Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A CYCLIN C dependent kinase that is an important component of the mediator complex. The enzyme is activated by its interaction with CYCLIN C and plays a role in transcriptional regulation by phosphorylating RNA POLYMERASE II.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a role in the transition from G1 to S PHASE and in transcriptional regulation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F4 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene PROMOTER REGIONS through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130 and RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P107.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
A transcriptional elongation factor complex that is comprised of a heterodimer of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9 and one of several CYCLINS including TYPE T CYCLINS and cyclin K. It functions by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA POLYMERASE II.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing five ANKYRIN-LIKE REPEATS. Aberrant expression of this protein has been associated with deregulated EPITHELIAL CELL growth, organ enlargement, and a variety of NEOPLASMS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A potent inhibitor of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES in G1 PHASE and S PHASE. In humans, aberrant expression of p57 is associated with various NEOPLASMS as well as with BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing five ANKYRIN REPEATS. Aberrant expression of this protein has been associated with TESTICULAR CANCER.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression of the CELL CYCLE through the G1 PHASE and allow transition to S PHASE when the cells are ready to undergo DNA REPLICATION. DNA DAMAGE, or the deficiencies in specific cellular components or nutrients may cause the cells to halt before progressing through G1 phase.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

p53-dependent G2 arrest associated with a decrease in cyclins A2 and B1 levels in a human carcinoma cell line. (1/89)

In vivo transfer of wild-type (wt) p53 gene via a recombinant adenovirus has been proposed to induce apoptosis and increase radiosensitivity in several human carcinoma models. In the context of combining p53 gene transfer and irradiation, we investigated the consequences of adenoviral-mediated wtp53 gene transfer on the cell cycle and radiosensitivity of a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma line (SCC97) with a p53 mutated phenotype. We showed that ectopic expression of wtp53 in SCC97 cells resulted in a prolonged G1 arrest, associated with an increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor WAF1/p21 target gene. A transient arrest in G2 but not in G1 was observed after irradiation. This G2 arrest was permanent when exponentially growing cells were transduced by Ad5CMV-p53 (RPR/INGN201) immediately after irradiation with 5 or 10 Gy. Moreover, levels of cyclins A2 and B1, which are known to regulate the G2/M transition, dramatically decreased as cells arrived in G2, whereas maximal levels of expression were observed in the absence of wtp53. In conclusion, adenoviral mediated transfer of wtp53 in irradiated SCC97 cells, which are mutated for p53, appeared to increase WAF1/p21 expression and decrease levels of the mitotic cyclins A2 and B1. These observations suggest that the G2 arrest resulted from a p53-dependent premature inactivation of the mitosis promoting factor.  (+info)

Membrane-anchored cyclin A2 triggers Cdc2 activation in Xenopus oocyte. (2/89)

In Xenopus oocyte, the formation of complexes between neosynthesized cyclins and Cdc2 contributes to Cdc2 kinase activation that triggers meiotic divisions. It has been proposed that cytoplasmic membranes could be involved in this process. To investigate this possibility, we have injected in the oocyte two undegradable human cyclin A2 mutants anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. They encode fusion proteins between the truncated cyclin A2-Delta152 and a viral or cellular ER-targeting domain. We show that both mutants are fully functional as mitotic cyclins when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, bind Cdc2 and activate M-phase promoting factor.  (+info)

Centrosome overduplication, increased ploidy and transformation in cells expressing endoplasmic reticulum-associated cyclin A2. (3/89)

Cyclin A2 is predominantly, but not exclusively, localized in the nucleus from G1/S transition onwards. It is degraded when cells enter mitosis after nuclear envelope breakdown. We previously showed that a fusion protein (S2A) between the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen protein and a non-degradable fragment of human cyclin A2 (Delta152) resides in the endoplasmic reticulum membranes, escapes degradation and transforms normal rat fibroblasts. The present study investigates whether cytoplasmic cyclin A2 may play a role in oncogenesis. We show that the sequestration of non-degradable cyclin A2-Delta152 by a cellular ER targeting domain (PRL-A2) leads to cell transformation when coexpressed with activated Ha-ras. REF52 cells constitutively expressing PRL-A2 are found to have a high incidence of multinucleate giant cells, polyploidy and abnormal centrosome numbers, giving rise to the nucleation of multipolar spindles. Injection of these cells into athymic nude mice causes tumors, even in the absence of a cooperating Ha-ras oncogene. These results demonstrate that, independently of any viral context, an intracellular redistribution of non-degradable cyclin A2 is capable of deregulating the normal cell cycle to the point where it promotes aneuploidy and cancer.  (+info)

Murine spermatogonial stem cells: targeted transgene expression and purification in an active state. (4/89)

A 400 bp fragment of the spermatogonia-specific Stra8 locus was sufficient to direct gene expression to the germinal stem cells in transgenic mice. A fractionation procedure was devised, based on immunomagnetic sorting of cells in which the promoter drives the expression of a surface functionally neutral protein tag. The purified cells expressed the known molecular markers of spermatogonia Rbm, cyclin A2 and EP-Cam, and the beta1- and alpha6-integrins characteristic of the stem cell fraction. A 700-fold enrichment in stem cells was determined by the ability of the purified fractions to re-establish spermatogenesis in germ cell-depleted recipient testes.  (+info)

Increased hepatic Forkhead Box M1B (FoxM1B) levels in old-aged mice stimulated liver regeneration through diminished p27Kip1 protein levels and increased Cdc25B expression. (5/89)

Recent liver regeneration studies indicate that maintaining hepatic Forkhead Box M1B (FoxM1B) expression in 12-month-old (old-aged) Transthyretin-FoxM1B transgenic mice increases hepatocyte proliferation and expression of cell cycle regulatory genes. Because these transgenic CD-1 mice maintain FoxM1B levels during the aging process, we conducted the current study to determine whether adenovirus delivery of the FoxM1B gene (AdFoxM1B) is sufficient to stimulate liver regeneration in old-aged Balb/c mice. Here we show that AdFoxM1B infection of old-aged mice caused a significant increase in FoxM1B expression, hepatocyte DNA replication, and mitosis following partial hepatectomy. This stimulation in hepatocyte S-phase progression was associated with diminished protein expression and perinuclear localization of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27(Kip1) (p27) protein following partial hepatectomy. In contrast, old-aged mice infected with control virus displayed high hepatocyte levels of p27 protein, which had been localized to the nucleus prior to S-phase. Furthermore, we found that restoring FoxM1B expression did not influence p27 mRNA levels, and this new finding implicates FoxM1B in regulation of p27 protein levels. Likewise, AdFoxM1B-infected regenerating livers displayed elevated S-phase levels of Cdk2 kinase activity compared with old-aged mice infected with control virus. Furthermore, restoring FoxM1B expression in old-aged mice caused elevated levels of Cyclin B1, Cyclin B2, Cdc25B, Cdk1, and p55CDC mRNA as well as stimulating Cdc25B nuclear localization during liver regeneration, all of which are required for mitosis. These studies indicated that an acute delivery of the FoxM1B gene in old-aged mice is sufficient to re-establish proliferation of regenerating hepatocytes, suggesting that FoxM1B can be used for therapeutic intervention to alleviate the reduction in cellular proliferation observed in the elderly.  (+info)

B-Myb overcomes a p107-mediated cell proliferation block by interacting with an N-terminal domain of p107. (6/89)

B-Myb is a cell-cycle regulated transcription factor which is implicated in cell proliferation and has an essential role in early embryonic development. In this study we examined the functions of B-Myb required to overcome G1 arrest in Saos-2 cells induced by the retinoblastoma-related p107 protein. Our results demonstrated that this activity was independent of B-Myb transactivation function, but correlated with its capacity to form an in vivo complex with p107. A large proportion of B-Myb formed complexes with p107 in cotransfected cells, however, B-Myb bound weakly to the related p130 protein and not at all to pRb. In contrast to the E2F transcription factors, which bind the p107 C-terminal pocket domain, B-Myb recognizes an N-terminal p107 region which overlaps the larger cyclin-binding domain. B-Myb and cyclin A2 formed mutually exclusive complexes with p107, and B-Myb enhanced the activity of co-transfected cyclin E kinase activity, implying that B-Myb affects the cell cycle by preventing sequestration of active cyclin/cdk2 complexes. This study defines a novel function of B-Myb and further suggests that the p107 N-terminus provides an interaction domain for transcription factors involved in cell cycle control.  (+info)

The cell cycle-regulated B-Myb transcription factor overcomes cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory activity of p57(KIP2) by interacting with its cyclin-binding domain. (7/89)

The cell cycle-regulated B-Myb transcription factor is required for early embryonic development and is implicated in regulating cell growth and differentiation. In addition to its transcriptional regulatory properties, recent data indicate that B-Myb can release active cyclin/Cdk2 activity from the retinoblastoma-related p107 protein by directly interacting with the p107 N terminus. As this p107 domain has homology to the cyclin-binding domains of the p21(Waf1/Cip1) family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs), we investigated in this study whether B-Myb could also interact with these CKIs. No in vivo interaction was found with either p21(Waf1/Cip1) or p27(KIP1), however, binding to p57(KIP2) was readily detectable in both in vivo and in vitro assays. The B-Myb-interacting region of p57(KIP2) mapped to the cyclin-binding domain. Consistent with this, B-Myb competed with cyclin A2 for binding to p57(KIP2), resulting in release of active cyclin/Cdk2 kinase. Moreover, B-Myb partially overcame the ability of p57(KIP2) to induce G1 arrest in Saos-2 cells. Despite similarities with previous p107 studies, the B-Myb domains required for interaction with p57(KIP2) were quite different from those implicated for p107. Thus, it is evident that B-Myb may promote cell proliferation by a non-transcriptional mechanism that involves release of active cyclin/Cdk2 from p57(KIP2) as well as p107.  (+info)

Synchronization of interphase events depends neither on mitosis nor on cdk1. (8/89)

Human HT2-19 cells with a conditional cdk1 mutation stop dividing upon cdk1 inactivation and undergo multiple rounds of endoreplication. We show herein that major cell cycle events remain synchronized in these endoreplicating cells. DNA replication alternates with gap phases and cell cycle-specific cyclin E expression is maintained. Centrosomes duplicate in synchrony with chromosome replication, giving rise to polyploid cells with multiple centrosomes. Centrosome migration, a typical prophase event, also takes place in endoreplicating cells. The timing of these events is unaffected by cdk1 inactivation compared with normally dividing cells. Nuclear lamina breakdown, in contrast, previously shown to be dependent on cdk1, does not take place in endoreplicating HT2-19 cells. Moreover, breakdown of all other major components of the nuclear lamina, like the inner nuclear membrane proteins and nuclear pore complexes, seems also to depend on cdk1. Interestingly, the APC/C ubiquitin ligase is activated in these endoreplicating cells by fzr but not by fzy. The oscillations of interphase events are thus independent of cdk1 and of mitosis but may depend on APC/Cfzr activity.  (+info)

Surell Rex Rabbit Pieced Clip Scarf Clip scarf Plush throughout Measurements: Length 27½", width 4½" Real dyed rabbit fur, imported from China Please note, due to the presence of dyed rabbit fur, this product cannot be shipped internationally Material: Shell: 100% rabbit fur; Lining: 100% polyester Care: Dry clean Brand: Surell Origin: Imported
The first known Rex rabbits were bred in a village called Louché-Pringé in France in 1919, and they were the castor colour.|/p| |p|Rex rabbits have hair that is velvet like and stands out against the body instead of lying flat. It is thought that this was caused by a recessive mutation seen in wild rabbits.|/p| |p|The Rex rabbit was first shown at an international rabbit show in Paris in 1924. Since 1925 it has been recognised as a standard breed across Europe.
Just wondered as I am still reeling from the death of dear little Middy, who suffered GI problems and died within a day last week. I feel so bad about it. (http://forums.rabbitrehome.org.uk/showthread.php?t=161037) I keep reading about bunnies living on average 8-10 years. Mine was a house bun - she was well cared for and seemed happy and healthy most of the time and we cared for her well, or so I thought. I had a lop for a while and she fell into a terrible state with stasis but pulled
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In humans, there are two A-type cyclins - an embryonic-specific cyclin A1 and a somatic cyclin A2. Cyclin A1 is only expressed in meiosis and very early embryos, whereas cyclin A2 is present in proliferating somatic cells
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Genome doubling is an underlying cause of cancer cell aneuploidy and genomic instability, but few drivers have been identified for this process. Due to their physiological roles in the genome reduplication of normal cells, we hypothesised that the oncogenes cyclins E1 and E2 may be drivers of genome doubling in cancer. We show that both cyclin E1 (CCNE1) and cyclin E2 (CCNE2) mRNA are significantly associated with high genome ploidy in breast cancers. By live cell imaging and flow cytometry, we show that cyclin E2 overexpression promotes aberrant mitosis without causing mitotic slippage, and it increases ploidy with negative feedback on the replication licensing protein, Cdt1. We demonstrate that cyclin E2 localises with core preRC (pre-replication complex) proteins (MCM2, MCM7) on the chromatin of cancer cells. Low CCNE2 is associated with improved overall survival in breast cancers, and we demonstrate that low cyclin E2 protects from excess genome rereplication. This occurs regardless of p53 status,
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Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs which separate accurately at anaphase. polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes Mad2s control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15204.001 species of fruit fly Stormo and Fox discovered two distinct ways in AR-231453 which cells respond to extra chromosome duplications. One response occurs in cells that were experimentally engineered to undergo an extra chromosome duplication. These cells delay division so that the chromosome separation machinery can somehow ...
reduplication Definition, reduplication Best Plays of reduplication in Scrabble® and Words With Friends, Length tables of words in reduplication, Word growth of reduplication, Sequences of reduplication
Cyclin A2 (encoded by CCNA2) is responsible for activating the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK1 and CDK2 to induce S-phase chromosome duplication and initiate mitosis. As both underexpression and overexpression of cyclin A2 have been linked to poor outcome in tumors, the role of cyclin A2 in tumor progression is unclear. Because complete loss of cyclin A2 is embryonically lethal, Kanakkanthara and colleagues developed a hypomorphic Ccna2 allele (Ccna2H) with reduced expression of cyclin A2 to better understand its role in tumorigenesis. Ccna2−/H mice had a marked reduction in cyclin A2 protein in tissues with a high mitotic index but relatively normal levels in tissues with less actively dividing cells. Ccna2−/H mice were more susceptible to spontaneous and carcinogen-induced tumors than Ccna2+/+ mice, indicating that cyclin A2 insufficiency promotes malignant transformation. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from Ccna2−/H mice exhibited increased aneuploidy due to chromosome segregation ...
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The mammalian A-type cyclin family consists of two members, cyclin A1 (encoded by Ccna1) and cyclin A2 (encoded by Ccna2). Cyclin A2 promotes both G1/S and G2/M transitions, and targeted deletion of Ccna2 in mouse is embryonic lethal. Cyclin A1 is expressed in mice exclusively in the germ cell lineage and is expressed in humans at highest levels in the testis and certain myeloid leukemia cells. To investigate the role of cyclin A1 and possible redundancy among the cyclins in vivo, mice bearing a null mutation of Ccna1 were generated. Ccna1-/- males are sterile due to a block of spermatogenesis before the first meiotic division, whereas females are normal. Meiosis arrest in Ccna1-/- males is associated with increased germ cell apoptosis, desynapsis abnormalities and reduction of Cdc2 kinase activation at the end of meiotic prophase. Cyclin A1 is therefore essential for spermatocyte passage into the first meiotic division in male mice, a function that cannot be complemented by the concurrently ...
CCNA1 (cyclin A1), Authors: Immacolata Vocca, Gianmarco Muzi, Francesca Pentimalli, Antonio Giordano. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
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Cdk1 (historically known as cdc2) is a member of the cyclin-dependent Ser/Thr kinase family. Cdk1 was originally identified as a catalytic subunit of the highly conserved protein kinase complex known as the M-phase promoting factor (17, 18). The kinase activity of Cdk1 is controlled at several levels, namely (a) at the level of regulatory Cdk1 phosphorylations; (b) at the level of activation through binding to cyclins such as B1; and (c) at the level of inactivation by inhibitors such as p21cip1 and p27Kip1.. The cell division cycle is a fundamental and highly complex process that is conserved in all eukaryotic cells. The conventional view is that in mammalian cells, progression through G1 phase is driven by the activities of Cdk4 and Cdk6, which associate with D-type cyclins. Entry into the S phase and initiation of DNA replication requires the activity of Cdk2, which is activated by E-type cyclins in the late G1 and S phases and by A-type cyclins in the S and G2 phases. Finally, entry into M ...
Mouse monoclonal UBN1 antibody [UBN1G12] validated for WB, Dot and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length protein
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This book is intended to help you continue on your exciting new path toward obtaining your CCNP and CCIE certification. Before reading this book, it is important to have at least read the Sybex CCNA: Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide. You can take the tests in any order, but the CCNA exam should probably be your first test. Many questions in the Support exam are built upon the CCNA material. However, we have done everything possible to make sure that you can pass the Support exam by reading this book and practicing with Cisco routers.... ...
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When used as a networking medium, UTP cable has four pairs of either 22- or 24-gauge copper wire. UTP used as a networking medium has an impedance of 100 ohms; this differentiates it from other types of twisted-pair wiring such as that used for telephone wiring, which has impedance of 600 ohms. UTP cable offers many advantages. Because UTP has an external diameter of approximately 0.43 cm (0.17 inches), its small size can be advantageous during installation. Because it has such a small external diameter, UTP does not fill up wiring ducts as rapidly as other types of cable. This can be an extremely important factor to consider, particularly when installing a network in an older building. UTP cable is easy to install and is less expensive than other types of networking media. In fact, UTP costs less per meter than any other type of LAN cabling. And because UTP can be used with most of the major networking architectures, it continues to grow in popularity.. Disadvantages also are involved in using ...
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Expression of CELF2 (BRUNOL3, CUGBP2, Etr-3, NAPOR-2) in caudate tissue. Antibody staining with HPA035813 and CAB016395 in immunohistochemistry.
This study aimed to investigate effects of citrus flavanones naringenin (NAR) and hesperetin (HES) on liver antioxidant status and membrane phospholipid composition in 24-month-old rats. NAR and HES (15 mg/kg) were administrated orally to male Wistar rats, once per day, for 4 weeks. Control group received either vehicle (sunflower oil) or remained intact. The results showed decreased (p , 0.05) activity of antioxidant enzymes (AOE), specifically catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver of intact control old-aged rats in comparison to young intact controls. Flavanone administration to old-aged males increased (p , 0.05) examined AOE activities in comparison to vehicle-administered animals. Namely, NAR was more potent in comparison to HES regarding the increase (p , 0.05) in activities of examined antioxidant enzymes (SOD 1 and 2, glutathione peroxidase-GPx and GR) and the liver glutathione (GSH), while HES elevated (p , 0.05) only activity of CAT ...
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DNA replication licensing factor MCM6; Acts as component of the MCM2-7 complex (MCM complex) which is the putative replicative helicase essential for once per cell cycle DNA replication initiation and elongation in eukaryotic cells. The active ATPase sites in the MCM2-7 ring are formed through the interaction surfaces of two neighboring subunits such that a critical structure of a conserved arginine finger motif is provided in trans relative to the ATP-binding site of the Walker A box of the adjacent subunit. The six ATPase active sites, however, are likely to contribute differential ...
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... has been shown to interact with: CD61, Cyclin A2, NFKB1, RXRA, RXRG, and THRA. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Ohtoshi A, Maeda T, Higashi H, Ashizawa S, Yamada M, Hatakeyama M (2000). "beta3-endonexin as a novel inhibitor of cyclin A- ... "beta3-endonexin as a novel inhibitor of cyclin A-associated kinase". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 267 (3): 947-52. doi: ...
... involves downregulation of cyclin-A2". Oncogene. 29 (47): 6245-56. doi:10.1038/onc.2010.355. PMC 3007677. PMID 20802531. Chiou ... JDP2 induces cell cycle arrest through cyclin D, p53, and cyclin A transcription, by increasing JUNB, JUND, and Fra2, and by ...
... represses cyclin A2 expression, and promotes myogenic differentiation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 ( ... represses cyclin A2 expression, and promotes myogenic differentiation Soji Sebastian, Prethish Sreenivas, Ramkumar Sambasivan, ... epigenetic control of cellular quiescence by the tumor suppressor PRDM2/RIZ at a bivalent domain in the cyclin a gene, Nucleic ... epigenetic control of cellular quiescence by the tumor suppressor PRDM2/RIZ at a bivalent domain in the cyclin a gene". Nucleic ...
2007). "Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein regulates G2/M transition through stabilization of cyclin A2 mRNA". Proc. Natl. Acad ...
... has been shown to interact with ORC1L, ORC2L, Cyclin A2, PPP2R3B, MCM3, PPP2R3A, MCM7 and PSKH1. Cdc6, the family of ... Petersen, B O; Lukas J; Sørensen C S; Bartek J; Helin K (January 1999). "Phosphorylation of mammalian CDC6 by cyclin A/CDK2 ... The subcellular translocation of this protein during the cell cycle is regulated through its phosphorylation by cyclin- ... 1999). "Phosphorylation of mammalian CDC6 by cyclin A/CDK2 regulates its subcellular localization". EMBO J. 18 (2): 396-410. ...
In gastric cancer cells, presence of GSDMD can inhibit cyclin A2/CDK2 complexes, leading to cell cycle arrest and thus inhibit ...
Retroviral restriction ability of SAMHD1 is regulated by phosphorylation, for this purpose SAMHD1 associates with the cyclin A2 ...
Cytogenetic band: 4q27 TMEM155 is neighbored by TMEM155 is neighbored on chromosome 4 by CCNA2, a gene encoding for cyclin A2, ...
... has been shown to interact with: BEGAIN, BRCA1, BRF1, Cyclin A2, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1 ... "Reversal of growth suppression by p107 via direct phosphorylation by cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4". Molecular and ... Shanahan F, Seghezzi W, Parry D, Mahony D, Lees E (Feb 1999). "Cyclin E associates with BAF155 and BRG1, components of the ... Faha B, Ewen ME, Tsai LH, Livingston DM, Harlow E (Jan 1992). "Interaction between human cyclin A and adenovirus E1A-associated ...
... such as cyclin A2, cyclin B1, cyclin E2, and survivin, and upregulation of genes involved in the regulation of transcription ... Immunoprecipitation kinase assays revealed that cyclin C has Rb kinase activity. Furthermore, unlike cyclins D and E, cyclin ... Further observations revealed that levels of cyclin C mRNA are highest when human cells exit G0, suggesting that cyclin C may ... confirmed the suspicion that cyclin C promotes G0 exit as repression of endogenous cyclin C by RNAi in mammalian cells ...
... may refer to: Cyclin A2 - a protein in the cyclin family CYR61 - a protein in the CCN family This disambiguation page ...
... promoter[PAX8] => E2F1 PMID 21602887 E2F1 has been shown to interact with: ARID3A, CUL1, Cyclin A1, Cyclin A2, GTF2H1, ... Yang R, Müller C, Huynh V, Fung YK, Yee AS, Koeffler HP (March 1999). "Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its ... Xu M, Sheppard KA, Peng CY, Yee AS, Piwnica-Worms H (December 1994). "Cyclin A/CDK2 binds directly to E2F-1 and inhibits the ... This protein and another 2 members, E2F2 and E2F3, have an additional cyclin binding domain. This protein binds preferentially ...
Delayed early embryonic lethality following disruption of the murine cyclin A2 gene. Nature Genetics. 1997, 15: 83-86. Barba, G ... Wang, J., Chenivesse, X., Heinglein, B., and Brechot, C. Hepatitis B virus integration in a cyclin A gene in hepatocellular ... in particular through the identification of human cyclin A at the genomic insertion site of HBV in an HCC. Bréchot directed ...
... including cyclin A2, CDC34, Aurora A and B kinases (STK6 and STK12), E2F5, and CDK8, among others. Subsequent experiments ... Another oncogene, high mobility group A2 (HMGA2), has also been identified as a target of let-7. Let-7 directly inhibits HMGA2 ... Motoyama K, Inoue H, Nakamura Y, Uetake H, Sugihara K, Mori M (2008). "Clinical significance of high mobility group A2 in human ... "Antiproliferative effects by Let-7 repression of high-mobility group A2 in uterine leiomyoma". Mol Cancer Res. 6 (4): 663-73. ...
Cyclin A2 is expressed in dividing somatic cells. Cyclin A, along with the other members of the cyclin family, regulates cell ... Cyclin A remains associated with CDK1 from late S into late G2 phase when it is replaced by cyclin B. Cyclin A/CDK1 is thought ... Cyclin A is the only cyclin that regulates multiple steps of the cell cycle. Cyclin A can regulate multiple cell cycle steps ... P21 is a CDK inhibitor that binds to several cyclin/CDK complexes, including cyclin A-CDK2/1 and cyclin D/CDK4, and blocks the ...
The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex eventually phosphorylates E2F, turning off cyclin A2 transcription. E2F promotes cyclin A2 ... cyclin A1 is expressed during meiosis and embryogenesis while cyclin A2 is expressed in dividing somatic cells. Cyclin A2 ... Cyclin A2 is synthesized at the onset of S phase and localizes to the nucleus, where the cyclin A2-CDK2 complex is implicated ... Cyclin A2 has been shown to interact with: CDC6, E2F1, FEN1, ITGB3BP, RBL1, and SKP2. Cyclin A2 (Ccna2) is a key protein ...
In mammalian cells, CDK1, with its partners cyclin A2 and B1, alone can drive the cell cycle. Another one, CDK7, is involved ... CDK6; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK7; cyclin H CDK8; cyclin C CDK9; cyclin T1, cyclin T2a, cyclin T2b, cyclin K CDK10 ... cyclin A, cyclin B CDK2; cyclin A, cyclin E CDK3; cyclin C CDK4; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK5; CDK5R1, CDK5R2. See also ... Furthermore, cyclin binding determines the specificity of the cyclin-CDK complex for particular substrates. Cyclins can ...
However, cyclin A2/CDK complexes do not function strictly as activators of cyclin B1/CDK1 in G2, as CDK2 has been shown to be ... Downregulation of cyclin A2 in U2OS cells delays cyclin-B1/CDK1 activation by increasing Wee1 activity and lowering Plk1 and ... FoxM1 and B-Myb by upstream G1 and G1/S cyclin-CDK complexes. Increased levels of cyclin B1 cause rising levels of cyclin B1- ... Cyclin A2/CDK2 activity begins in early S phase and increases during G2. Cdc25B has been shown to dephosphorylate Tyr15 on CDK2 ...
Gopinathan L, Tan SL, Padmakumar VC, Coppola V, Tessarollo L, Kaldis P (July 2014). "Loss of Cdk2 and cyclin A2 impairs cell ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ... Likewise, abnormal expression of cyclin A2 is associated with chromosomal instability and tumor proliferation, while inhibition ... "Entrez Gene: CDK2 cyclin-dependent kinase 2". Echalier A, Endicott JA, Noble ME (March 2010). "Recent developments in cyclin- ...
Annexin A2, CAF-1, CDC25C, CHTF18, Cyclin D1, Cyclin O, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4, Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C, DNMT1 ... "Association of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins in normal and transformed human T ... Webb G, Parsons P, Chenevix-Trench G (1991). "Localization of the gene for human proliferating nuclear antigen/cyclin by in ... Matsuoka S, Yamaguchi M, Matsukage A (April 1994). "D-type cyclin-binding regions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen". J. ...
... collagen type 1 A2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelin receptor A and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor. Mutations ...
MAR-binding protein that down-regulates Cyclin D1 expression by recruiting HDAC1-mSin3A co-repressor complex at Cyclin D1 ... promoter locus; SMAR1 is the target of prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) induced growth arrest. NACC1, a novel member of the POZ/BTB (Pox ... "Tumor suppressor SMAR1 mediates cyclin D1 repression by recruitment of the SIN3/histone deacetylase 1 complex". Molecular and ...
... *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... cyclin D (Cdk4) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, ... cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... CDK4, CMM3, PSK-J3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin dependent ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... CDK8, K35, cyclin-dependent kinase 8, cyclin dependent kinase 8 ... Rickert P, Corden JL, Lees E (Jan 1999). "Cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are biochemically distinct CTD kinases". Oncogene ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK8 and cyclin C associate ... "Entrez Gene: CDK8 cyclin-dependent kinase 8".. *^ Nemet J, Jelicic B, Rubelj I, Sopta M (Feb 2014). "The two faces of Cdk8, a ...
Hoque M, Young TM, Lee CG, Serrero G, Mathews MB, Pe'ery T (March 2003). "The growth factor granulin interacts with cyclin T1 ... Other studies have suggested tumor necrosis factor and EPH receptor A2 as potential progranulin facilitators. After binding to ... Progranulin can promote cyclin D1 expression in breast cancer lines and phosphorylation of proteins through extracellular ... Granulin has also been shown to interact with Cyclin T1 and TRIB3. Although progranulin expression increases as cells mature, ...
RPA2 has been shown to interact with: Cyclin O, DNA-PKcs, Ku70, MEN1, RPA3, Replication protein A1, STAT3, TP53BP1 and Uracil- ... "Entrez Gene: RPA2 Replication protein A2, 32kDa". Otterlei M, Warbrick E, Nagelhus TA, Haug T, Slupphaug G, Akbari M, Aas PA, ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.700 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57 See List of MeSH ... MeSH D12.776.070.400.200.100 - apolipoprotein A1 MeSH D12.776.070.400.200.150 - apolipoprotein A2 See List of MeSH codes ( ... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.900 - cyclin-dependent kinase 9 MeSH D12.776.167.200.580.500 - cdc2 protein ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p15 MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.200 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 MeSH D12.776.624.776 ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ... cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ... p21Cip1 (alternatively p21Waf1), also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin- ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)".. *^ Gartel AL, Radhakrishnan SK (May 2005). "Lost in ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ...
Arif A, Jia J, Moodt RA, DiCorleto PE, Fox PL (January 2011). "Phosphorylation of glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase by cyclin- ...
... á luz ou á calor, o licopeno pode sufrir isomerización a un dos seus isómeros cis, estes teñen forma curvada en vez de linear. ... in the cyclin E-cdk2 complexes". Oncogene 20 (26): 3428-436. PMID 11423993. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204452.. ... Debido á súa forte cor e falta de toxicidade, o licopeno é un colorante alimentario útil (co número E160d) e o seu uso está ... En canto á súa farmacocinética, despois da súa inxestión, o licopeno incorpórase a micelas lipídicas na luz do intestino ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... cyclin-dependent kinases, and other cell cycle proteins. The ... All these phases in the cell cycle are highly regulated by cyclins, ...
... collagen type 1 A2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelin receptor A and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor. Mutations ...
"CDK-dependent Hsp70 Phosphorylation controls G1 cyclin abundance and cell-cycle progression". Cell. 151 (6): 1308-18. doi ...
Crucial for the Entry of the KSHV [10] is the EPH receptor A2[11] , Hrs[12] , TSG101[13] and a few Integrins, whose identity ... ORF72 - vCyclin ORF73 - LANA, latency-associated nuclear antigen- tethers genome to chromosome during latency, also regulates ... cyclin-D, a G protein-coupled receptor, interferon regulatory factor and Flice inhibitory protein (FLIP), as well as DNA ... "The ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A2 is a cellular receptor for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus". Nature Medicine ...
Floyd SR, Porro EB, Slepnev VI, Ochoa GC, Tsai LH, De Camilli P (March 2001). "Amphiphysin 1 binds the cyclin-dependent kinase ... 13 A2,13 6.89 cM. Start. 18,948,205 bp[2]. End. 19,150,921 bp[2]. ... Floyd SR, Porro EB, Slepnev VI, Ochoa GC, Tsai LH, De Camilli P (March 2001). "Amphiphysin 1 binds the cyclin-dependent kinase ...
... and A2 complexes, Gcn5L, p300/CREB-binding protein associated factor (PCAF), Elp3, HPA2 and HAT1.[10][11] Major features of the ... mice were found to die during embryogenesis and showed a drastic reduction in the production but increased expression of Cyclin ...
細胞週期的進行是由不同的週期素(Cyclin)所調控。週期素意味著這些蛋白質的表現量會隨著細胞週期的進行而有所變化,進而確認週期素原來是扮演細胞週期調控的角色。依照目前的認知,就如同細胞週期G1期→S期→G2期→M期的進行,在G1期大量表現的週期素D( ... A(A1、
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ...
negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • lung development. • cytokine-mediated ...
One such example of E2F-regulated genes repressed by Rb are cyclin E and cyclin A. Both of these cyclins are able to bind to ... Within 72-96 hours of active Rb induction in A2-4 cells, the target DNA replication factor proteins-MCMs, RPA34, DBF4, RFCp37, ... When E2F is free it activates factors like cyclins (e.g. cyclin E and cyclin A), which push the cell through the cell cycle by ... See also: cyclin-dependent kinase and DREAM complex. When it is time for a cell to enter S phase, complexes of cyclin-dependent ...
Saltar ata a navegación Saltar á procura A secretina é unha hormona que controla as secrecións no duodeno, e tamén a homeostase ... "Retinoic acid-induced human secretin gene expression in neuronal cells is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1". Ann. N. Y. ... Ademais, a secretina estimula a secreción de pepsinóxeno nas células principais, o que axuda á dixestión das proteínas dos ...
CDKN2C, INK4C, p18, p18-INK4C, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C. ... A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *بروتين سيكلين دي (D1, D2, D3) ... CDKN2C‏ (Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين CDKN2C في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN2C cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4)". مؤرشف من الأصل في 05 ديسمبر 2010.. الوسيط , ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ...
Zhao L, Samuels T, Winckler S, Korgaonkar C, Tompkins V, Horne MC, Quelle DE (January 2003). "Cyclin G1 has growth inhibitory ... "The MDM2 C-terminal region binds to TAFII250 and is required for MDM2 regulation of the cyclin A promoter". The Journal of ...
regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • regulation of cellular component size. • response to ... A2, B) - 6-phosphogluconolactonase - PAF acetylhydrolase ... negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • negative regulation of neuron projection ...
Só son necesarias as subunidades Orc1-5 para a unión á orixe de replicación. Pola súa parte, Orc6 é básica para o mantemento do ... Nguyen VQ, Co C, Li JJ (June 2001). "Cyclin-dependent kinases prevent DNA re-replication through multiple mechanisms". Nature ... á cromatina nas orixes de replicación durante o ciclo celular.[5] O ORC dirixe a replicación do ADN por todo o xenoma e é ... "Binding of cyclin-dependent kinases to ORC and Cdc6p regulates the chromosome replication cycle". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ...
The first to be discovered was its capability to drive cell proliferation (upregulates cyclins, downregulates p21), but it also ...
Pode tamén diminuír os niveis de expresión de receptores de citocinas, como o receptor de IL-2 para regular á baixa a ... and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors P27 and P21". Leuk. Lymphoma 43 (1): 51-7. PMID 11908736. doi:10.1080/10428190210195 ...
... the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), where substrates are recognized by the cyclin subunit, MAPKs associate with their ... Garai Á, Zeke A, Gógl G, Törő I, Fördős F, Blankenburg H, Bárkai T, Varga J, Alexa A, Emig D, Albrecht M, Reményi A (Oct 2012 ... The closest relatives of MAPKs are the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs).[2] ...
Cyclin. *Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein. *Cyclin-dependent kinase. *Cyclin. Lipid. *Phosphoinositide phospholipase C ...
p53 also upregulates the p21 protein, which blocks the formation of the cyclin D/Cdk4 complex, thereby preventing the ... and annexin A2[93] leading to entry of the virions into basal epithelial cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and/or ... "The S100A10 subunit of the annexin A2 heterotetramer facilitates L2-mediated human papillomavirus infection". PLoS One. 7 (8 ...
6-epoxisoprostane A2. In cells, COX-1 and COX-2 metabolize arachidonic acid to PGH2 which is then converted to PGE2 by any one ... Cyclin D1, Cdk4, and Insulin-like growth factor 1; and e) regulating agents such as HSP70, GPR78, Gadd153, Ubiquitin B, and ...
The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex eventually phosphorylates E2F, turning off cyclin A2 transcription. E2F promotes cyclin A2 ... cyclin A1 is expressed during meiosis and embryogenesis while cyclin A2 is expressed in dividing somatic cells. Cyclin A2 ... Cyclin A2 is synthesized at the onset of S phase and localizes to the nucleus, where the cyclin A2-CDK2 complex is implicated ... Cyclin A2 has been shown to interact with: CDC6, E2F1, FEN1, ITGB3BP, RBL1, and SKP2. Cyclin A2 (Ccna2) is a key protein ...
Mouse monoclonal Cyclin A2 antibody [E70.1] validated for WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full ...
Mouse monoclonal Cyclin A2 antibody [E67.1]. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, ICC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Cow, Human, African ... 148 of human Cyclin A2. Cyclin As that contain the epitope Cow A2 Human A2 Hamster A2 Mouse A2 Cyclin As that do not contain ... Primary - Mouse Anti-Cyclin A2 antibody [E67.1] (ab39) ICC/IF, WB, ICC, IP, IHC-P ... Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence - Anti-Cyclin A2 antibody [E67.1] (ab39)Image courtesy of an anonymous Abreview. ...
... a protein called cyclin A2. It is unique in its control at two major transitions of the cell cycle and is the only cyclin that ... This approach -- using cyclin A2 expression via gene transfer -- yielded improved myocardial function. "Penn is the first to do ... Cyclin A2 expression can help regenerate damaged myocardium. By University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Jul 8, 2006, 21: ...
... a protein called cyclin A2. It is unique in its control at two major transitions of the cell cycle and is the only cyclin that ... Cyclin A2 expression can help regenerate damaged myocardium. Jul 8, 2006, 21:55, Reviewed by: Dr. Rashmi Yadav. ... This approach -- using cyclin A2 expression via gene transfer -- yielded improved myocardial function. "Penn is the first to do ... "Therapeutic Delivery of Cyclin A2 Induces Myocardial Regeneration and Enhances Cardiac Function in Ischemic Heart Failure." Co- ...
... or cyclin A2-expressing (CMV-cyclin A2; E1fα-EGFP) lentiviridae. β-Cells infected with cyclin A2-expressing lentivirus (▪) show ... 7). Formation of cyclin A2-cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 1 or A2-cdk 2 complexes lead to p27 phosphorylation and degradation ( ... Knockdown of cyclin A2 in Min6 cells reduces proliferation rate. siRNA-mediated knockdown of cyclin A2 in Min6 cells is ... CONCLUSIONS-Cyclin A2 is required for β-cell proliferation, exendin-4 stimulates cyclin A2 expression via the cAMP pathway, and ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Cyclin A2 Mouse anti-Human, Mouse, Bovine, Mustelid, Primate, Alexa ... Cyclin A2 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Cyclin A2 in Human,Mouse,Bovine,Mustelid,Primate samples. It is validated ... Its epitope is located amino acids 144-148 of human Cyclin A2. Cyclins are regulatory subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinases ... Cyclin A2 Mouse anti-Human, Mouse, Bovine, Mustelid, Primate, Alexa Fluor 750, Clone: E67, Novus Biologicals ...
Cyclin A2 modulates kinetochore-microtubule attachment in meiosis II. Qing-Hua Zhang, Wai Shan Yuen, Deepak Adhikari, Jennifer ... Cyclin A2 modulates kinetochore-microtubule attachment in meiosis II. View ORCID ProfileQing-Hua Zhang Correspondence email, ...
... cyclin A2) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, IP, WB. Anti-Cyclin A2 pAb (GTX103042) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... CCN1 antibody, CCNA antibody, CCNA2 antibody, cyclin-A antibody, cyclin-A2 antibody, cyclin A2 antibody. ... Immunoprecipitation of Cyclin A2 protein by 2.5 μg of Cyclin A2 antibody (GTX103042) 10% SDS-PAGE The immunoprecipitated Cyclin ... Immunoprecipitation of Cyclin A2 protein by 2.5 μg of Cyclin A2 antibody (GTX103042) 10% SDS-PAGE The immunoprecipitated Cyclin ...
Cyclin A2 (Ccna2), normally silenced after birth in the mammalian heart, can induce cardiac repair in small-animal models of ... Cyclin A2 Induces Cardiac Regeneration After Myocardial Infarction Through Cytokinesis of Adult Cardiomyocytes ... Cyclin A2 Induces Cardiac Regeneration After Myocardial Infarction Through Cytokinesis of Adult Cardiomyocytes ... Cyclin A2 Induces Cardiac Regeneration After Myocardial Infarction Through Cytokinesis of Adult Cardiomyocytes ...
Cyclin A2 activates the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk1 and Cdk2 and is expressed at elevated levels from S phase until early ... Unexpectedly, cyclin A2 controlled Mre11 abundance through a C-terminal RNA binding domain that selectively and directly binds ... These data reveal cyclin A2 as a mechanistically diverse regulator of DNA replication combining multifaceted kinase-dependent ... We found that mutant mice that cannot elevate cyclin A2 are chromosomally unstable and tumor-prone. Underlying the chromosomal ...
Its epitope is located amino acids 144-148 of human Cyclin A2. Cyclins are regulatory subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinases ... In mammalian somatic cells, cyclin A is required for S-phase and passage through G2-phase. The D and E type cyclins regulate ... Adamczewski JP; Gannon JV; Hunt T. Simian virus 40 large T antigen associates with cyclin A and p33cdk2. Journal of Virology, ... These cyclin/cdk complexes are essential for passage through specific stages in the cell cycle. ...
Transcriptional Regulation of Cyclin A2 by RASSF1A through the Enhanced Binding of p120E4F to the Cyclin A2 Promoter. Jalal ... RASSF1A inhibits the cyclin A2 promoter through increasing p120E4F-mediated repression. Cyclin A2 is regulated by the ... Transcriptional Regulation of Cyclin A2 by RASSF1A through the Enhanced Binding of p120E4F to the Cyclin A2 Promoter ... Transcriptional Regulation of Cyclin A2 by RASSF1A through the Enhanced Binding of p120E4F to the Cyclin A2 Promoter ...
Cyclin A2 (BF683) Mouse mAb - Western Blotting, UniProt ID P20248, Entrez ID 890 #4656, Monoclonal Antibody - TESK1 (D49D4) ... Product listing: Cyclin A2 (BF683) Mouse mAb, UniProt ID P20248 #4656 to TrkB Antibody, UniProt ID Q16620 #4606 ... Monoclonal Antibody - Cyclin A2 (BF683) Mouse mAb - Western Blotting, UniProt ID P20248, Entrez ID 890 #4656 ... and cyclin A is required for completion of prophase (5). At late prophase, cyclin A may no longer be necessary as cdc2/cyclinB1 ...
In contrast to cyclin A1, which is present only in germ cells, this cyclin is expressed in all;tissues tested. This cyclin ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases.Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a;dramatic ... In contrast to cyclin A1, which is present only in germ cells, this cyclin is expressed in all;tissues tested. This cyclin ...
As both underexpression and overexpression of cyclin A2 have been linked to poor outcome in tumors, the role of cyclin A2 in ... Cyclin A2 (encoded by CCNA2) is responsible for activating the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK1 and CDK2 to induce S-phase ... Mechanistically, cyclin A2 bound directly to the 3UTR of Mre11 mRNA in a CDK-independent manner to promote its translation, ... Ccna2−/H mice had a marked reduction in cyclin A2 protein in tissues with a high mitotic index but relatively normal levels in ...
However, cyclin A2 is the major A-type cyclin in somatic cells (52). Cyclin A2 is ubiquitously expressed in proliferating cells ... Mammals express two A-type cyclins, embryonic-specific cyclin A1 and somatic cyclin A2. Because cyclin A1 expression is ... Loss of cyclin A2 in HDAC10 knockdown cells contributed to G2/M arrest. The effect of HDAC10 on cyclin A2 transcription was ... HDAC10, but not HDAC6, regulates the G2/M transition via cyclin A2. (A and B) Western blot analysis results for cyclin A2 in ...
These defects are rescued by restoration of wild-type Cyclin A2, which directly interacts with RhoA, or by a Cyclin A2 mutant ... Cyclin A2 potentiates the exchange activity of a RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Consistent with this, Cyclin ... Cyclin A2 plays a key role in cell cycle regulation. It is essential in embryonic cells and in the hematopoietic lineage yet ... Moreover, Cyclin A2 expression is lower in metastases relative to primary colon adenocarcinoma in matched human tumors. All ...
Cyclin which controls both the G1/S and the G2/M transition phases of the cell cycle. Functions through the formation of ... The cyclin subunit confers the substrate specificity of these complexes and differentially interacts with and activates CDK1 ... specific serine/threonine protein kinase holoenzyme complexes with the cyclin-dependent protein kinases CDK1 or CDK2. ...
... there are two A-type cyclins - an embryonic-specific cyclin A1 and a somatic cyclin A2. Cyclin A1 is only expressed in meiosis ... whereas cyclin A2 is present in proliferating somatic cells ... cyclin A2 complexes to the CDK1 (also called CDC2). Cyclin A2 ... Cyclin A2 Antigen. In humans, there are two A-type cyclins - an embryonic-specific cyclin A1 and a somatic cyclin A2. Cyclin A1 ... whereas cyclin A2 is present in proliferating somatic cells. Cyclin A2 is a 48 kDa protein composed of 432 amino-acids. Cyclins ...
"ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab2097 交差種: Ms,Rat,Rb,Hu 適用: WB,IP,ELISA,ICC/IF…Cyclin A2抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報 ... Anti-Cyclin A2 antibody. Cyclin A2 一次抗体 製品一覧. ... 一次抗体 - Rabbit Anti-Cyclin A2 antibody (ab2097) WB, IP, ELISA, ... タンパク質 - Recombinant Human Cyclin A2 protein (ab126696) SDS-PAGE 二次抗体 - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) IHC-P, WB, ... Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence - Anti-Cyclin A2 antibody (ab2097)Image from
The critical role that the family of regulatory proteins known as cyclins play in eukaryotic cell cycle regulation is well ... Product Description for Cyclin A2. Rabbit anti Human, Mouse, Rat Cyclin A2.. Presentation: Aff - Purified. Product is tested ... A second form of cyclin A, named cyclin A1 because of its high sequence homology to Xenopus cyclin A1, is most highly expressed ... Cyclin A2. Add to Cart. Human > 80 % Preparation: Recombint protein was captured through anti-DDK affinity column followed by ...
"マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab38 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,Flow Cyt…Cyclin A2抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献など ... Anti-Cyclin A2 antibody [E23.1]. Cyclin A2 一次抗体 製品一覧. ... All lanes : Anti-Cyclin A2 antibody [E23.1] (ab38) at 2 µg/ml. Lane 1 : U2OS (Hu) whole cell lysate. Lane 2 : 293T (Hu) whole ... All lanes : Anti-Cyclin A2 antibody [E23.1] (ab38) at 5 µg/ml. Lane 1 : HEK293 (Human embryonic kidney cell line) Whole
In humans, there are two A-type cyclins - an embryonic-specific cyclin A1 and a somatic cyclin A2. Cyclin A1 is only expressed ... whereas cyclin A2 is present in proliferating somatic cells. Cyclin A2 is a 48 kDa protein composed of 432 amino-acids. Cyclins ... For passage through G2 to M phase, cyclin A2 complexes to the CDK1 (also called CDC2). Cyclin A2 is degraded via the ubiquitin- ... The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex initiates DNA replication and is required for S phase progression. ...
Cyclin A2 is an RNA binding protein that controls Mre11 mRNA translation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Cyclin A2 ... Cyclin A2 activates the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk1 and Cdk2 and is expressed at elevated levels from S phase until early ... N2 - Cyclin A2 activates the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk1 and Cdk2 and is expressed at elevated levels from S phase until ... AB - Cyclin A2 activates the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk1 and Cdk2 and is expressed at elevated levels from S phase until ...
CYCLIN A2. B, D. 260. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CCNA2, CCN1, CCNA. ... Structure of human Thr160-phospho CDK2/cyclin A complexed with a 6-cyclohexylmethyloxy-2-anilino-purine inhibitor. *DOI: ... N2-Substituted O6-Cyclohexylmethylguanine Derivatives: Potent Inhibitors of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases 1 and 2. Hardcastle, I.R. ... The adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) competitive cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor O(6)-cyclohexylmethylguanine (NU2058, 1) has ...
The crystal structure of CDK2 cyclin A in complex with a substrate peptide derived from CDC modified with a gamma-linked ATP ... CYCLIN A2. B, D. 260. Homo sapiens. Gene Names: CCNA2 (CCN1, CCNA). ... Phospho-CDK2/cyclin A, a kinase that is active in cell cycle S phase, contains an RXL substrate recognition site that is over ... Phospho-CDK2/cyclin A, a kinase that is active in cell cycle S phase, contains an RXL substrate recognition site that is over ...
Cyclin-like superfamily * Occurring in:. *Cyclin-A2. *Cyclin-A2. > Cyclin-like * Occurring in:. *Cyclin-A2. *Cyclin-A2. > ... Cyclin-A2 Chain: B Molecule details › Chain: B. Length: 262 amino acids. Theoretical weight: 30.08 KDa. Source organism: Homo ... Cyclin-A2 Chain: D Molecule details › Chain: D. Length: 262 amino acids. Theoretical weight: 30.04 KDa. Source organism: Homo ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2. > Protein kinase domain * Occurring in:. *Cyclin-dependent kinase 2. > Protein kinase, ATP binding ...
A2-Type Cyclins in Arabidopsis. Plants contain a number of cyclin genes whose functional overlap and differentiation remain ... In proliferating tissues, in which promoters of CYCA2;3 and the other A2-type genes are active, A2-type cyclins are supposed to ... Cell cycle function of a Medicago sativa A2-type cyclin interacting with a PSTAIRE-type cyclin-dependent kinase and a ... Expression analysis of cyclin A2 genes was performed with the SYBR Green method using the DyNAmo HS SYBR Green qPCR kit ( ...
M transition through stabilization of cyclin A2 mRNA. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Cyclin A2 Medicine & Life ... WTAP knockdown down-regulated the stability of cyclin A2 mRNA through a nine-nucleotide essential sequence in cyclin A2 mRNA 3 ... WTAP knockdown down-regulated the stability of cyclin A2 mRNA through a nine-nucleotide essential sequence in cyclin A2 mRNA 3 ... WTAP knockdown down-regulated the stability of cyclin A2 mRNA through a nine-nucleotide essential sequence in cyclin A2 mRNA 3 ...
  • Cyclin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin A2 (Ccna2) is a key protein involved in the direction of mammalian cardiac myocytes to grow and divide, and has been shown to induce cardiac repair following myocardial infarction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin A2 ( Ccna2 ), normally silenced after birth in the mammalian heart, can induce cardiac repair in small-animal models of myocardial infarction. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cyclin A2 (encoded by CCNA2 ) is responsible for activating the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK1 and CDK2 to induce S-phase chromosome duplication and initiate mitosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because complete loss of cyclin A2 is embryonically lethal, Kanakkanthara and colleagues developed a hypomorphic Ccna2 allele ( Ccna2 H ) with reduced expression of cyclin A2 to better understand its role in tumorigenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ccna2 −/ H mice had a marked reduction in cyclin A2 protein in tissues with a high mitotic index but relatively normal levels in tissues with less actively dividing cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ccna2 −/ H mice were more susceptible to spontaneous and carcinogen-induced tumors than Ccna2 +/+ mice, indicating that cyclin A2 insufficiency promotes malignant transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Important cyclin involved in cell cycle control [ 794 ], CCNA2 could be a downstream target of pathways related to senescence and ageing. (senescence.info)
  • This Cyclin A (CCNA2) antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 51-84 amino acids from the N-terminal region of human Cyclin A (CCNA2). (avivasysbio.com)
  • Cyclin A2 is synthesized at the onset of S phase and localizes to the nucleus, where the cyclin A2-CDK2 complex is implicated in the initiation and progression of DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation of CDC6 and MCM4 by the cyclin A2-CDK2 complex prevents re-replication of DNA during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex eventually phosphorylates E2F, turning off cyclin A2 transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cyclin binds and activates CDC2 or CDK2 kinases, and thus promotes both cell cycle G1/S and G2/M transitions. (genetex.com)
  • Cyclin A2 activates the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk1 and Cdk2 and is expressed at elevated levels from S phase until early mitosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Functions through the formation of specific serine/threonine protein kinase holoenzyme complexes with the cyclin-dependent protein kinases CDK1 or CDK2 . (sdsc.edu)
  • The cyclin subunit confers the substrate specificity of these complexes and differentially interacts with and activates CDK1 and CDK2 throughout the cell cycle. (sdsc.edu)
  • The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex initiates DNA replication and is required for S phase progression. (mybeckman.com.br)
  • Cyclin A accumulates prior to cyclin B in the cell cycle, appears to be involved in control of S phase and has been shown to associate with cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (Cdk2). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • It has been proposed that cyclin A1 can associate with Cdk2, p39 and Cdc2 p34. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Cyclin A can regulate multiple cell cycle steps because it associates with, and thereby activates, two distinct CDKs - CDK2 and CDK1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Association of cyclin A with CDK2 is required for passage into S phase while association with CDK1 is required for entry into M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the cell passes from G1 into S phase, cyclin A associates with CDK2, replacing cyclin E. Cyclin E is responsible for initiating the assembly of the pre-replication complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the amount of cyclin A/CDK2 complex reaches a threshold level, it terminates the assembly of the pre-replication complex made by cyclin E/CDK2. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the amount of Cyclin A/CDK2 complex increases, the complex initiates DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is thought to occur through the phosphorylation of particular DNA replication machinery components, such as CDC6, by the cyclin A/CDK2 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the action of cyclin A/CDK2 inhibits that of cyclin E/CDK2, the sequential activation of cyclin E followed by the activation of cyclin A is important and tightly regulated in S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin A/CDK2 complex was thought to be restricted to the nucleus and thus exclusively involved in S phase progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • New research has since debunked this assumption, shedding light on cyclin A/CDK2 migration to the centrosomes in late G2. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is suspected that the presence of cyclin A/CDK2 at the centrosomes may confer a means of regulating the movement of cyclin B/CDK1 to the centrosome and thus the timing of mitotic events. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study in 2008 provided further evidence of cyclin A/CDK2 complex's role in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells were modified so their CDK2 was inhibited and their cyclin A2 gene was knocked out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coupling of microtubule nucleation in the centrosome with mitotic events in the nucleus was lost in the cyclin A knockout/CDK2 inhibited mutant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cyclin binds both CDK2 and CDC2 kinases, which give two distinct kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2, and thus regulate separate functions in cell cycle. (novusbio.com)
  • This G1 arrest is associated with a dramatic decrease in the protein levels of Cdk2 and cyclin E correlated with an inhibition of the Cdk2 kinase activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cyclin A2 belongs to the cyclin family, whose members regulate cell cycle progression by interacting with CDK kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclins are regulatory subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) and they control transition at different specific phases of the cell cycle. (fishersci.com)
  • Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. (genetex.com)
  • Cyclins are regulatory subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk's) and they control transition at different specific phases of the cell cycle. (biotium.com)
  • Cyclins control the activation of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) by associating with them to form a cyclin-CDK complex able to phosphorylate selected proteins and to induce downstream processes. (mybeckman.com.br)
  • Cyclin A, along with the other members of the cyclin family, regulates cell cycle progression through physically interacting with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which thereby activates the enzymatic activity of its CDK partner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactoferrin inhibits G1 cyclin-dependent kinases during growth arrest of human breast carcinoma cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we show that p21 WAF1/CIP1, the prototype inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), is required for this coordination in human cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although cyclins were initially characterized as molecules whose expression "cycled" (hence the name) once per cell cycle, it is now known that they function both as activating regulatory subunits and substrate specificity-determining components for cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) ( 9 , 27 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • This approach -- using cyclin A2 expression via gene transfer -- yielded improved myocardial function. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. (genetex.com)
  • Together, these data identify the cyclin A2 gene as a cellular target for RASSF1A through p120 E4F and for the first time suggest a transcriptional mechanism for RASSF1A-dependent cell cycle regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the process of searching for regulatory factors of endoreduplication, the promoter of an Arabidopsis thaliana cyclin A gene, CYCA2;3 , was revealed to be active in developing trichomes during the termination period of endoreduplication as well as in proliferating tissues. (plantcell.org)
  • The gene expression pattern of A2V6 mRNA in human tissues was noticeably different from that of wild-type cyclin A2 A2WT mRNA. (duhnnae.com)
  • A single cyclin A gene has been identified in Drosophila while Xenopus, mice and humans contain two distinct types of cyclin A: A1, the embryonic-specific form, and A2, the somatic form. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyclin encoded by this gene was shown to be expressed in testis and brain, as well as in several leukemic cell lines, and is thought to primarily function in the control of the germline meiotic cell cycle. (novusbio.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that the cyclin A2-CDK1 complex triggers cyclin B1-CDK1 activation which results in chromatin condensation and the breakdown of the nuclear envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • For passage through G2 to M phase, cyclin A2 complexes to the CDK1 (also called CDC2). (mybeckman.com.br)
  • In late S phase, cyclin A can also associate with CDK1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin A remains associated with CDK1 from late S into late G2 phase when it is replaced by cyclin B. Cyclin A/CDK1 is thought to be involved in the activation and stabilization of cyclin B/CDK1 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Degradation of cyclin A/CDK1 induces mitotic exit. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutants entered mitosis late due to a delayed activation of the cyclin B/CDK1 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin B-dependent kinase (CDK1-CCNB1) promotes entry into mitosis. (rupress.org)
  • The two crucial targets ubiquitylated by the APC/C to promote mitotic exit are securin, the inhibitor of separase, and most important for this work, cyclin B, the activating subunit of a cyclin-dependent mitotic kinase (CDK1). (rupress.org)
  • The critical role that the family of regulatory proteins known as cyclins play in eukaryotic cell cycle regulation is well established. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Cyclin A is a member of the cyclin family, a group of proteins that function in regulating progression through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that the ubiquitin ligase NIRF (also known as UHRF2), which induces G1 arrest, interacts with multiple cell cycle proteins including cyclins (A2, B1, D1 and E1), p53 and pRB, and ubiquitinates cyclins D1 and E1. (nih.gov)
  • We compared the ability of other Bruno-Like proteins, both vertebrate and invertebrate, to stimulate translation via the cyclin A2 3''UTR and found that only Drosophila Bru-3 had similar activity. (xenbase.org)
  • The proteins that N-(3-cyclopropyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-2-(2-naphthyl)acetamide targets include cyclin-A2 and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. (drugbank.ca)
  • This cyclin was found to bind to important cell cycle regulators, such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • In developing white matter, decreased total β-catenin, activated β-catenin, and cyclin D1 levels coincided with the peak of Sox17 expression, and immunoprecipitates showed a developmentally regulated interaction among Sox17, T-cell transcription factor 4, and β-catenin proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • however, none of these proteins have been shown to contribute to cyclin B1 localization. (rupress.org)
  • The levels of cyclin A2 are tightly synchronized with the progression of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • RESULTS- Mice treated with exendin-4 showed increased β-cell proliferation, elevated islet protein levels of cyclin A2 with unchanged D-type cyclins, elevated PDX-1 and Skp2 levels, and reduced p27 levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This antibody detects endogenous levels of Cyclin A2 protein (region surrounding Trp250). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Sox17 knockdown also increases the levels of cyclin D1, Axin2, and activated β-catenin. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using small interfering RNA to knockdown endogenous RASSF1A in the breast tumor cell line HB2 and in the cervical cancer cell line HeLa, we identify that a key player in cell cycle progression, cyclin A2, is concomitantly increased at both protein and mRNA levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin A2 binds to Mre11 mRNA to promote Mre11 translation and repair of replication errors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mechanistically, cyclin A2 bound directly to the 3'UTR of Mre11 mRNA in a CDK-independent manner to promote its translation, and thus depletion of cyclin A2 resulted in a reduction in MRE11. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Van Deursen, Jan M. / Cyclin A2 is an RNA binding protein that controls Mre11 mRNA translation . (elsevier.com)
  • siRNA-mediated WTAP knockdown down-regulated the stability of cyclin A2 mRNA through a nine-nucleotide essential sequence in cyclin A2 mRNA 3′ UTR. (elsevier.com)
  • Collectively, these findings establish WTAP as an essential factor for the stabilization of cyclin A2 mRNA, thereby regulating G 2 /M cell-cycle transition. (elsevier.com)
  • Sequence-specific primers were designed to amplify various exon-intron regions of cyclin A2 mRNA in cell lines and human tissues. (duhnnae.com)
  • We found a splice variant of cyclin A2 mRNA called A2V6 that partly retains Intron 6. (duhnnae.com)
  • This study has revealed that some highly differentiated human tissues express an intron-retaining cyclin A2 mRNA that induced a G1-S block in vitro. (duhnnae.com)
  • BrunoL1 regulates endoderm proliferation through translational enhancement of cyclin A2 mRNA. (xenbase.org)
  • We demonstrate that BrunoL1 regulates proliferation of endoderm cells through translational control of cyclin A2 mRNA. (xenbase.org)
  • E2F promotes cyclin A2 transcription by de-repressing the promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exendin-4 stimulated cyclin A2 promoter activity via the cAMP-cAMP response element binding protein pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that knockdown of endogenous RASSF1A in HB2 and HeLa cells leads to a reduction in the binding capacity of p120 E4F to the cyclin A2 promoter, whereas in the A549 clone stably expressing RASSF1A the binding capacity is increased. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HDAC10 regulates cyclin A2 expression by deacetylating histones near the let-7 promoter, thereby repressing transcription. (asm.org)
  • HMGA2 loss resulted in enrichment of the transcriptional repressor E4F at the cyclin A2 promoter. (asm.org)
  • In addition, cyclin E expression from the cyclin D1 promoter completely rescues phenotypic consequences of cyclin D1 loss by bypassing cyclin D1's function in the cell cycle ( 12 ), suggesting that the essential role of cyclin D is to activate cyclin E expression. (asm.org)
  • Sox17 overexpression inhibited PDGF-induced TOPFLASH and cyclin D1 promoter activity, and decreased endogenous cyclin D1, activated β-catenin, as well as total β-catenin levels. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because cyclin A2 was stimulated by cAMP, we assessed the role of cylcin A2 in cell cycle progression in Min6 and isolated islet β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A report from our laboratory (9) suggests an interaction of RASSF1A with the ubiquitously expressed E1A-regulated transcription factor p120 E4F , a transcriptional repressor of cyclin A2, adding further weight to the role RASSF1A in cell cycle progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, overexpression of p120 E4F in NIH 3T3 cells inhibits progression from G 1 to S phase by a mechanism that involves the repression of cyclin A2 (13) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • As both underexpression and overexpression of cyclin A2 have been linked to poor outcome in tumors, the role of cyclin A2 in tumor progression is unclear. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human cyclin A2 is a key regulator of S phase progression and entry into mitosis. (duhnnae.com)
  • Alternative splice variants of the G1 and mitotic cyclins have been shown to interfere with full-length cyclin functions to modulate cell cycle progression and are therefore likely to play a role in differentiation or oncogenesis. (duhnnae.com)
  • Transcription of cyclin A is tightly regulated and synchronized with cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initiation of transcription of cyclin A is coordinated with passage of the R point, a critical transition point that is required for progression from G1 into S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surprisingly, the E-type cyclins appear to be dispensable for cell cycle progression in normally cycling cells, but they are essential for cell cycle reentry ( 13 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • At late prophase, cyclin A may no longer be necessary as cdc2/cyclinB1 becomes active (5). (cellsignal.com)
  • The best-characterized cyclin complex is the mitotic cyclin B/Cdc2 p34 kinase, the active component of maturing promoting factor. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In agreement with this observation, cdc2 kinase, a cdc2/cyclin B complex essential for G 2 -M phase transition, phosphorylates SF2/ASF ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The D and E type cyclins regulate the passage of G1, while cyclin B is a critical regulator of mitosis. (fishersci.com)
  • Background: While overcoming the G1/S checkpoint to commence DNA replication requires cyclin E, and traversing the G2/M checkpoint to initiate mitosis requires cyclin B to be present, cyclin A seems to be required for both S-phase and M-phase (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • Cyclin A availability is apparently the rate-limiting step for entry into mitosis, and cyclin A is required for completion of prophase (5). (cellsignal.com)
  • Cyclin A2 is degraded via the ubiquitin-dependant proteolysis pathway in the early phases of mitosis. (mybeckman.com.br)
  • NPY also upregulated several genes required for mitosis in MSC, including aurora B kinase, FGF-2, cycline A2, eukaryotic initiation factor 4 E, and stromal cell-derived factor-1α. (physiology.org)
  • This indicates that distinct properties of cyclin A and B are required to initiate and then sustain mitosis ( Gong and Ferrell, 2010 ). (rupress.org)
  • Few other monoclonal antibodies other than E67.1 are able to immunoprecipitate active CDK/Cyclin A H1 kinase from such a wide range of species. (abcam.com)
  • Cross reactivity with Cyclin A from other species may also occur. (abcam.co.jp)
  • The temporal expression of cyclins is tightly regulated and subsequently plays a critical role in controlling the enzymatic activity of cdks. (fishersci.com)
  • It is one of the two types of cyclin A: cyclin A1 is expressed during meiosis and embryogenesis while cyclin A2 is expressed in dividing somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian somatic cells, cyclin A is required for S-phase and passage through G2-phase. (fishersci.com)
  • In humans, there are two A-type cyclins - an embryonic-specific cyclin A1 and a somatic cyclin A2. (mybeckman.com.br)
  • Cyclin A1 is only expressed in meiosis and very early embryos, whereas cyclin A2 is present in proliferating somatic cells. (mybeckman.com.br)
  • Cyclin A2 is expressed in dividing somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of cyclin A2 in mammalian cells can result in the delayed onset of metaphase and anaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • WTAP knockdown induced G 2 accumulation, which is partially rescued by adenoviral overexpression of cyclin A2. (elsevier.com)
  • They did this by expressing the cell-cycle regulator, a protein called cyclin A2. (rxpgnews.com)
  • These data reveal cyclin A2 as a mechanistically diverse regulator of DNA replication combining multifaceted kinase-dependent functions with a kinase-independent, RNA binding-dependent role that ensures adequate repair of common replication errors. (sciencemag.org)
  • A known transcriptional regulator of cyclin A2, p120 E4F (a repressor of cyclin A2), has been shown previously by our group to interact with RASSF1A. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Clk/Sty was initially cloned as a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-like kinase by PCR ( 4 , 5 ), as well as a dual specificity kinase in an expression screening ( 6 - 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS- Cyclin A2 is required for β-cell proliferation, exendin-4 stimulates cyclin A2 expression via the cAMP pathway, and exendin-4 stimulation of cAMP requires PDX-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Once cyclin B is activated, cyclin A is no longer needed and is subsequently degraded through the ubiquitin pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Ythdc2 -/- testes, germ cells attempt to enter meiotic prophase, but fail to properly express many meiotic markers, continue to express Cyclin A2, rapidly condense their chromosomes and initiate an aberrant mitotic-like division before undergoing apoptosis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Once the nuclear envelope has broken down, cyclin A is rapidly destroyed, while cyclin B1 associates with the condensed chromosomes and the spindle apparatus and is stabilized by the spindle checkpoint ( Pines and Hunter, 1991 ). (rupress.org)
  • To investigate the role of cyclin F in vivo, we generated mice deficient for cyclin F and conditionally deficient mice as well as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) conditionally deficient for cyclin F. Heterozygous animals are normal and fertile, but CycF −/− animals, with a myriad of developmental anomalies due in large part to failures in yolk sac and chorioallantoic placentation, die around embryonic day 10.5. (asm.org)
  • It is also possible that cyclin A2-CDK contributes to tumorigenesis by the phosphorylation of oncoproteins or tumor suppressors like p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acinus S422D, an SRPK2 phosphorylation mimetic, enhances cyclin A1 transcription, whereas acinus S422A, an unphosphorylatable mutant, blocks the stimulatory effect of SRPK2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Unexpectedly, cyclin A2 controlled Mre11 abundance through a C-terminal RNA binding domain that selectively and directly binds Mre11 transcripts to mediate polysome loading and translation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Depending on which CDK partner cyclin A binds, the cell will continue through the S phase or it will transition from G2 to the M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin A binds to the mitotic spindle poles in the centrosome however, the mechanism by which the complex is shuttled to the centrosome is not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that SRPK2 binds and phosphorylates acinus, an SR protein essential for RNA splicing, and redistributes it from the nuclear speckles to the nucleoplasm, resulting in cyclin A1 but not A2 up-regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found that ASL interacted with cyclin A2 in HCC cells and the localization of their interaction was in the cytoplasm. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Thus, ASL interacts with cyclin A2 in cytoplasm, and may promote HCC formation through this non-enzymatic function. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Changes in islet protein levels of cyclins and of two critical cell cycle regulators cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) were assessed in mice treated with exendin-4 and in a mouse model with specific upregulation of nuclear cAMP signaling exhibiting increased β-cell proliferation (CBP-S436A mouse). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Structure-based design of a potent purine-based cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. (cathdb.info)
  • Recent reports have shown that adult cardiac myocytes can be induced to reenter into cell cycle with periostin ( 17 ), p38 MAP kinase inhibitor ( 8 ), cyclin D1/CDK4 ( 27 ), cyclin A2 ( 3 ), and transforming growth factor-β ( 4 ). (physiology.org)
  • This would place the epitope within the region spanning amino acids 144 - 148 of human Cyclin A2. (abcam.com)
  • It recognizes a protein of 54kDa, which is identified as cyclin A. Its epitope is located amino acids 144-148 of human Cyclin A2. (fishersci.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Cyclin A2. (genetex.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human tonsillitis tissue slide using 66391-1-Ig (Cyclin A2 antibody) at dilution of 1:2000 (under 10x lens. (ptglab.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human tonsillitis tissue slide using 66391-1-Ig (Cyclin A2 antibody) at dilution of 1:2000 (under 40x lens. (ptglab.com)
  • 66391-1-Ig targets Cyclin A2 in WB, IHC, IF,ELISA applications and shows reactivity with human samples. (ptglab.com)
  • Moreover, Cyclin A2 expression is lower in metastases relative to primary colon adenocarcinoma in matched human tumors. (cnrs.fr)
  • The 11B2G3 antibody reacts with human cyclin A2. (mybeckman.com.br)
  • Antiserum will specifically react with a 60 kDa Cyclin A2 protein from human, rat and mouse tissue. (abcam.co.jp)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Cyclin A2. (abcam.co.jp)
  • The alternative splicing of human cyclin A2 has not yet been studied. (duhnnae.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-02902] - Human testis after heat-induced antigen retrieval. (novusbio.com)
  • Furthermore, both SRPK2 and acinus are overexpressed in some human acute myelogenous leukemia patients and correlate with elevated cyclin A1 expression levels, fitting with the oncogenic activity of cyclin A1 in leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human cyclin F was originally isolated as a cDNA capable of suppressing the temperature sensitivity of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc4 - 1 mutant. (asm.org)
  • Hunt T. Simian virus 40 large T antigen associates with cyclin A and p33cdk2. (biotium.com)
  • These defects are rescued by restoration of wild-type Cyclin A2, which directly interacts with RhoA, or by a Cyclin A2 mutant unable to associate with Cdk. (cnrs.fr)
  • Cyclin F/FBXO1 Interacts with HIV-1 Viral Infectivity Factor (Vif) and Restricts Progeny Virion Infectivity by Ubiquitination and Proteasomal Degradation of Vif Protein through SCFcyclin F E3 Ligase Machinery. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cyclin A2 antibody detects Cyclin A2 protein by western blot analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Various lysates were subjected to SDS PAGE followed by western blot with 66391-1-Ig (Cyclin A2 antibody) at dilution of 1:10000 incubated at room temperature for 1.5 hours. (ptglab.com)
  • Western Blot: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-02902] - Cyclin A1 western with U2OS cells. (novusbio.com)
  • These cyclin/cdk complexes are essential for passage through specific stages in the cell cycle. (fishersci.com)
  • In addition, cyclin A has been implicated in cell transformation and is found in complexes with E1A, transcription factors DRTF1 and E2F and retinoblastoma protein, p110. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In addition to initiating DNA synthesis, Cyclin A ensures that DNA is replicated once per cell cycle by preventing the assembly of additional replication complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin A2 plays a key role in cell cycle regulation. (cnrs.fr)
  • Consistent with this, Cyclin A2 depletion enhances migration of fibroblasts and invasiveness of transformed cells via down-regulation of RhoA activity. (cnrs.fr)
  • One such regulatory component is cyclin A which plays a role in the regulation of two different cell cycle stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, MEFs lacking cyclin F, while viable, do exhibit cell cycle defects, including reduced population-doubling time and a delay in cell cycle reentry from quiescence, indicating that cyclin F plays a role in cell cycle regulation. (asm.org)
  • In OPCs, the expression pattern of Sox17, cyclin D1, and secreted Frizzled-related protein-1 in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was coordinately accelerated by addition of thyroid hormone, indicating differentiation-induced regulation of Sox17 targets. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cyclin A2 transcription is mostly regulated by the transcription factor E2F and begins in G1, after the R point. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the R point, pRb is phosphorylated and can no longer bind E2F, leading to cyclin A2 transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • PDX-1 knockdown reduced exendin-4-stimulated cAMP synthesis and cyclin A2 transcription. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A number of studies have described the ability of over-expressed cyclin A to accelerate the G1 to S transition causing DNA replication, and cyclin A antisense DNA can prevent DNA replication (2-4). (cellsignal.com)
  • Cyclin A resides in the nucleus during S phase where it is involved in the initiation and completion of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temporal distribution of CDK4, CDK6, D-type cyclins, and p27 in developing mouse oocytes. (muni.cz)
  • Immunofluorescent analysis of (4% PFA ) fixed HeLa cells using 66391-1-Ig(Cyclin A2 antibody) at dilution of 1:100 and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated AffiniPure Goat Anti-Mouse IgG(H+L). (ptglab.com)
  • It has been proposed that endoreduplication is regulated at its entry by mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase activity. (plantcell.org)
  • In addition to suggesting that cyclin A2 insufficiency promotes tumorigenesis, these findings reveal a previously undescribed function for a cyclin as an RNA-binding protein in addition to its CDK-dependent functions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Loss of HDAC1 and -2 induces expression of these cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, leading to a cell cycle block in G 1 . (asm.org)
  • Loss-of-function studies in mice have proven particularly useful in understanding specific roles carried out by cyclins and the tissues which are exquisitely dependent upon their activity. (asm.org)
  • A second form of cyclin A, named cyclin A1 because of its high sequence homology to Xenopus cyclin A1, is most highly expressed in germ cells. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Jim DeCaprio ( [email protected] ) suggested adding cyclin D2 (CCND2) and 3 (CCND3) in addition to Cyclin D1 (CCND1) as MAPK targets. (cancer.gov)
  • It is unique in its control at two major transitions of the cell cycle and is the only cyclin that is completely silenced after birth in mice, rats and humans. (rxpgnews.com)
  • We found that mutant mice that cannot elevate cyclin A2 are chromosomally unstable and tumor-prone. (sciencemag.org)
  • Moreover, WTAP-null mice exhibited proliferative failure with death resulting at approximately embryonic day 6.5, an etiology almost identical to cyclin A2-null mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Since its initial discovery, homologues of cyclin A have been identified in numerous eukaryotes including Drosophila, Xenopus, mice, and in humans but has not been found in lower eukaryotes like yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that mice lacking two D cyclins exhibit more exacerbated phenotypes in certain tissues than the mice lacking either cyclin D alone also supports the notion that they have similar biochemical functions ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • IP Sample: 1000 μg 293T whole cell lysate/extract A. 30 μg 293T whole cell lysate/extract B. Control with 2.5 μg of preimmune rabbit IgG C. Immunoprecipitation of Cyclin A2 protein by 2.5 μg of Cyclin A2 antibody (GTX103042) 10% SDS-PAGE The immunoprecipitated Cyclin A2 protein was detected by Cyclin A2 antibody (GTX103042) diluted at 1:1000. (genetex.com)
  • Untreated (-) and treated (+) HeLa whole cell extracts (30 µg) were separated by 10% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with Cyclin A2 antibody (GTX103042) diluted at 1:1000. (genetex.com)
  • Here, we report that HDAC10 regulates the cell cycle via modulation of cyclin A2 expression, and cyclin A2 overexpression rescues HDAC10 knockdown-induced G 2 /M transition arrest. (asm.org)
  • All together, these data show that Cyclin A2 negatively controls cell motility by promoting RhoA activation, thus demonstrating a novel Cyclin A2 function in cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell migration. (cnrs.fr)
  • Cyclin which controls both the G1/S and the G2/M transition phases of the cell cycle. (sdsc.edu)
  • Contrary to full-length cyclin A2, which regulates cell proliferation, the A2V6 splice variant might play a role in regulating nondividing cell states such as terminal differentiation or senescence. (duhnnae.com)
  • Cyclin A is the only cyclin that regulates multiple steps of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclins are key components of the core cell cycle machinery. (asm.org)
  • These results indicate that Sox17 suppresses cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation by directly antagonizing β-catenin, whose activity in OPCs is stimulated not only by Wnt3a, but also by PDGF. (jneurosci.org)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (genetex.com)
  • Increased expression of cyclin A2 has been observed in many types of cancer such as breast, cervical, liver, and lung among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it is not clear whether increased expression of cyclin A2 is a cause or result of tumorigenesis, it is indicative of prognostic values such as predictions of survival or relapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation or disruption of normal cyclin A expression causes cells to arrest in G2-phase. (fishersci.com)
  • Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that arginine metabolic enzyme argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) promoted HCC formation in part via maintenance of cyclin A2 protein expression and arginine production for channeling to nitric oxide synthase. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which ASL regulates cyclin A2 expression. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Ablation of acinus or SRPK2 abrogates cyclin A1 expression in leukemia cells and arrest cells at G 1 phase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • YTHDC2-deficient male germ cells enter meiosis but have a mixed identity, maintaining expression of Cyclin A2 and failing to properly express many meiotic markers. (elifesciences.org)
  • This is not due to disparate biochemical capabilities but rather to tissue-specific expression patterns, since each D cyclin appears to be capable of substituting for the other ( 4 , 10 , 32 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Tissue-specific deletion of cyclin F revealed that it was not required for the development and function of a number of different embryonic and adult tissues. (asm.org)
  • The mitotic A- and B-type cyclins are not formally interchangeable, since animals carrying single mutations of cyclin A2 or cyclin B1 result in embryonic lethality ( 3 , 23 ). (asm.org)