu)
  • Endogenous cyclin D1 was required for the recruitment of G9a to target genes in chromatin, for G9a-induced H3K9me2 of histones, and for NL-LAD interaction. (jefferson.edu)
  • The finding that cyclin D1 is required for recruitment of G9a to target genes in chromatin and for H3K9 dimethylation, identifies a novel mechanism coordinating protein methylation. (jefferson.edu)
  • One of these genes, called cyclin D1 , controls cell division. (elifesciences.org)
  • Experimental Design: To test this hypothesis, we used ovarian cancer effusion as an example and applied a quantitative real-time PCR tomeasure the relative copy number and strand length of DNA fragments from one of the most frequently amplified genes, cyclin E, in ovarian serous carcinomas. (elsevier.com)
  • It has been shown that the direct interaction between the Cyclin A-CDK2 complex and origin recognition complex subunit 1 (ORC1) mediates the localization of ORC1 to centrosomes, where ORC1 inhibits cyclin E-mediated centrosome reduplication. (rcsb.org)
  • Here we report the crystal structure of Cyclin A-CDK2 complex bound to a peptide derived from ORC1 at 2.54 å resolution. (rcsb.org)
  • This was associated with a fall in cyclin D1 levels, a reduction in the half-life of cyclin D1 protein and a decline in cyclin E-Cdk2 activity in cyclin D1-overexpressing cells, and the maintenance of cyclin E-p27 association in the cyclin E-overexpressing cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • Restriction point control of the mammalian cell cycle via the cyclin E/Cdk2:p27 complex. (vu.nl)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Restriction point control of the mammalian cell cycle via the cyclin E/Cdk2:p27 complex. (vu.nl)
  • Sensitivity and co-control analysis indicated that the strongest control of the RP is mediated via the cyclin E/Cdk2:p27 complex concentration. (vu.nl)
  • apparent effects of other molecular species were indirect and always worked through cyclin E/Cdk2:p27, indicating a causal relationship between this complex and the positioning of the RP. (vu.nl)
  • A second set (p27, cyclin B and cdk2) are initially expressed at low levels but ascend to peak levels only to decline again. (elsevier.com)
  • In phase 1 cyclin E and p21 levels of mRNA expression are high, while those of mRNAs of p27, cdk2 and cyclin B are low. (elsevier.com)
  • In the study, inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) was found to protect rodents from noise and drug related hearing loss by preventing the death of inner ear cells. (ctnursinghomes.com)
  • This protein and neuron-specific CDK5 activator CDK5R1/p39NCK5A both share limited similarity to cyclins, and thus may define a distinct family of cyclin-dependent kinase activating proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Instead, it harbors an F-box motif and primarily functions as the substrate recognition subunit of the Skp1-Cul1-F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, SCF Cyclin F . By targeting specific proteins for ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation, cyclin F plays a critical role in the regulation of centrosomal duplication, DNA replication and repair, and maintenance of genomic stability. (aging-us.com)
  • Instead, cyclin F is the founding member of the F-box family of proteins, whose 69 members share a conserved F-box domain [ 4 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • Within this complex, cyclin F functions as the substrate-recognition subunit and targets specific proteins for ubiquitylation, and subsequent degradation [ 5 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • In phase 2 levels of expression of cyclin E and p21 fall to asymptote while levels of expression of mRNA of the other three proteins reach their peaks. (elsevier.com)
  • In phase 3 levels of expression of cyclin E and p21 mRNAs remain low and those of the mRNAs of the other three proteins fall. (elsevier.com)
  • Cyclins are a family of proteins that control how cells proceed through the multi-step cycle of cell division. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Red: PE-labeled Cyclin D1 Monoclonal Antibody (SPM587). (novusbio.com)
  • Correlating β-catenin nuclear dynamics to cyclin D1 transcriptional activation showed that the nuclear accumulation rate of change of the signaling factor, and not actual protein levels, correlated with the transcriptional output of the pathway. (elifesciences.org)
  • A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators. (bvsalud.org)
  • The nuclear export of cyclin D1 has been shown to require prior phosphorylation on Thr-286 by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This phosphorylation of cyclin D1 was initially thought to regulate its ubiquitin-dependent degradation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nevertheless, it is still generally believed that cyclin D1 accumulates within the nucleus during G1, and at the G1-S-phase transition, GSK3β accumulates in the nucleus and mediates phosphorylation, nuclear export and subsequent ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cyclin D1 in the cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vanadate also increased p21 and Chk1 levels and reduced Cdc25C expression, leading to phosphorylation of Cdc2 and a slight increase in cyclin B1 expression as analyzed by Western blot. (cdc.gov)
  • Catalase, a specific antioxidant for H2O2, decreased vanadate-induced expression of p21 and Chk1, reduced phosphorylation of Cdc2Tyr15, and decreased cyclin B1 levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Several regulatory pathways are involved: (1) activation of p21, (2) an increase of Chk1 expression and inhibition of Cdc25C, which results in phosphorylation of Cdc2 and possible inactivation of cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex. (cdc.gov)
  • 2005. Phosphorylation of spinophilin by ERK and cyclin-dependent PK 5 (Cdk5). . (cornell.edu)
  • We provide evidence that the checkpoint-dependent suppression of the Cdc2/cyclin B complex involves a titratable inhibitor that is regulated by the presence of unreplicated DNA. (caltech.edu)
  • Our data suggest that induction of cyclins D1 and D2 by Tax is involved in IL-2-independent cell-cycle progression as well as IL-2-independent transformation of primary human T cells by HTLV-I. High expression levels of cyclin D1 and D2 mRNAs were also detected in some patients with ATL. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Cyclin B2 serves a key role in progression of G2/M transition. (ptglab.com)
  • Among the cyclins that play a crucial role in cell-cycle progression, is cyclin F. It is most similar to cyclin A, both in terms of amino acid sequence and the cyclic pattern of expression during the cell cycle [ 3 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • During cell cycle progression, protein levels of the cyclin begin to rise early in G1, prior to its rapid nuclear export and degradation within the cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • nevertheless the level to which these tumor-specific forms trigger genomic instability differs from that of full-length cyclin E (Un) as well as the root mechanism(s) have however to become elucidated. (immune-source.com)
  • Furthermore, miR‑30a overexpression upregulates BCL2A1, IER3 and cyclin D2 expression by inhibiting FOXL2. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Overexpression of cyclin E produced a less pronounced early cell cycle effect indicating only partial resistance to antiestrogen inhibition in the short-term. (garvan.org.au)
  • These data confirm that cyclin D1 expression and cyclin E-p27 association play important roles in antiestrogen action, and suggest that cyclin D1 or cyclin E overexpression has subtle effects on antiestrogen sensitivity. (garvan.org.au)
  • MCL is further characterized by the presence of chromosomal translocation t(11;14) and overexpression of cyclin D1. (medscape.com)
  • We identify the region of cyclin B2 responsible for its localization and show that this will direct cyclin B1 to the Golgi apparatus and confer upon it the more limited properties of cyclin B2. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition of GSK3β or CRM1-dependent nuclear export resulted in only modest nuclear accumulation, suggesting that the cytoplasmic localization of cyclin D1 results from the inhibition of its nuclear import. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In these cells, the enforced nuclear localization of cyclin D1 induced apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The subcellular localization of cyclin D1 may thus play a role in regulating cellular survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Assignment of CDK5R2 coding for the cyclin-dependent kinase 5, regulatory subunit 2 (NCK5AI protein) to human chromosome band 2q35 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. (nih.gov)
  • It is not understood however, how cells integrate the CDK-dependent and independent activities of cyclin D1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Drosophila Cks30A interacts with Cdk1 to target Cyclin A for destructi" by Andrew Swan, Gail Barcelo et al. (uwindsor.ca)
  • In our hands, indirubins substituted at both the 3' and 5-positions exhibit significant selectivity as inhibitors of CRK3 compared with CDK1/cyclin B in vitro. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The two B-type cyclins localize to different regions within the cell and are thought to have specific roles as CDK1-activating subunits (see Bellanger et al. (reactome.org)
  • Our aim was to examine the involvement of G1 cell-cycle regulators in cell growth dysregulation induced by HTLV-I. Compared to uninfected cells, higher expression levels of cyclin D1 and D2 mRNA were detected in HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines, which were at least in part mediated by the viral transforming protein Tax since Tax activated both cyclin D1 and D2 promoters in the human T-cell line Jurkat. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • We have measured the levels of cyclin mRNAs and polypeptides during oogenesis, progesterone-induced oocyte maturation, and immediately after egg activation in the frog, Xenopus laevis. (rupress.org)
  • Observations and the sequence similarity to the kinase/cyclin pair Srb10/Srb11 in S. cerevisiae suggest that cyclin C and Cdk8 control RNA polymerase II function. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein expression and cyclin DI cell cyase protein expression in malignant and normal oesophageal tissues to see whether any variation in their expression in these tissues could be of diagnostic or prognostic value. (bvsalud.org)
  • EBV-LMPI protein expression and cyclin DI expression were studied immunohisto chemically in these tissue sections. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sharma SS , Pledger WJ , Kondaiah P , . The deubiquitylase USP7 is a novel cyclin F-interacting protein and regulates cyclin F protein stability. (aging-us.com)
  • This study provides a structural basis of the specific ORC1-cyclins recognition, with implication in development of novel inhibitors against the cyclin/CDK complexes. (rcsb.org)
  • It is shown that cyclin H and Cdk7 are present and during meiosis, form active complexes in testicular cells and are strong candidates for the activating kinase for cyclin A1-associated kinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of the deubiquitylase activity of USP7 resulted in downregulation of cyclin F mRNA. (aging-us.com)
  • 0.01) downregulation of p53, Ki67, and cyclin D1 expression at 3 months as compared to baseline in the combination group. (kanker-actueel.nl)
  • Cks30A appears to regulate Cyclin A levels through the activity of a female germline-specific anaphase-promoting complex, CDC20-Cortex. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Cyclin F functionally interacts with these substrates and interaction partners to chiefly regulate genomic and chromosomal stability. (aging-us.com)
  • Our results suggest that cytoplasmic sequestration may additionally serve to regulate cyclin D1 activity in mammalian cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mirk activity is restricted to the G0-/early G1-phase of the cell cycle and may not regulate cyclin D1 in actively cycling cells [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclin D2 helps to regulate a step in the cycle called the G1-S transition, in which the cell moves from the G1 phase, when cell growth occurs, to the S phase, when the cell's DNA is copied (replicated) in preparation for cell division. (medlineplus.gov)
  • P-TEFb-associated cyclin-dependent protein. (wikigenes.org)
  • The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory domain of the yeast Sic1 protein is contained within the C-terminal 70 amino acids. (wikigenes.org)
  • Molecular cloning of CDK7-associated human MAT1, a cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase (CAK) assembly factor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CyclinA2-Cyclin-dependent Kinase Regulates SAMHD1 Protein Phosphohydrolase Domain. (stowers.org)
  • The expression of Hiwi and Cyclin B1 was down-regulated in BA-treated AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. (chinaphar.com)
  • The inhibitory effect on cyclin-dependent kinase activity was mediated by the trophozoite form of P. carinii, in that highly purified trophozoites exerted marked inhibition of p34(cdc2) activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is associated with risk for Alzheimer's disease in a Dutch population-based study. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have demonstrated previously, that TSA induces the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cyclin D1 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A new drug that that inhibits an enzyme known as cyclin-dependent kinase 2 could potentially save the hearing of millions of people. (ctnursinghomes.com)
  • Ashok B. Kulkarni, Ph.D., has spent years studying a protein called cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using Cyclin D2 (D52F9) Rabbit mAb. (cellsignal.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Cyclin D1 Antibody (SPM587) [NBP2-32840] - Formalin-paraffin human Mantle Cell Lymphoma stained with Cyclin D1 Ab (Clone SPM587). (novusbio.com)
  • Western Blot: Cyclin D1 Antibody (SPM587) [NBP2-32840] - analysis of Cyclin D1 in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 cell lysate using anti-Cyclin D1. (novusbio.com)
  • Cyclin D1, one of the key cell cycle regulators, is a putative proto-oncogene overexpressed in a wide variety of human neoplasms. (novusbio.com)
  • This antibody is useful in identifying mantle cell lymphomas (cyclin D1 positive) from CLL/SLL and follicular lymphomas (cyclin D1 negative). (novusbio.com)
  • Occasionally, hairy cell leukemia and plasma cell myeloma weakly express Cyclin D1. (novusbio.com)
  • CCND2 is a member of the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. (neuromics.com)
  • The aberrant expression of Cyclin B2 deregulates spindle checkpoints in the cell cycle and results in chromosomal instability (CIN), one of the signature phenotypes of most cancers. (ptglab.com)
  • This role in cell cycle control is mediated by meis1 regulating cyclin D1 and c-myc transcription. (biologists.com)
  • BA exerted potent effect on growth inhibition, G 2 /M cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in AGS cells in vitro , possibly associated with the down-regulation of Hiwi and its downstream target Cyclin B1 expression. (chinaphar.com)
  • Cyclin F abundance and activity are tightly regulated throughout the cell cycle. (aging-us.com)
  • Further studies revealed that the compounds were able to induce cancer cell differentiation and concomitantly downregulate cyclin D1 expression with upregulation of p27 levels, consistent with cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The cyclin D1 proto-oncogene is an important regulator of G1 to S-phase transition and an important cofactor for several transcription factors in numerous cell types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our studies revealed cyclin D1 to be localized predominantly within the cytoplasmic fraction of all cell lines tested. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have shown by several different experimental approaches, that cyclin D1 is in fact a predominantly cytoplasmic protein in mammalian cancer cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclin D1 is a protein playing important role during the G1→S phase transition in the cell cycle. (who.int)
  • Cyclin D2's role in the cell division cycle makes it a key controller of the rate of cell growth and division (proliferation) in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The resulting buildup of cyclin D2 in cells triggers them to continue dividing when they otherwise would not have, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is less clear how a buildup of cyclin D2 contributes to polydactyly, although the extra digits are probably related to abnormal cell proliferation in the developing hands and feet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cks30A mutants are compromised for Cyclin A destruction, resulting in an arrest or delay at the metaphase/anaphase transition, both in female meiosis and in the early syncytial embryo. (uwindsor.ca)
  • The character of these phases can be understood in part as consequences of the reciprocal regulatory influence of p27 and cyclin E and of the rate limiting functions of p27 at the restriction point and of cyclin E at the G1 to S transition. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Background Mutation in S-phase cyclin A-associated protein rin the endoplasmic reticulum (SCAPER) have been found across ethnicities and have been shown to cause variable penetrance of an array of pathological traits, including intellectual disability, retinitis pigmentosa and ciliopathies. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Additionally, our data suggest that USP7 is also involved in the regulation of cyclin F mRNA. (aging-us.com)
  • Additional studies were initiated in order to further investigate the effect of TSA on cyclin D1 regulation using sub-cellular fractionation techniques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the molecular basis underlying the specific recognition between ORC1 and cyclins remains elusive. (rcsb.org)
  • However, the molecular mechanisms regulating cyclin F are scantily understood. (aging-us.com)
  • Western Blot: Cyclin D1 Antibody (SPM587) [NBP2-32840] - HELLS expression and protein levels are modulated with YAP1/TEAD inhibition downstream of SHH signaling. (novusbio.com)
  • More recently, the serine/threonine kinase Mirk/Dyrk1B was shown to enhance cyclin D1 degradation by phosphorylating Thr288. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, serum circulating Cyclin B2 mRNA expression has been found increased in cancer patients and associated with cancer stage and metastasis status. (ptglab.com)
  • Using its F-box, cyclin F interacts with Skp1, which simultaneously recruits Cul1 (and RBX1 with Cul1): together they assemble into a functional SCF Cyclin F (Skp1-Cul1-F box) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex [ 4 , 5 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • We evaluated and compared the expression of Cyclin D1 in 56 endometrial samples including 24 cases of simple hyperplasia, 12 cases of complex hyperplasia and 10 cases each of secretory and proliferative endometrium.Results: A substantial increase in expression of Cyclin D1 was seen in hyperplastic endometrium compared to normal endometrium. (who.int)
  • Moreover, complex hyperplasia showed the maximum positivity for Cyclin D1.Conclusions: Cyclin D1 may play a stimulatory role in the proliferation of endometrial glands and hence may be involved in endometrial tumorigenesis. (who.int)
  • De novo CCND2 mutations leading to stabilization of cyclin D2 cause megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • q32) translocation resulting in over-expression of cyclin D1. (novusbio.com)
  • The structure revealed that the ORC1 peptide interacts with a hydrophobic groove, termed cyclin binding groove (CBG), of Cyclin A via a KXL motif. (rcsb.org)
  • Histopathological examination indicated the presence of a moderate epithelial dysplasia while immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 and cyclin D1 revealed the presence of cellular proliferation in suprabasal layers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Immunomarking with Ki-67 and cyclin D1 revealed expressive presence of cellular proliferation in suprabasal layers ( Figure 3 ). (bvsalud.org)
  • Equally, directing cyclin B2 to the cytoplasm with the NH 2 terminus of cyclin B1 confers the broader properties of cyclin B1. (elsevier.com)
  • One set of mRNAs (cyclin E and p21) are initially expressed at high levels but expression then falls to a low asymptote. (elsevier.com)
  • Flow Cytometry: Cyclin D1 Antibody (SPM587) [NBP2-32840] - Flow Cytometric analysis of human Cyclin D1 on MCF-7 cells. (novusbio.com)
  • Flow Cytometry: Cyclin D1 Antibody (SPM587) [NBP2-32840] - Flow Cytometric analysis of human Cyclin D1 on Jurkat cells. (novusbio.com)
  • Instead, cells appeared to sense how quickly the amount of β-catenin in the nucleus changes over time, and this rate influences the activation of cyclin D1 . (elifesciences.org)
  • 7 days) treatment, antiestrogens inhibited colony growth in cyclin D1- or cyclin E-overexpressing breast cancer cells, but with an approximately 2-2.5-fold decrease in dose sensitivity. (garvan.org.au)
  • Recent studies have shown that the cytoplasmic sequestration of cyclin D1 prevents apoptosis in neuronal cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tsunekawa Y, Kikkawa T, Osumi N. Asymmetric inheritance of Cyclin D2 maintains proliferative neural stem/progenitor cells: a critical event in brain development and evolution. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Distinct from other identified CBG-binding sequences, an arginine residue flanking the KXL motif of ORC1 inserts into a neighboring acidic pocket, contributing to the strong ORC1-Cyclin A association. (rcsb.org)
  • No . relation was observed between cyclin/PCNA and axillary lymphonodal envolvement, histologic and nuclear grades and estrogen receptor. (ndltd.org)
  • Bad prognosis was observed in cases with cyclin/PCNA grade III-IV, nuclear grade 1 and negative estrogen receptor in both negative and positive axilla cases. (ndltd.org)
  • This antibody neutralizes the activity of cyclin D1 in vivo. (novusbio.com)
  • saw that the absolute number of β-catenin molecules in the nucleus did not affect the activity of cyclin D1 . (elifesciences.org)
  • We observe that USP7 stabilizes cyclin F protein and that this function is independent of the deubiquitylase activity of USP7. (aging-us.com)
  • Studies on neonatal cardiomyocytes and postmitotic neurons indicate that the activity of cyclin D1 may be regulated through its cytoplasmic sequestration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An IHC profile consisting of CD5+, CD10 -/+, CD 23-/+, CD43+ and cyclin D1+ is indicative of a diagnosis of MCL. (medscape.com)