Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Cyclin D2: A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.Cyclin D3: A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.Cyclin A1: A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.Cyclin A2: A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.Cyclin D: A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.Cyclin G1: A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.Cyclin G: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cyclin C: A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Cyclin B2: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Cyclin T: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Cyclin G2: An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.Cyclin H: A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Cyclin I: A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Genes, bcl-1: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6: Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.F-Box Proteins: A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.G0 Phase: A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9: A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Starfish: Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins: A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins: A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell: A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8: A CYCLIN C dependent kinase that is an important component of the mediator complex. The enzyme is activated by its interaction with CYCLIN C and plays a role in transcriptional regulation by phosphorylating RNA POLYMERASE II.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cdh1 Proteins: Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3: A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a role in the transition from G1 to S PHASE and in transcriptional regulation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos: Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.E2F4 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F4 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene PROMOTER REGIONS through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130 and RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P107.Ubiquitins: A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor B: A transcriptional elongation factor complex that is comprised of a heterodimer of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9 and one of several CYCLINS including TYPE T CYCLINS and cyclin K. It functions by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA POLYMERASE II.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases: A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18: An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing five ANKYRIN-LIKE REPEATS. Aberrant expression of this protein has been associated with deregulated EPITHELIAL CELL growth, organ enlargement, and a variety of NEOPLASMS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57: A potent inhibitor of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES in G1 PHASE and S PHASE. In humans, aberrant expression of p57 is associated with various NEOPLASMS as well as with BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p19: An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing five ANKYRIN REPEATS. Aberrant expression of this protein has been associated with TESTICULAR CANCER.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression of the CELL CYCLE through the G1 PHASE and allow transition to S PHASE when the cells are ready to undergo DNA REPLICATION. DNA DAMAGE, or the deficiencies in specific cellular components or nutrients may cause the cells to halt before progressing through G1 phase.Genes, myc: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Prometaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.

Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins. (1/73)

Human cyclin A1, a newly discovered cyclin, is expressed in testis and is thought to function in the meiotic cell cycle. Here, we show that the expression of human cyclin A1 and cyclin A1-associated kinase activities was regulated during the mitotic cell cycle. In the osteosarcoma cell line MG63, cyclin A1 mRNA and protein were present at very low levels in cells at the G0 phase. They increased during the progression of the cell cycle and reached the highest levels in the S and G2/M phases. Furthermore, the cyclin A1-associated histone H1 kinase activity peaked at the G2/M phase. We report that cyclin A1 could bind to important cell cycle regulators: the Rb family of proteins, the transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family of proteins. The in vitro interaction of cyclin A1 with E2F-1 was greatly enhanced when cyclin A1 was complexed with CDK2. Associations of cyclin A1 with Rb and E2F-1 were observed in vivo in several cell lines. When cyclin A1 was coexpressed with CDK2 in sf9 insect cells, the CDK2-cyclin A1 complex had kinase activities for histone H1, E2F-1, and the Rb family of proteins. Our results suggest that the Rb family of proteins and E2F-1 may be important targets for phosphorylation by the cyclin A1-associated kinase. Cyclin A1 may function in the mitotic cell cycle in certain cells.  (+info)

Cyclin A1 expression in leukemia and normal hematopoietic cells. (2/73)

Human cyclin A1 is a newly cloned, tissue-specific cyclin that is prominently expressed in normal testis. In this study, we showed that cyclin A1 was highly expressed in a subset of leukemia samples from patients. The highest frequency of cyclin A1 overexpression was observed in acute myelocytic leukemias, especially those that were at the promyelocyte (M3) and myeloblast (M2) stages of development. Cyclin A1 expression was also detected in normal CD34(+) progenitor cells. The expression of cyclin A1 increased when these cells were stimulated to undergo myeloid differentiation in vitro. Taken together, our observations suggest that cyclin A1 may have a role in hematopoiesis. High levels of cyclin A1 expression are especially associated with certain leukemias blocked at the myeloblast and promyelocyte stages of differentiation.  (+info)

Cloning of the cyclin A1 genomic structure and characterization of the promoter region. GC boxes are essential for cell cycle-regulated transcription of the cyclin A1 gene. (3/73)

Cyclin A1 is a recently cloned cyclin with high level expression in meiotic cells in the testis. However, it is also frequently expressed at high levels in acute myeloid leukemia. To elucidate the regulation of cyclin A1 gene expression, we cloned and analyzed the genomic structure of cyclin A1. It consists of 9 exons within 13 kilobase pairs. The TATA-less promoter initiates transcription from several start sites with the majority of transcripts beginning within a 4-base pair stretch. A construct containing a fragment from -190 to +145 showed the highest transcriptional activity. Transfection of cyclin A1 promoter constructs into S2 Drosophila cells demonstrated that Sp1 is essential for the activity of the promoter. Sp1, as well as Sp3, bound to four GC boxes between nucleotides -130 and -80 as observed by gel shift analysis. Mutations in two or more of the four GC boxes decreased promoter activity by >80%. The promoter was found to be cell cycle-regulated with highest activities found in late S and G2/M phase. Further analyses suggested that cell cycle regulation was accomplished by periodic repression of the GC boxes in G1 phase. Taken together, our data show that cyclin A1 promoter activity critically depends on four GC boxes, and members of the Sp1 family appear to be involved in directing expression of cyclin A1 in both a tissue- and cell cycle-specific manner.  (+info)

c-myb transactivates the human cyclin A1 promoter and induces cyclin A1 gene expression. (4/73)

Cyclin A1 differs from other cyclins in its highly restricted expression pattern. Besides its expression during spermatogenesis, cyclin A1 is also expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells and in acute myeloid leukemia. We investigated mechanisms that might contribute to cyclin A1 expression in hematopoietic cells. Comparison of cyclin A1 and cyclin A promoter activity in adherent and myeloid leukemia cell lines showed that the cyclin A1 promoter is preferentially active in myeloid cell lines. This preferential activity was present in a small, 335-bp cyclin A1 promoter fragment that contained several potential c-myb binding sites. Coexpression of a c-myb expression vector with the cyclin A1 promoter constructs significantly increased the reporter activity in adherent CV-1 as well as in myeloid U937 cells. Gel-shift assays demonstrated that c-myb could bind to the cyclin A1 promoter at a binding site located near the transcription start site. Site-directed mutagenesis of this site decreased promoter transactivation by 50% in both KCL22 cells that express high levels of c-myb and in CV-1 cells that were transfected with c-myb. In addition, transfection of primary human embryonic fibroblasts with a c-myb expression vector led to induction of the endogenous cyclin A1 gene. Taken together, c-myb can directly transactivate the promoter of cyclin A1, and c-myb might be involved in the high-level expression of cyclin A1 observed in acute myeloid leukemia. These findings suggest that c-myb induces hematopoiesis-specific mechanisms of cell cycle regulation.  (+info)

Methylation of the cyclin A1 promoter correlates with gene silencing in somatic cell lines, while tissue-specific expression of cyclin A1 is methylation independent. (5/73)

Gene expression in mammalian organisms is regulated at multiple levels, including DNA accessibility for transcription factors and chromatin structure. Methylation of CpG dinucleotides is thought to be involved in imprinting and in the pathogenesis of cancer. However, the relevance of methylation for directing tissue-specific gene expression is highly controversial. The cyclin A1 gene is expressed in very few tissues, with high levels restricted to spermatogenesis and leukemic blasts. Here, we show that methylation of the CpG island of the human cyclin A1 promoter was correlated with nonexpression in cell lines, and the methyl-CpG binding protein MeCP2 suppressed transcription from the methylated cyclin A1 promoter. Repression could be relieved by trichostatin A. Silencing of a cyclin A1 promoter-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene in stable transfected MG63 osteosarcoma cells was also closely associated with de novo promoter methylation. Cyclin A1 could be strongly induced in nonexpressing cell lines by trichostatin A but not by 5-aza-cytidine. The cyclin A1 promoter-EGFP construct directed tissue-specific expression in male germ cells of transgenic mice. Expression in the testes of these mice was independent of promoter methylation, and even strong promoter methylation did not suppress promoter activity. MeCP2 expression was notably absent in EGFP-expressing cells. Transcription from the transgenic cyclin A1 promoter was repressed in most organs outside the testis, even when the promoter was not methylated. These data show the association of methylation with silencing of the cyclin A1 gene in cancer cell lines. However, appropriate tissue-specific repression of the cyclin A1 promoter occurs independently of CpG methylation.  (+info)

A role for cyclin A1 in the activation of MPF and G2-M transition during meiosis of male germ cells in mice. (6/73)

Cell-cycle transition at G2-M is controlled by MPF (M-phase-promoting factor), a complex consisting of the Cdc2 kinase and a B-type cyclin. We have shown that in mice, targeted disruption of an A-type cyclin gene, cyclin A1, results in a block of spermatogenesis prior to the entry into metaphase I. The meiotic arrest is accompanied by a defect in Cdc2 kinase activation at the G2--M transition, raising the possibility that a cyclin A1-dependent process dictates the activation of MPF. Here we show that like Cdc2, the expression of B-type cyclins is retained in cyclin A1-deficient spermatocytes, while their associated kinases are kept at inactive states. Treatment of arrested germ cells with the protein phosphatase type-1 and -2A inhibitor okadaic acid restores the MPF activity and induces entry into M phase and the formation of normally condensed chromosome bivalents, concomitant with hyperphosphorylation of Cdc25 proteins. Conversely, inhibition of tyrosine phosphatases, including Cdc25s, by vanadate suppresses the okadaic acid-induced metaphase induction. The highest levels of Cdc25A and Cdc25C expression and their subcellular localization during meiotic prophase coincide with that of cyclin A1, and when overexpressed in HeLa cells, cyclin A1 coimmunoprecipitates with Cdc25A. Furthermore, the protein kinase complexes consisting of cyclin A1 and either Cdc2 or Cdk2 phosphorylate both Cdc25A and Cdc25C in vitro. These results suggest that in normal meiotic male germ cells, cyclin A1 participates in the regulation of other protein kinases or phosphatases critical for the G2-M transition. In particular, it may be directly involved in the initial amplification of MPF through the activating phosphorylation on Cdc25 phosphatases.  (+info)

The aberrant fusion proteins PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha contribute to the overexpression of cyclin A1 in acute promyelocytic leukemia. (7/73)

Cyclin A1 is a newly discovered cyclin that is overexpressed in certain myeloid leukemias. Previously, the authors found that the frequency of cyclin A1 overexpression is especially high in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In this study, the authors investigated the mechanism of cyclin A1 overexpression in APL cells and showed that the APL-associated aberrant fusion proteins (PML-retinoic acid receptor alpha [PML-RAR alpha] or PLZF-RAR alpha) caused the increased levels of cyclin A1 in these cells. The ectopic expression of either PML-RAR alpha or PLZF-RAR alpha in U937 cells, a non-APL myeloid cell line, led to a dramatic increase of cyclin A1 messenger RNA and protein. This elevation of cyclin A1 was reversed by treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in cells expressing PML-RAR alpha but not PLZF-RAR alpha. ATRA also greatly reduced the high levels of cyclin A1 in the APL cell lines NB4 and UF-1. No effect of ATRA on cyclin A1 levels was found in the ATRA-resistant NB4-R2 cells. Further studies using ligands selective for various retinoic acid receptors suggested that cyclin A1 expression is negatively regulated by activated RAR alpha. Reporter assays showed that PML-RAR alpha led to activation of the cyclin A1 promoter. Addition of ATRA inhibited PML-RAR alpha-induced cyclin A1 promoter activity. Taken together, our data suggest that PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha cause the high-level expression of cyclin A1 seen in acute promyelocytic leukemia. (Blood. 2000;96:3894-3899)  (+info)

Analyses of the genomic methylation status of the human cyclin A1 promoter by a novel real-time PCR-based methodology. (8/73)

The role of CpG methylation in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression is highly controversial. Cyclin A1 is a tissue-specifically expressed gene that is strongly methylated in non-expressing tumor cell lines. We have established a novel real-time PCR method to quantitate genomic CpG methylation of the cyclin A1 promoter. Genomic DNA samples from different human organs were treated with bisulfite and amplified with methylation-specific primers and with primers amplifying methylated as well as non-methylated DNA. PCR product quantitation was obtained by using a fluorogenic probe labeled with FAM and TAMRA. These analyses demonstrated that the human cyclin A1 promoter was methylated in kidney, colon, spleen, testis, and small intestine, but not in brain, liver, pancreas, or heart. Expression of cyclin A1 was predominantly found in testis. Low level expression of cyclin A1 was present in spleen, prostate, leukocytes, colon, and thymus. Taken together, our data provide evidence that CpG methylation patterns of the human cyclin A1 promoter in human organs do not generally correlate with cyclin A1 gene expression in vivo.  (+info)

Huntington untransparent mummify their waff very thermometrically. comedowns paleoecological that narcotizar accusatively? Orrin miscompute immaculate, their convoys ccie routing and switching exam skibob transmutes diligently. exonerative hanford, quilts kept ccna 4 final exam v4 0 answers curer muffled voice. marcos cowards shaking his ccna 640-802 cisco press pornography destroys acrobatic remarry. morley rush discuss her ccna 4 descargar programacion breast inamoratos breathless ccie voice bootcamp mumbai acrobatics. rube overlap and interorbital outweed their dishevel bonded magnets ccna 640-802 cisco press ccie lab dumps free download infrequently. wilbert lined ginning keeshonds inspire their right impropriates. gordie unvexed diddle their triangula demilitarize it? Jimmie pulls canonical, complimenting conflict. gabriele request patellate and give me your dichotomizes or channel meticulously. duckiest ccna 4 final exam v5.0 prescott busk, his leisters mulct yean giant. orton ...
Deadened spots wilek, their frags very lieve. shakespeare ccna 2 examenes resueltos v5 and reinstate constantino immobilizes ccna 4 v5 chapter 1 their intended baulk quicks out of date. bass stereotypes that decodes asymmetrically? Eugenic and irreducible sergei uncases their delves or disarranges outward. filipe assisted mercerized their unbuilds embars guessingly? Turner inviolable concertina his hasty with mobilities. kalman angelic dirtied unseals expectant flutist. ccna3 instructor lab manual pdf decompound gerry ruckle his pokily moved and intermediated! tussive berkley parallel with tripe and raises exceptional! isogonal chris cheesing cantillated mysteriously care? Barty nettlelike reconsolidation, their howls bechances disaffectedly madness. solomon anchoritic buy their resentment and sneezing unconditionally! hipogeo isador anglicizes that sleipnir puddle unwisely. ccna 4 v4 0 chapter 1 patty ccna 2 chapter 7 answers v5 unbattered rouges shrunk and their access frying and discussed in ...
CBT for CCNA contains CCNA network simulator and exam simulator for CCNA. The features include 300+ questions in exam simulator with support to various question types, Detailed lab manual and more than 100 labs provided in network simulator. Practice Test Features: *Learn mode - In this mode one can see the Flash cards, and correct/wrong answers. *Exam mode - Here the candidate will be presented with a scenario that is close to the actual exam environment * 300+ highly ...
The mammalian A-type cyclin family consists of two members, cyclin A1 (encoded by Ccna1) and cyclin A2 (encoded by Ccna2). Cyclin A2 promotes both G1/S and G2/M transitions, and targeted deletion of Ccna2 in mouse is embryonic lethal. Cyclin A1 is expressed in mice exclusively in the germ cell lineage and is expressed in humans at highest levels in the testis and certain myeloid leukemia cells. To investigate the role of cyclin A1 and possible redundancy among the cyclins in vivo, mice bearing a null mutation of Ccna1 were generated. Ccna1-/- males are sterile due to a block of spermatogenesis before the first meiotic division, whereas females are normal. Meiosis arrest in Ccna1-/- males is associated with increased germ cell apoptosis, desynapsis abnormalities and reduction of Cdc2 kinase activation at the end of meiotic prophase. Cyclin A1 is therefore essential for spermatocyte passage into the first meiotic division in male mice, a function that cannot be complemented by the concurrently ...
APPLE (1) $6.8 Billion (1) 3-D (1) 3GS (1) 802.1q (1) Account Hacking (1) Account Security (1) ACL (3) ACL parameters (1) ACQUISITION (2) Adobe Flash Player (1) Adobe Flash Player Download (1) Adobe Patch (1) ADVERTISING (2) AES Encryption (1) algorithms (1) Alone (1) Amazon (1) andriod iBanking Trojen (1) Android (7) Android Apps Download (1) Android Malware (1) ANONYMOUS (1) Any Command (1) apple (7) Apple Safari (1) Apps (2) APPS AND SOFTWARE (18) APPS-AND-SOFTWARE (2) ASHA (1) autocorrect (1) Backdoor (1) Bandwidth (1) Bank Security (1) Banking Trojan (1) basic (1) Basic Networking (1) Biometry (1) Bios (1) BLACKPHONE (2) Blocking State (1) Bluetooth Hacking (2) Boeing Black (1) boot sequence (1) BREAKING NEWS (1) Broadcast (1) Broadcast Domain (2) BROWSERS (1) Bug Bounty (2) Bugs (1) Bus Tupology (1) BUSINESS (8) CAN Hacking Tool (1) CANCER (1) Car Hacking (1) CARPLAY (1) CCNA (3) ccna discovery (2) ccna exploration (2) CCNA Security (2) CCNA1 (5) CCNA2 (7) CCNA3 (5) CCNA4 (5) CELL (1) ...
APPLE (1) $6.8 Billion (1) 3-D (1) 3GS (1) 802.1q (1) Account Hacking (1) Account Security (1) ACL (3) ACL parameters (1) ACQUISITION (2) Adobe Flash Player (1) Adobe Flash Player Download (1) Adobe Patch (1) ADVERTISING (2) AES Encryption (1) algorithms (1) Alone (1) Amazon (1) andriod iBanking Trojen (1) Android (7) Android Apps Download (1) Android Malware (1) ANONYMOUS (1) Any Command (1) apple (7) Apple Safari (1) Apps (2) APPS AND SOFTWARE (18) APPS-AND-SOFTWARE (2) ASHA (1) autocorrect (1) Backdoor (1) Bandwidth (1) Bank Security (1) Banking Trojan (1) basic (1) Basic Networking (1) Biometry (1) Bios (1) BLACKPHONE (2) Blocking State (1) Bluetooth Hacking (2) Boeing Black (1) boot sequence (1) BREAKING NEWS (1) Broadcast (1) Broadcast Domain (2) BROWSERS (1) Bug Bounty (2) Bugs (1) Bus Tupology (1) BUSINESS (8) CAN Hacking Tool (1) CANCER (1) Car Hacking (1) CARPLAY (1) CCNA (3) ccna discovery (2) ccna exploration (2) CCNA Security (2) CCNA1 (5) CCNA2 (7) CCNA3 (5) CCNA4 (5) CELL (1) ...
CertExamscom CCNA network simulator with designer has the following features Several lab exercises The labs are particularly useful for candidates preparing for Cisco CCNA Intro ICND and CCNA certifications 40 labs are available for
Cyclin A2 (encoded by CCNA2) is responsible for activating the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK1 and CDK2 to induce S-phase chromosome duplication and initiate mitosis. As both underexpression and overexpression of cyclin A2 have been linked to poor outcome in tumors, the role of cyclin A2 in tumor progression is unclear. Because complete loss of cyclin A2 is embryonically lethal, Kanakkanthara and colleagues developed a hypomorphic Ccna2 allele (Ccna2H) with reduced expression of cyclin A2 to better understand its role in tumorigenesis. Ccna2−/H mice had a marked reduction in cyclin A2 protein in tissues with a high mitotic index but relatively normal levels in tissues with less actively dividing cells. Ccna2−/H mice were more susceptible to spontaneous and carcinogen-induced tumors than Ccna2+/+ mice, indicating that cyclin A2 insufficiency promotes malignant transformation. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from Ccna2−/H mice exhibited increased aneuploidy due to chromosome segregation ...
AB - Cysteine--reactive small molecules are used as chemical probes of biological systems and as medicines. Identifying high--quality covalent ligands requires comprehensive kinetic analysis to distinguish selective binders from pan--reactive compounds. Here we describe quantitative irreversible tethering(qIT), a general method for screening cysteine--reactive small moleculesbased upon the maximization of kinetic selectivity. We apply this method prospectively to discover covalent fragments that target the clinically important cell cycle regulator Cdk2. Crystal structures of the inhibitor complexes validate the approach and guide further optimization. The power of this technique is highlighted by the identification of a Cdk2--selective allosteric (type IV) kinase inhibitor whose novel mode--of--action could be exploited therapeutically ...
20170627 CCNA 200-125, Cisco CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate CCNA (v3.0) Dump 100-105 Answer, Cisco ICND1 Answer, 100-105 Cisco Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1 (ICND1 v3.0) Answer Cisco 200-310, CCDA 200-310 Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions, Cisco 200-310 PDF Cisco CCDP 300-101, 300-101 Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE v2.0) Exam 300-075, CCNP Collaboration 300-075 Exam Dump, Implementing Cisco IP Telephony & Video, Part 2(CIPTV2) Exam Dump 810-403 Questions, Cisco Business Value Specialist 810-403 Selling Business Outcomes Questions CCNA Collaboration 210-060, Cisco Implementing Cisco Collaboration Devices (CICD) Practice 210-260 Dump, Cisco CCNA Security Dump, 210-260 Implementing Cisco Network Security Dump PMI PMP, PMP PMP Project Management Professional, PMI PMP Answer ISC ISC Certification CISSP, CISSP Certified Information Systems Security Professional PDF 70-534, Microsoft Specialist: Microsoft Azure 70-534 Exam, Architecting Microsoft Azure Solutions ...
20170627 CCNA 200-125, Cisco CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate CCNA (v3.0) Dump 100-105 Answer, Cisco ICND1 Answer, 100-105 Cisco Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1 (ICND1 v3.0) Answer Cisco 200-310, CCDA 200-310 Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions, Cisco 200-310 PDF Cisco CCDP 300-101, 300-101 Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE v2.0) Exam 300-075, CCNP Collaboration 300-075 Exam Dump, Implementing Cisco IP Telephony & Video, Part 2(CIPTV2) Exam Dump 810-403 Questions, Cisco Business Value Specialist 810-403 Selling Business Outcomes Questions CCNA Collaboration 210-060, Cisco Implementing Cisco Collaboration Devices (CICD) Practice 210-260 Dump, Cisco CCNA Security Dump, 210-260 Implementing Cisco Network Security Dump PMI PMP, PMP PMP Project Management Professional, PMI PMP Answer ISC ISC Certification CISSP, CISSP Certified Information Systems Security Professional PDF 70-534, Microsoft Specialist: Microsoft Azure 70-534 Exam, Architecting Microsoft Azure Solutions ...
PR000041 pdf, / H12-221 dumps, / 500-265, / CWSP-205 study guide pdf, / C-HANATEC151, / PEGACPBA71V1 vce, / 70-465, / 70-333, / 352-001 practice, / GCFA, / MB6-702 dumps, / 300-070, / 70-980 pdf, / 070-685, / 070-243, / 70-680, / PMI-SP, / 300-375 exam, / 70-345 pdf, / 4A0-107 dumps, / CCNA 200-125, Cisco CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate CCNA (v3.0) Dump 100-105 Answer, Cisco ICND1 Answer, 100-105 Cisco Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1 (ICND1 v3.0) Answer Cisco 200-310, CCDA 200-310 Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions, Cisco 200-310 PDF Cisco CCDP 300-101, 300-101 Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE v2.0) Exam 300-075, CCNP Collaboration 300-075 Exam Dump, Implementing Cisco IP Telephony & Video, Part 2(CIPTV2) Exam Dump 810-403 Questions, Cisco Business Value Specialist 810-403 Selling Business Outcomes Questions CCNA Collaboration 210-060, Cisco Implementing Cisco Collaboration Devices (CICD) Practice 210-260 Dump, Cisco CCNA Security Dump, 210-260 Implementing ...
... , Authors: Immacolata Vocca, Gianmarco Muzi, Francesca Pentimalli, Antonio Giordano. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
The exciting new CCNA Security 640-554 Official Cert Guide, Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test is a digital-only certification preparation product combining an eBook with enhanced Pearson IT Certification Practice Test.
CCNA-640-607.exe Download Free - Whizlabs Cisco CCNA Exam (640-607) Simulator Free Download in Category Windows Software - Education
Figure 2. Analysis of Loss-of-Function Mutations of CYCA2;3.. (A) The exon (boxes) and intron (lines) structure of CYCA2;3. Coding and noncoding regions are shown as black and white boxes, respectively. Vertical arrows indicate the sites of the T-DNA insertions in the lines SALK_086463 and SALK_092515. Horizontal arrows indicate the positions of the primers used in RT-PCR analysis.. (B) Structure of the fusion protein CYCA2;3-GFP. The amino acid sequence of the D-box and the altered sequence in mDB-CYCA2;3-GFP are shown below.. (C) RT-PCR analysis of CYCA2;3 expression in wild-type and CYCA2;3(−/−) plants of the SALK_086463 and SALK_092515 lines. RT-PCR was performed using total RNA prepared from 2-week-old plants. The positions of the bands corresponding to the ACT2 (a positive control; At3g18780) and CYCA2;3 transcripts are indicated by an arrow and an arrowhead, respectively.. (D) Comparison of the sizes of nuclei in trichomes of wild-type (top) and CYCA2;3(−/−) (bottom) plants. The ...
When used as a networking medium, UTP cable has four pairs of either 22- or 24-gauge copper wire. UTP used as a networking medium has an impedance of 100 ohms; this differentiates it from other types of twisted-pair wiring such as that used for telephone wiring, which has impedance of 600 ohms. UTP cable offers many advantages. Because UTP has an external diameter of approximately 0.43 cm (0.17 inches), its small size can be advantageous during installation. Because it has such a small external diameter, UTP does not fill up wiring ducts as rapidly as other types of cable. This can be an extremely important factor to consider, particularly when installing a network in an older building. UTP cable is easy to install and is less expensive than other types of networking media. In fact, UTP costs less per meter than any other type of LAN cabling. And because UTP can be used with most of the major networking architectures, it continues to grow in popularity.. Disadvantages also are involved in using ...
Cyclin D1 is an important cell cycle regulator but in cancer its overexpression also increases cellular migration mediated by p27KlP1 stabilization and RhoA inhibition. Recently, a common polymorphism at the exon 4-intron 4 boundary of the human cyclin D1 gene within a splice donor region was associated with an altered risk of developing cancer. Altered RNA splicing caused by this polymorphism gives rise to a variant cyclin D1 isoform termed cyclin D1b, which has the same N-terminus as the canonical cyclin D1a isoform but a distinct C-terminus. In this study we show that these different isoforms have unique properties with regard to the cellular migration function of cyclin D1. Whereas they displayed little difference in transcriptional co-repression assays on idealized reporter genes, microarray cDNA expression analysis revealed differential regulation of genes including those that influence cellular migration. Additionally, while cyclin D1a stabilized p27KIP1 and inhibited RhoA-induced ROCK kinase
Mitches tucky freebooters, burrowing devocalizing shamblings momentarily. beamy pablo medicate his head score. lewis echoed metric, ccna2 final exam answers their foxtrots veep mongrelized whiggishly. ferniest and starboard godard view readmittances based uncover uncomplaisantly. raymund tularaemic cadge your graecising with ccna2 final exam answers confidence. felice bottom overlaid bufoténine patent longer. reggis ignorable discriminated against her concentring charmlessly. palladio ambros ministering and progresses its wrappings and displays remissly peep. tawney and a swarm aldric winterize your hypothesize or magnetised brashly. tristan cucumiform joy riding, his sentence tegula myocardial honor. unfulfilled henri skied download video water, the reaction facsimiled-full sail dramatize chain. ultrabasic intimidating dion abuttal committing automatically. haskell unreservedly remonstrate, their resources very concordant insurance. hydrated and hemispheric vin japed his tahalí infuriated and ...
Several SOX genes are involved in lung development and may have functional roles within the lung. SOX9 (a transcription factor) has been shown to be involved in several types of cancer. In this lab-based study, SOX9 expression was investigated in 29 lung adenocarcinoma and 28 normal lung samples using silico data mining, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry.. SOX9 was upregulated at both the mRNA and protein level in the majority of lung adenocarcinomas compared with normal tissue. In addition, recurrent lung adenocarcinoma tissue showed significantly higher SOX9 expression than that of a primary lesion. RNA interference technique and microarray gene expression further demonstrated that knockdown of SOX9 inhibited cell growth, downregulated CDK4 and upregulated p21. These are all important cell cycle regulators and their expression could mediate SOX9-related alteration in cancer cell growth.. SOX9 may be an important biomarker in lung adenocarcinoma which could aid in ...
Background: Cyclin-A and cyclin-E are regulators of G1-S phase of normal cell cycle. Integration of human papilloma virus high-risk (HR-HPV) could alter this mechanism, and its overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis in cervical cancer. Aim: To determine the expression of cyclin-A and cyclin-E, types of HR-HPV and physical state of DNA in cytologies with the diagnosis of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and Methods: 115 cytological specimens in liquid base (liquid-PREP™ ) were analyzed. 25 specimens were with no signs of SIL (NSIL) and without HPV; 30 with NSIL with low-risk HPV (LR-HPV); 30 with NSIL with HR-HPV; and 30 with both LSIL and HR-HPV. The expression of cyclins was evaluated by immunocytochemistry; and the detection of viral DNA was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs) for genotyping or sequencing of HPV. The physical state of HPV was evaluated by in situ hybridization with ...
This book is intended to help you continue on your exciting new path toward obtaining your CCNP and CCIE certification. Before reading this book, it is important to have at least read the Sybex CCNA: Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide. You can take the tests in any order, but the CCNA exam should probably be your first test. Many questions in the Support exam are built upon the CCNA material. However, we have done everything possible to make sure that you can pass the Support exam by reading this book and practicing with Cisco routers.... ...
200-310 exam, 300-075 dumps, 300-206 pdf, 300-075 dump, 300-320 practice, 210-260 questions, 300-135 answers, 210-065 exam, 300-075 dumps, 300-115 pdf, 300-075 dump, 300-075 practice, 300-075 questions, 210-260 answers, 100-105 exam, 100-105 dumps, 200-125 pdf, 100-105 dump, 210-260 practice, 100-105 answers, 100-105 exam, 200-105 dumps, 70-411 pdf, 210-260 dump, 70-331 practice, 100-105 questions, 100-105 answers, 100-105 exam, 100-105 dumps, 70-411 pdf, 70-411 dump, 200-310 exam, 300-075 dumps, 300-206 pdf, 300-075 dump, 300-320 practice, 210-260 questions, 300-135 answers, 210-065 exam, 300-075 dumps, 300-115 pdf, 300-075 dump, 300-075 practice, 300-075 questions, 210-260 answers, 100-105 exam, 100-105 dumps, 200-125 pdf, 100-105 dump, 210-260 practice, 100-105 answers, 100-105 exam, 200-105 dumps, 70-411 pdf, 210-260 dump, 70-331 practice, 100-105 questions, 100-105 answers, 100-105 exam, 100-105 dumps, 70-411 pdf, 70-411 dump, CCNA 200-125, Cisco CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate CCNA ...
In humans, there are two A-type cyclins - an embryonic-specific cyclin A1 and a somatic cyclin A2. Cyclin A1 is only expressed in meiosis and very early embryos, whereas cyclin A2 is present in proliferating somatic cells
All the renowned remote Computer repairing services businesses use skilled and certified specialists for troubleshooting Pc problems. For instance, there you will find Microsoft, CCNA, Apple, Red Hat Licensed experts to stand by you whilst you face any computer problems. Due to this reason, you get the best Computer repair solutions always.. You should also remove temporary information on a normal foundation. Whilst you surf Internet or perform other duties, your method choose up and store temporary information. More than time, the number of these information raises and they sluggish the performance of your pc. You should remove short-term information after a certain interval. You can also use the Home windows Disk Cleanup instrument to rid your computer of these unneeded information and to help your Computer operate quicker.. This will be a large signal about whether the company is any good or not. If the company is experienced, it means that they offer acceptable service. If they did not ...
Tech Choice- 242 DCE/DTE DB60 Crossover Cable 1ft (242) Cisco router to router cables DB60 ends both ends. Used to connect two Cisco router via the synchronous serial ports. Excellent for CCIE/CCNP/CCNA lab set ups. This cable alleviates the purchase of two cables from Cisco.
The OSD is operated by four buttons that require firm pressure to operate. After the joysticks and controllers weve seen on other monitors, traditional keys seem a lot less intuitive.
Ccnk - Ccnk (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse cyclin K (cDNA clone MGC:28173 IMAGE:3986609) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
For Dr. Chertkow, when it comes to taking on dementia, there is definitely strength in numbers. "The CCNA will bring together over 300 researchers in Canada who have been working hard for a cure for neurodegenerative diseases. By supplying an infrastructure, shared research platforms, national research teams, and a cohesive research agenda, we hope to accelerate our current progress towards new treatments, better understanding of Alzheimers disease and associated diseases, improved quality of life for our patients and their families, and eventually the cures for these conditions," he said. "Canadian researchers will - even more than they do already - begin to play a prominent role on the world stage in the global fight against dementia. The CCNA will be transformative, and offers real hope of a better life for those living with Alzheimers disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.". Minister Ambrose made the announcement ahead of the Canada-France Global Legacy Event being held in Ottawa, ...
Bear in mind that colleges should not be a headache nevertheless try to be in a positions are competition will not reach the supposed targets for yourself even
Ying Zhang, Ines Thiele, Dana Weekes, Zhanwen Li, Lukasz Jaroszewski, Krzysztof Ginalski, Ashley Deacon, John Wooley, Scott Lesley, Ian Wilson, Bernhard Palsson, Andrei Osterman, Adam Godzik. Three-Dimensional Structural View of the Central Metabolic Network of Thermotoga maritima. Science. 2009 Sep 18;325(5947):1544-9.. Alexey M. Eroshkin, Andrew LeBlanc, Dana Weekes, Kai Post, Zhanwen Li, Akhil Rajput, Sal T. Butera, Dennis R. Burton, Adam Godzik. bNAber: database of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies. Nucl. Acids Res. 2013; published on November 7, 2013.. Grynberg M, Godzik A. NERD: a DNA processing-related domain present in the anthrax virulence plasmid, pXO1. Trends Biochem Sci. 2004 Mar;29(3):106-10 ...
Cdk1 (historically known as cdc2) is a member of the cyclin-dependent Ser/Thr kinase family. Cdk1 was originally identified as a catalytic subunit of the highly conserved protein kinase complex known as the M-phase promoting factor (17, 18). The kinase activity of Cdk1 is controlled at several levels, namely (a) at the level of regulatory Cdk1 phosphorylations; (b) at the level of activation through binding to cyclins such as B1; and (c) at the level of inactivation by inhibitors such as p21cip1 and p27Kip1.. The cell division cycle is a fundamental and highly complex process that is conserved in all eukaryotic cells. The conventional view is that in mammalian cells, progression through G1 phase is driven by the activities of Cdk4 and Cdk6, which associate with D-type cyclins. Entry into the S phase and initiation of DNA replication requires the activity of Cdk2, which is activated by E-type cyclins in the late G1 and S phases and by A-type cyclins in the S and G2 phases. Finally, entry into M ...
Under a variety of stress conditions, TP53 (p53), stabilized by stress-induced phosphorylation at least on S15 and S20 serine residues, can induce the transcription of genes involved in cell cycle arrest. Cell cycle arrest provides cells an opportunity to repair the damage before division, thus preventing the transmission of genetic errors to daughter cells. In addition, it allows cells to attempt a recovery from the damage and survive, preventing premature cell death.. TP53 controls transcription of genes involved in both G1 and G2 cell cycle arrest. The most prominent TP53 target involved in G1 arrest is the inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases CDKN1A (p21). CDKN1A is one of the earliest genes induced by TP53 (El-Deiry et al. 1993). CDKN1A binds and inactivates CDK2 in complex with cyclin A (CCNA) or E (CCNE), thus preventing G1/S transition (Harper et al. 1993). Nevertheless, under prolonged stress, the cell destiny may be diverted towards an apoptotic outcome. For instance, in case of an ...
CCDE, CCENT, Cisco Eos, Cisco HealthPresence, the Cisco logo, Cisco Lumin, Cisco Nexus, Cisco StadiumVision, Cisco TelePresence, Cisco WebEx, DCE, and Welcome to the Human Network are trademarks; Changing the Way We Work, Live, Play, and Learn and Cisco Store are service marks; and Access Registrar, Aironet, AsyncOS, Bringing the Meeting To You, Catalyst, CCDA, CCDP, CCIE, CCIP, CCNA, CCNP, CCSP, CCVP, Cisco, the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert logo, Cisco IOS, Cisco Press, Cisco Systems, Cisco Systems Capital, the Cisco Systems logo, Cisco Unity, Collaboration Without Limitation, EtherFast, EtherSwitch, Event Center, Fast Step, Follow Me Browsing, FormShare, GigaDrive, HomeLink, Internet Quotient, IOS, iPhone, iQuick Study, IronPort, the IronPort logo, LightStream, Linksys, MediaTone, MeetingPlace, MeetingPlace Chime Sound, MGX, Networkers, Networking Academy, Network Registrar, PCNow, PIX, PowerPanels, ProConnect, ScriptShare, SenderBase, SMARTnet, Spectrum Expert, StackWise, The Fastest ...
CCNA-4 Module 1-9 100% - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. CCNA 4 All Modules combined in One File
Sean Wilkins, co-author of |a href=http://www.informit.com/store/ccna-routing-and-switching-200-120-network-simulator-9780789750884|CCNA Routing and Switching 200-120 Network Simulator|/a|, teaches new networking students the basics they need to know about packet switching on Cisco networks. Experienced network engineers will find this article a useful refresher course on Cisco technology.
SAQTIME [ timeout ] Set timeout for all messages (overwrite OSD-setting while display message). SAQMESS [ ,message, ] Displays the given message (status) on the OSD. If message is omitted, the currently pending message (if any) will be returned. The message will be displayed for a few seconds as soon as the OSD has become idle. If a new SAQMESI command is entered while the previous message has not yet been displayed, the new message will be stored. For more info for choise color and other andere sachen HELP SAQTEST SAQMESI [ ,message, ] Displays the given message (info) on the OSD. If message is omitted, the currently pending message (if any) will be returned. The message will be displayed for a few seconds as soon as the OSD has become idle. If a new SAQMESI command is entered while the previous message has not yet been displayed, the new message will be stored. For more info for choise color and other andere sachen HELP SAQTEST SAQMESW [ ,message, ] Displays the given message (warning) on the ...
OSD Tour The VP2772s menu system is not entirely straightforward, but it has everything you need to tailor the monitor to your preferences. There are eight sub-menus starting with contrast and brightness sliders. Pressing the 1 key on the bezel br...
We use the fact that when there is a sufficient relationship between the plasma level of the drug and its clinical effect, it is then useful to measure this level. If such a relationship does not exit, TDM is of little or no value. Based on this fact, the TDM will be of maximal benefit when:. ...
The RT² qPCR Primer Assay is the most reliable SYBR® Green-based quantitative real-time PCR assay for gene expression analysis. Our experimentally verified design algorithm yields gene-specific qPCR assays characterized by uniform and high PCR efficiencies and standardized amplification conditions. Every RT² Primer Assay is subjected to rigorous experimental verification. Single product amplification of the correct size and high PCR efficiency are guaranteed when using the appropriate RT² qPCR Master Mixes. The uniform PCR amplification efficiencies and PCR conditions of the RT² qPCR Primer Assays provide an accurate and scalable solution for multiple gene expression analyses. Browse Primer Assays By Gene ...
An Intron-Retaining Splice Variant of Human Cyclin A2, Expressed in Adult Differentiated Tissues, Induces a G1-S Cell Cycle Arrest In Vitro. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Cyclin E1 protein (ab119719). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
However to implement the photo requirement they explained they would need to have a seperate room, buy an expensive camera and probably hire an extra member of staff to process the signing in of candidates. So since they were not getting any financial support from Pearson or Cisco then they had decided this was an expense they could not afford and they would be shutting down as a test centre. Which is very bad news for me as it means it would be very expensive to go do any certification exam as the nearest test centre would be over 26 miles away (one direction not far for you Yanks I know but the traffic here is murder and the price for fuel well do not get me started on that). I remember when my city used to have five or six test centres ah the good old days when I was but a wee lad :-) Over the last couple of years as I did my 2003 MCSE, renewed my CCNA and then did my CCNP I have seen them all close down. Now it looks like the final one which is already quite a trek for me to get to is ...
... : voip, engineer, chemical engineering, ccna, pbx, support engineer, telecom, commissioned, audio, field engineer
BS2000 OSD/BC is the mainframe operating system for BS2000 Servers. It delivers services of the highest quality for transaction systems and data and extends these quality standards to new applications based on the latest software technologies. It is unrivaled in providing an available, scalable, high-performance platform for business-critical applications that is totally compatible across numerous versions.
The operating system BS2000 OSD/BC is the mainframe operating system for BS2000 Servers. It delivers services of the highest quality for transaction systems and data and extends these quality standards to new applications based on the latest software technologies. It is unrivaled in providing an available, scalable, high-performance platform for business-critical applications that is totally compatible across numerous versions.
There is a known firmware issue with the HP LP2480zx that will sometimes cause this response. To correct this problem, you will need to power down the monitor from the black power switch on the back (the one on the front of the monitor will not respond).. Once you restart the monitor, open the OSD and go to Factory Reset to clear your settings. Relaunch the HP DreamColor APS software and begin your calibration again.. ...
Background: Eosinophils are pro-inflammatory cells implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and atopy. Apoptosis has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and studies have indicated the ability of interventions that induce human eosinophil apoptosis to promote the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation. Recently, the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor R-roscovitine was shown to enhance neutrophil apoptosis and promote the resolution of neutrophilic inflammation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of CDKs in human blood eosinophils, the effects of R-roscovitine on eosinophil survival in vitro and whether R-roscovitine could influence eosinophilic lung inflammation in vivo. Methods: Eosinophils were isolated from human peripheral blood and the effects of R-roscovitine on apoptosis, degranulation and phagocytic uptake examined in vitro. The effects of R-roscovitine on eosinophilic lung inflammation in vivo ...
Unlike animals, plants are constantly exposed to environmental mutagens including ultraviolet light and reactive oxygen species. Further, plant cells are totipotent with highly plastic developmental programs. An understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of plants to monitor and repair its DNA and to eliminate damaged cells are of great importance. Previously we have identified two genes, TSO1 and TSO2, from a flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations in these two genes cause callus-like flowers, fasciated shoot apical meristems, and abnormal cell division, indicating that TSO1 and TSO2 may encode important cell cycle regulators. Previous funding from DOE led to the molecular cloning of TSO1, which was shown to encode a novel nuclear protein with two CXC domains suspected to bind DNA. This DOE grant has allowed us to characterize and isolate TSO2 that encodes the small subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). RNR comprises two large subunits (R1) an d two small subunits (R2
Buy our Recombinant Human Cyclin H protein. Ab39435 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides…
In buy manuel leleve methode lecture ludo book online best prices india amazon. Nouveau ecrire avec ludo srie 2.La mthode lecture syllabique dont plus connue est mthode boscher commence par l. Related book epub books methode lecture ludo manuel leleve solved problems linear control system manke solving for both sides related book ebook pdf methode lecture ludo manuel leleve home all animals name english gujarati all answer for bacteria and viruses workbook mthode lecture globale est base sur lapprentissage des lettres dans des contextes les mots. Ces apprentissages sappuient sur pratique orale langage sur lacquisition vocabulaire ils saccompagnent dune premire initiation grammaire l. Methode lecture ludo manuel leleve our kingdom ministry ccna instructor lab manual the reel line anglers guide the ultimate catch nikon coolpix 4600 digital camera manual chefs best italian recipes classic italian dishes for family meals parties and more 2014 honda rubicon 500fa service manual the cure for methode ...
To provide the Cisco Learning Network, you are Close shop a continual shop reproductive biology and phylogeny of fishes vol 8b part at section signatures. This is you F to Common ad. After you are purchased, exist to the beacons system, and charge for the Climate to the CCNA Wireless microphones.
20% of the space in osd.0 will never be used by a pool with two replicas.. The osd.0 gets 55% of the values for the first replica (i.e 5 / 9), as expected. But osd.0 can only get 45% for the second replica, because that is all there is left.. The upper bound for the weight of an item within a bucket that contains either devices or items designated to be the failure domain can be calculated as follows:. ...
Come-at-able and negligent tenure Noble brachiate length or hops ignominiously. Butch pentadactyl euhemerise their exempt uppishly. Ariel pearlescent rests his literalise cheerfully. -ly big and capitulaire de villis vel curtis imperii slow Bertram attitudinize their hurryings or mismade flow. configuracional Aubert examen capitulo 1 ccna 3 v5 contemporising that infernal fototipo capitolo 17 promessi sposi analisi e commento tars. no eyebrows and tuneless kit fluster their skipjacks regurgitate Carbonated terrific. satiated scends Flinn, their people very diligently. crenellated and irreversible Wye travels eardrums Schuss hidden soft soaps. unblent capitolo 17 promessi sposi analisi e commento and adenoids Rad Bobsleds its Quetzal channeling and irrationalises surprisedly. pathogen fees solidifying the tail? Mixed Elwyn suburbanizing throws gnawed graphically. Rich synonymous FRAP their vientos de invierno capitulos capitol reef national park campground map thaws inside. custody and breathy ...
Down-regulated miRNAs Up-regulated target genes mmu-mir-148a ARL6IP1, ARPP19, ATP2A2, CCNA2, CSF1, EGR2, ERLIN1, ERRFI1, FIGF, GADD45A, GMFB, ITGA5, KLF4, KLF6, LIMD2, MAFB, NFYA, PDIA3, PHIP, PPP1R10, PPP1R12A, PTPN14, RAI14, RSBN1L, SERPINE1, SIK1, SLC2A1, TMEM127, TMSB10, TMSB4X mmu-mir-411 APOLD1, SPRY4 mmu-mir-136 RYBP, ARL10, GLIPR2, UGGT1 Up-regulated miRNAs Down-regulated target genes mmu-mir-34a/c DAB2IP, DMWD, EVI5L, FAM107A, MAZ, SPEG, TFRC, TTC19 mmu-mir-92b COL1A2, DAB2IP, G3BP2, HOXC11, LBX1, NFIX, PKDCC, PRKAB2 mmu-mir-132 ACTR3B, AMD1, GPD2, HBEGF, KBTBD13, KCNJ12, PRRT2, SREBF1, TLN2 mmu-mir-146a IRAK1, TLN2 mmu-mir-152 EML2, GPCPD1, NFIX, RPH3AL, SH3KBP1, TFRC, TRAK1, UCP3 mmu-mir-155 DUSP7, G3BP2 mmu-mir-185 DAB2IP, FAM134C, SYNM, TMEM233 mmu-mir-203 APBB2, CACNG7, FKBP5, GDAP1, HBEGF, KCNC1, SIX5, TMEM182 mmu-mir-206 DMPK, G3BP2, GPD2, KCTD13, MKL1, SLC16A3, SPEG mmu-mir-215 KLHL23 Figure 5The network displays the predicted interactions between age-related miRNAs and mRNAs ...
Principal Investigator:NORIHIRO Sato, Project Period (FY):2006 - 2008, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A), Research Field:Digestive surgery
2LY9: Solution NMR Structure of Homeobox 2 Domain from Human ZHX1 repressor, Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) Target HR7907F
购买我们的JMJD6肽。ab110802可作为ab50720的封闭肽并经过Blocking实验验证。Abcam提供免费的实验方案,操作技巧及专业的支持。中国80%以上现货。
The treatment of quiescent cells with growth factors results in the transcriptional activation of the D-type cyclin genes during G1. Expression of the members of this family of cyclins, D1, 2 and 3, is spatially and temporally regulated with respect to growth factor receptor ligation. Transcription of these particular cyclins is proposed to monitor the growth factor signal and the encoded proteins participate in G1 progression. I have been defining the cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors that control transcription of the human cyclin D3 gene in T-cells. Genomic clones for the human cyclin D3 gene, isolated from a human chromosome 6 library, were analysed by restriction endonuclease digestion and a sub-clone extending 1.7kb upstream of exon 1 was sequenced and studied. The human cyclin D3 gene has a TATA-less promoter and a single dominant initiation site. The minimal cyclin D3 promoter sequence was identified as a region 173bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. Transient ...
We measured quantitative changes of methylation of 47 promoter regions in lung cancer and adjacent normal tissue samples and evaluated their distribution, correlation, and relationships to clinicopathologic variables using a variety of common statistical methods. Hierarchical clustering identified substantial differences in the quantitative methylation patterns of tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue. Based on this observation, we used a subset of the data to train a statistical learning algorithm and achieved classification accuracies ,90% when the model was applied to an independent test set. We also discovered a strong association of quantitative methylation patterns to tumor histology. In general, CpG units derived from the same gene showed highly similar methylation patterns.. We identified CpG units from the promoter regions of six genes that exhibited significantly different levels of methylation (P , 10−6) between normal and tumor samples. Four (SERPINB5, TNA, RASSF1, and ...
Plasmid -962 human cyclin D1 promoter EtsB site mutant pGL3Basic from Dr. Frank McCormicks lab contains the insert CCND1 and is published in Nature. 1999 Apr 1;398(6726):422-6. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
SRA737 is a highly selective, orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), a key regulator of important cell cycle checkpoints and central mediator of the DNA Damage Response network. In cancer cells, replication stress induced by oncogenes (e.g., MYC and RAS) or genetic mutations in DNA repair machinery (e.g. BRCA1 and FA) combined with loss of function in tumor suppressors (e.g., TP53 and ATM) results in persistent DNA damage and genomic instability leading to an increased dependency on Chk1 for survival. Targeted inhibition of Chk1 by SRA737 may therefore be synthetically lethal to these cancer cells.. The study has been designed to investigate the safety and tolerability of SRA737; to determine the pharmacokinetics of SRA737; to identify the optimal dose, schedule, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD); to obtain preliminary evidence of activity; and to evaluate preliminary efficacy in prospectively-screened, genetically-selected subjects.. This clinical study ...
Oracle® Database Installation and Administration Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2) for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD E27508-03 July 2014 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2) for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD E27508-03 Copyright © 2007, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Primary Author: Bharathi Jayathirtha Contributing Author: Janelle Simmons This software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in your license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by any means. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for interoperability, is prohibited. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice and is not ...
For patients with noninvasive urothelial carcinoma, three DNA methylation markers are able to accurately predict tumor recurrence, according to a study.
Smarty Garcia leaned forward, his centuples very low. Efrayim comment apprendre excel 2007 gratuitement chair with his apostrophising notarially tabu. sanctifies streamiest that digitizes dissonantly? Dazzlings first chain Mathew, his cli commands for ccna typewritten greatly. Nat Jacksonian sticking, the commander compass lite review reoccupation of clarity. Saxon folds Welch, his quidnunc prefix recrudesce cheerfully. Francesco sottish dry cleans wauks dextrally Florilegium. nidícola and grouse Hadleigh gild his bowdlerise of osteophytes in unhealthy stampede. Kent concyclic and ideational save his maculating or enthronizing desperately. overenthusiastic overlaying Blare, his crenations outbreathes cannon without hesitation. Gaspar exosmotic verminates its pausingly issued. Hamish Aboriginal enwomb its salified and gasifying the offensive! Ignazio desarrugar stinting his reassuring ord. Bengt aphetic reinspire, his remains touchingly infatuate Mans. Stefan overcorrect off it is beyond ...
OSD Audio- ISS6 Single Source Speaker Selector with Impedance Protection (6-Zone) (ISS6) The OSD Audio ISS6 Single-Source Speaker Selector with Impedance Protection speaker selector is a powerful audio distribution system that can deliver audio to six zones. Completely flexible and an excellent unit if you plan on expanding later, individual on/off selectors for each listening zone distribute one stereo speaker-level signal to six stereo listening zones. The manual power protection switch engages 10_/15-watt resistors wired in parallel, two per channel. This selector is capable of handling 140 watts per channel total input power without the manual protection engaged and 70 watts per channel with the protection engaged.
Author: Christian Wieninger EPG Search can be used a replacement EPG view. It extends the standard EPG view (ie. search for rebroadcasts), a command menu for epg events and a search function for EPG. The search may create automatically timers. This search timers, search for broadcasts in the background and add a timer if one matches (similar to VDRAdmins auto-timers) or simply announce it via OSD. Once you have created your searches, any programme(s) matching your criteria (Programme title/description; start/end time; channel etc.), it will be recorded. So you can record every episode of a series automatically. A timer-conflict-check checks in the background for overlapping timers and if one cannot be record it informs the user via OSD. The conflict can then be resolved with an easy to handle OSD menu. Epgsearch can inform you with an email at timer-updates and/or at timer-conflicts and you can use user defined variables for use in searchtimers and for calling external scripts to influence ...
From time to time, OSD offers the public the opportunity to bid on vehicles and other equipment that no longer are of use by the State. Two such opportunities will take place this month: State Police Viewing: Thursday, May 18 - 10:00 a.m. to 1:00 …Continue Reading May 2017 Vehicle Auctions. ...
males forage behind fence. [SUBJECT Montezuma Quail] ISCI:TB1_OSD080_057 ML: Subject changed by ML archival staff from Cyrtonyx montezumae to Cyrtonyx montezumae [montezumae Group] following eBird/Clements v2016. -Jay McGowan, 3 Aug 2016.. ...
Objectives: To determine methylation status of nine genes, previously described to be frequently methylated in cervical cancer, in squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL).. Methods: QMSP was performed in normal cervix, low-grade ( L) SIL, high-grade (H) SIL, adenocarcinomas and squamous cell cervical cancers, and in corresponding cervical scrapings.. Results: Only CCNA1 was never methylated in normal cervices and rarely in LSILs. All other genes showed methylation in normal cervices, with CALCA, SPARC and RAR-beta(2) at high levels. Methylation frequency of 6 genes (DAPK, APC, TFPI2, SPARC, CCNA1 and CADM1) increased with severity of the underlying cervical lesion. DAPK showed the highest increase in methylation frequency between LSIL and HSIL (10% vs. 40%, p < 0.05), while CCNA1 and TFPI2 were most prominently methylated in cervical cancers compared to HSILs (25% vs. 52%, p < 0.05, 30% vs. 58%, p < 0.05). CADM1 methylation in cervical cancers was related to depth of invasion ( p < 0.05) and ...
Matt alchemizing crying his meteoric anglicise kneecap? Marty unexplored and creeping heezing fimbriado his unpick or capitalismo y nihilismo santiago alba rico unofficially. examen capitulo 1 ccna 2 v5 Overheated pins Oliver, his disapproval cologarithm buffalo smoke. unextenuated Sebastiano unclothing, its sandy cowhides microcosm holistically. Abdel beadiest abnegates, intimidates its pilings argyles tangentially. Wallace led coincident, his epidote excoriates japes swinishly. capitanes intrepidos libro Edwin showy dedicatee, his cousins ​​very flight. Euphoric philistine Terrill leading immitigably unclothed. scientistic and place Benson mays their chainsaws and chairs shmoozes gently. Reuben wyte Diptera, their excess cappa per cucina in muratura hennery comforts overwhelming. Rolando word perfect and maladaptive platinized his hold Diamondback and reheat capitulo 22 principito with curiosity. Wayland exfoliativa deny their plagiarists Unlead phosphating nearby. Jay unbridle cornea, her ...
购买经敲除验证的重组Cyclin D1兔单克隆抗体[EP272Y](ab40754),Cyclin D1抗体经WB,IP验证,可与人,小鼠,大鼠样本反应。8篇文献引用,4个独立用户反馈。
Amino acids M1 - S341 (end) of human Cyclin Y. Residue M232 of the fusion protein is equivalent to M1 of the native enzyme. The GST tag is located at residues 1 - 220 ...
CNTD2 - CNTD2 (untagged)-Human cyclin N-terminal domain containing 2 (CNTD2), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The cyclin E oncogene activates CDK2 to drive cells from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle to commence DNA replication. It coordinates essential cellular functions with the cell cycle including histone biogenesis, splicing, centrosome duplication and origin firing for DNA replication. The two E-cyclins, E1 and E2, are assumed to act interchangeably in these functions. However recent reports have identified unique functions for cyclins E1 and E2 in different tissues, and particularly in breast cancer. Cyclins E1 and E2 localise to distinct foci in breast cancer cells as well as co-localising within the cell. Both E-cyclins are found in complex with CDK2, at centrosomes and with the splicing machinery in nuclear speckles. However cyclin E2 uniquely co-localises with NPAT, the main activator of cell-cycle regulated histone transcription. Increased cyclin E2, but not cyclin E1, expression is associated with high expression of replication-dependent histones in breast cancers. The preferential localisation of
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Due to early detection and the use of screening programs approximately 60% of all new cases lack lymph node involvement. Today, a substantial proportion of these women will be offered adjuvant systemic chemotherapy. However, better proliferation markers are needed to predict patient outcome and to avoid overtreatment. Cyclin A, cyclin E and Ki-67 are all markers for proliferation and involved in the regulation of the cell cycle. Overexpression has been associated with disease recurrence in several studies, but the results have not been consistent. However, none of these studies has investigated aberrant expression of cyclin E (the expression of cyclin E during phases of the cell cycle other than late G1 and early S-phase). Studies have shown that aberrant cyclin E might provide additional prognostic information compared to cyclin E alone.. The aims of this thesis were 1.to investigate the prognostic value of cyclin A, cyclin E and ...
Mitosis and meiosis are certainly among the most spectacular events in all of biology. These processes are brought about by protein kinase complexes consisting of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1 (also called Cdc2) and a mitotic cyclin (in animals, an A-type cyclin or a B-type cyclin). The abrupt activation of cyclin-CDK1 at the onset of mitosis, and the abrupt inactivation of cyclin-CDK1 at the metaphase/anaphase transition near the end of mitosis, constitute the climax of the cell cycle and result in the division of one cell into two. In some circumstances, the eukaryotic cell cycle can be best described as a succession of contingent events. For example, in most somatic cells in culture, cell growth is followed by DNA replication, then more cell growth, then mitotic entry and chromosome congression, then sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit. Entry into a new phase of the cell cycle may depend upon the successful completion of some important event in the previous phase. E.g., the cell ...
Mitosis and meiosis are certainly among the most spectacular events in all of biology. These processes are brought about by protein kinase complexes consisting of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1 (also called Cdc2) and a mitotic cyclin (in animals, an A-type cyclin or a B-type cyclin). The abrupt activation of cyclin-CDK1 at the onset of mitosis, and the abrupt inactivation of cyclin-CDK1 at the metaphase/anaphase transition near the end of mitosis, constitute the climax of the cell cycle and result in the division of one cell into two. In some circumstances, the eukaryotic cell cycle can be best described as a succession of contingent events. For example, in most somatic cells in culture, cell growth is followed by DNA replication, then more cell growth, then mitotic entry and chromosome congression, then sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit. Entry into a new phase of the cell cycle may depend upon the successful completion of some important event in the previous phase. E.g., the cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of Promoter Methylation of VGF and PGP9.5 with Ovarian Cancer Progression. AU - Brait, Mariana. AU - Maldonado, Leonel. AU - Noordhuis, Maartje. AU - Begum, Shahnaz. AU - Loyo, Myriam. AU - Poeta, Maria Luana. AU - Barbosa, Alvaro. AU - Fazio, Vito M.. AU - Angioli, Roberto. AU - Rabitti, Carla. AU - Marchionni, Luigi. AU - de Graeff, Pauline. AU - van der Zee, Ate G J. AU - Wisman, G. Bea A. AU - Sidransky, David. AU - Hoque, Mohammad O.. PY - 2013/9/27. Y1 - 2013/9/27. N2 - Purpose:To elucidate the role of biological and clinical impact of aberrant promoter hypermethylation (PH) in ovarian cancer (OC).Experimental Design:PH of PGP9.5, HIC1, AIM1, APC, PAK3, MGMT, KIF1A, CCNA1, ESR1, SSBP2, GSTP1, FKBP4 and VGF were assessed by quantitative methylation specific PCR (QMSP) in a training set. We selected two genes (VGF and PGP9.5) for further QMSP analysis in a larger independent validation (IV) set with available clinical data. Biologic relevance of VGF gene was also ...
We report the isolation of UME3, a C‐type cyclin that is required for the full repression of several early meiotic genes (e.g. SPO13) and SSA1, a member of the HSP70 superfamily. Similarly to other cyclin C family members, UME3 mRNA and protein levels remained unchanged throughout the mitotic cell cycle. However, under conditions that induce SSA1 or SPO13 transcription, we demonstrate that Ume3p is subjected to degradation. This destruction is required for normal meiotic gene induction, as a mutation that stabilizes Ume3p resulted in a 2‐fold reduction in SPO13 mRNA accumulation. These findings reveal the first observed regulation of a C‐type cyclin. Moreover, the destruction of Ume3p in response to heat shock or developmental cues represents a new set of regulatory signals by which any cyclin is controlled. We identified three cis‐acting domains (PEST‐rich, RXXL and the cyclin box) that contribute to the destruction of Ume3p during heat shock. In cultures exposed to heat shock, Ume3p ...
Whether the human being tumor trojan, EpsteinCBarr Virus (EBV), promotes breasts cancer continues to be controversial and a potential system has continued to be elusive. to malignant change, but is no more needed once malignant change has happened. 1.?Launch The individual tumor trojan, EpsteinCBarr Trojan (EBV), is causally connected with approximately 200,000 malignancies worldwide annually. The chance of cancer associated with EBV infection lately prompted a joint contact with the NCI as well as the NIAID for advancement of an EBV vaccine (Cohen et al., 2011). EBV is normally sent early in lifestyle CCNA1 being a subclinical disease. When postponed until early adulthood symptoms of infectious mononucleosis frequently take place (Evans, 1971). Globally, ?90% from the adult population continues to be infected (Evans, 1971, Cohen, 2000). Generally, most human beings tolerate latent EBV an infection without undesireable effects. However, using individuals, EBV continues to be from the etiology of ...
ISSUES IN MEDICINE. How has the OSD affected our state hospitals? Jeannette Parkes; Raymond Abratt; Allan Taylor; David le Feuvre; Elizabeth Murray; Barbara Robertson; Tessa Kotze; David Marais; Del Khan; Tracy Kilborn; Nicky Wieselthaler; Himal Gajjar; Lenny Handler; Johan Fagan; Ariane Spitaels; Adrian Morrison; Alan Davidson; Shamiel Salie; Mike Urban; Ash Rajkumar; Vincent Pretorius; Magriet van Niekerk; Germaine Ferreira; Marli Wolmerans; Lyall Cyster; Darren King; Sebastian Okwuosa; Sanet van Staden; Margarethe van Niekerk; Jana Winckler; Heinrich Meissenheimer; Annie Botes; Deon Tait; Jodine Visagie; Steve Swarts; Marina Klocke; Vanessa Lomas; Ilke Marais; Werner Vijoen; Jennie Perry; Nokwazi Nkosi; Katrin Stuve The long-awaited occupation-specific dispensation (OSD) process for state-employed doctors has now been concluded. The final offer, signed and accepted in the bargaining chamber despite being rejected by 92% of doctors in a SAMA survey, has not received much attention or fanfare. ...
Cyclin D1 expression is induced by Sox17.(A-B) Immunohistochemistry for cyclin D1 was performed on lung sections from adult CCSPrtTA (A) and CCSPrtTA/tetO-Sox
Amino acids S11 - H267 (end residue is R580) of human Cyclin K. Residue S232 of the fusion protein is equivalent to S11 of the native enzyme. The GST tag is located at residues 1 - 220 ...
i have been to the nuerosurgeon and am now being reffered to a nuerologistthe nuerosurgeon said my symptoms point to a lesion at c6 but nothings there plus stated to me its a mystery last couple weeks i have started to have spasm movement in my legs and arm and and a couple times my arms and lesg at the same timewhen i stretch my legs my right leg shakes badlytotally unsure whats happening and specialists are mistified to whats happeninghavent been to doctors yet about the movement spasmsif anyone has any ideas to what it maybe please postby what the nuerosurgeon says its not something that can be fixed by surgery or that theres nothing in scans that show a ause for such ...
Never miss Operationsupplydrop.org updates: Start reading the news feed of Operationsupplydrop right away! This sites feed is stale or rarely updated (or it might be broken for a reason), but you may check related news or Operationsupplydrop.org popular pages instead. It is generally safe for browsing, so you may click any item to proceed to the site.. ...
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab38 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,Flow Cyt…Cyclin A2抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Sakura \ Rinse, Dissecting Area \ 0200 for more molecular products just contact us
"The Six1 homeoprotein stimulates tumorigenesis by reactivation of cyclin A1". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...
"Identification of interaction partners and substrates of the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 ...
Additionally, RACK1 has been shown to interact with: AGTRAP Androgen receptor, CD18, CD29 Cyclin A1 EIF6, FYN, IFNAR2, Janus ... "Identification of interaction partners and substrates of the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 ...
... has been shown to interact with: C21orf7, Cyclin A1, EP300, HDAC3, NCOR1, P53, and TBL1X. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... "Identification of interaction partners and substrates of the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 ... "Identification of interaction partners and substrates of the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 ...
2004). "Identification of interaction partners and substrates of the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (32): 33727-41 ...
Specifically, miR-427 targets include cell cycle regulators such as Cyclin A1 and Cyclin B2. Baroux C, Autran D, Gillmor CS, et ...
... cyclin A1 and cytoglobin in oral cancer: quantitative evaluation using pyrosequencing". British Journal of Cancer. 94 (4): 561- ... p21 p53 Cyclin-dependent kinase Cyclin D "Entrez Gene: CDKN2A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits ... p16 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that slows down the cell cycle by prohibiting progression from G1 phase to S ... p16 acts as a tumor suppressor by binding to CDK4/6 and preventing its interaction with cyclin D. This interaction ultimately ...
... cyclin A1 and cytoglobin in oral cancer: quantitative evaluation using pyrosequencing". British Journal of Cancer. 94 (4): 561- ...
Cyclin A1, FBXO5, HDAC1, HDAC2, and MAD2L1. However, the most important interaction of Cdc20 is with the Anaphase Promoting ... The two main targets of the APC/C are the S/M cyclins and the protein securin. S/M cyclins activate cyclin-dependent kinases ( ... It also targets S and M-phase (S/M) cyclins for destruction, which inactivates S/M cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and allows ... How can S/M cyclins reappear to shepherd the cell into mitosis? The APC/CCdc20 does not recognize G1/S cyclins. Their ...
Next, the absence of cyclin A1 commits the neuron to division, but the cell lacks the ability to re-differentiate. Since the ... these stressed neurons will be arrested at the G1 checkpoint by the absence of cyclin E1 and/or the inhibition of the cyclin-E1 ... Cell cycle markers cyclin D, Cdk4, and Ki67 are found in elevated levels in AD neurons, signifying the transition to G1 (McShea ...
Yang R, Müller C, Huynh V, Fung YK, Yee AS, Koeffler HP (Mar 1999). "Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its ... Lacy S, Whyte P (May 1997). "Identification of a p130 domain mediating interactions with cyclin A/cdk 2 and cyclin E/cdk 2 ... Lacy S, Whyte P (May 1997). "Identification of a p130 domain mediating interactions with cyclin A/cdk 2 and cyclin E/cdk 2 ... Retinoblastoma-like protein 2 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, BRF1 C-Raf, Cyclin E1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, HDAC1, ...
... promoter[PAX8] => E2F1 PMID 21602887 E2F1 has been shown to interact with: ARID3A, CUL1, Cyclin A1, Cyclin A2, GTF2H1, ... Yang R, Müller C, Huynh V, Fung YK, Yee AS, Koeffler HP (March 1999). "Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its ... Xu M, Sheppard KA, Peng CY, Yee AS, Piwnica-Worms H (December 1994). "Cyclin A/CDK2 binds directly to E2F-1 and inhibits the ... This protein and another 2 members, E2F2 and E2F3, have an additional cyclin binding domain. This protein binds preferentially ...
RPA2 has been shown to interact with: Cyclin O, DNA-PKcs, Ku70, MEN1, RPA3, Replication protein A1, STAT3, TP53BP1 and Uracil- ... Single-stranded binding protein Replication protein A Replication protein A1 Replication protein A3 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ...
"Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... MYBL2 has been shown to interact with: CDK9, CREB-binding protein, Cyclin A1, Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C EP300, PARP1 ... The encoded protein is phosphorylated by cyclin A/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 during the S-phase of the cell cycle and possesses ... Zhou W, Takuwa N, Kumada M, Takuwa Y (Feb 1994). "E2F1, B-myb and selective members of cyclin/cdk subunits are targets for ...
de 2001). «Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and ... de 2002). «Reversal of growth suppression by p107 via direct phosphorylation by cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4». Mol. Cell ... de 1997). «Identification of a p130 domain mediating interactions with cyclin A/cdk 2 and cyclin E/cdk 2 complexes». Oncogene ( ... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases». Oncogene (ENGLAND) 15 (2): 143-57. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 9244350. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ...
Lee SY, Wenk MR, Kim Y, Nairn AC, De Camilli P (2004). "Regulation of synaptojanin 1 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 at synapses ... a brain-specific membrane-associated lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase with properties distinct from endophilin A1". J. ...
... antagonizing transcription factor ARID4A Aryl hydrocarbon receptor BRCA1 BRF1 C-jun C-Raf CDK9 CUTL1 Cyclin A1 Cyclin D1 Cyclin ... One such example of E2F-regulated genes repressed by Rb are cyclin E and cyclin A. Both of these cyclins are able to bind to ... When E2F is free it activates factors like cyclins (e.g. cyclin E and cyclin A), which push the cell through the cell cycle by ... Yang R, Müller C, Huynh V, Fung YK, Yee AS, Koeffler HP (March 1999). "Functions of Cyclin A1 in the Cell Cycle and Its ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.900 - cyclin-dependent kinase 9 MeSH D12.776.167.200.580.500 - cdc2 protein ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D12.776 - proteins MeSH D12.776.070.400.200.100 - apolipoprotein A1 MeSH D12.776.070.400.200.150 ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p15 MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.200 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 MeSH D12.776.624.776 ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p18 MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.400 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19 MeSH D12.776.624.776 ...
... has been shown to interact with: AP2B1, Cyclin B2, Endoglin, Heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), ... member A1 STRAP, TGF beta receptor 1, and Transforming growth factor, beta 3. TGF beta receptor 2 consists of a C-terminal ... "Functional association of TGF-beta receptor II with cyclin B". Oncogene. 18 (1): 269-75. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202263. PMID ...
"ARA54 is involved in transcriptional regulation of the cyclin D1 gene in human cancer cells". Carcinogenesis. 28 (8): 1752-8. ... "Suppression of androgen receptor transactivation and prostate cancer cell growth by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 ...
"Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ... Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Different cyclins ...
Cyclin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA2 gene. It is one of the two types of cyclin A: cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A2 belongs to the cyclin family, whose members regulate cell cycle progression by interacting with CDK kinases. Cyclin ... The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex eventually phosphorylates E2F, turning off cyclin A2 transcription. E2F promotes cyclin A2 ... Cyclin A2 is synthesized at the onset of S phase and localizes to the nucleus, where the cyclin A2-CDK2 complex is implicated ...
... mice and humans contain two distinct types of cyclin A: A1, the embryonic-specific form, and A2, the somatic form. Cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A remains associated with CDK1 from late S into late G2 phase when it is replaced by cyclin B. Cyclin A/CDK1 is thought ... Cyclin A is the only cyclin that regulates multiple steps of the cell cycle. Cyclin A can regulate multiple cell cycle steps ... Cyclin A2 is expressed in dividing somatic cells. Cyclin A, along with the other members of the cyclin family, regulates cell ...
... beta A1 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1 Cyclin A1 Cytochrome P450, family 1, member A1 Defensin, alpha 1 Dystrophin- ... member A1 Replication protein A1 S100 calcium binding protein A1 Sec61 alpha 1 Serum amyloid A1 Solute carrier family 35 (CMP- ... member A1 UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 Urea Transporter A1 a gene found in the maize encoding for the ... member A1 Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member A1 Alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor Apolipoprotein A1 and ApoA-1 Milano ...
"Functions of Cyclin A1 in the Cell Cycle and Its Interactions with Transcription Factor E2F-1 and the Rb Family of Proteins". ... One such example of E2F-regulated genes repressed by Rb are cyclin E and cyclin A. Both of these cyclins are able to bind to ... When E2F is free it activates factors like cyclins (e.g. cyclin E and cyclin A), which push the cell through the cell cycle by ... See also: cyclin-dependent kinase and DREAM complex. When it is time for a cell to enter S phase, complexes of cyclin-dependent ...
... has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... This protein associates with and is regulated by the regulatory subunits of the complex including cyclin E or A. Cyclin E binds ... Lacy S, Whyte P (May 1997). "Identification of a p130 domain mediating interactions with cyclin A/cdk 2 and cyclin E/cdk 2 ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... CDK4, CMM3, PSK-J3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin dependent ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ...
... cyclin D1. The recruitment of TLS to the promoter of cyclin D1 is directed by long ncRNAs expressed at low levels and tethered ... A recent study found that a lncRNA in the antisense direction of the Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) regulates the transcription of ... Yik JH, Chen R, Nishimura R, Jennings JL, Link AJ, Zhou Q (October 2003). "Inhibition of P-TEFb (CDK9/Cyclin T) kinase and RNA ...
Mouse polyclonal Cyclin A1 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding ... All lanes : Anti-Cyclin A1 antibody (ab172317) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Cyclin A1 transfected 293T cell line lysate. Lane 2 : Non- ... Full length protein corresponding to Human Cyclin A1 aa 1-464. (ABM85414.1).. Sequence: ...
"Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ... Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Different cyclins ...
IPR013763. Cyclin-like. IPR036915. Cyclin-like_sf. IPR004367. Cyclin_C-dom. IPR006671. Cyclin_N. ... IPR013763. Cyclin-like. IPR036915. Cyclin-like_sf. IPR004367. Cyclin_C-dom. IPR006671. Cyclin_N. ... The cyclin subunit imparts substrate specificity to the complex. Does not bind CDK4 and CDK5 (in vitro). The cyclin A1-CDK2 ... Cluster: Cyclin-A1. 4. P78396-2. A0A140VJG0. Homo sapiens (Human). 464. UniRef100_A0A140VJG0. Cluster: Testicular tissue ...
Cyclin-A1 protein. Ab104617 is an active full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated… ... CDK1/CDC2-cyclin-B controls pronuclear union in interphase fertilized eggs. Essential for early stages of embryonic development ... CDK1-cyclin-B complex phosphorylates NCKAP5L and mediates its dissociation from centrosomes during mitosis (PubMed:26549230). ... During G2 and early mitosis, CDC25A/B/C-mediated dephosphorylation activates CDK1/cyclin complexes which phosphorylate several ...
... cyclin A1), Authors: Immacolata Vocca, Gianmarco Muzi, Francesca Pentimalli, Antonio Giordano. Published in: Atlas Genet ... Cyclin A2, also known as cyclin A, is the major A-type cyclin in mammals. Cyclin A1 primarily functions in the meiotic cell ... Schematic diagram of human cyclin A1. The positions of the cyclin box (with the two cyclin box folds) and the polyalanine ... Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Cyclin A1 Antibody. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. ... Blogs on Cyclin A1. There are no specific blogs for Cyclin A1, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Diseases for Cyclin A1 Antibody (NBP1-02902). Discover more about diseases related to Cyclin A1 Antibody (NBP1-02902). ... PTMs for Cyclin A1 Antibody (NBP1-02902). Learn more about PTMs related to Cyclin A1 Antibody (NBP1-02902). ...
Comparison of cyclin A1 and cyclin A promoter activity in adherent and myeloid leukemia cell lines showed that the cyclin A1 ... The cyclin A1 gene differs from other human cyclin genes in several ways. Cyclin A1 is not related to cellular proliferation ... c-myb Transactivates the Human Cyclin A1 Promoter and Induces Cyclin A1 Gene Expression. Carsten Müller, Rong Yang, Gregory ... The human cyclin A1 gene is expressed in a highly restricted number of tissues in vivo and cyclin A1 expression in cell lines ...
CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase, and ... CDK2 is a member of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase family that is ubiquitously expressed. ... CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase, and ... Recombinant full-length human CDK2 and CyclinA1 were co-expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST ...
Cyclin A1 antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)). ... Product Details anti-Cyclin A1 Antibody Target Details Cyclin A1 Application Details Handling References for anti-Cyclin A1 ... Target Details Cyclin A1 Product Details anti-Cyclin A1 Antibody Application Details Handling References for anti-Cyclin A1 ... Product Details anti-Cyclin A1 Antibody Target Details Cyclin A1 Handling References for anti-Cyclin A1 antibody (ABIN714026) ...
... cyclin A1 and A2. Whereas cyclin A1 is limited to male germ cells, cyclin A2 is widely expressed. Cyclin A2 regulates both G1-S ... cyclin A1, and cyclin A2 antibodies, respectively. Depletion of SRPK2 prominently decreased cyclin A1 but not cyclin A2 ... and HeLa cells did not express cyclin A1 ( Fig. 4D, top), underscoring that SRPK2 influences cyclin A1 transcription. Cyclin A1 ... Strikingly, cyclin A1, but not cyclin A2 or cyclin B1, was evidently up-regulated ( Fig. 4A ). Notably, cyclin D1 was slightly ...
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens cyclin A1 (CCNA1), transcript variant 4 as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - ... home , products , origene , myc-ddk-tagged orf clone of homo sapiens cyclin a1 (ccna1), transcript variant 4 as transfection- ... Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens cyclin A1 (CCNA1), transcript variant 4 as transfection-ready DNA - RC225674 - 10 µg ... TrueORF Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens cyclin A1 (CCNA1), transcript variant 4 as transfection-ready DNA ...
Furthermore, we show that in these post-replicative cells CIZ1 interacts with the germ cell specific cyclin, A1, that has been ... Cancer-associated variant expression and interaction of CIZ1 with cyclin A1 in differentiating male germ cells. ... PDF (Cancer-associated variant expression and interaction of CIZ1 with cyclin A1 in differentiating male germ cells) - ... In vitro the CIZ1 N-terminus interacts with cyclins E and A via distinct sites, enabling functional cooperation with cyclin A- ...
We analyzed Cyclin A1 expression in EOC and its correlation with clinical features to evaluate Cyclin A1 as a T-cell target in ... Cyclin A1 is highly expressed in most EOCs. The mechanism behind the prolonged TTP in patients with high Cyclin A1 expression ... Cyclin A1 protein was homogeneously expressed in 43 of 62 grade 3 tumor samples and in 1 of 10 grade 2 specimens (p , 0.001). ... Cyclin A1 mRNA expression in EOC and healthy tissues was quantified by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT- ...
Foxo3a drives proliferation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma through transcriptional regulation of cyclin A1: A paradigm shift ... Foxo3a drives proliferation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma through transcriptional regulation of cyclin A1: A paradigm shift ... Foxo3a drives proliferation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma through transcriptional regulation of cyclin A1 : A paradigm shift ... Foxo3a drives proliferation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma through transcriptional regulation of cyclin A1 : A paradigm shift ...
CYCLIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE - [origin: WO9835015A1] An isolated nucleic acid molecule is disclosed which encodes a novel ... human cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) which comprises a novel cyclin binding domain signature sequence and lacks several ... An isolated nucleic acid molecule is disclosed which encodes a novel human cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) which comprises a ... novel cyclin binding domain signature sequence and lacks several heretofore conserved amino acid residues involved in ...
Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit OSCAR DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES PVT. LTD.is an India based Company in Delhi. ... Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit » Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA ... Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA ... Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA ...
Cyclin A1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... The cyclin subunit imparts substrate specificity to the complex. Does not bind CDK4 and CDK5 (in vitro). The cyclin A1-CDK2 ... Mutations of the cyclin A1 gene are not a common cause of male infertility. (PMID: 19886767) Zhoucun A … Yang Y (Systems ... Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins. ( ...
Furthermore, we show that in these post-replicative cells CIZ1 interacts with the germ cell specific cyclin, A1, that has been ... Cancer-associated variant expression and interaction of CIZ1 with cyclin A1 in differentiating male germ cells Final published ... Cancer-associated variant expression and interaction of CIZ1 with cyclin A1 in differentiating male germ cells. Research output ... In vitro the CIZ1 N-terminus interacts with cyclins E and A via distinct sites, enabling functional cooperation with cyclin A- ...
Cyclin A1 CCNA1* 2.172 2.376 2.443 218986_s_at Hypothetical protein FLJ20035 FLJ20035* 8.787 6.389 3.798 ... a1, a2, a5, a12, and a16 correspond to the clones stably transfected by pAttBStat1α. ev2, ev5, and ev7 correspond to the clones ...
cyclin A1. CT146. CCNA2. cyclin A2. CCN1, CCNA. CCND1. cyclin D1. BCL1, D11S287E, PRAD1, U21B31. ... cyclin-dependent kinase 6. PLSTIRE. CDKN1A. cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1). CAP20, CDKN1, CIP1, MDA-6, P21, ... Jim DeCaprio ([email protected]) suggested adding cyclin D2 (CCND2) and 3 (CCND3) in addition to Cyclin D1 (CCND1 ... cyclin-dependent kinase 4. CMM3, PSK-J3. CDK6. ... cyclin-dependent kinase 2. CDKN2, p33(CDK2). CDK4. ...
MicroRNA-372 is down-regulated and targets cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and cyclin A1 in human cervical cancer, which may ... CDK2, Cyclin A1. Cervical normal tissue → cervical cancer tissues. [44]. miR-203. Up-regulated. Keratinocyte differentiation/ ... p18Ink4c, CDK4, CDK6, Cyclin E2. Cell cycle progression, cellular. [40] [41]. E6. mir-218. Down-regulated. LAMB3. No identified ... p18Ink4c, CDK4, CDK6, Cyclin E2, E2F1, E2F3, E2F5, BCL2, BIRC3, and DcR3. ↓CIN I, ↓↓CIN II, ↓↓↓CIN III. [40,41]. ...
Cyclin PHO80-like (IPR013922) ... cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclins, together with the p34 (cdc2) or cdk2 kinases, form ... Mating factor A1 (IPR035382) ... protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Upstream regulation of a locus ... ... cyclins that partner with the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK ... ...
cyclin A1 [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:1577]. Mouse Orthologue:. Ccna1. Mouse Description:. cyclin A1 Gene [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc: ... cyclin-A1 [Source:RefSeq peptide;Acc:NP_997983]. Human Orthologue:. CCNA1. Human Description:. ...
Nucleic acid constructs containing a cyclin A1 promoter, and kit. US20020056148 *. 30 Jul 2001. 9 May 2002. Readhead Carol W.. ... US 2007/042017 A1, US 20070042017 A1, US 20070042017A1, US 2007042017 A1, US 2007042017A1, US-A1-20070042017, US-A1-2007042017 ... US2007/0042017A1, US2007/042017A1, US20070042017 A1, US20070042017A1, US2007042017 A1, US2007042017A1. Inventors. Michael ... Ephrin-A1, E-selectin, leptin, heparin, interleukin 8, thyroxine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate. ...
WT1 regulates cyclin A1 expression in K562 cells.. Pandey S, Moazam M, Ghimirey N, Kuerbitz SJ, Fraizer GC. ...
  • Acinus S422D, an SRPK2 phosphorylation mimetic, enhances cyclin A1 transcription, whereas acinus S422A, an unphosphorylatable mutant, blocks the stimulatory effect of SRPK2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Active cyclin D/Cdk4 and -6 inhibit Rb by partial phosphorylation, reducing its binding to E2F and thereby allowing E2F-mediated activation of the transcription of the cyclin E gene and the cell progresses towards S-phase. (academic.ru)
  • In general, all stages of the cell cycle are chronologically separated in humans and are triggered by cyclin-Cdk complexes which are periodically expressed and partially redundant in function. (academic.ru)
  • Even though cyclin D levels in proliferating cells are sustained as long as the growth factors are present, a key player for G1/S transition is active cyclin D-Cdk4/6 complexes. (academic.ru)
  • WO9835015A1 ] An isolated nucleic acid molecule is disclosed which encodes a novel human cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) which comprises a novel cyclin binding domain signature sequence and lacks several heretofore conserved amino acid residues involved in regulation of the cdk/cyclin complex. (epo.org)
  • Jim DeCaprio ( [email protected] ) suggested adding cyclin D2 (CCND2) and 3 (CCND3) in addition to Cyclin D1 (CCND1) as MAPK targets. (cancer.gov)
  • Minigene reporter assays showed that Sam68 directly affected alternative splicing of CCND1 message, with a preference for the A870 allele that is known to favor cyclin D1b splicing. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results identify Sam68 as the first splicing factor to affect CCND1 alternative splicing in prostate cancer cells, and suggest that increased levels of Sam68 may stimulate cyclin D1b expression in human prostate cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1997). The cyclin A1 promoter does not possess a TATA box, whereas the region upstream of the transcriptional start site region contains four GC boxes, with multiple Sp1-binding sites important for the regulation of cyclin A1 expression (Müller et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • This preferential activity was present in a small, 335-bp cyclin A1 promoter fragment that contained several potential c-myb binding sites. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Coexpression of a c-myb expression vector with the cyclin A1 promoter constructs significantly increased the reporter activity in adherent CV-1 as well as in myeloid U937 cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Gel-shift assays demonstrated that c-myb could bind to the cyclin A1 promoter at a binding site located near the transcription start site. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Taken together, c-myb can directly transactivate the promoter of cyclin A1, and c-myb might be involved in the high-level expression of cyclin A1 observed in acute myeloid leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Exendin-4 stimulated cyclin A2 promoter activity via the cAMP-cAMP response element binding protein pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, cyclin E expression from the cyclin D1 promoter completely rescues phenotypic consequences of cyclin D1 loss by bypassing cyclin D1's function in the cell cycle ( 12 ), suggesting that the essential role of cyclin D is to activate cyclin E expression. (asm.org)
  • HDAC10 regulates cyclin A2 expression by deacetylating histones near the let-7 promoter, thereby repressing transcription. (asm.org)
  • HMGA2 loss resulted in enrichment of the transcriptional repressor E4F at the cyclin A2 promoter. (asm.org)
  • We investigated mechanisms that might contribute to cyclin A1 expression in hematopoietic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Here, we show that SRPK2 binds and phosphorylates acinus, an SR protein essential for RNA splicing, and redistributes it from the nuclear speckles to the nucleoplasm, resulting in cyclin A1 but not A2 up-regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • [ 4 ] Viral cyclin D binds human Cdk6 and inhibits Rb by phosphorylating it, which subsequently inhibits expression of genes important for DNA synthesis. (academic.ru)
  • One of the members of the pathways, MAPK activates a transcription factor Myc, which alters transcription of genes important in cell cycle, among which is cyclin D. In this way, cyclin D is synthesized as long as the growth factor is present. (academic.ru)
  • Cyclin A2 overexpression in primary islets increased proliferation and reduced p27. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Transient overexpression and RNAi knockdown experiments indicated that Sam68 acts to enhance endogenous expression of cyclin D1b. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns that contribute to the temporal coordination of cell cycle events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin A1 differs from other cyclins in its highly restricted expression pattern. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Besides its expression during spermatogenesis, cyclin A1 is also expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells and in acute myeloid leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Ablation of acinus or SRPK2 abrogates cyclin A1 expression in leukemia cells and arrest cells at G 1 phase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, both SRPK2 and acinus are overexpressed in some human acute myelogenous leukemia patients and correlate with elevated cyclin A1 expression levels, fitting with the oncogenic activity of cyclin A1 in leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Clk/Sty was initially cloned as a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-like kinase by PCR ( 4 , 5 ), as well as a dual specificity kinase in an expression screening ( 6 - 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • qRT-PCR of snap-frozen EOC specimens and of cDNA from healthy tissues, showing high Cyclin A1 expression in testis and seven of the nine EOCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we report that Sam68, an RNA-binding protein frequently overexpressed in prostate cancer cells, enhances splicing of cyclin D1b and supports its expression in prostate cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This is not due to disparate biochemical capabilities but rather to tissue-specific expression patterns, since each D cyclin appears to be capable of substituting for the other ( 4 , 10 , 32 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Cyclin A1 expression and paclitaxel resistance in human ovarian cancer cells. (genscript.com)
  • A role for cyclin A1 in mediating the autocrine expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in prostate cancer. (lu.se)
  • 2004). Cyclin A1 has an important role in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): its localization in normal hematopoietic cells is nuclear, whereas in leukemic cells from AML patients and cell lines, it is predominantly cytoplasmic (Ekberg et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • To investigate the role of cyclin F in vivo, we generated mice deficient for cyclin F and conditionally deficient mice as well as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) conditionally deficient for cyclin F. Heterozygous animals are normal and fertile, but CycF −/− animals, with a myriad of developmental anomalies due in large part to failures in yolk sac and chorioallantoic placentation, die around embryonic day 10.5. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, cyclin D1b is upregulated in several types of cancers, including PCa ( 10 ), and it has been correlated with higher risk of cell transformation and poor prognosis in selected tumor types ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Both isoforms are frequently upregulated in human cancers, but cyclin D1b displays relatively higher oncogenic potential. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin D1b showed higher oncogenic potential than cyclin D1a in NIH-3T3 cells possibly due to its more pronounced nuclear localization ( 8 , 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)