Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
A transcriptional elongation factor complex that is comprised of a heterodimer of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9 and one of several CYCLINS including TYPE T CYCLINS and cyclin K. It functions by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA POLYMERASE II.
A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.

C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. (1/1429)

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

The mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway stimulates mos mRNA cytoplasmic polyadenylation during Xenopus oocyte maturation. (2/1429)

The Mos protein kinase is a key regulator of vertebrate oocyte maturation. Oocyte-specific Mos protein expression is subject to translational control. In the frog Xenopus, the translation of Mos protein requires the progesterone-induced polyadenylation of the maternal Mos mRNA, which is present in the oocyte cytoplasm. Both the Xenopus p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) signaling pathways have been proposed to mediate progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation. In this study, we have determined the relative contributions of the MAPK and MPF signaling pathways to Mos mRNA polyadenylation. We report that progesterone-induced Mos mRNA polyadenylation was attenuated in oocytes expressing the MAPK phosphatase rVH6. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling blocked progesterone-induced Mos protein accumulation. Activation of the MAPK pathway by injection of RNA encoding Mos was sufficient to induce both the polyadenylation of synthetic Mos mRNA substrates and the accumulation of endogenous Mos protein in the absence of MPF signaling. Activation of MPF, by injection of cyclin B1 RNA or purified cyclin B1 protein, also induced both Mos protein accumulation and Mos mRNA polyadenylation. However, this action of MPF required MAPK activity. By contrast, the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of maternal cyclin B1 mRNA was stimulated by MPF in a MAPK-independent manner, thus revealing a differential regulation of maternal mRNA polyadenylation by the MAPK and MPF signaling pathways. We propose that MAPK-stimulated Mos mRNA cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a key component of the positive-feedback loop, which contributes to the all-or-none process of oocyte maturation.  (+info)

Involvement of p21 in the PKC-induced regulation of the G2/M cell cycle transition. (3/1429)

Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibits cell cycle progression at the G1/S and G2/M transitions. We found that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced upregulation of p21, not only in MCF-7 cells arrested in the G1 phase as previously shown, but also in cells delayed in the G2 phase. This increase in p21 in cells accumulated in the G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle after PMA treatment was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. This indicates that PKC activity is required for PMA-induced p21 upregulation and cell cycle arrest in the G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. To further assess the role of p21 in the PKC-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest independently of its G1 arrest, we used aphidicolin-synchronised MCF-7 cells. Our results show that, in parallel with the inhibition of cdc2 activity, PMA addition enhanced the associations between p21 and either cyclin B or cdc2. Furthermore, we found that after PMA treatment p21 was able to associate with the active Tyr-15 dephosphorylated form of cdc2, but this complex was devoid of kinase activity indicating that p21 may play a role in inhibition of cdc2 induced by PMA. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that p21 is involved in integrating the PKC signaling pathway to the cell cycle machinery at the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint.  (+info)

p53 regulates a G2 checkpoint through cyclin B1. (4/1429)

The p53 tumor suppressor controls multiple cell cycle checkpoints regulating the mammalian response to DNA damage. To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G2, we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G2 arrest at 32 degrees C. We have found that p53 prevents G2/M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. The ability of p53 to control mitotic initiation by regulating intracellular cyclin B1 levels suggests that the cyclin B-dependent G2 checkpoint has a role in preventing neoplastic transformation.  (+info)

gigas, a Drosophila homolog of tuberous sclerosis gene product-2, regulates the cell cycle. (5/1429)

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder leading to the widespread development of benign tumors that often contain giant cells. We show that the Drosophila gene gigas encodes a homolog of TSC2, a gene mutated in half of TSC patients. Clones of gigas mutant cells induced in imaginal discs differentiate normally to produce adult structures. However, the cells in these clones are enlarged and repeat S phase without entering M phase. Our results suggest that the TSC disorder may result from an underlying defect in cell cycle control. We have also identified a Drosophila homolog of TSC1.  (+info)

Activation of integrin and ceramide signalling pathways can inhibit the mitogenic effect of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in human breast cancer cell lines. (6/1429)

Cell counting, cell cycle analysis and Western immunoblotting were used to examine the effects of non-apoptotic doses of a ceramide analogue, C2, and a synthetic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-containing peptide, RGD, in MCF-7 and T47D cells to determine whether activation of these signalling pathways could alter the mitogenic potential of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). IGF-I alone increased total cell number in both cell lines, associated with a rise in the percentage of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle and a co-incident increase in cyclin A production. Treatments alone had no effects on cell number or cyclin A production relative to controls. C2 inhibited IGF-I-induced mitogenesis in both lines, whereas RGD was only effective in the T47D line. Despite inhibition of cell proliferation, IGF-I stimulation of cells in S-phase and of cyclin A levels were unaffected; however, an IGF-I-induced increase in cyclin B1 levels was inhibited by 30%. Low-dose induction of integrin and ceramide signalling pathways causes cells to be blocked in S-phase, thereby inhibiting the normal cycle of events associated with the IGF-I-induced mitotic signal. Activating these pathways may not only restrict tumour growth by induction of apoptosis but they may also directly inhibit IGF-I-induced cell proliferation.  (+info)

Posttranslational regulation of the retinoblastoma gene family member p107 by calpain protease. (7/1429)

The retinoblastoma protein plays a critical role in regulating the G1/S transition. Less is known about the function and regulation of the homologous pocket protein p107. Here we present evidence for the posttranslational regulation of p107 by the Ca2+-activated protease calpain. Three negative growth regulators, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin, the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil, and the cyclic nucleotide dibutyryl cAMP were found to induce cell type-specific loss of p107 protein which was reversible by the calpain inhibitor leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal but not by the serine protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, caspase inhibitors, or lactacystin, a specific inhibitor of the 26S proteasome. Purified calpain induced Ca2+-dependent p107 degradation in cell lysates. Transient expression of the specific calpain inhibitor calpastatin blocked the loss of p107 protein in lovastatin-treated cells, and the half-life of p107 was markedly lengthened in lovastatian-treated cells stably transfected with a calpastatin expression vector versus cells transfected with vector alone. The data presented here demonstrate down-regulation of p107 protein in response to various antiproliferative signals, and implicate calpain in p107 posttranslational regulation.  (+info)

The cyclin B2 promoter depends on NF-Y, a trimer whose CCAAT-binding activity is cell-cycle regulated. (8/1429)

Cyclin B2 is a regulator of p34cdc2 kinase, involved in G2/M progression of the cell cycle, whose gene is strictly regulated at the transcriptional level in cycling cells. The mouse promoter was cloned and three conserved CCAAT boxes were found. In this study, we analysed the mechanisms leading to activation of the cyclin B2 CCAAT boxes: a combination of (i) genomic footprinting, (ii) transfections with single, double and triple mutants, (iii) EMSAs with nuclear extracts, antibodies and NF-Y recombinant proteins and (iv) transfections with an NF-YA dominant negative mutant established the positive role of the three CCAAT sequences and proved that NF-Y plays a crucial role in their activation. NF-Y, an ubiquitous trimer containing histone fold subunits, activates several other promoters regulated during the cell cycle. To analyse the levels of NF-Y subunits in the different phases of the cycle, we separated MEL cells by elutriation, obtaining fractions >80% pure. The mRNA and protein levels of the histone-fold containing NF-YB and NF-YC were invariant, whereas the NF-YA protein, but not its mRNA, was maximal in mid-S and decreased in G2/M. EMSA confirmed that the CCAAT-binding activity followed the amount of NF-YA, indicating that this subunit is limiting within the NF-Y complex, and suggesting that post-transcriptional mechanisms regulate NF-YA levels. Our results support a model whereby fine tuning of this activator is important for phase-specific transcription of CCAAT-containing promoters.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - EWS/FLI1 up regulates mE2-C, a cyclin-selective ubiquitin conjugating enzyme involved in cyclin B destruction. AU - Arvand, Afsane. AU - Bastians, Holger. AU - Welford, Scott M.. AU - Thompson, Andrew D.. AU - Ruderman, Joan V.. AU - Denny, Christopher T.. PY - 1998/10/22. Y1 - 1998/10/22. N2 - The EWS/FLI1 fusion gene found in Ewings sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor, is able to transform certain cell lines by acting as an aberrant transcription factor. The ability of EWS/FLI1 to modulate gene expression in cells transformed and resistant to transformation by EWS/FLI1, was assessed by Representational Difference Analysis (RDA). We found that the cyclin selective ubiquitin conjugase murine E2-C, was up regulated in NIH3T3 cells transformed by EWS/FLI1 but not in a nontransformed NIH3T3 clone expressing EWS/FLI1. We also found that mE2-C is upregulated in NIH3T3 cells transformed by other genes including activated cdc42, v-ABL and c-myc. We demonstrated that expression ...
Fertilization of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs results in resumption of meiosis and a decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities; the decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity precedes the decrease in MAP kinase activity. Cycloheximide treatment of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs also results in resumption of meiosis but bypasses the fertilization-induced Ca2+ transient. However, it is not known if cycloheximide treatment results in the same temporal changes in cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that are intimately associated with resumption of meiosis. We report that cycloheximide-treated mouse eggs manifest similar temporal changes in the decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that occur following fertilization, although cortical granule exocytosis is not stimulated. The decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity, however, does not seem to be required for the decrease in MAP kinase activity, since the decrease in MAP kinase activity ...
We show that in fission yeast the mitotic B type cyclin Cdc13/Cdc2 kinase associates with replication origins in vivo. This association is dependent on the origin recognition complex (ORC), is established as chromosomes are replicated, and is maintained during G2 and early mitosis. Cells expressing …
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Overexpression of mitotic cyclin CLB2 results in premature spindle elongation in swe1Δ mutants.A. Overexpression of CLB2 is toxic to swe1Δ mutants. WT and swe
In contrast to the absence of any significant requirement for Clb3 proteolysis for mitotic exit, mitotic Clb3 proteolysis is required for control of Start. Start is conditional on cells attaining a sufficient cell size; it depends on Cln3 as an initial upstream signal, and on the Cln1,2-dependent positive feedback loop (Cross and Tinkelenberg 1991; Dirick and Nasmyth 1991; Cross 1995; Skotheim et al. 2008). Start is also specifically blocked by mating pheromones (Cross 1995). All of these controls are abrogated by removal of the Clb3 D box: CLB3∆db cells pass Start even when very small, as indicated by the absence of nuclear Whi5, and by accelerated budding and DNA replication, in a Cln3-independent fashion; CLB3∆db results in mating factor insensitivity, and eliminates the requirement for any of CLN1,2,3 CLB5,6. Rescue of CLN deficiency by cyclins has been previously reported, but has involved expression of the rescuing cyclins from a strong promoter such as ADH1 (Koff et al. 1991; Léopold ...
Metafase di anafase transizione viene attivato attraverso la promozione anafase-complesso (APC / C)-dipendente ubiquitinazione e la...
Analysis of TNF-α-induced p65 nuclear entry, phosphorylation (Ser 536), promoter activity and IκBα degradation during DMF treatment. a Nuclear p65 translocat
为研究酚类物质在卷烟主流烟气气溶胶中的粒径分布,采用单通道吸烟机-电子低压撞击器(ELPI),通过12级聚酯薄膜捕集烟气气溶胶粒相物,采用超高效液相色谱-荧光检测方法测定了14种酚类在不同粒径气溶胶中的分布。实验结果表明,本方法捕集得到气溶胶粒相物质量的相对标准偏差小于10%,具有较好的稳定性;超高效液相色谱-荧光检测方法测定14种酚类的线性相关系数R2均大于0.9959,检出限低于1.2 ng/cig,回收率在80.1%-115.0%之间,方法简单快速,准确可靠。采用本方法研究了卷烟主流烟气气溶胶中14种酚类物质含量和浓度的粒径分布,发现除了4-乙基愈创木酚在捕集的气溶胶中未检出外,其它13种酚类物质在不同粒径气溶胶粒相物中的含量分布随粒径增加呈现先增加后减小的趋势,与粒相物质量分布一致,并主要集中在中等粒径(0.261~0.722 ...
I have been followed by a cardiologist and a pulmonologist. I have moderate regurgitation in the Aortic, tricuspid and one other valve .. I also have COPD that is being treated by Advair and a handiha...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclin B in fish oocytes. T2 - Its cDNA and amino acid sequences, appearance during maturation, and induction of p34cdc2 activation. AU - Hirai, T.. AU - Yamashita, M.. AU - Yoshikuni, M.. AU - Lou, Y. ‐H. AU - Nagahama, Y.. PY - 1992/10. Y1 - 1992/10. N2 - Under the influence of maturation‐inducing hormone (MIH) secreted from follicle cells, oocyte maturation is finally triggered by maturation‐promoting factor (MPF), which consists of a homolog of the cdc2+ gene product of fission yeast (p34cdc2) and cyclin B. Two species of cyclin B clones were isolated from a cDNA library constructed from mature goldfish oocytes. Sequence comparisons revealed that these two clones are highly homologous (95%) and were found to be similar to Xenopus cyclin B1. Using monocional antibodies against Escherichia coli produced goldfish cyclin B and the PSTAIR sequence of p34cdc2, we examined the levels of cyclin B and p34cdc2 proteins during goldfish oocyte maturation induced in vitro by ...
Sea urchin eggs exhibit a cap-dependent increase in protein synthesis within minutes after fertilization. This rise in protein synthesis occurs at a constant rate for a great number of proteins translated from the different available mRNAs. Surprisingly, we found that cyclin B, a major cell-cycle regulator, follows a synthesis pattern that is distinct from the global protein population, so we developed a mathematical model to analyze this dissimilarity in biosynthesis kinetic patterns. The model includes two pathways for cyclin B mRNA entry into the translational machinery: one from immediately available mRNA (mRNAcyclinB) and one from mRNA activated solely after fertilization (XXmRNAcyclinB). Two coefficients, α and β, were added to fit the measured scales of global protein and cyclin B synthesis, respectively. The model was simplified to identify the synthesis parameters and to allow its simulation. The calculated parameters for activation of the specific cyclin B synthesis pathway after
Activation of the Cyclin B/Cdc2 kinase complex triggers entry into mitosis in all eukaryotic cells. Cyclin B1 localization changes dramatically during the cell cycle, precipitously transiting from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at the beginning of mitosis. Presumably, this relocalization promotes the phosphorylation of nuclear targets critical for chromatin condensation and nuclear envelope breakdown. We show here that the previously characterized cytoplasmic retention sequence of Cyclin B1, responsible for its interphase cytoplasmic localization, is actually an autonomous nuclear export sequence, capable of directing nuclear export of a heterologous protein, and able to bind specifically to the recently identified export mediator, CRM1. We propose that the observed cytoplasmic localization of Cyclin B1 during interphase reflects the equilibrium between ongoing nuclear import and rapid CRM1-mediated export. In support of this hypothesis, we found that treatment of cells with leptomycin B, which ...
In the present study, we identified three proteins (cyclin B1, TfR1, and fibronectin) that were highly expressed in metastatic ACC in the TCPA database. With a median follow-up of 3.1 years, high expression of each of these three proteins was associated with a poor survival rate. Subjects with high expression levels of a combination of two DEPs were at a higher risk for mortality than those with a high expression levels of only one DEP. Cyclin B1, TfR1, and all combinations of the three DEPs showed meaningful prognostic performance independent of age and staging. Moreover, among non-metastatic patients, combinations of these three DEPs showed significant or near-significant associations with mortality. The reason for the non-significance of fibronectin alone needs to be elucidated, but the small number of patients may have contributed to this finding. In addition, the C-index and cfNRI values of high cyclin B1/high TfR1/high fibronectin were the same as those of high cyclin B1/high fibronectin. ...
ViraQuest Inc. , Uncategorized , Estrogen receptor ? causes a G2 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting CDK1 activity through the regulation of cyclin B1, GADD45A, and BTG2 ...
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Wee1 acts as a negative regulator of entry into mitosis (G2 to M transition) by protecting the nucleus from cytoplasmically activated cyclin B1-complexed CDK1 before the onset of mitosis. The activity of wee1 increases during the S and G2 phases, and decreases in M phase when it is hyperphosphorylated. A correlated decrease in wee1 protein level occurs at M/G1 phase, probably due to its degradation. Wee1 specifically phosphorylates and inactivates cyclin B1-complexed CDK1 reaching a maximum during G2 phase and a minimum as cells enter M phase. The phosphorylation of cyclin B1-CDK1 occurs exclusively on Tyr-15 and phosphorylation of monomeric CDK1 does not occur ...
CCNB1 Human Recombinant produced in E. coli is a single polypeptide chain containing 457 amino acids (1-433) and having a molecular mass of 50.9 kDa.
CCNB2 Human Recombinant produced E. coli is a single polypeptide chain containing 422 amino acids (1-398) and having a molecular mass of 47.9 kDa.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
NU6102, CDK1/cyclin B and CDK2/cyclin A3 inhibitor (CAS 444722-95-6), with |98% purity. Join researchers using our high quality biochemicals.
We investigated the occurrence of transcription during mitosis on an RNA pol II‐transcribed gene. We have found that the human cyclin B1 gene is actively transcribed at the mitotic stage. This result is surprising, since it is widely accepted that transcription is repressed during mitosis in higher eukaryotes. Interestingly, in fission yeast the rate of RNA synthesis is maintained during passage through mitosis (Baum et al., 1998). In mammalian cells, until now, no RNA pol II‐dependent transcription has been reported in mitotic cells, although there is evidence showing that 10-20% of the TFIID population remains associated with the condensed mitotic chromatin (Segil et al., 1996). Whether the transcription of the cyclin B1 gene occurs during all the four mitosis phases remains to be elucidated. The cyclin B1 protein is quickly degraded at the metaphase. Whenever a spindle checkpoint is imposed during metaphase, there is a reappearance of cyclin B1 protein due to a loss of cyclin B1 ...
Cyclin B1 (G2- & M-phase Cyclin) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone V92.1 ] validated in IF, FC, IP (AH10827-100), Abgent
This work delineates roles of Zn2+ and Ca2+ during mammalian mII and mII exit. From the results obtained, it can be argued that Zn2+ is required for mII arrest and that Ca2+i release during fertilization is not essential for full-term development. The work provides evidence that Zn2+ is required for the Emi2-mediated regulation of meiotic arrest in mouse mII oocytes. Meiotic resumption after Zn2+ depletion is not accompanied either by Ca2+ release or Emi2 degradation, both of which are induced by Ca2+-dependent oocyte activation (Fig. 2A-C; Fig. 3A). Furthermore, events of mII exit that depend on the APC-proteasome pathway, including cyclin B degradation and chromosome separation (Peters, 2006), occur with similar kinetics whether or not Ca2+ is mobilized (Fig. 1A-C; Fig. 3B,C). This observation implies that Zn2+ depletion activates or unmasks the APC-proteasome pathway, even in the presence of Emi2. Indeed, TPEN-induced mII exit is prevented by proteasome inhibitors (Fig. 3E,F) or removal of ...
Manni I., Tunici P., Cirenei N., Albarosa R., Colombo B.M., Roz L., Sacchi A., Piaggio G., Finocchiaro G.. Mxi1 is a Mad family member that plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation. To test the role of Mxi1 on tumorigenesis of glioma cells we transfected a CMV-driven MXI1 cDNA in U87 human glioblastoma cells. Two clones were isolated expressing MXI1 levels 18- and 3.5-fold higher than wild-type U87 cells (clone U87.Mxi1.14 and U87.Mxi1.22, respectively). In vivo, U87.Mxi1.14 cells were not tumorigenic in nude mice and delayed development of tumours was observed with U87.Mxi1.22 cells. In vitro, the proliferation rate was partially and strongly inhibited in U87.Mxi1.22 and U87.Mxi1.14 cells respectively. The cell cycle analysis revealed a relevant accumulation of U87.Mxi1.14 cells in the G(2)/M phase. Interestingly, the expression of cyclin B1 was inhibited to about 60% in U87.Mxi1.14 cells. This inhibition occurs at the transcriptional level and depends, at least in part, on the ...
CDK2_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the control of the cell cycle; essential for meiosis, but dispensable for mitosis. Phosphorylates CTNNB1, USP37, p53/TP53, NPM1, CDK7, RB1, BRCA2, MYC, NPAT, EZH2. Interacts with cyclins A, B1, B3, D, or E. Triggers duplication of centrosomes and DNA. Acts at the G1-S transition to promote the E2F transcriptional program and the initiation of DNA synthesis, and modulates G2 progression; controls the timing of entry into mitosis/meiosis by controlling the subsequent activation of cyclin B/CDK1 by phosphorylation, and coordinates the activation of cyclin B/CDK1 at the centrosome and in the nucleus. Crucial role in orchestrating a fine balance between cellular proliferation, cell death, and DNA repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Activity of CDK2 is maximal during S phase and G2; activated by interaction with cyclin E during the early stages of DNA synthesis to permit G1-S transition, and subsequently activated by cyclin A2 (cyclin ...
For example, in frogs, cyclin dependent protein kinase 2 (CDK2) binds to cyclin B to form an active kinase which phosphorylates a prereplication complex initiating S phase and mitosis. Cyclin B, a 45Kd protein, accumulates to high levels just before S phase. Its concentration drops sharply at the end of mitosis. The kinase, a 34 Kd protein, is encoded by the CDC2 gene (for cell division cycle gene). A homologous gene exists in humans - the CDK2 gene (cyclin dependent kinase 2) - and controls entry in S phase. These kinases can be considered heterodimers with a kinase catalytic subunit and a cyclin regulatory subunit. In animal cells, there are at least ten different cyclins (A, B, .....) and at least eight different cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK1-8). Another Look at Neurotransmission and Ion Channels. You may have noticed above that some signaling molecules, whose effects are regulated by kinases (b-adrenergic and some olfactory signals by PKA and acetylcholine by PKC for example), are ...
Complete information for CCNB2 gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin B2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Cell Cycle, Genes, Tumor, Cell Cycle Genes, Human, Repression, Gene, Dream, Proteins, Regulation, Cell, Cyclin, Cyclin B2, Elements, Mitosis, DNA, Family, Transcription Factors, Apoptosis, DNA Damage
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Dominik Schnerch is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Studieren Proteolyse von Cyclin B an der Single Cell Level in Whole Cell Populationen
Maer ASB yn mynd atin rheolaidd i archwilio safleoedd cig cymeradwy (lladd-dai, ffatrïoedd torri a sefydliadau trin helgig) ym Mhrydain Fawr.
Medicines and drugs known as pain killers work in two major and quite different ways: one is to stop the pain signals and the other is to stop the cause of
We show that a splice variant-derived cyclin B is produced in sea urchin oocytes and embryos. This splice variant protein lacks highly conserved sequences in the COOH terminus of the protein. It is found strikingly abundant in growing oocytes and cells committed to differentiation during embryogenesis, Cyclin B splice variant (CBsv) protein associates weakly in the cell with Xenopus cdc2 and with budding yeast CDC28p, In contrast to classical cyclin B, CBsv very poorly complements a triple CLN deletion in budding yeast, and its microinjection prevents an initial step in MPF activation, leading to an important delay in oocyte meiosis reinitiation, CBsv microinjection in fertilized eggs induces cell cycle delay and abnormal development. We assume that CBsv is produced in growing oocytes to keep them in prophase, and during embryogenesis to slow down cell cycle in cells that will be committed to differentiation.. ...
The cyclin E oncogene activates CDK2 to drive cells from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle to commence DNA replication. It coordinates essential cellular functions with the cell cycle including histone biogenesis, splicing, centrosome duplication and origin firing for DNA replication. The two E-cyclins, E1 and E2, are assumed to act interchangeably in these functions. However recent reports have identified unique functions for cyclins E1 and E2 in different tissues, and particularly in breast cancer. Cyclins E1 and E2 localise to distinct foci in breast cancer cells as well as co-localising within the cell. Both E-cyclins are found in complex with CDK2, at centrosomes and with the splicing machinery in nuclear speckles. However cyclin E2 uniquely co-localises with NPAT, the main activator of cell-cycle regulated histone transcription. Increased cyclin E2, but not cyclin E1, expression is associated with high expression of replication-dependent histones in breast cancers. The preferential localisation of
The activation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C requires the phosphorylation of multiple subunits. Because depletion or inactivation of the Xenopus Polo-like kinase 1 (Plx1) in meiotically arrested egg extracts blocks APC/C-dependent degradation of cyclin B ( 5), many investigators have tried to directly link the activities of Plk1 and APC/C. Although Plk1 is able to phosphorylate subunits of the APC/C in vitro, this phosphorylation contributes only marginally to its activation ( 6). In contrast, cyclin B/Cdk1 seems to have a major role in the phosphorylation and activation of the APC/C, thereby triggering its own inactivation at the end of mitosis ( 7).. Although Plk1 can contribute synergistically to the cyclin B/Cdk1-mediated activation of the APC/C ( 6), this observation is not sufficient to explain the crucial role of Plk1/Plx1 in the activation of the APC/C. Intriguing insights have come from studies of the cytostatic factor (CSF) in Xenopus oocytes, where CSF activity prevents parthogenetic ...
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Due to early detection and the use of screening programs approximately 60% of all new cases lack lymph node involvement. Today, a substantial proportion of these women will be offered adjuvant systemic chemotherapy. However, better proliferation markers are needed to predict patient outcome and to avoid overtreatment. Cyclin A, cyclin E and Ki-67 are all markers for proliferation and involved in the regulation of the cell cycle. Overexpression has been associated with disease recurrence in several studies, but the results have not been consistent. However, none of these studies has investigated aberrant expression of cyclin E (the expression of cyclin E during phases of the cell cycle other than late G1 and early S-phase). Studies have shown that aberrant cyclin E might provide additional prognostic information compared to cyclin E alone.. The aims of this thesis were investigate the prognostic value of cyclin A, cyclin E and ...
When the APC complex was inhibited by siRNA of APC3, the level of BubR1 remained constant for 60 min after nocodazole release in the presence of CHX, whereas it declined in control cells (Figure 8B). This result was corroborated by the finding from live‐cell assay for proteolysis that depleting APC3 expression abrogated the degradation of BubR1, and concomitantly cells did not enter anaphase for more than 5 h (Supplementary Figure 12 and Supplementary movie 7). When we compared the timing of BubR1 degradation with the degradation of other players in mitosis, such as Cdc20, Cyclin B, Plk1, and Aurora A, we found that BubR1 degradation began before that of Cyclin B (Supplementary Figure 13).. Next, we tested whether Cdc20 was responsible for BubR1 degradation during mitosis. To prevent the cells from exiting mitosis before the analysis began, HeLa cells were transfected with an expression construct to force moderate expression of Cyclin B. siRNA for GFP, Cdc20, or Cdh1 was simultaneously ...
Abstract. γ-Radiation is a potent inducer of apoptosis. There are multiple pathways regulating DNA damage-induced apoptosis, and we set out to identify novel me
Ribociclib D6 (LEE011 D6) is a deuterium labeled Ribociclib. Ribociclib is a highly specific CDK4/6 inhibitor with IC50 values of 10 nM and 39 nM, respectively, and is over 1,000-fold less potent against the cyclin B/CDK1 complex. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
G. To evaluate effects of IKBKE/TBK1 inhibition on NF-κB signaling in Ewing, TC32 cells were incubated with CYT387 for six hours prior to stimulation with TNF-α (30 ng/mL). IκBα degradation was measured by harvesting TC32 cells thirty minutes after stimulation with TNF-α. TNF-α stimulation resulted in degradation of IκBα, and this effect was attenuated with CYT387 treatment. Parthenolide, an inhibitor of IκBα phosphorylation was used as a positive control. Similar effects of CYT387 activity were seen in HEK-293T cells which also express IKBKΕ. Nuclear extracts were prepared from TC32 cells harvested following forty-five minutes of TNF-α stimulation. Treatment with CYT387 resulted in decreased nuclear localization of NF-κB family proteins RelA/p65 and c-Rel. There was a modest impairment of p50 nuclear localization as compared to parthenolide and DMSO controls and no change in p52 nuclear localization. RelB (not shown) is not expressed in TC32 cells. ...
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Author: Schmidt, A. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2005-02-15; Keywords: cell cycle; anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome; Xenopus; polo-like kinase; cytostatic factor; mitotic exit; Title: Xenopus polo-like kinase Plx1 regulates XErp1, a novel inhibitor of APC/C activity
Cyclins are key regulators of the cell cycle in all eukaryotes. We have previously isolated two B-type cyclin genes, cycMs1 and cycMs2, from alfalfa that are primarily expressed during the G2-to-M phase transition and are most likely mitotic cyclin genes. Here, we report the isolation of a novel alfalfa cyclin gene, termed cycMs3 (for cyclin Medicago sativa), by selecting for mating type alpha-pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest suppression in yeast. The central region of the predicted amino acid sequence of the cycMs3 gene is most similar to the cyclin box of yeast B-type and mammalian A- and B-type cyclins. In situ hybridization showed that cycMs3 mRNA can be detected only in proliferating cells and not in differentiated alfalfa cells. When differentiated G0-arrested cells were induced to reenter the cell cycle in the G1 phase and resume cell division by treatment with plant hormones, cycMs3 transcript levels increased long before the onset of DNA synthesis. In contrast, histone H3-1 mRNA and ...
Cyclin E is one of the key regulators of the G(1)/S transition in the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin E has been observed in several malignancies and is associated with high proliferation, aberrant expression of other cell cycle regulators and chromosomal instability in vitro. To explore potential associations between cyclin E deregulation and inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in human breast cancer, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of cyclin E in paraffin embedded breast cancers from 270 women with known p53 status by cDNA based sequencing of the p53 gene. The breast cancers were divided into three subgroups according to the percentage of cyclin E-positive cells. One hundred and seventy-one patients (63%) had low cyclin E, 72 (27%) medium and 27 (10%) had high cyclin E content. Fifty-six percent (15/27) of the breast cancers with high cyclin E had p53 gene mutations, compared with 14% (24/171) of those with low cyclin E content (P , 0.0001). In p53 mutated ...
Looking for online definition of Cyclin F in the Medical Dictionary? Cyclin F explanation free. What is Cyclin F? Meaning of Cyclin F medical term. What does Cyclin F mean?
Meiosis, the pair of specialized cell divisions required to convert germline diploid progenitor cells into haploid gametes, is an essential process for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. After pre-meiotic DNA replication, germ cells enter an extended G2 cell cycle phase, termed meiotic prophase, during which homologous chromosomes pair and interact, and an extensive, cell type-specific transcription program turns on to set up gamete differentiation. The homologs then segregate to different daughter cells, commonly during the first meiotic division, followed by segregation of sister chromatids during meiosis II without an intervening S phase. As in mitosis, the timing of key cell cycle events is choreographed by regulated activation and deactivation of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes, in which cyclins play key roles in regulating the timing and targets of Cdk activity. B-type cyclins in particular are instrumental to negotiating the G2/M transition in both mitosis and meiosis.. The ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
We report the isolation of UME3, a C‐type cyclin that is required for the full repression of several early meiotic genes (e.g. SPO13) and SSA1, a member of the HSP70 superfamily. Similarly to other cyclin C family members, UME3 mRNA and protein levels remained unchanged throughout the mitotic cell cycle. However, under conditions that induce SSA1 or SPO13 transcription, we demonstrate that Ume3p is subjected to degradation. This destruction is required for normal meiotic gene induction, as a mutation that stabilizes Ume3p resulted in a 2‐fold reduction in SPO13 mRNA accumulation. These findings reveal the first observed regulation of a C‐type cyclin. Moreover, the destruction of Ume3p in response to heat shock or developmental cues represents a new set of regulatory signals by which any cyclin is controlled. We identified three cis‐acting domains (PEST‐rich, RXXL and the cyclin box) that contribute to the destruction of Ume3p during heat shock. In cultures exposed to heat shock, Ume3p ...
Separase löst alle eukaryotischen Anaphasen aus, indem sie kohäsionsvermittelndes Cohesin spaltet. Bis dahin wird diese essentielle Protease durch Securin inhibiert. Separase kann alternativ durch Assoziation mit Cdk1-Cyclin B1 gehemmt werden, aber der entsprechende Komplex ist in der frühen Mitose wenig abundant und kann nicht erklären, warum Securin in Vertebraten entbehrlich ist. Die Proteinphosphatase 2A (PP2A) bindet Separase ebenfalls, aber die physiologische Rolle dieser Interaktion bleibt rätselhaft. Durch die Inaktivierung des spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) in der Metaphase kann die Ubiquitin-Ligase APC/C die proteasomale Zerstörung von Securin (und Cyclin B1) vermitteln und dadurch Separase aktivieren. Obwohl sie strukturell mit Caspasen verwandt ist, wurde Separase bisher nicht mit der Apoptose in Verbindung gebracht. Stattdessen wurde in zwei Studien eine Rolle der Hefe-Separase bei der Reparatur von DNS-Schäden vorgeschlagen. Die Frage, ob diese nichtkanonische ...
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc28, regulates both G1/S and G2/M phase transitions by associating with stage-specific cyclins. During progression through S phase and G2/M, Cdc28 is activated by the B-type cyclins Clb1-6. Because of functional redundancy, specific roles for individual Clbs have been difficult to assign. To help genetically define such roles, strains carrying a cdc28(ts) allele, combined with single CLB deletions were studied. It is assumed that by limiting the activity of the kinase, these strains would be rendered more sensitive to loss of individual Clbs. By this approach, a novel phenotype associated with CLB5 mutation was observed. Homozygous cdc28-4(ts) clb5 diploids are not viable at room temperature. Cells are defective in spindle positioning, leading to migration of undivided nuclei into the bud. Occasionally, misplaced spindles are observed in cdc28-4 clb5 haploids; additional deletion of CLB6 causes full penetrance. Thus, CLB5 brings ...
近 几年我们针对癌细胞中的标靶基因survivin及securin等,进行深入的研究。例如多种人类癌细胞(包括肺癌、乳癌、大肠癌及子宫颈癌等)会大量 表达survivin蛋白,但在正常成人细胞不会表达survivin。Survivin蛋白具有抗细胞凋亡及促细胞分裂的功能,调控癌细胞中 survivin蛋白的表达,与癌症的发生有密切的关系,而抑制survivin蛋白的表达,也可能应用于治疗癌症。我们建立了cyclin B1/cdc2与p38 MAP kinase可分别为正调控及负调控survivin基因及蛋白的表现(Chao et al., 2004, JBC)。此外,利用共轭焦显微镜及免疫萤光染色,建立survivin蛋白会大量表达于癌细胞之有丝分裂期,并会聚集于细胞质分裂期的midbody位 置(Kuo et al., 2004, JBC)。同时我们发现将survivin基因阻断,会促进抗癌药物抑制癌细胞的生长及促细胞凋亡之作用(Chao and Liu, 2006, Mol. ...
CCNE1 / Cyclin E1 Protein LS-G97233 is a Recombinant Human CCNE1 / Cyclin E1 produced in Baculovirus Met 1-Ala 410 with His tag(s). It is low in endotoxin; Less than 1.0 EU/µg protein (determined by LAL method).
Diskuzní fórum pro dívky, které zrovna řeší nějaký problém, nebo si jen chtějí popovídat o vztazích, kosmetice, líčení, módě a nákupech, hudbě, filmech nebo o čemkoliv jimém.
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab38 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,Flow Cyt…Cyclin A2抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ... CDK4, CMM3, PSK-J3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin dependent kinase 4. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5[edit]. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a kinase that has been previously hypothesized to ...
Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are a group of several different kinases involved in regulation of the cell cycle. They ... Lim, S.; Kaldis, P. (16 July 2013). "Cdks, cyclins and CKIs: roles beyond cell cycle regulation". Development. 140 (15): 3079- ... Different combinations of specific CDKs and cyclins mark different parts of the cell cycle. Additionally, the phosphorylation ... Harper, J. W.; Adams, P. D. (August 2001). "Cyclin-Dependent Kinases". Chemical Reviews. 101 (8): 2511-2526. doi:10.1021/ ...
... cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin B1, each in relation to DNA content Concurrent measurement of DNA content and of incorporation of ... Darzynkiewicz Z, Gong JP, Juan G, Ardelt B, Traganos F (1996). "Cytometry of cyclin proteins". Cytometry. 25 (1): 1-13. doi: ... cell cycle compartments are also recognized by multiparameter analysis that includes measurement of expression of cyclin D1, ...
... activates cyclin dependent kinases by removing phosphate from residues in the Cdk active site. In turn, the ... Cyclin "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. cdc25+ ... May 1991). "Dephosphorylation and activation of a p34cdc2/cyclin B complex in vitro by human CDC25 protein". Nature. 351 (6323 ... By removing inhibitory phosphate residues from target cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), Cdc25 proteins control entry into and ...
The mitotic cyclins can be grouped as cyclins A & B. These cyclins have a nine residue sequence in the N-terminal region called ... Cyclin, a regulatory subunit. The cyclins are necessary for the kinase subunit to function with the appropriate substrate. ... As the concentration of Cyclin B/CDK1 increases, the heterodimer promotes APC to polyubiquitinate Cyclin B/CDK1. Smith LD, ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), the cyclin-dependent kinase subunit. It uses ATP to phosphorylate specific serine and ...
He holds a US and international patent on Activators of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (ACDK) and has mentored many doctoral scholars ... 19-. ISBN 978-94-007-0265-3. She, Jin-Xiong; Wang, Cong-Yi; Kumar, G. Pradeep (20 December 2017). "Activators of cyclin- ...
cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ... p21Cip1 (alternatively p21Waf1), also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin- ... CDKN1A, CAP20, CDKN1, CIP1, MDA-6, P21, SDI1, WAF1, p21CIP1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)".. *^ Gartel AL, Radhakrishnan SK (May 2005). "Lost in ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ...
Jain SK, Bharate SB, Vishwakarma RA (2012). "Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition by flavoalkaloids". Mini Rev Med Chem. 12 (7): ... Bose P, Simmons GL, Grant S (2013). "Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor therapy for hematologic malignancies". Expert Opin ...
Cyclin D-bound cdks 4 and 6 are activated by cdk-activating kinase and drive the cell towards the restriction point. Cyclin D, ... Sustained mitogen signaling promotes cell cycle entry largely through regulation of the G1 cyclins (cyclin D1-3) and their ... including the major G1 cyclin, cyclin D1. Myc also regulates expression of a wide variety of pro-proliferative and pro-growth ... The defining biochemical feature of the restriction point is the activation of G1/S- and S-phase cyclin-CDK complexes, which in ...
This discovery was essential to the subsequent cloning of Xenopus cyclins and kept the Hunt lab at the forefront of cyclin ... Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors come of age". Cell. 79 (4): 573-582. ... Subsequently he cloned and characterised the first human cyclins with Tony Hunter. This was crucial to recognising that cyclins ... and identified the first link between cyclins and oncoproteins by showing that cyclin A bound to adenovirus E1A, thus linking ...
It has also been shown that Cdk2 complexes with both cyclin A and cyclin E and this complex is critical for centrosome ... by cyclin-dependent kinase 2-cyclin E and its role in centrosome duplication". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (24): ... "CDK2 cyclin dependent kinase 2 [Homo sapiens (human)]". Gene - NCBI. Retrieved 1 December 2019. Hinchcliffe EH, Li C, Thompson ... This link between the cell cycle and the centrosome cycle is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2). Cdk2 is a protein ...
"Targets of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1". Nature. 425 (6960): 859-864. Bibcode:2003Natur.425..859U. doi:10.1038/nature02062 ...
First, cyclin must bind to the Cdk. In the second step, CAK must phosphorylate the cyclin-Cdk complex on the threonine residue ... In budding yeast, activating phosphorylation by CAK can take place before cyclin binding. In both humans and yeast, cyclin ... Since Cdks need to be free of Cdk inhibitor proteins (CKIs) and associated with cyclins in order to be activated, CAK activity ... Lolli G, Johnson LN (April 2005). "CAK-Cyclin-dependent Activating Kinase: a key kinase in cell cycle control and a target for ...
In the late G2 phase, it is present as an inactive complex of tyrosine-phosphorylated p34cdc2 and unphosphorylated cyclin ... Meijer L, Azzi L, Wang JY (1991). "Cyclin B targets p34cdc2 for tyrosine phosphorylation". EMBO J. 10 (6): 1545-54. doi:10.1002 ...
ORF72 - vCyclin ORF73 - LANA, latency-associated nuclear antigen- tethers genome to chromosome during latency, also regulates ... cyclin-D, a G protein-coupled receptor, interferon regulatory factor and Flice inhibitory protein (FLIP), as well as DNA ...
Xu W, Ji JY (2011). "Dysregulation of CDK8 and Cyclin C in tumorigenesis". J Genet Genomics. 38 (10): 439-52. doi:10.1016/j.jgg ... Another example of structural variability is seen in vertebrates, in which 3 paralogues of subunits of the cyclin-dependent ...
Metaphase ends with the destruction of B cyclin. B cyclin is marked with ubiquitin which flags it for destruction by ... causes the APC to cleave the M-phase cyclin and the inhibitory protein securin which activates the separase protease to cleave ... proteasomes, which is required for the function of metaphase cyclin-dependent kinases (M-Cdks). In essence, Activation of the ...
The process follows fertilization, with the transfer being triggered by the activation of a cyclin-dependent kinase complex. ... by maintaining high levels of proteins that control cell cycle progression such as the cyclins and their associated cyclin- ... dependent kinases (cdk). The complex Cyclin B/CDK1 a.k.a. MPF (maturation promoting factor) promotes entry into mitosis. The ...
Fares J, Wolff L, Bies J (January 2011). Huret JL, Ohgami RS, Dal Cin P, Rivas JM, Dessen P (eds.). "CDKN2B (cyclin-dependent ... Enforced expression of INK4 proteins can lead to G1 arrest by promoting redistribution of Cip/Kip proteins and blocking cyclin ... INK4 is a family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs). The members of this family (p16INK4a, p15INK4b, p18INK4c, ... Ortega S, Malumbres M, Barbacid M (March 2002). "Cyclin D-dependent kinases, INK4 inhibitors and cancer". Biochimica et ...
Removal of cyclin E with antibodies blocks replication. Cyclin E-CDk2 is also important in Drosophila. Levels of cyclin E rise ... In S. cerevisiae, the S cyclins Clb5 and Clb6 play and important role in initiating replication. In frog embryos, cyclin E-Cdk2 ... At the same time, S-Cdks suppress formation of new pre-RCs during S phase, G2 and early M, when S cyclin levels remains high. ... When the cell commits to a new cell cycle, after passing through the Start checkpoint, G1 and G1/S cyclin CDK complexes are ...
Also, merlin's interaction with cyclin D was described. It is known that Merlin's deficiency can result in unmediated ... inhibits cell proliferation and cell cycle progression by repressing cyclin D1 expression". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 25 ...
Jiang Q, Feng MG, Mo YY (June 2009). "Systematic validation of predicted microRNAs for cyclin D1". BMC Cancer. 9: 194. doi: ...
"Developmental Expression of the Arabidopsis Cyclin Gene cyc1At". The Plant Cell. 6 (12): 1763-1774. doi:10.2307/3869906. JSTOR ...
Cyclin H and MAT1 are also present in TFIIH, and it is not known what, if anything, distinguishes the TFIIH-associated form of ... CDK7 is a cyclin-dependent kinase shown to be not easily classified. CDK7 is both a CDK-activating kinase (CAK) and a component ... 1995). Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases by p21. Mol. Biol. Cell 6, 387-400 Lolli, G., Lowe, E. D., Brown, N. R. and ... "CAK-cyclin-dependent activating kinase: a key kinase in cell cycle control and a target for drugs?" Cell cycle 4.4 (2005): 565- ...
Interestingly, as with many other aspects of the cell cycle, cyclin-dependent kinases are responsible for downregulating NHEJ ... Murray, Andrew W.; Kirschner, Marc W. (May 1989). "Cyclin synthesis drives the early embryonic cell cycle". Nature. 339 (6222 ...
"Cyclin Dependent Kinases and Cell Cycle Control" (PDF). Retrieved 4 June 2015. "Robert G. Edwards - ...
Jiang Q, Feng MG, Mo YY (2009). "Systematic validation of predicted microRNAs for cyclin D1". BMC Cancer. 9: 194. doi:10.1186/ ...
2002). "Cyclin G recruits PP2A to dephosphorylate Mdm2". Mol. Cell. 9 (4): 761-71. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(02)00504-X. PMID ... 2002). "Cyclin G2 associates with protein phosphatase 2A catalytic and regulatory B' subunits in active complexes and induces ...
Cyclin B is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin B is a mitotic cyclin. The amount of cyclin B (which binds to Cdk1) and the ... Because cyclin B is necessary for cells to enter mitosis and therefore necessary for cell division, cyclin B levels are often ... The fact that cyclin B is often disregulated in cancer cells makes cyclin B an attractive biomarker. Many studies have been ... Cyclin+B at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Cyclin B - The Interactive Fly. ...
Cyclin E2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNE2 gene. It is a G1 cyclin that binds Cdk2 and is inhibited by p27( ... Gudas JM, Payton M, Thukral S, Chen E, Bass M, Robinson MO, Coats S (January 1999). "Cyclin E2, a novel G1 cyclin that binds ...
cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ... cyclin D (Cdk4) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ...
Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ...
Source for information on cyclin: A Dictionary of Biology dictionary. ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle. Their concentrations fluctuate in ... cyclin A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. Cyclin A is also produced, which ... Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell ... Cyclin Dependent Kinases in the Cell Cycle. Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene ...
... like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. Thanks. Mike * ... Cyclin E-Fix. micro-mike micro-mike at Sun Mar 3 16:33:22 EST 2002 *Previous message: THE SECRET the IRS is TERRIFIED ... But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the ...
CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... CYCLIN; Cyclin box fold. Protein binding domain functioning in cell-cycle and transcription control. Present in cyclins, TFIIB ... Cyclin I: a new cyclin encoded by a gene isolated from human brain. Nakamura T, et al. Exp Cell Res, 1995 Dec. PMID 7493655 ...
Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does ... cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha ... Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box ... The structural results indicate a role for the cyclin-box fold both as a template for the cyclin family and as a generalised ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
... Charles Yang cyang at Fri Oct 6 15:33:24 EST 1995 *Previous message: luciferase ... My problem: I cant find the nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the Cyclin H gene (the human counterpart to CCL1) and its ...
Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ... Cyclin-Up Inn 3 br home overlooking Whalan and the Root River Trail, Pet Friendl. The house sleeps 8 in 3 queen sized beds and ...
Protein levels of cyclin B1 and cdc2 for each selected population are shown in Fig. 4B. Levels of cyclin B1 protein in cyclin ... Cyclin A regulates the initiation and maintenance of DNA synthesis whereas B cyclins control mitosis (32, 33). Cyclin B mRNA ... Cyclin B1/cdc2 kinase activity is shown in Fig. 4C. Cyclin B1 rescues the p53-dependent drop in cdc2 kinase activity in Ts- ... Cyclin B1 Expression Rescues p53-Mediated G2 Arrest.. To determine whether the decrease in cyclin B1 mRNA was the primary ...
Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis. W Meikrantz, S Gisselbrecht, S W Tam, and R Schlegel ... These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent ... Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. Stable ... to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. ...
... the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its ... the cyclin), led to a simple model for cell cycle control. Modulation of cyclin accumulation, and thereby Cdk activation, was ... CDK CKI Zellzyklus biochemistry biology cancer cell cell cycle cellular differentiation cellular growth cyclin-dependent kinase ... More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell ...
E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins ... However, endoreplication of trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes is severely impaired in the absence of cyclin E. Cyclin ... Cyclin E ablation in the mouse.. Geng Y., Yu Q., Sicinska E., Das M., Schneider J.E., Bhattacharya S., Rideout W.M., Bronson R. ... These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for ...
Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, ... Bienvenu et al. have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated ... Endogenous cyclin D1 associated with STAT3 in cells treated for 2 hours after treatment with interleukin 6 (IL-6), an activator ... F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. ...
Cyclin D1 governs microRNA processing in breast cancer Cyclin D1 controls cell cycle progression and microRNA biogenesis ... Cyclin D1 governs microRNA processing in breast cancer. Thomas Jefferson University. Journal. Nature Communications. Keywords. ... regulates expression of cyclin D1. Furthermore, the group showed that many cancer patients encode a form of cyclin D1 that ... Because the cyclin D1 gene has been implicated in a variety of other human cancers these findings may have broad implications ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
... balczonr at balczonr at Tue Sep 22 13:25:16 EST 1998 ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase synonyms, Cyclin-dependent kinase pronunciation, Cyclin-dependent kinase translation, English ... dictionary definition of Cyclin-dependent kinase. n. Any of various enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group ... Targeting cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in cancer: lessons from mice, hopes for therapeutic applications in human.. The ... STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS: DYNAMICS AND FLEXIBILITY ARE THE STORY.. STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF CYCLIN ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B regulates efferocytosis and atherosclerosis. Yoko Kojima, Kelly Downing, Ramendra Kundu, ... We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), ... See the related article at Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B regulates efferocytosis and atherosclerosis. ...
We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), ...
... Carmela Rinaldi,1 Natalia Maria Malara,2 Rosalia DAngelo,1 ... Carmela Rinaldi, Natalia Maria Malara, Rosalia DAngelo, et al., "Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer," ...
The results obtained suggest that the increment of the levels of cyclin D1 in intra-ductal breast tumors in older woman that we ... have examined is significantly associated with a lower proliferation rate.Conclusion: Cyclin D1, which characterizes tumor in ... Cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) plays pivotal roles in the development of several human cancers, including breast cancer, functioning as ... Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer. Carmela Rinaldi. ,1 Natalia Maria Malara. ,2 Rosalia DAngelo. ,1 ...
These thresholds are sequentially triggered as cyclin increases, yielding reliable order and timing. In many biological ... We conclude that mitotic events are regulated by discrete cyclin-CDK thresholds. ... Rising cyclin-CDK levels order cell cycle events PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e20788. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020788. Epub 2011 Jun ... Background: Diverse mitotic events can be triggered in the correct order and time by a single cyclin-CDK. A single regulator ...
... Nature. 1993 Dec 16;366(6456):701-4. doi: 10.1038/366701a0. ... We find that p21 inhibits the activity of each member of the cyclin/CDK family. Furthermore, overexpression of p21 inhibits the ... Our results indicate that p21 may be a universal inhibitor of cyclin kinases. ... cyclin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the p21 protein. However, in many transformed cells, proliferating cell nuclear ...
Download the full report: Summary Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase ... This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found ... The latest report Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Cyclin ... Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cyclin T1 antibody validated for WB, IP, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 10 ... Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation ... Anti-Cyclin T1 antibody (ab2098) at 1/10000 dilution + HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cell line) Whole Cell Lysate at 10 µg. ... ab2098 (2µg/ml) staining Cyclin T1 in human lymph node using an automated system (DAKO Autostainer Plus). Using this protocol ...
Compare Anti-Cyclin K Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... Anti-Cyclin K Antibody Products. Anti-Cyclin K antibodies are available from several suppliers. In humans, this protein is ...
  • Cyclins, when bound with the dependent kinases , such as the p34 / cdc2 / cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor . (
  • Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. (
  • They act in conjunction with cyclin-dependent protein kinases, which are proteins that phosphorylate other proteins. (
  • What are Cyclin-Dependent Kinases? (
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases are a type of serine/threonine kinase which are activated by cyclins to drive the progress of the cell cycle. (
  • Cyclin dependent kinases are present at constant levels throughout the cell cycle, but are only active in the presence of cyclins. (
  • Eukaryotic cell cycle progression is regulated by cyclin dependent protein kinases (CDKs) whose activity is regulated by association with cyclins and by reversible phosphorylation. (
  • p53 inhibits G 1 /S transition in cells exposed to DNA-damaging agents by causing accumulation of p21 CIP1/WAF1 ( 6 , 15 ), a protein that binds to and inactivates the cyclin-dependent kinases necessary for initiating DNA synthesis ( 16 ). (
  • These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases, is also an important event during apoptosis. (
  • Not only were both of the known cell cycle transitions, from G 1 to S phase and G2 to M phase, found to be dependent on these protein kinases, but the reg- ulatory assumption intrinsic to cyclin-dependent kinases, a stable inactive catalytic subunit (the Cdk) and an unstable requisite positive regulatory activating subunit (the cyclin), led to a simple model for cell cycle control. (
  • Targeting cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in cancer: lessons from mice, hopes for therapeutic applications in human. (
  • Compared with normal human fibroblasts, cells transformed with a variety of viral oncoproteins show striking changes in the subunit composition of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (
  • Our results indicate that p21 may be a universal inhibitor of cyclin kinases. (
  • This is known as the cell cycle and cyclins and their partners, cyclin-dependant kinases, are its master control proteins. (
  • Cyclin A1 is a member of the highly conserved cyclin family whose members are able to control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (
  • 1991). Cyclin A family members are characterized by a typical periodicity in protein abundance through the cell division cycle functioning as activating subunits of enzymatic complexes, together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) (Lapenna and Giordano, 2009). (
  • The D‐type cyclins (cyclin D1, D2, and D3) promote cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase by binding to and activating the cyclin dependent kinases Cdk4 and Cdk6. (
  • They also interact with cyclin-dependent kinases to control cell cycle progression in plants. (
  • This cyclin binds both CDK2 and CDC2 kinases, which give two distinct kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2, and thus regulate separate functions in cell cycle. (
  • Cyclins are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance throughout the cell cycle and function as regulators of CDK kinases. (
  • CAK activates the cyclin-associated kinases CDK1, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 by threonine phosphorylation. (
  • Cyclins are regulatory subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) and they control transition at different specific phases of the cell cycle. (
  • The key cell-cycle regulator Cdc2 belongs to a family of cyclin-dependent kinases in higher eukaryotes. (
  • A dominant-negative Cdc2 mutant arrested cells at the G2 to M phase transition, whereas mutants of the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk2 and Cdk3 caused a G1 block. (
  • The induction of cyclin D1 can also be mediated by a target of p53, the p21 (WAF1/CIP1) inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. (
  • Cyclins bind to and regulate the activity of the Cyclin dependent protein kinases (CDKs). (
  • Strikingly, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is itself a substrate for two protein kinases-the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk7 and Cdk9-that are activated by hypertrophic cues. (
  • A potent and selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. (
  • Cyclins are eukaryotic proteins that play an active role in controlling nuclear cell division cycles [ ( PUBMED:12910258 ) ], and regulate cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). (
  • Cyclins, together with the p34 (cdc2) or cdk2 kinases, form the Maturation Promoting Factor (MPF). (
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have been considered promising drug targets for a number of years, but most CDK inhibitors have failed rigorous clinical testing. (
  • It is a G1 cyclin that binds Cdk2 and is inhibited by p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1). (
  • Cyclin E binds to G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle that determines initiation of DNA duplication. (
  • The Cyclin E/CDK2 complex phosphorylates p27Kip1 (an inhibitor of Cyclin D), tagging it for degradation, thus promoting expression of Cyclin A, allowing progression to S phase. (
  • Like all cyclin family members, cyclin E forms a complex with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2). (
  • Cyclin E/CDK2 regulates multiple cellular processes by phosphorylating numerous downstream proteins. (
  • Cyclin E/CDK2 plays a critical role in the G1 phase and in the G1-S phase transition. (
  • Cyclin E/CDK2 phosphorylates retinoblastoma protein (Rb) to promote G1 progression. (
  • Cyclin E/CDK2 also phosphorylates p27 and p21 during G1 and S phases, respectively. (
  • Smad3, a key mediator of TGF-β pathway which inhibits cell cycle progression, can be phosphorylated by cyclin E/CDK2. (
  • The phosphorylation of Smad3 by cyclin E/CDK2 inhibits its transcriptional activity and ultimately facilitates cell cycle progression. (
  • CBP/p300 and E2F-5 are also substrates of cyclin E/CDK2. (
  • Cyclin E/CDK2 can phosphorylate p220(NPAT) to promote histone gene transcription during cell cycle progression. (
  • Apart from the function in cell cycle progression, cyclin E/CDK2 plays a role in the centrosome cycle. (
  • CP110 is another cyclin E/CDK2 substrate which involves in centriole duplication and centrosome separation. (
  • Cyclin E/CDK2 has also been shown to regulate the apoptotic response to DNA damage via phosphorylation of FOXO1. (
  • In ~10% of colorectal carcinomas, cyclin E gene amplification is found, sometimes together with CDK2 gene amplification. (
  • Cyclin A is also produced, which binds to CDK2 and stimulates DNA replication. (
  • Analysis of residues that are conserved throughout the A, B, and E cyclins identifies two exposed clusters of residues, one of which has recently been shown to be involved in the association with human CDK2. (
  • Comparison of the structure of the unbound cyclin with the structure of cyclin A complexed with CDK2 reveals that cyclin A does not undergo any significant conformational changes on complex formation. (
  • Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. (
  • However, their research also showed that treating breast cancer cells with a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) inhibitor can reverse letrozole resistance. (
  • After confirming that the LMW forms of cyclin E suppress the anti-proliferative effects of letrozole, the researchers examined whether a CDK2 inhibitor could reverse the drug resistance in the unresponsive breast cancer cells. (
  • We challenged the aromatase-overexpressing cells with either the wild-type or the low forms of cyclin E and then treated them with the CDK2 inhibitor roscovitine," Keyomarsi said. (
  • Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and interacting with viral proteins (Giordano et al. (
  • 2005). Human cyclin A1 interacts with CDK2 in vitro and in vivo (Yang et al. (
  • 2001). Moreover the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex regulates DNA double-strand break repair following radiation damage (Müller-Tidow et al. (
  • 2004) by competing with CDK2-cyclin A2 for the binding to Ku70, a pivotal player in the non-homologous end-joining double strand break repair pathway, and inhibiting apoptosis through modulating RB functions in leukemia cells (Ji et al. (
  • CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, and is essential for cell cycle G1⁄S phase transition. (
  • Cyclin E forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK2, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. (
  • Cyclin A binds to S phase Cdk2 and is required for the cell to progress through the S phase. (
  • Cyclin A/ Cdk2 is inhibited by the complex p21CIP. (
  • For example, in all eukaryotes mitosis (M phase) is initiated by high levels of cyclin B, which combines with a protein kinase to form the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF). (
  • To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G 2 , we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G 2 arrest at 32°C. We have found that p53 prevents G 2 /M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. (
  • To study G 2 regulation by p53, we have established a human cell line, Ts-SKOV3, that stably expresses a temperature-sensitive p53 allele and undergoes G 2 arrest at 32°C. Using this cell line we have found that p53 arrests cell cycle in G 2 by lowering intracellular levels of cyclin B1, a protein absolutely required for mitotic initiation. (
  • The more aggressive basal-like subtype of breast cancers, however, exhibited lower levels of cyclin D1 and Dicer, which would in turn globally reduce the level of mature miRNA. (
  • The study involved cancer samples from 264 Taiwanese male oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and the results showed that increased levels of cyclin D1 were linked with later stage cancer and increased chance of the tumor spreading, as well as a reduced chance of survival. (
  • More research is needed, but assessing levels of cyclin D1 at diagnosis could help to personalize treatment. (
  • Of the seven patients who had a recurrence, six had high levels of cyclin E activity. (
  • RESULTS- Mice treated with exendin-4 showed increased β-cell proliferation, elevated islet protein levels of cyclin A2 with unchanged D-type cyclins, elevated PDX-1 and Skp2 levels, and reduced p27 levels. (
  • There are currently no images for Cyclin C Antibody (NB120-2950). (
  • Western Blot: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-02902] - Cyclin A1 western with U2OS cells. (
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-02902] - Human testis after heat-induced antigen retrieval. (
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Cyclin E1 Monoclonal Antibody (4H7) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # BSM-52048R. (
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Cyclin B1 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 55004-1-AP. (
  • WB analysis of extracts from various cell lines using Cyclin H antibody. (
  • ICC/IF analysis of HeLa cells using Cyclin H antibody (green) and DAPI (blue). (
  • Cyclin B1 antibody detects Cyclin B1 protein at cytoplasm on mouse ovary by immunohistochemical analysis. (
  • TMA slides and traditional large section slides of these 200 tumours were stained with cyclin A antibody and analysed by two independent readers. (
  • Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) enzymes . (
  • For example, the amino-terminal regions of S and M cyclins contain short destruction-box motifs that target these proteins for proteolysis in mitosis. (
  • cyclin Any of a family of proteins that help control the various phases of the cell cycle . (
  • FBXW7 encodes F-box proteins which target cyclin E for ubiquitination. (
  • Once bound to a cyclin they act to phosphorylate many target proteins on serine or threonine amino acid residues. (
  • Each interacts with a different cyclin at a different phase, stimulating various target proteins and ensuring that vital stages of each phase are carried out before a cell moves onto the next phase. (
  • I wonder if the cytoplasmic staining we are getting is real or whether the methacarn is modifying other cytoplasmic proteins (like other cyclins, maybe) to mimic the characteristics of cyclin E. If you have any ideas, please let me know. (
  • Threading analysis shows that the cyclin-box fold is consistent with the sequences of the transcription factor TFIIB and other functionally related proteins. (
  • Molecular analyses revealed that cells lacking cyclin E fail to normally incorporate MCM proteins into DNA replication origins during G(0)-->S progression. (
  • The work supports the idea that cancer-causing proteins like cyclin D1 may drive cancer progression in part via miRNA biogenesis. (
  • Dr Bill Wickstead, who along with his master's student Alexander Douglass characterised cyclin-like genes across Apicomplexa, said: "Cyclins are a really diverse class of proteins comprising many different types in different organisms. (
  • Cyclin E is one of the proteins that regulates the cell cycle, influencing how rapidly a cell passes through the four phases and divides. (
  • This cyclin was found to bind to important cell cycle regulators, such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family proteins. (
  • Transcription of these particular cyclins is proposed to monitor the growth factor signal and the encoded proteins participate in G1 progression. (
  • Additionally we are shipping Cyclin H Antibodies (129) and Cyclin H Proteins (15) and many more products for this protein. (
  • Additionally we are shipping Cyclin K Kits (12) and Cyclin K Proteins (7) and many more products for this protein. (
  • There are 14939 Cyclin_C domains in 14900 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. (
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing Cyclin_C domain. (
  • The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with Cyclin_C domain is also avaliable . (
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing Cyclin_C domain in the selected taxonomic class. (
  • 4 However, we have recently demonstrated that cyclin A1 associates with the retinoblastoma gene product (Rb) and E2F-1 in leukemia cells in vivo and the interaction can change functional properties of the involved proteins. (
  • Cyclins themselves have no enzymatic activity but have binding sites for some substrates and target the Cdks to specific subcellular locations. (
  • These cyclins oscillate, increasing and decreasing at different stages, binding to CDKs and driving the cell cycle forward. (
  • In addition to cyclin levels, this provides and additional way to control the activity of CDKs. (
  • Cyclins also determine the subcellular location and substrate specificity of CDKs. (
  • More than 10 years ago, the discovery of cyclin-dependent ki- nases (Cdks) ushered in a new era in the understanding of cell proliferation and its control. (
  • For example, although Cdks appear to be highly conserved phylogenetically, cyclins are much less so. (
  • In normal cells, CDKs exist predominantly in multiple quaternary complexes, each containing a CDK, cyclin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the p21 protein. (
  • The temporal expression of cyclins is tightly regulated and subsequently plays a critical role in controlling the enzymatic activity of cdks. (
  • Multiple cyclins activate CDKs in all eukaryotes, but it is unclear whether multiple cyclins are really required for cell cycle progression. (
  • Dowejko, Bauer, Bauer, Müller-Richter, Reichert: The human HECA interacts with cyclins and CDKs to antagonize Wnt-mediated proliferation and chemoresistance of head and neck cancer cells. (
  • Initially, a mitogenic stimulus leads to the upregulation of cyclin D gene expression, which binds to CDK4. (
  • Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) usually functions to inhibit the transcription factor E2F, however, when cyclin-D-CDK4 phosphorylates the Rb protein, this relinquishes inhibition of E2F and leads to the production of genes required for entering the S phase. (
  • These genes include cyclin E, which binds to CDK4, driving the cell cycle into the S phase. (
  • have found that cyclin D1, independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity, can inhibit STAT3-mediated signaling. (
  • F. Bienvenu, H. Gascan, O. Coqueret, Cyclin D1 represses STAT3 activation through a Cdk4-independent mechanism. (
  • Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of the cell cycle-driving molecule, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), in HCC was significantly reduced by the treatments with vitamin K2, K3 and K5. (
  • Overexpression of cyclin D1 results in dysregulated CDK (zeige CDK4 Proteine ) activity, rapid cell growth under conditions of restricted mitogenic signaling, bypass of key cellular checkpoints, and ultimately, neoplastic growth. (
  • Cyclin D1 forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell cycle G 1 /S transition. (
  • Several mechanisms lead to the deregulated expression of cyclin E. In most cases, gene amplification causes the overexpression. (
  • Cyclin E overexpression can lead to G1 shortening, decrease in cell size or loss of serum requirement for proliferation. (
  • Importantly, a recent research pointed out cyclin E overexpression is a mechanism of Trastuzumab resistance in HER2+ breast cancer patients. (
  • Cyclin E overexpression is implicated in carcinomas at various sites along the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Cyclin E overexpression was found in 50-60% of gastric adenomas and adenocarcinomas. (
  • Overexpression of cyclin D1 reduced STAT3-dependent gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • HOUSTON - Overexpression of low-molecular-weight (LMW-E) forms of the protein cyclin E renders the aromatase inhibitor letrozole ineffective among women with estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers, researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center report in Clinical Cancer Research . (
  • Cyclin A2 overexpression in primary islets increased proliferation and reduced p27. (
  • Various studies examined the relationship between cyclin E overexpression with the clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer but yielded conflicting results. (
  • A meta-analysis was conducted with eligible studies which quantitatively evaluated the relationship between cyclin E overexpression and survival of patients with breast cancer. (
  • We conducted a final analysis of 7,759 patients from 23 eligible studies and evaluated the correlation between cyclin E overexpression and survival in patients with breast cancer. (
  • Cyclin E overexpression is associated with poor OS and BCSS in breast cancer. (
  • Berglund P, Landberg G. Cyclin E overexpression reduces infiltrative growth in breast cancer. (
  • Conclusions Overexpression of cyclins B and A, rather than D1 seems to characterize psoriasis. (
  • To investigate the frequency of cyclin A overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its relationship with clinical significance and HBx gene integration. (
  • overexpression of cyclin A mRNA and protein was found in 16 of 35, 21 of 35 patients, respectively. (
  • Overexpression of cyclin A protein was correlated with patient's age, tumor size and HBx integration. (
  • Overexpression of cyclin A occurs in the early stage of HCC carcinogenesis. (
  • Cyclin A overexpression was significantly associated with poor metastasis-free survival both on TMA and large sections. (
  • Western blotting was used to measure cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27 that arrest cell cycle. (
  • p27(KIP1) is a member of the CIP1/KIP1 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and is a potential tumor suppressor gene. (
  • Some of the non-biological drugs, known as Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, are currently being tested for use in cancer treatment. (
  • Altered prostatic epithelial proliferation and apoptosis, prostatic development and serum testosterone in mice lacking cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors," Biology of Reproduction 73(5): 951-958. (
  • in opposition to this idea, it has been argued that cyclins might target the activated CDK to particular substrates or inhibitors. (
  • AIMS: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) play a critical role in negatively regulating the proliferation of cardiomyocytes, although their role in cardiac differentiation remains largely undetermined. (
  • Click on the product name to view detailed information such as the chemical structure and specific chemical properties for each of our cyclin E Inhibitors. (
  • In stock cyclin E Inhibitors are available for immediate shipping. (
  • Pituitary cyclin E/E2F1 signaling is a previously unappreciated molecular mechanism underlying neuroendocrine regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, providing a subcellular therapeutic target for small molecule cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitors of pituitary ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism, ie, Cushing disease. (
  • In thisreview, we focus our attention on cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase complexes,cyclin kinase inhibitors, genes of the retinoblastoma family, p53 and N-Myc, and we aim to summarize the latest evidence indicating their involvement in thecontrol of the cell cycle and induction of differentiation in different celltypes of the peripheral and central nervous systems. (
  • But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the literature I have read. (
  • Anti-Cyclin K antibodies are available from several suppliers. (
  • Your search returned 117 Cyclin K Antibodies across 20 suppliers. (
  • Your search returned 1 cyclin Q Antibodies across 1 supplier. (
  • Anti-Cyclin Antibodies are ideal for investigators involved in Cell Signaling, cell biology and Signal Transduction research. (
  • On are 17 Cyclin H (CCNH) ELISA Kits from 4 different suppliers available. (
  • Tumor samples were immunostained for cyclin B using commercial antibodies. (
  • Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus ( KSHV ) encodes a D-type cyclin (ORF72) that binds CDK6 and is likely to contribute to KSHV-related cancers [9] . (
  • Finally, cyclin B binds to CDK-1 to drive the cycle forward into M phase, stimulating mitosis. (
  • In budding yeast, commitment occurs when the catalytic subunit of a protein kinase, encoded by the CDC28 gene (the homolog of the fission yeast cdc2+ gene), binds to a positively acting regulatory subunit, a cyclin. (
  • It binds to cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) and enhances its kinase activity. (
  • Cell changes in the cell cycle like the assembly of mitotic spindles and alignment of sister-chromatids along the spindles are induced by M cyclin- Cdk complexes. (
  • These cyclin/cdk complexes are essential for passage through specific stages in the cell cycle. (
  • Cyclin B1 complexes with p34 (cdc2) to form the maturation-promoting factor (MPF). (
  • SETD1A and cyclin K complexes may represent a therapeutic opportunity for acute myeloid leukemia and, potentially, for other cancers. (
  • Cyclin K-containing kinase complexes maintain self-renewal in murine embryonic stem cells. (
  • It is known that the cell cycle and cell proliferation are regulated by the sequential activation of cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin complexes. (
  • This cyclin and its kinase partner are components of TFIIH, as well as RNA polymerase II protein complexes. (
  • Cyclin/CDK complexes were typically diluted to a final concentration of 50 μg/mL in a kinase reaction buffer containing 50 mmol/L Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 10 mmol/L MgCl 2 , 1 mmol/L DTT, and 0.1 mmol/L sodium orthovanadate. (
  • In prior work, they showed that cyclin D1 regulates the non coding genome, and that the non-coding genome, in turn, regulates expression of cyclin D1. (
  • In the current study, the group sought to investigate the mechanism by which cyclin D1 regulates the biogenesis of non coding miRNA. (
  • Finally, two results suggest that cyclin C regulates programmed cell death independently of its function as a transcriptional repressor. (
  • Unlike other cyclins that positively regulate the cell cycle, cyclin G2 (CCNG2) regulates cell proliferation as a tumor suppressor gene. (
  • We hypothesized that intrapituitary cyclin E signaling regulates corticotroph tumor POMC transcription independently of cell cycle progression. (
  • A gene on chromosome 9q34.1 that encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase, which regulates cell cycle progression. (
  • Our earlier studies have shown that Cyclin E is proteolytically cleaved to generate p18-Cyclin E (p18CycE) in hematopoietic tumor cells upon treatment with genotoxic agents, such as ionizing radiation and regulates apoptosis by displacing Bax from Ku70 and thus providing the first step of Bax activation. (
  • This cyclin shows the highest similarity with cyclin G. The transcript of this gene was found to be expressed constantly during cell cycle progression. (
  • Cyclin I is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. (
  • We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), in mice promotes vascular SMC apoptosis and aneurysm progression. (
  • The role of cyclins in controlling G1 progression in mammalian cells was tested by construction of fibroblasts that constitutively overexpress human cyclin E. This was found to shorten the duration of G1, decrease cell size, and diminish the serum requirement for the transition from G1 to S phase. (
  • These observations show that cyclin levels can be rate-limiting for G1 progression in mammalian cells and suggest that cyclin synthesis may be the target of physiological signals that control cell proliferation. (
  • Cyclin A1 primarily functions in the meiotic cell cycle, but it also seems to contribute to G1/S cell cycle progression in somatic cells (Ji et al. (
  • Because cyclin A2 was stimulated by cAMP, we assessed the role of cylcin A2 in cell cycle progression in Min6 and isolated islet β-cells. (
  • Cyclin E is an important regulator of cell cycle progression. (
  • Destruction of Cyclin B1 is required for cell cycle progression. (
  • Cyclin D2, a positive regulator of G1 progression, shows a unique localization within radial glial (RG) cells (i.e., the neural progenitor in the developing neocortex). (
  • A cyclin forms a complex with Cdk, which begins to activate but the complete activation requires phosphorylation, as well. (
  • Phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination of cyclin E by the SCFFbw7 ubiquitin ligase. (
  • The cyclin H / cdk7 (show CDK7 ELISA Kits )/ Mat1 (show MAT1A ELISA Kits ) kinase activity is regulated by CK2 (show CSNK2A1 ELISA Kits ) phosphorylation of cyclin H . (
  • Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. (
  • RV-cyclin does not increase activating phosphorylation events in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and does not inhibit decay of IEG mRNAs. (
  • Here, we have investigated a series of 110 primary malignant gliomas and 8 glioma cell lines for amplification and expression of the D‐type cyclin genes CCND1 (11q13), CCND2 (12p13), and CCND3 (6p21). (
  • Our genome-wide analysis identified 52 expressed cyclin genes in tomato. (
  • Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicates that the expression patterns of tomato cyclin genes were significantly different in vegetative and reproductive stages. (
  • Transcription of most cyclin genes can be enhanced or repressed by exogenous application of gibberellin, which implies that gibberellin maybe a direct regulator of cyclin genes. (
  • Cyclin C was originally identified by a genetic screen for human and Drosophila cDNAs that complement a triple knock-out of the CLN genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • The treatment of quiescent cells with growth factors results in the transcriptional activation of the D-type cyclin genes during G1. (
  • Comparison of these results with those for the cyclin D1 and D2 genes should elucidate how transcription of these genes is co-ordinately regulated by growth factors. (
  • It is normally activated by cyclin C and is required for transcription elongation of the serum response genes (immediate early genes [IEGs]) FOS, EGR1, and cJUN. (
  • RV-cyclin does not control CDK8 specificity but instead enhances CDK8's effects on regulated genes, an important distinction for its use to delineate natural CDK8 targets. (
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae C-type cyclin and its cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk8p) repress the transcription of several stress response genes. (
  • Cyclin E is a prognostic marker in breast cancer, its altered expression increased with the increasing stage and grade of the tumor. (
  • Using antisense RNA, Dr. Pestell's group was the first to show that cyclin D1 drives mammary tumor growth in vivo. (
  • In tumor cells, cyclin E is converted to low-molecular weight forms, an event that does not occur in normal cells. (
  • A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. (
  • Cyclin E and E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection was performed in murine corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells to elucidate mechanisms for drug action. (
  • R-roscovitine inhibits human pituitary corticotroph tumor ACTH by targeting the cyclin E/E2F1 pathway. (
  • PCR, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the gene, mRNA and protein level of cyclin A in the tumor and nontumorous tissue. (
  • In conclusion, the findings of this study show that cyclin D1 has separate roles, and proliferation is driven by different mechanisms in ER positive and negative breast cancers. (
  • This supports results from earlier studies that suggest that cyclin D1 could be used as a prognostic biomarker. (
  • We suggest that cyclin B might be a potent prognostic factor in this low-risk patient group. (
  • This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. (
  • Cyclin T2 has been shown to interact with CDK9 and Retinoblastoma protein. (
  • Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC or EC - Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. (
  • This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found to interact with CDK9 and cyclin T, which suggested a possible involvement of this protein in AIDS. (
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC or EC pipeline Target constitutes close to 26 molecules. (
  • It also reviews key players involved in Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC or EC targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (
  • Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation factor B (P-TEFb), which is proposed to facilitate the transition from abortive to productive elongation by phosphorylating the CTD (carboxy-terminal domain) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). (
  • Cyclin K interacts with CDK12 and CDK13 but not CDK9 in cells, and is required to maintain self-renewal in ES cells. (
  • Cyclin K inhibits HIV-1 gene expression and replication by interfering with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)-cyclin T1 interaction in Nef-dependent manner. (
  • These results reveal an unexpectedly direct role for CDK9-cyclin K in checkpoint pathways that maintain genome integrity in response to replication stress. (
  • P-TEFb containing cyclin K and Cdk9 can activate transcription via RNA. (
  • The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. (
  • HIV-1 Tat protein interacts with CDK9 and cyclin T, suggesting CDK9 may have a role in AIDS. (
  • Study TPI-ALV-201 is examining the efficiency of alvocidib, an investigational inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), in combination with the authorized agents cytarabine and mitoxantrone in relapsed/refractory AML patients whose leukemia depends on MCL-1. (
  • Biopharmaceutical company Probiodrug AG revealed on Friday the transfer of its experimental cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) inhibitor programme to AstraZeneca (LSE:AZN)(NYSE:AZN) for an undisclosed amount. (
  • Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. (
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 7 (39 kDa Protein Kinase or CDK Activating Kinase 1 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 7 or TFIIH Basal Transcription Factor Complex Kinase Subunit or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 or CDK7 or EC or EC - Cell division protein kinase 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene. (
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 7 (39 kDa Protein Kinase or CDK Activating Kinase 1 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 7 or TFIIH Basal Transcription Factor Complex Kinase Subunit or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 or CDK7 or EC or EC pipeline Target constitutes close to 11 molecules. (
  • Expression of human cyclins through the cell cycle . (
  • [5] ) The oscillations of the cyclins, namely fluctuations in cyclin gene expression and destruction by the ubiquitin mediated proteasome pathway, induce oscillations in Cdk activity to drive the cell cycle. (
  • [6] Expression of cyclins detected immunocytochemically in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase), [7] or in relation to initiation and termination of DNA replication during S-phase, can be measured by flow cytometry . (
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (
  • Over-expression of cyclin E correlates with tumorigenesis. (
  • There is significant association between cyclin E over-expression and the prognosis of lung cancer. (
  • It is believed increased expression of cyclin E correlated with poorer prognosis. (
  • The differences at each stage are due to a balance between the gene expression of each cyclin and the ubiquitin-proteasome system which breaks them down. (
  • Expression of a novel isoform of cyclin I in human testis. (
  • Dr. Pestell and colleagues developed transgenic mice that could induce cyclin D1 expression in the breast and examined cells with cyclin D1 gene deleted. (
  • They found that patients with the luminal A subtype of breast cancer had increased levels of expression of both cyclin D1 and Dicer. (
  • Ruiling Zhang and team from Xinxiang Medical University explored the correlation between cyclin-dependent kinase 5 expression in the hippocampus and neurological impairments following prenatal ethanol exposure, and found that prenatal ethanol exposure could affect cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and its activator p35 in the hippocampus of offspring rats. (
  • We titrated the budding yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 within its endogenous expression range to a stable, fixed level and measured time to occurrence of three mitotic events: growth depolarization, spindle formation, and spindle elongation, as a function of fixed Clb2 level. (
  • That in itself tells us there is a huge difference between the two groups of patients based on the pattern of expression of normal versus low forms of cyclin E. (
  • This approach -- using cyclin A2 expression via gene transfer -- yielded improved myocardial function. (
  • 1997). The cyclin A1 promoter does not possess a TATA box, whereas the region upstream of the transcriptional start site region contains four GC boxes, with multiple Sp1-binding sites important for the regulation of cyclin A1 expression (Müller et al. (
  • SNIP1 itself is induced upon serum stimulation immediately prior to cyclin D1 expression. (
  • These results define both a new function for SNIP1 and identify a previously unrecognized regulator of the cell cycle and cyclin D1 expression. (
  • CONCLUSIONS- Cyclin A2 is required for β-cell proliferation, exendin-4 stimulates cyclin A2 expression via the cAMP pathway, and exendin-4 stimulation of cAMP requires PDX-1. (
  • Mutation or disruption of normal cyclin A expression causes cells to arrest in G2-phase. (
  • Expression of cell cycle regulators p27Kip1 and cyclin E, alone and in combination, correlate with survival in young breast cancer patients. (
  • We show here that accumulation of the wild-type p53 protein in either human or murine cells markedly increases expression of cyclin D1. (
  • Expression of the members of this family of cyclins, D1, 2 and 3, is spatially and temporally regulated with respect to growth factor receptor ligation. (
  • The expression of cyclin H and CDK7 (show CDK7 ELISA Kits ) protein in proliferating hemangiomas was significantly higher than that in involuting hemangiomas and normal skin tissues. (
  • Cyclin D1 expression is assoc. (
  • High cyclin E expression is common in hormone receptor negative and high grade aggressive breast cancer, whereas cyclin D1 in hormone receptor positive and low grade breast cancer. (
  • To test this hypotheses in large breast cancer material and to clarify the histopathological correlations of cyclin E and D1, especially the association with proliferation, we analyzed cyclin E and D1 immunohistochemical expression on breast tumour microarrays consisting of 1348 invasive breast cancers. (
  • We found that low-risk node negative patients with high expression of cylin B had a significantly worse outcome than patients with low expression of cyclin B. Cyclin B could separate patients with poor survival from those with good survival with 80% accuracy. (
  • Here we show that constitutive expression of RV-cyclin in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line significantly increases the level of IEG expression in response to serum stimulation. (
  • At the EGR1 gene locus, RV-cyclin increases and maintains RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy after serum stimulation, in conjunction with increased and extended EGR1 gene expression. (
  • Both of RV-cyclin's functional domains, i.e., the cyclin box and the activation domain, are necessary for the overall enhancement of IEG expression. (
  • Aim We evaluated epidermal cell turnover and thickness, as well as the expression of cyclins D1, B and A in psoriatic skin before and after therapy with cyclosporin. (
  • Cyclin A1 differs from other cyclins in its highly restricted expression pattern. (
  • Besides its expression during spermatogenesis, cyclin A1 is also expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells and in acute myeloid leukemia. (
  • We investigated mechanisms that might contribute to cyclin A1 expression in hematopoietic cells. (
  • Coexpression of a c-myb expression vector with the cyclin A1 promoter constructs significantly increased the reporter activity in adherent CV-1 as well as in myeloid U937 cells. (
  • In addition, transfection of primary human embryonic fibroblasts with a c-myb expression vector led to induction of the endogenous cyclin A1 gene. (
  • Taken together, c-myb can directly transactivate the promoter of cyclin A1, and c-myb might be involved in the high-level expression of cyclin A1 observed in acute myeloid leukemia. (
  • Recently, we cloned the promoter of the cyclin A1 gene to elucidate the mechanisms of expression of this gene. (
  • In addition, forced expression of c-myb in human embryonic fibroblasts induces the endogenous cyclin A1 gene. (
  • For this reason, we wanted to compare cyclin A expression on TMA and on traditional large sections. (
  • Besides that, dysregulated cyclin E activity causes cell lineage-specific abnormalities, such as impaired maturation due to increased cell proliferation and apoptosis or senescence. (
  • It is widely assumed that the two E type cyclins are critically required for proliferation of all cell types. (
  • These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for cyclin E in normal versus oncogenic proliferation. (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Changes in islet protein levels of cyclins and of two critical cell cycle regulators cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) were assessed in mice treated with exendin-4 and in a mouse model with specific upregulation of nuclear cAMP signaling exhibiting increased β-cell proliferation (CBP-S436A mouse). (
  • In Min6 cells, cyclin A2 knockdown prevented exendin-4-stimulated proliferation. (
  • Experimental data has suggested that cyclin D1 and E mediate cell proliferation by different mechanisms in estrogen receptor (ER) positive and negative breast cancer. (
  • Cyclins positively regulate cell proliferation to a large extent. (
  • Cyclin A, cyclin E and Ki-67 are all markers for proliferation and involved in the regulation of the cell cycle. (
  • Cyclin specificity: how many wheels do you need on a unicycle? (
  • The sensitivity and specificity of cyclin B was 65% and 92%, respectively. (
  • The levels of S cyclins remain high, not only throughout S phase, but through G2 and early mitosis as well to promote early events in mitosis. (
  • M cyclin concentrations rise as the cell begins to enter mitosis and the concentrations peak at metaphase. (
  • The destruction of M cyclins during metaphase and anaphase, after the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint is satisfied, causes the exit of mitosis and cytokinesis. (
  • Cyclin B1 is a regulatory protein involved in mitosis. (
  • The D and E type cyclins regulate the passage of G1, while cyclin B is a critical regulator of mitosis. (
  • Cyclin B1 is not ubiquitinated during G2/M phase, resulting in its steady accumulation during G2 phase, followed by abrupt APC dependent destruction at the end of mitosis. (
  • The cyclin concentration increases during the cycle until halfway to the mitosis stage, when it drops to zero. (
  • Cyclin may act as a molecular switch that activates mitosis when its concentration reaches a certain point. (
  • During RG division, Cyclin D2 protein is asymmetrically distributed to two daughter cells following mitosis. (
  • There are two main groups of cyclins, G1/S cyclins, which are essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G1/S (start) transition, and G2/M cyclins, which are essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G2/M (mitosis) transition. (
  • G2/M cyclins accumulate steadily during G2 and are abruptly destroyed as cells exit from mitosis (at the end of the M-phase). (
  • The structural results indicate a role for the cyclin-box fold both as a template for the cyclin family and as a generalised adaptor molecule in the regulation of transcription. (
  • Although cyclin D1 had no effect on STAT3 DNA binding, cyclin D1 did bind to the transcriptional activation domain of STAT3, suggesting a mechanism whereby STAT3-dependent transcription could be immediately attenuated. (
  • Moreover, SNIP1 depletion results in inhibition of cyclin D1 promoter activity in a manner dependent upon a previously characterized binding site for the AP-1 transcription factor family. (
  • PDX-1 knockdown reduced exendin-4-stimulated cAMP synthesis and cyclin A2 transcription. (
  • Human cdk8-cyclin C might be functionally associated with the mammalian transcription apparatus, perhaps involved in relaying growth-regulatory signals. (
  • I have been defining the cis -acting elements and trans -acting factors that control transcription of the human cyclin D3 gene in T-cells. (
  • The minimal cyclin D3 promoter sequence was identified as a region 173bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. (
  • The protein encoded by CCNK is a member of the transcription cyclin family. (
  • Retroviral cyclin controls cyclin-dependent kinase 8-mediated transcription elongation and reinitiation. (
  • Previous work showed that the retroviral cyclin (RV-cyclin), encoded by WDSV, has separable cyclin box and transcription activation domains. (
  • Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and nuclear run-on assays provide evidence that RV-cyclin does not alter the initiation of IEG transcription but does enhance the overall rate of transcription elongation and maintains transcription reinitiation. (
  • Second, the human cyclin C, which does not repress transcription in yeast, does regulate ROS sensitivity. (
  • Gel-shift assays demonstrated that c-myb could bind to the cyclin A1 promoter at a binding site located near the transcription start site. (
  • Dmtf1 is a MYB -like transcription factor isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a mouse T lymphocyte library with cyclin D2 bait. (
  • Cyclin H is implicated in the regulation of the transcriptional machinery during midblastula transition and is therefore an essential gene in early zebrafish larval development. (
  • Cyclin E-Mediated Human Proopiomelanocortin Regulation as a Therapeutic Target for Cushing Disease. (
  • Cyclin E and E2F1 exhibit reciprocal positive regulation in corticotroph tumors. (
  • Alvocidib is an investigational small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 , a protein important to the regulation of Myc. (
  • The p-TEFb complex containing this cyclin was reported to interact with, and act as a negative regulator of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein. (
  • A single regulator could confer order and timing on multiple events if later events require higher cyclin-CDK than earlier events, so that gradually rising cyclin-CDK levels can sequentially trigger responsive events: the "quantitative model" of ordering. (
  • They did this by expressing the cell-cycle regulator, a protein called cyclin A2. (
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. (
  • Cln3 cyclin of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key regulator of Start, a cell cycle event in G1 phase at which cells become committed to division. (
  • For all of the apoptosis-inducing agents tested, the appearance of condensed chromatin was accompanied by 2- to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. (
  • E type cyclins (E1 and E2) are believed to drive cell entry into the S phase. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that E type cyclins are largely dispensable for mouse development. (
  • CBP-S436A islets exhibited elevated cyclin A2, reduced p27, and no changes in D-type cyclins, PDX-1, or Skp2. (
  • C-, H- and J18 types only contain a cyclin-C domain, and U-type cyclins contain another potential cyclin domain. (
  • NMB or NMBR silencing inhibited M-CSF (zeige CSF1R Proteine )/ c-Fms (zeige CSF1R Proteine )-mediated downstream signaling pathways like activation of ERK (zeige EPHB2 Proteine ) and Akt (zeige AKT1 Proteine ) and induction of D-type cyclins, cyclin D1 and D2. (
  • In contrast to mammalian cells, these yeast cells had only one CDK which interacted with various cyclins. (
  • Mammalian cyclin A1 is primarily localized in the nuclei of spermatocytes in mouse and human (Liu et al. (
  • In mammalian somatic cells, cyclin A is required for S-phase and passage through G2-phase. (
  • Cyclin K is highly expressed in mammalian testes in a developmentally regulated manner. (
  • Here, we discuss our findings and the Cyclin D2 function in mammalian brain development and evolution. (
  • Cyclin A2 ( Ccna2 ), normally silenced after birth in the mammalian heart, can induce cardiac repair in small-animal models of myocardial infarction. (
  • However, all members of the cyclin family are similar in 100 amino acids that make up the cyclin box. (
  • Within the protein the cyclin box is a region of protein sequence homology that is common to all members of the cyclin family and is required for interaction with the CDK partner. (
  • We have solved the crystal structure, at 2.0 A resolution, of an active recombinant fragment of bovine cyclin A, cyclin A-3, corresponding to residues 171-432 of human cyclin A. The cyclin box has an alpha-helical fold comprising five alpha helices. (
  • Recombinant human Cyclin E1 protein, around 100-200aa. (
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Cyclin B1. (
  • Recombinant cyclin/CDK holoenzymes were purified from Sf9 cells engineered to produce baculoviruses that express a specific cyclin or CDK. (
  • Cyclins exhibit diverse sequences but all share homology over a region of approximately 100 amino acids, termed the cyclin box. (
  • It recognizes a protein of 54kDa, which is identified as cyclin A. Its epitope is located amino acids 144-148 of human Cyclin A2. (
  • The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231-280. (
  • CDC28 was identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which bound to cyclins and drove the cell through the various transitions of the cell cycle. (
  • We find that p21 inhibits the activity of each member of the cyclin/CDK family. (
  • P16-INK4a interacts strongly with cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 and inhibits their ability to interact with cyclins D. P16-INK4a induces cell cycle arrest at G1 and G2/M checkpoints, blocking them from phosphorylating RB1 and preventing exit from G1 phase of the cell cycle. (
  • We previously reported that R-roscovitine (CYC202, seliciclib), a 2,6,9-trisubstituted purine analog, suppresses cyclin-dependent-kinase 2/cyclin E and inhibits ACTH in mice and zebrafish. (
  • The aim was to investigate whether R-roscovitine inhibits human ACTH in corticotroph tumors by targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase 2/cyclin E signaling pathway. (
  • Exendin-4 stimulated cyclin A2 promoter activity via the cAMP-cAMP response element binding protein pathway. (
  • The human cyclin D3 gene has a TATA-less promoter and a single dominant initiation site. (
  • Transient transfections using CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) reporter constructs containing sequential deletions of the cyclin D3 promoter defined positively and negatively regulated regions. (
  • Comparison of cyclin A1 and cyclin A promoter activity in adherent and myeloid leukemia cell lines showed that the cyclin A1 promoter is preferentially active in myeloid cell lines. (
  • This preferential activity was present in a small, 335-bp cyclin A1 promoter fragment that contained several potential c-myb binding sites. (
  • 15 We show here that the cyclin A1 promoter is preferentially active in myeloid leukemia cell lines and is transactivated by c-myb. (
  • Dysregulation of cyclin E occurs in 18-22% of the breast cancers. (
  • Because the cyclin D1 gene has been implicated in a variety of other human cancers these findings may have broad implications for processing of non coding RNA in human tumorigenesis. (
  • Background: Cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) plays pivotal roles in the development of several human cancers, including breast cancer, functioning as an oncogene. (
  • Cyclin B1 is overexpressed in various cancers, including breast, prostate, and non-small cell lung cancer. (
  • p34Cdc28-mediated control of Cln3 cyclin degradation. (
  • 6-Gingerol induces cell-cycle G1-phase arrest through AKT-GSK 3β-cyclin D1 pathway in renal-cell carcinoma. (
  • Hemodynamic forces modulate EC proliferative phenotype through the miR (show MLXIP ELISA Kits )-23b/ CAK/cyclin H pathway. (
  • This destruction pathway is important as deleting cyclin C suppresses the hypersensitivity of slt2 mutants to oxidative damage. (
  • Cyclin E is a member of the cyclin family. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. (
  • The mechanism behind this is that the low forms of cyclin E increase the activity of the cyclin E complex, and this complex is what mediates the negative effects. (
  • This study suggests that TMA technique could be useful to study histological correlations and prognostic significance of cyclin A on breast cancer on a large scale. (
  • Cyclin K1 is the primary cyclin partner for CDK12/CrkRS and it is required for activation of CDK12/CrkRS to phosphorylate the C-terminal domain of RNA Pol II. (
  • G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in that the concentrations increase gradually (with no oscillation), throughout the cell cycle based on cell growth and the external growth-regulatory signals. (
  • Cyclin D2 accumulates at the very basal tip of the RG cell (i.e., the basal endfoot) via a unique cis -regulatory sequence found in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of its mRNA. (
  • 1998). Cyclin A1 interacts also with E2F1 and the retinoblastoma protein (Yang et al. (
  • This arrest is characterized by accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (WAF1/CIP1) and of underphosphorylated forms of retinoblastoma protein. (
  • We found that we could negate the growth inhibitory effects of letrozole with the low forms of cyclin E but not with the wild-type cyclin E," said Keyomarsi, the study's senior author. (
  • Of those, 100 expressed normal levels of wild-type cyclin E, and 28 overexpressed the low forms," Keyomarsi said. (
  • When we looked at recurrence, three of the hundred with wild-type cyclin E had experienced a recurrence compared to four of the twenty-eight with the low forms. (
  • Graf L, Webel R, Wagner S, Hamilton ST, Rawlinson WD, Sticht H, Marschall M. The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins. (
  • Cyclins can be divided into four classes based on their behavior in the cell cycle of vertebrate somatic cells and yeast cells: G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. (
  • The cyclins also promote other activities to progress the cell cycle, such as centrosome duplication in vertebrates or spindle pole body in yeast. (
  • This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. (
  • Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer," Analytical Cellular Pathology , vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 179-185, 2012. (
  • The relationship between the induction of cyclin D1 and G 1 arrest defines a new cellular response to p53. (
  • This is the first demonstration of interaction between a herpesviral CDK ortholog and cellular cyclins. (
  • This report describes the requirement of cyclin C destruction for the cellular response to ROS. (