Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.
A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A RNA-binding protein that is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM. It helps regulate GENETIC TRANSLATION in NEURONS and is absent or under-expressed in FRAGILE X SYNDROME.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Steroids whose structure has been expanded by the addition of one or more carbon atoms to the ring skeleton in any of the four rings.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
The numerous (6-12) small thin-walled spaces or air cells in the ETHMOID BONE located between the eyes. These air cells form an ethmoidal labyrinth.
A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A CYCLIN C dependent kinase that is an important component of the mediator complex. The enzyme is activated by its interaction with CYCLIN C and plays a role in transcriptional regulation by phosphorylating RNA POLYMERASE II.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a role in the transition from G1 to S PHASE and in transcriptional regulation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F4 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene PROMOTER REGIONS through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130 and RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P107.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
A transcriptional elongation factor complex that is comprised of a heterodimer of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9 and one of several CYCLINS including TYPE T CYCLINS and cyclin K. It functions by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA POLYMERASE II.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing five ANKYRIN-LIKE REPEATS. Aberrant expression of this protein has been associated with deregulated EPITHELIAL CELL growth, organ enlargement, and a variety of NEOPLASMS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A potent inhibitor of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES in G1 PHASE and S PHASE. In humans, aberrant expression of p57 is associated with various NEOPLASMS as well as with BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing five ANKYRIN REPEATS. Aberrant expression of this protein has been associated with TESTICULAR CANCER.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression of the CELL CYCLE through the G1 PHASE and allow transition to S PHASE when the cells are ready to undergo DNA REPLICATION. DNA DAMAGE, or the deficiencies in specific cellular components or nutrients may cause the cells to halt before progressing through G1 phase.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Large crested BIRDS in the family Cacatuidae, found in Australia, New Guinea, and islands adjacent to the Philippines. The cockatiel (species Nymphicus hollandicus) is much smaller.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Formularies concerned with pharmaceuticals prescribed in hospitals.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins. (1/73)

Human cyclin A1, a newly discovered cyclin, is expressed in testis and is thought to function in the meiotic cell cycle. Here, we show that the expression of human cyclin A1 and cyclin A1-associated kinase activities was regulated during the mitotic cell cycle. In the osteosarcoma cell line MG63, cyclin A1 mRNA and protein were present at very low levels in cells at the G0 phase. They increased during the progression of the cell cycle and reached the highest levels in the S and G2/M phases. Furthermore, the cyclin A1-associated histone H1 kinase activity peaked at the G2/M phase. We report that cyclin A1 could bind to important cell cycle regulators: the Rb family of proteins, the transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family of proteins. The in vitro interaction of cyclin A1 with E2F-1 was greatly enhanced when cyclin A1 was complexed with CDK2. Associations of cyclin A1 with Rb and E2F-1 were observed in vivo in several cell lines. When cyclin A1 was coexpressed with CDK2 in sf9 insect cells, the CDK2-cyclin A1 complex had kinase activities for histone H1, E2F-1, and the Rb family of proteins. Our results suggest that the Rb family of proteins and E2F-1 may be important targets for phosphorylation by the cyclin A1-associated kinase. Cyclin A1 may function in the mitotic cell cycle in certain cells.  (+info)

Cyclin A1 expression in leukemia and normal hematopoietic cells. (2/73)

Human cyclin A1 is a newly cloned, tissue-specific cyclin that is prominently expressed in normal testis. In this study, we showed that cyclin A1 was highly expressed in a subset of leukemia samples from patients. The highest frequency of cyclin A1 overexpression was observed in acute myelocytic leukemias, especially those that were at the promyelocyte (M3) and myeloblast (M2) stages of development. Cyclin A1 expression was also detected in normal CD34(+) progenitor cells. The expression of cyclin A1 increased when these cells were stimulated to undergo myeloid differentiation in vitro. Taken together, our observations suggest that cyclin A1 may have a role in hematopoiesis. High levels of cyclin A1 expression are especially associated with certain leukemias blocked at the myeloblast and promyelocyte stages of differentiation.  (+info)

Cloning of the cyclin A1 genomic structure and characterization of the promoter region. GC boxes are essential for cell cycle-regulated transcription of the cyclin A1 gene. (3/73)

Cyclin A1 is a recently cloned cyclin with high level expression in meiotic cells in the testis. However, it is also frequently expressed at high levels in acute myeloid leukemia. To elucidate the regulation of cyclin A1 gene expression, we cloned and analyzed the genomic structure of cyclin A1. It consists of 9 exons within 13 kilobase pairs. The TATA-less promoter initiates transcription from several start sites with the majority of transcripts beginning within a 4-base pair stretch. A construct containing a fragment from -190 to +145 showed the highest transcriptional activity. Transfection of cyclin A1 promoter constructs into S2 Drosophila cells demonstrated that Sp1 is essential for the activity of the promoter. Sp1, as well as Sp3, bound to four GC boxes between nucleotides -130 and -80 as observed by gel shift analysis. Mutations in two or more of the four GC boxes decreased promoter activity by >80%. The promoter was found to be cell cycle-regulated with highest activities found in late S and G2/M phase. Further analyses suggested that cell cycle regulation was accomplished by periodic repression of the GC boxes in G1 phase. Taken together, our data show that cyclin A1 promoter activity critically depends on four GC boxes, and members of the Sp1 family appear to be involved in directing expression of cyclin A1 in both a tissue- and cell cycle-specific manner.  (+info)

c-myb transactivates the human cyclin A1 promoter and induces cyclin A1 gene expression. (4/73)

Cyclin A1 differs from other cyclins in its highly restricted expression pattern. Besides its expression during spermatogenesis, cyclin A1 is also expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells and in acute myeloid leukemia. We investigated mechanisms that might contribute to cyclin A1 expression in hematopoietic cells. Comparison of cyclin A1 and cyclin A promoter activity in adherent and myeloid leukemia cell lines showed that the cyclin A1 promoter is preferentially active in myeloid cell lines. This preferential activity was present in a small, 335-bp cyclin A1 promoter fragment that contained several potential c-myb binding sites. Coexpression of a c-myb expression vector with the cyclin A1 promoter constructs significantly increased the reporter activity in adherent CV-1 as well as in myeloid U937 cells. Gel-shift assays demonstrated that c-myb could bind to the cyclin A1 promoter at a binding site located near the transcription start site. Site-directed mutagenesis of this site decreased promoter transactivation by 50% in both KCL22 cells that express high levels of c-myb and in CV-1 cells that were transfected with c-myb. In addition, transfection of primary human embryonic fibroblasts with a c-myb expression vector led to induction of the endogenous cyclin A1 gene. Taken together, c-myb can directly transactivate the promoter of cyclin A1, and c-myb might be involved in the high-level expression of cyclin A1 observed in acute myeloid leukemia. These findings suggest that c-myb induces hematopoiesis-specific mechanisms of cell cycle regulation.  (+info)

Methylation of the cyclin A1 promoter correlates with gene silencing in somatic cell lines, while tissue-specific expression of cyclin A1 is methylation independent. (5/73)

Gene expression in mammalian organisms is regulated at multiple levels, including DNA accessibility for transcription factors and chromatin structure. Methylation of CpG dinucleotides is thought to be involved in imprinting and in the pathogenesis of cancer. However, the relevance of methylation for directing tissue-specific gene expression is highly controversial. The cyclin A1 gene is expressed in very few tissues, with high levels restricted to spermatogenesis and leukemic blasts. Here, we show that methylation of the CpG island of the human cyclin A1 promoter was correlated with nonexpression in cell lines, and the methyl-CpG binding protein MeCP2 suppressed transcription from the methylated cyclin A1 promoter. Repression could be relieved by trichostatin A. Silencing of a cyclin A1 promoter-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene in stable transfected MG63 osteosarcoma cells was also closely associated with de novo promoter methylation. Cyclin A1 could be strongly induced in nonexpressing cell lines by trichostatin A but not by 5-aza-cytidine. The cyclin A1 promoter-EGFP construct directed tissue-specific expression in male germ cells of transgenic mice. Expression in the testes of these mice was independent of promoter methylation, and even strong promoter methylation did not suppress promoter activity. MeCP2 expression was notably absent in EGFP-expressing cells. Transcription from the transgenic cyclin A1 promoter was repressed in most organs outside the testis, even when the promoter was not methylated. These data show the association of methylation with silencing of the cyclin A1 gene in cancer cell lines. However, appropriate tissue-specific repression of the cyclin A1 promoter occurs independently of CpG methylation.  (+info)

A role for cyclin A1 in the activation of MPF and G2-M transition during meiosis of male germ cells in mice. (6/73)

Cell-cycle transition at G2-M is controlled by MPF (M-phase-promoting factor), a complex consisting of the Cdc2 kinase and a B-type cyclin. We have shown that in mice, targeted disruption of an A-type cyclin gene, cyclin A1, results in a block of spermatogenesis prior to the entry into metaphase I. The meiotic arrest is accompanied by a defect in Cdc2 kinase activation at the G2--M transition, raising the possibility that a cyclin A1-dependent process dictates the activation of MPF. Here we show that like Cdc2, the expression of B-type cyclins is retained in cyclin A1-deficient spermatocytes, while their associated kinases are kept at inactive states. Treatment of arrested germ cells with the protein phosphatase type-1 and -2A inhibitor okadaic acid restores the MPF activity and induces entry into M phase and the formation of normally condensed chromosome bivalents, concomitant with hyperphosphorylation of Cdc25 proteins. Conversely, inhibition of tyrosine phosphatases, including Cdc25s, by vanadate suppresses the okadaic acid-induced metaphase induction. The highest levels of Cdc25A and Cdc25C expression and their subcellular localization during meiotic prophase coincide with that of cyclin A1, and when overexpressed in HeLa cells, cyclin A1 coimmunoprecipitates with Cdc25A. Furthermore, the protein kinase complexes consisting of cyclin A1 and either Cdc2 or Cdk2 phosphorylate both Cdc25A and Cdc25C in vitro. These results suggest that in normal meiotic male germ cells, cyclin A1 participates in the regulation of other protein kinases or phosphatases critical for the G2-M transition. In particular, it may be directly involved in the initial amplification of MPF through the activating phosphorylation on Cdc25 phosphatases.  (+info)

The aberrant fusion proteins PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha contribute to the overexpression of cyclin A1 in acute promyelocytic leukemia. (7/73)

Cyclin A1 is a newly discovered cyclin that is overexpressed in certain myeloid leukemias. Previously, the authors found that the frequency of cyclin A1 overexpression is especially high in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In this study, the authors investigated the mechanism of cyclin A1 overexpression in APL cells and showed that the APL-associated aberrant fusion proteins (PML-retinoic acid receptor alpha [PML-RAR alpha] or PLZF-RAR alpha) caused the increased levels of cyclin A1 in these cells. The ectopic expression of either PML-RAR alpha or PLZF-RAR alpha in U937 cells, a non-APL myeloid cell line, led to a dramatic increase of cyclin A1 messenger RNA and protein. This elevation of cyclin A1 was reversed by treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in cells expressing PML-RAR alpha but not PLZF-RAR alpha. ATRA also greatly reduced the high levels of cyclin A1 in the APL cell lines NB4 and UF-1. No effect of ATRA on cyclin A1 levels was found in the ATRA-resistant NB4-R2 cells. Further studies using ligands selective for various retinoic acid receptors suggested that cyclin A1 expression is negatively regulated by activated RAR alpha. Reporter assays showed that PML-RAR alpha led to activation of the cyclin A1 promoter. Addition of ATRA inhibited PML-RAR alpha-induced cyclin A1 promoter activity. Taken together, our data suggest that PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha cause the high-level expression of cyclin A1 seen in acute promyelocytic leukemia. (Blood. 2000;96:3894-3899)  (+info)

Analyses of the genomic methylation status of the human cyclin A1 promoter by a novel real-time PCR-based methodology. (8/73)

The role of CpG methylation in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression is highly controversial. Cyclin A1 is a tissue-specifically expressed gene that is strongly methylated in non-expressing tumor cell lines. We have established a novel real-time PCR method to quantitate genomic CpG methylation of the cyclin A1 promoter. Genomic DNA samples from different human organs were treated with bisulfite and amplified with methylation-specific primers and with primers amplifying methylated as well as non-methylated DNA. PCR product quantitation was obtained by using a fluorogenic probe labeled with FAM and TAMRA. These analyses demonstrated that the human cyclin A1 promoter was methylated in kidney, colon, spleen, testis, and small intestine, but not in brain, liver, pancreas, or heart. Expression of cyclin A1 was predominantly found in testis. Low level expression of cyclin A1 was present in spleen, prostate, leukocytes, colon, and thymus. Taken together, our data provide evidence that CpG methylation patterns of the human cyclin A1 promoter in human organs do not generally correlate with cyclin A1 gene expression in vivo.  (+info)

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The mammalian A-type cyclin family consists of two members, cyclin A1 (encoded by Ccna1) and cyclin A2 (encoded by Ccna2). Cyclin A2 promotes both G1/S and G2/M transitions, and targeted deletion of Ccna2 in mouse is embryonic lethal. Cyclin A1 is expressed in mice exclusively in the germ cell lineage and is expressed in humans at highest levels in the testis and certain myeloid leukemia cells. To investigate the role of cyclin A1 and possible redundancy among the cyclins in vivo, mice bearing a null mutation of Ccna1 were generated. Ccna1-/- males are sterile due to a block of spermatogenesis before the first meiotic division, whereas females are normal. Meiosis arrest in Ccna1-/- males is associated with increased germ cell apoptosis, desynapsis abnormalities and reduction of Cdc2 kinase activation at the end of meiotic prophase. Cyclin A1 is therefore essential for spermatocyte passage into the first meiotic division in male mice, a function that cannot be complemented by the concurrently ...
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Cyclin A2 (encoded by CCNA2) is responsible for activating the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK1 and CDK2 to induce S-phase chromosome duplication and initiate mitosis. As both underexpression and overexpression of cyclin A2 have been linked to poor outcome in tumors, the role of cyclin A2 in tumor progression is unclear. Because complete loss of cyclin A2 is embryonically lethal, Kanakkanthara and colleagues developed a hypomorphic Ccna2 allele (Ccna2H) with reduced expression of cyclin A2 to better understand its role in tumorigenesis. Ccna2−/H mice had a marked reduction in cyclin A2 protein in tissues with a high mitotic index but relatively normal levels in tissues with less actively dividing cells. Ccna2−/H mice were more susceptible to spontaneous and carcinogen-induced tumors than Ccna2+/+ mice, indicating that cyclin A2 insufficiency promotes malignant transformation. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from Ccna2−/H mice exhibited increased aneuploidy due to chromosome segregation ...
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CCNA1 (cyclin A1), Authors: Immacolata Vocca, Gianmarco Muzi, Francesca Pentimalli, Antonio Giordano. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
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Figure 2. Analysis of Loss-of-Function Mutations of CYCA2;3.. (A) The exon (boxes) and intron (lines) structure of CYCA2;3. Coding and noncoding regions are shown as black and white boxes, respectively. Vertical arrows indicate the sites of the T-DNA insertions in the lines SALK_086463 and SALK_092515. Horizontal arrows indicate the positions of the primers used in RT-PCR analysis.. (B) Structure of the fusion protein CYCA2;3-GFP. The amino acid sequence of the D-box and the altered sequence in mDB-CYCA2;3-GFP are shown below.. (C) RT-PCR analysis of CYCA2;3 expression in wild-type and CYCA2;3(−/−) plants of the SALK_086463 and SALK_092515 lines. RT-PCR was performed using total RNA prepared from 2-week-old plants. The positions of the bands corresponding to the ACT2 (a positive control; At3g18780) and CYCA2;3 transcripts are indicated by an arrow and an arrowhead, respectively.. (D) Comparison of the sizes of nuclei in trichomes of wild-type (top) and CYCA2;3(−/−) (bottom) plants. The ...
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Cyclin D1 is an important cell cycle regulator but in cancer its overexpression also increases cellular migration mediated by p27KlP1 stabilization and RhoA inhibition. Recently, a common polymorphism at the exon 4-intron 4 boundary of the human cyclin D1 gene within a splice donor region was associated with an altered risk of developing cancer. Altered RNA splicing caused by this polymorphism gives rise to a variant cyclin D1 isoform termed cyclin D1b, which has the same N-terminus as the canonical cyclin D1a isoform but a distinct C-terminus. In this study we show that these different isoforms have unique properties with regard to the cellular migration function of cyclin D1. Whereas they displayed little difference in transcriptional co-repression assays on idealized reporter genes, microarray cDNA expression analysis revealed differential regulation of genes including those that influence cellular migration. Additionally, while cyclin D1a stabilized p27KIP1 and inhibited RhoA-induced ROCK kinase
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Several SOX genes are involved in lung development and may have functional roles within the lung. SOX9 (a transcription factor) has been shown to be involved in several types of cancer. In this lab-based study, SOX9 expression was investigated in 29 lung adenocarcinoma and 28 normal lung samples using silico data mining, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry.. SOX9 was upregulated at both the mRNA and protein level in the majority of lung adenocarcinomas compared with normal tissue. In addition, recurrent lung adenocarcinoma tissue showed significantly higher SOX9 expression than that of a primary lesion. RNA interference technique and microarray gene expression further demonstrated that knockdown of SOX9 inhibited cell growth, downregulated CDK4 and upregulated p21. These are all important cell cycle regulators and their expression could mediate SOX9-related alteration in cancer cell growth.. SOX9 may be an important biomarker in lung adenocarcinoma which could aid in ...
Background: Cyclin-A and cyclin-E are regulators of G1-S phase of normal cell cycle. Integration of human papilloma virus high-risk (HR-HPV) could alter this mechanism, and its overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis in cervical cancer. Aim: To determine the expression of cyclin-A and cyclin-E, types of HR-HPV and physical state of DNA in cytologies with the diagnosis of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and Methods: 115 cytological specimens in liquid base (liquid-PREP™ ) were analyzed. 25 specimens were with no signs of SIL (NSIL) and without HPV; 30 with NSIL with low-risk HPV (LR-HPV); 30 with NSIL with HR-HPV; and 30 with both LSIL and HR-HPV. The expression of cyclins was evaluated by immunocytochemistry; and the detection of viral DNA was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs) for genotyping or sequencing of HPV. The physical state of HPV was evaluated by in situ hybridization with ...
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In humans, there are two A-type cyclins - an embryonic-specific cyclin A1 and a somatic cyclin A2. Cyclin A1 is only expressed in meiosis and very early embryos, whereas cyclin A2 is present in proliferating somatic cells
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DNA replication licensing factor MCM6; Acts as component of the MCM2-7 complex (MCM complex) which is the putative replicative helicase essential for once per cell cycle DNA replication initiation and elongation in eukaryotic cells. The active ATPase sites in the MCM2-7 ring are formed through the interaction surfaces of two neighboring subunits such that a critical structure of a conserved arginine finger motif is provided in trans relative to the ATP-binding site of the Walker A box of the adjacent subunit. The six ATPase active sites, however, are likely to contribute differential ...
For Dr. Chertkow, when it comes to taking on dementia, there is definitely strength in numbers. The CCNA will bring together over 300 researchers in Canada who have been working hard for a cure for neurodegenerative diseases. By supplying an infrastructure, shared research platforms, national research teams, and a cohesive research agenda, we hope to accelerate our current progress towards new treatments, better understanding of Alzheimers disease and associated diseases, improved quality of life for our patients and their families, and eventually the cures for these conditions, he said. Canadian researchers will - even more than they do already - begin to play a prominent role on the world stage in the global fight against dementia. The CCNA will be transformative, and offers real hope of a better life for those living with Alzheimers disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.. Minister Ambrose made the announcement ahead of the Canada-France Global Legacy Event being held in Ottawa, ...
Ying Zhang, Ines Thiele, Dana Weekes, Zhanwen Li, Lukasz Jaroszewski, Krzysztof Ginalski, Ashley Deacon, John Wooley, Scott Lesley, Ian Wilson, Bernhard Palsson, Andrei Osterman, Adam Godzik. Three-Dimensional Structural View of the Central Metabolic Network of Thermotoga maritima. Science. 2009 Sep 18;325(5947):1544-9.. Alexey M. Eroshkin, Andrew LeBlanc, Dana Weekes, Kai Post, Zhanwen Li, Akhil Rajput, Sal T. Butera, Dennis R. Burton, Adam Godzik. bNAber: database of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies. Nucl. Acids Res. 2013; published on November 7, 2013.. Grynberg M, Godzik A. NERD: a DNA processing-related domain present in the anthrax virulence plasmid, pXO1. Trends Biochem Sci. 2004 Mar;29(3):106-10 ...
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Cdk1 (historically known as cdc2) is a member of the cyclin-dependent Ser/Thr kinase family. Cdk1 was originally identified as a catalytic subunit of the highly conserved protein kinase complex known as the M-phase promoting factor (17, 18). The kinase activity of Cdk1 is controlled at several levels, namely (a) at the level of regulatory Cdk1 phosphorylations; (b) at the level of activation through binding to cyclins such as B1; and (c) at the level of inactivation by inhibitors such as p21cip1 and p27Kip1.. The cell division cycle is a fundamental and highly complex process that is conserved in all eukaryotic cells. The conventional view is that in mammalian cells, progression through G1 phase is driven by the activities of Cdk4 and Cdk6, which associate with D-type cyclins. Entry into the S phase and initiation of DNA replication requires the activity of Cdk2, which is activated by E-type cyclins in the late G1 and S phases and by A-type cyclins in the S and G2 phases. Finally, entry into M ...
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Under a variety of stress conditions, TP53 (p53), stabilized by stress-induced phosphorylation at least on S15 and S20 serine residues, can induce the transcription of genes involved in cell cycle arrest. Cell cycle arrest provides cells an opportunity to repair the damage before division, thus preventing the transmission of genetic errors to daughter cells. In addition, it allows cells to attempt a recovery from the damage and survive, preventing premature cell death.. TP53 controls transcription of genes involved in both G1 and G2 cell cycle arrest. The most prominent TP53 target involved in G1 arrest is the inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases CDKN1A (p21). CDKN1A is one of the earliest genes induced by TP53 (El-Deiry et al. 1993). CDKN1A binds and inactivates CDK2 in complex with cyclin A (CCNA) or E (CCNE), thus preventing G1/S transition (Harper et al. 1993). Nevertheless, under prolonged stress, the cell destiny may be diverted towards an apoptotic outcome. For instance, in case of an ...
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SAQTIME [ timeout ] Set timeout for all messages (overwrite OSD-setting while display message). SAQMESS [ ,message, ] Displays the given message (status) on the OSD. If message is omitted, the currently pending message (if any) will be returned. The message will be displayed for a few seconds as soon as the OSD has become idle. If a new SAQMESI command is entered while the previous message has not yet been displayed, the new message will be stored. For more info for choise color and other andere sachen HELP SAQTEST SAQMESI [ ,message, ] Displays the given message (info) on the OSD. If message is omitted, the currently pending message (if any) will be returned. The message will be displayed for a few seconds as soon as the OSD has become idle. If a new SAQMESI command is entered while the previous message has not yet been displayed, the new message will be stored. For more info for choise color and other andere sachen HELP SAQTEST SAQMESW [ ,message, ] Displays the given message (warning) on the ...
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"The Six1 homeoprotein stimulates tumorigenesis by reactivation of cyclin A1". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...
"Identification of interaction partners and substrates of the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 ...
Additionally, RACK1 has been shown to interact with: AGTRAP Androgen receptor, CD18, CD29 Cyclin A1 EIF6, FYN, IFNAR2, Janus ... "Identification of interaction partners and substrates of the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 ...
... has been shown to interact with: C21orf7, Cyclin A1, EP300, HDAC3, NCOR1, P53, and TBL1X. ENSG00000288325 GRCh38: ... "Identification of interaction partners and substrates of the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 ... "Identification of interaction partners and substrates of the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 ...
2004). "Identification of interaction partners and substrates of the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (32): 33727-41 ...
Rogulja found that cyclin A (CycA) and its regulator cyclin A1 promote sleep in Drosophila. Fascinatingly, CycA is only ... Control of sleep by cyclin A and its regulator. 2012. Science. 335: 1617-21. PMID 22461610 Rogulja D, Rauskolb C, Irvine KD. ... Rogulja, Dragana; Young, Michael W. (2012-03-30). "Control of Sleep by Cyclin A and Its Regulator". Science. 335 (6076): 1617- ... "TARANIS Functions with Cyclin A and Cdk1 in a Novel Arousal Center to Control Sleep in Drosophila". Current Biology. 25 (13): ...
Specifically, miR-427 targets include cell cycle regulators such as Cyclin A1 and Cyclin B2. Lee, Miler T.; Bonneau, Ashley R ...
... protein-specific kinase 2 promotes leukemia cell proliferation by phosphorylating acinus and regulating cyclin A1. Cancer Res ...
... cyclin A1 and cytoglobin in oral cancer: quantitative evaluation using pyrosequencing". British Journal of Cancer. 94 (4): 561- ...
Cyclin A1, FBXO5, HDAC1, HDAC2, and MAD2L1. However, the most important interaction of CDC20 is with the Anaphase Promoting ... The two main targets of the APC/C are the S/M cyclins and the protein securin. S/M cyclins activate cyclin-dependent kinases ( ... It also targets S and M-phase (S/M) cyclins for destruction, which inactivates S/M cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and allows ... How can S/M cyclins reappear to shepherd the cell into mitosis? The APC/CCdc20 does not recognize G1/S cyclins. Their ...
Next, the absence of cyclin A1 commits the neuron to division, but the cell lacks the ability to re-differentiate. Since the ... these stressed neurons will be arrested at the G1 checkpoint by the absence of cyclin E1 and/or the inhibition of the cyclin-E1 ... Cell cycle markers cyclin D, Cdk4, and Ki67 are found in elevated levels in AD neurons, signifying the transition to G1 (McShea ...
Yang R, Müller C, Huynh V, Fung YK, Yee AS, Koeffler HP (Mar 1999). "Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its ... Lacy S, Whyte P (May 1997). "Identification of a p130 domain mediating interactions with cyclin A/cdk 2 and cyclin E/cdk 2 ... Lacy S, Whyte P (May 1997). "Identification of a p130 domain mediating interactions with cyclin A/cdk 2 and cyclin E/cdk 2 ... Retinoblastoma-like protein 2 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, BRF1 C-Raf, Cyclin E1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, HDAC1, ...
... promoter[PAX8] => E2F1 PMID 21602887 E2F1 has been shown to interact with: ARID3A, CUL1, Cyclin A1, Cyclin A2, GTF2H1, ... Yang R, Müller C, Huynh V, Fung YK, Yee AS, Koeffler HP (March 1999). "Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its ... Xu M, Sheppard KA, Peng CY, Yee AS, Piwnica-Worms H (December 1994). "Cyclin A/CDK2 binds directly to E2F-1 and inhibits the ... This protein and another 2 members, E2F2 and E2F3, have an additional cyclin binding domain. This protein binds preferentially ...
RPA2 has been shown to interact with: Cyclin O, DNA-PKcs, Ku70, MEN1, RPA3, Replication protein A1, STAT3, TP53BP1 and Uracil- ... Single-stranded binding protein Replication protein A Replication protein A1 Replication protein A3 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ...
Lee SY, Wenk MR, Kim Y, Nairn AC, De Camilli P (2004). "Regulation of synaptojanin 1 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 at synapses ... a brain-specific membrane-associated lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase with properties distinct from endophilin A1". J. ...
... antagonizing transcription factor ARID4A Aryl hydrocarbon receptor BRCA1 BRF1 C-jun C-Raf CDK9 CUTL1 Cyclin A1 Cyclin D1 Cyclin ... One such example of E2F-regulated genes repressed by Rb are cyclin E and cyclin A. Both of these cyclins are able to bind to ... When E2F is free it activates factors like cyclins (e.g. cyclin E and cyclin A), which push the cell through the cell cycle by ... Yang R, Müller C, Huynh V, Fung YK, Yee AS, Koeffler HP (March 1999). "Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its ...
de 2001). «Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and ... de 2002). «Reversal of growth suppression by p107 via direct phosphorylation by cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4». Mol. Cell ... de 1997). «Identification of a p130 domain mediating interactions with cyclin A/cdk 2 and cyclin E/cdk 2 complexes». Oncogene ( ... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases». Oncogene (ENGLAND) 15 (2): 143-57. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 9244350. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ...
Cyclin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA2 gene. It is one of the two types of cyclin A: cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A2 belongs to the cyclin family, whose members regulate cell cycle progression by interacting with CDK kinases. Cyclin ... The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex eventually phosphorylates E2F, turning off cyclin A2 transcription. E2F promotes cyclin A2 ... Cyclin A2 is synthesized at the onset of S phase and localizes to the nucleus, where the cyclin A2-CDK2 complex is implicated ...
... mice and humans contain two distinct types of cyclin A: A1, the embryonic-specific form, and A2, the somatic form. Cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A remains associated with CDK1 from late S into late G2 phase when it is replaced by cyclin B. Cyclin A/CDK1 is thought ... Cyclin A is the only cyclin that regulates multiple steps of the cell cycle. Cyclin A can regulate multiple cell cycle steps ... Cyclin A2 is expressed in dividing somatic cells. Cyclin A, along with the other members of the cyclin family, regulates cell ...
"Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ... Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Different cyclins ...
"ARA54 is involved in transcriptional regulation of the cyclin D1 gene in human cancer cells". Carcinogenesis. 28 (8): 1752-8. ... "Suppression of androgen receptor transactivation and prostate cancer cell growth by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 ...
... has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... "Entrez Gene: CDK2 cyclin-dependent kinase 2". Echalier A, Endicott JA, Noble ME (March 2010). "Recent developments in cyclin- ... This protein associates with and is regulated by the regulatory subunits of the complex including cyclin E or A. Cyclin E binds ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.700 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57 See List of MeSH ... MeSH D12.776.070.400.200.100 - apolipoprotein A1 MeSH D12.776.070.400.200.150 - apolipoprotein A2 See List of MeSH codes ( ... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.900 - cyclin-dependent kinase 9 MeSH D12.776.167.200.580.500 - cdc2 protein ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p15 MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.200 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 MeSH D12.776.624.776 ...
... beta A1 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1 Cyclin A1 Cytochrome P450, family 1, member A1 Defensin, alpha 1 Dystrophin- ... member A1 Replication protein A1 S100 calcium binding protein A1 Sec61 alpha 1 Serum amyloid A1 Solute carrier family 35 (CMP- ... member A1 UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 Urea Transporter A1 a gene found in the maize encoding for the ... member A1 Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member A1 Alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor Apolipoprotein A1 and ApoA-1 Milano ...
April 2001). "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine ... MYBL2 has been shown to interact with: CDK9 CREB-binding protein Cyclin A1 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C EP300 PARP1 ... The encoded protein is phosphorylated by cyclin A/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 during the S-phase of the cell cycle and possesses ... Zhou W, Takuwa N, Kumada M, Takuwa Y (February 1994). "E2F1, B-myb and selective members of cyclin/cdk subunits are targets for ...
"Inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) interacting with cyclin A1 (INCA1) regulates proliferation and is repressed by ... Inhibitor of CDK, cyclin A1 interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INCA1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: Inhibitor of CDK, cyclin A1 interacting protein 1". Retrieved 2018-05-05. Bäumer N, Tickenbrock L, Tschanter P, ...
"Functions of Cyclin A1 in the Cell Cycle and Its Interactions with Transcription Factor E2F-1 and the Rb Family of Proteins". ... One such example of E2F-regulated genes repressed by Rb are cyclin E and cyclin A. Both of these cyclins are able to bind to ... When E2F is free it activates factors like cyclins (e.g. cyclin E and cyclin A), which push the cell through the cell cycle by ... See also: cyclin-dependent kinase and DREAM complex. When it is time for a cell to enter S phase, complexes of cyclin-dependent ...
Protomers consist of Isoreceptors D1-D2 D1-D3 D2-D3 D2-D4 D2-D5 Non-isoreceptors D1-adenosine A1 D2-adenosine A2A D2-ghrelin ... Sustained D1 receptor activity is kept in check by Cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Dopamine receptor activation of Ca2+/calmodulin- ...
It is a cyclin dependent kinase containing the catalytic subunit, Cdk9, and a regulatory subunit, cyclin T in Drosophila. In ... LARP7 is a stable component of the 7SK snRNP while P-TEFb, HEXIM1 and hnRNP A1 are reversibly associated. Nucleic Acids Res ... Identification of multiple cyclin subunits of human P-TEFb. Genes Dev 1998; 12:755-62. Yang Z, Yik JH, Chen R, He N, Jang MK, ... Identification of a cyclin subunit required for the function of Drosophila P-TEFb. J Biol Chem 1998; 273:13855-60. Fu TJ, Peng ...
... the iridoid flavopiridol and the iridoid glycosides scyphiphorin A1-A2 and scyphiphorin B1-B2. Flavopiridol (known also as ... "Successful treatment of animal models of rheumatoid arthritis with small-molecule cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors". J. ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... CDK4, CMM3, PSK-J3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin dependent ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ... cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ... p21Cip1 (alternatively p21Waf1), also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin- ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)".. *^ Gartel AL, Radhakrishnan SK (May 2005). "Lost in ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... cyclin-dependent kinases, and other cell cycle proteins. The ... All these phases in the cell cycle are highly regulated by cyclins, ...
"CDK-dependent Hsp70 Phosphorylation controls G1 cyclin abundance and cell-cycle progression". Cell. 151 (6): 1308-18. doi ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ...
Floyd SR, Porro EB, Slepnev VI, Ochoa GC, Tsai LH, De Camilli P (March 2001). "Amphiphysin 1 binds the cyclin-dependent kinase ... a brain-specific membrane-associated lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase with properties distinct from endophilin A1". The ... Floyd SR, Porro EB, Slepnev VI, Ochoa GC, Tsai LH, De Camilli P (March 2001). "Amphiphysin 1 binds the cyclin-dependent kinase ...
細胞週期的進行是由不同的週期素(Cyclin)所調控。週期素意味著這些蛋白質的表現量會隨著細胞週期的進行而有所變化,進而確認週期素原來是扮演細胞週期調控的角色。依照目前的認知,就如同細胞週期G1期→S期→G2期→M期的進行,在G1期大量表現的週期素D( ... A(A1
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ...
... cyclin D1. The recruitment of TLS to the promoter of cyclin D1 is directed by long ncRNAs expressed at low levels and tethered ... A recent study found that a lncRNA in the antisense direction of the Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) regulates the transcription of ... Yik JH, Chen R, Nishimura R, Jennings JL, Link AJ, Zhou Q (October 2003). "Inhibition of P-TEFb (CDK9/Cyclin T) kinase and RNA ...
negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • lung development. • cytokine-mediated ...
CDKN2C, INK4C, p18, p18-INK4C, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C. ... A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *بروتين سيكلين دي (D1, D2, D3) ... CDKN2C‏ (Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين CDKN2C في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN2C cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4)". مؤرشف من الأصل في 05 ديسمبر 2010.. الوسيط , ...
... cyclin A1 and cytoglobin in oral cancer: quantitative evaluation using pyrosequencing ,journal=Br. J. Cancer ,volume=94 ,issue ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ...
As the amount of cyclin increases, more and more cyclin dependent kinases attach to cyclin signaling the cell further into ... A-1 - A-34; B-1; C-1; D-1; E-1 - E-2; F-1 - F-3; CR-1 - CR-6; G-1 - G-34; I-1 - I-48 (index)". The Quarterly Review of Biology ... At the peak of the cyclin attached to the cyclin dependent kinases this system pushes the cell out of interphase and into the M ... The control of each checkpoint is controlled by cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinases. The progression of interphase is the ...
... *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... cyclin D (Cdk4) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, ... cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ... G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not ...
Zhao L, Samuels T, Winckler S, Korgaonkar C, Tompkins V, Horne MC, Quelle DE (January 2003). "Cyclin G1 has growth inhibitory ... "The MDM2 C-terminal region binds to TAFII250 and is required for MDM2 regulation of the cyclin A promoter". The Journal of ...
2 A1,2 8.42 cM. Start. 11,172,108 bp[2]. End. 11,301,222 bp[2]. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase (EC 2.7.11.22). *CDK1. *CDK2. *CDKL2. * ...
regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • regulation of cellular component size. • response to ... Combination of hgf inhibitor and pten agonist to treat cancer US 20110189169 A1 نسخة محفوظة 06 أغسطس 2017 على موقع واي باك مشين ... negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell ... negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • negative regulation of neuron projection ...
1996). "Complete sequence of the complement C4 gene from the HLA-A1, B8, C4AQ0, C4B1, DR3 haplotype". Immunogenetics. 43 (4): ...
The first to be discovered was its capability to drive cell proliferation (upregulates cyclins, downregulates p21), but it also ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... CDK8, K35, cyclin-dependent kinase 8, cyclin dependent kinase 8 ... Rickert P, Corden JL, Lees E (Jan 1999). "Cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are biochemically distinct CTD kinases". Oncogene ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK8 and cyclin C associate ... "Entrez Gene: CDK8 cyclin-dependent kinase 8".. *^ Nemet J, Jelicic B, Rubelj I, Sopta M (Feb 2014). "The two faces of Cdk8, a ...
Cyclin. *Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein. *Cyclin-dependent kinase. *Cyclin. Lipid. *Phosphoinositide phospholipase C ...
Takahashi-Yanaga F, Sasaguri T (Apr 2008). "GSK-3beta regulates cyclin D1 expression: a new target for chemotherapy". Cellular ...
Yik JH, Chen R, Nishimura R, Jennings JL, Link AJ, Zhou Q (October 2003). "Inhibition of P-TEFb (CDK9/Cyclin T) kinase and RNA ... April 2008). "LARP7 is a stable component of the 7SK snRNP while P-TEFb, HEXIM1 and hnRNP A1 are reversibly associated". ... Yang Z, Zhu Q, Luo K, Zhou Q (November 2001). "The 7SK small nuclear RNA inhibits the CDK9/cyclin T1 kinase to control ... 7SK associates with and inhibits the cyclin dependent kinase activity of P-TEFb through the action of the RNA binding proteins ...
"Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ... Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Different cyclins ...
Recombinant full-length human CDK1 and CyclinA1 were co-expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST ... CyclinA1 NCBI Database Entry. The CDK1/CyclinA1 Kinase Enzyme System can be purchased with or without the ADP-Glo™ Kinase Assay ... The CDK1/CyclinA1 Kinase Enzyme System contains:. *CDK1/CyclinA1 Kinase, 10μg (Human, full-length recombinant). MW: ~89kDa ( ... Recombinant full-length human CDK1 and CyclinA1 were co-expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST ...
Mouse polyclonal Cyclin A1 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding ... All lanes : Anti-Cyclin A1 antibody (ab172317) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Cyclin A1 transfected 293T cell line lysate. Lane 2 : Non- ... Full length protein corresponding to Human Cyclin A1 aa 1-464. (ABM85414.1).. Sequence: ...
IPR013763. Cyclin-like. IPR036915. Cyclin-like_sf. IPR004367. Cyclin_C-dom. IPR006671. Cyclin_N. ... IPR013763. Cyclin-like. IPR036915. Cyclin-like_sf. IPR004367. Cyclin_C-dom. IPR006671. Cyclin_N. ... The cyclin subunit imparts substrate specificity to the complex. Does not bind CDK4 and CDK5 (in vitro). The cyclin A1-CDK2 ... Cluster: Cyclin-A1. 4. P78396-2. A0A140VJG0. Homo sapiens (Human). 464. UniRef100_A0A140VJG0. Cluster: Testicular tissue ...
"Inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) interacting with cyclin A1 (INCA1) regulates proliferation and is repressed by ... Inhibitor of CDK, cyclin A1 interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INCA1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: Inhibitor of CDK, cyclin A1 interacting protein 1". Retrieved 2018-05-05. Bäumer N, Tickenbrock L, Tschanter P, ...
Cyclin-A1 protein. Ab104617 is an active full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated… ... CDK1/CDC2-cyclin-B controls pronuclear union in interphase fertilized eggs. Essential for early stages of embryonic development ... CDK1-cyclin-B complex phosphorylates NCKAP5L and mediates its dissociation from centrosomes during mitosis (PubMed:26549230). ... During G2 and early mitosis, CDC25A/B/C-mediated dephosphorylation activates CDK1/cyclin complexes which phosphorylate several ...
... cyclin A1), Authors: Immacolata Vocca, Gianmarco Muzi, Francesca Pentimalli, Antonio Giordano. Published in: Atlas Genet ... Cyclin A2, also known as cyclin A, is the major A-type cyclin in mammals. Cyclin A1 primarily functions in the meiotic cell ... Schematic diagram of human cyclin A1. The positions of the cyclin box (with the two cyclin box folds) and the polyalanine ... Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Cyclin A1 Antibody. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. ... Blogs on Cyclin A1. There are no specific blogs for Cyclin A1, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Diseases for Cyclin A1 Antibody (NBP1-02902). Discover more about diseases related to Cyclin A1 Antibody (NBP1-02902). ... PTMs for Cyclin A1 Antibody (NBP1-02902). Learn more about PTMs related to Cyclin A1 Antibody (NBP1-02902). ...
Adquira cyclin a1 anticorpos da Santa Cruz Biotecnologia, Inc. Anticorpos monoclonais estão disponíveis para a maioria dos ... cyclin A, cyclin A2, cyclin B, cyclin B1, cyclin B2, cyclin B3, cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 e cyclin E ... cyclin A1 Anticorpos e Produtos relacionados. A Santa Cruz Biotecnologia, Inc. oferece uma grande linha de cyclin A1 anticorpos ... Selecione cyclin A1 anticorpos da lista de anticorpos monoclonais abaixo. Veja maiores detalhes cyclin A1 das especificações de ...
Comparison of cyclin A1 and cyclin A promoter activity in adherent and myeloid leukemia cell lines showed that the cyclin A1 ... The cyclin A1 gene differs from other human cyclin genes in several ways. Cyclin A1 is not related to cellular proliferation ... c-myb Transactivates the Human Cyclin A1 Promoter and Induces Cyclin A1 Gene Expression. Carsten Müller, Rong Yang, Gregory ... The human cyclin A1 gene is expressed in a highly restricted number of tissues in vivo and cyclin A1 expression in cell lines ...
CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase, and ... CDK2 is a member of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase family that is ubiquitously expressed. ... CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase, and ... Recombinant full-length human CDK2 and CyclinA1 were co-expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST ...
Cyclin A1 antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)). ... Product Details anti-Cyclin A1 Antibody Target Details Cyclin A1 Application Details Handling References for anti-Cyclin A1 ... Target Details Cyclin A1 Product Details anti-Cyclin A1 Antibody Application Details Handling References for anti-Cyclin A1 ... Product Details anti-Cyclin A1 Antibody Target Details Cyclin A1 Handling References for anti-Cyclin A1 antibody (ABIN714026) ...
... cyclin A1 and A2. Whereas cyclin A1 is limited to male germ cells, cyclin A2 is widely expressed. Cyclin A2 regulates both G1-S ... cyclin A1, and cyclin A2 antibodies, respectively. Depletion of SRPK2 prominently decreased cyclin A1 but not cyclin A2 ... and HeLa cells did not express cyclin A1 ( Fig. 4D, top), underscoring that SRPK2 influences cyclin A1 transcription. Cyclin A1 ... Strikingly, cyclin A1, but not cyclin A2 or cyclin B1, was evidently up-regulated ( Fig. 4A ). Notably, cyclin D1 was slightly ...
Evaluation of cyclin A1-specific T cells as a potential treatment for acute myeloid leukemia.. Leung WK, Workineh A, Mukhi S, ... Evaluation of cyclin A1-specific T cells as a potential treatment for acute myeloid leukemia. Blood Adv. 2020;4(2):387-397. ...
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens cyclin A1 (CCNA1), transcript variant 4 as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - ... home , products , origene , myc-ddk-tagged orf clone of homo sapiens cyclin a1 (ccna1), transcript variant 4 as transfection- ... Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens cyclin A1 (CCNA1), transcript variant 4 as transfection-ready DNA - RC225674 - 10 µg ... TrueORF Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens cyclin A1 (CCNA1), transcript variant 4 as transfection-ready DNA ...
Furthermore, we show that in these post-replicative cells CIZ1 interacts with the germ cell specific cyclin, A1, that has been ... Cancer-associated variant expression and interaction of CIZ1 with cyclin A1 in differentiating male germ cells. ... PDF (Cancer-associated variant expression and interaction of CIZ1 with cyclin A1 in differentiating male germ cells) - ... In vitro the CIZ1 N-terminus interacts with cyclins E and A via distinct sites, enabling functional cooperation with cyclin A- ...
We analyzed Cyclin A1 expression in EOC and its correlation with clinical features to evaluate Cyclin A1 as a T-cell target in ... Cyclin A1 is highly expressed in most EOCs. The mechanism behind the prolonged TTP in patients with high Cyclin A1 expression ... Cyclin A1 protein was homogeneously expressed in 43 of 62 grade 3 tumor samples and in 1 of 10 grade 2 specimens (p , 0.001). ... Cyclin A1 mRNA expression in EOC and healthy tissues was quantified by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT- ...
Foxo3a drives proliferation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma through transcriptional regulation of cyclin A1: A paradigm shift ... Foxo3a drives proliferation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma through transcriptional regulation of cyclin A1: A paradigm shift ... Foxo3a drives proliferation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma through transcriptional regulation of cyclin A1 : A paradigm shift ... Foxo3a drives proliferation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma through transcriptional regulation of cyclin A1 : A paradigm shift ...
CYCLIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE - [origin: WO9835015A1] An isolated nucleic acid molecule is disclosed which encodes a novel ... human cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) which comprises a novel cyclin binding domain signature sequence and lacks several ... An isolated nucleic acid molecule is disclosed which encodes a novel human cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) which comprises a ... novel cyclin binding domain signature sequence and lacks several heretofore conserved amino acid residues involved in ...
Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit OSCAR DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES PVT. LTD.is an India based Company in Delhi. ... Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit » Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA ... Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA ... Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA Kit. Mouse CCNA1(Cyclin-A1)ELISA ...
Cyclin A1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... The cyclin subunit imparts substrate specificity to the complex. Does not bind CDK4 and CDK5 (in vitro). The cyclin A1-CDK2 ... Mutations of the cyclin A1 gene are not a common cause of male infertility. (PMID: 19886767) Zhoucun A … Yang Y (Systems ... Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins. ( ...
Furthermore, we show that in these post-replicative cells CIZ1 interacts with the germ cell specific cyclin, A1, that has been ... Cancer-associated variant expression and interaction of CIZ1 with cyclin A1 in differentiating male germ cells Final published ... Cancer-associated variant expression and interaction of CIZ1 with cyclin A1 in differentiating male germ cells. Research output ... In vitro the CIZ1 N-terminus interacts with cyclins E and A via distinct sites, enabling functional cooperation with cyclin A- ...
Cyclin A1 CCNA1* 2.172 2.376 2.443 218986_s_at Hypothetical protein FLJ20035 FLJ20035* 8.787 6.389 3.798 ... a1, a2, a5, a12, and a16 correspond to the clones stably transfected by pAttBStat1α. ev2, ev5, and ev7 correspond to the clones ...
cyclin A1. CT146. CCNA2. cyclin A2. CCN1, CCNA. CCND1. cyclin D1. BCL1, D11S287E, PRAD1, U21B31. ... cyclin-dependent kinase 6. PLSTIRE. CDKN1A. cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1). CAP20, CDKN1, CIP1, MDA-6, P21, ... Jim DeCaprio ([email protected]) suggested adding cyclin D2 (CCND2) and 3 (CCND3) in addition to Cyclin D1 (CCND1 ... cyclin-dependent kinase 4. CMM3, PSK-J3. CDK6. ... cyclin-dependent kinase 2. CDKN2, p33(CDK2). CDK4. ...
MicroRNA-372 is down-regulated and targets cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and cyclin A1 in human cervical cancer, which may ... CDK2, Cyclin A1. Cervical normal tissue → cervical cancer tissues. [44]. miR-203. Up-regulated. Keratinocyte differentiation/ ... p18Ink4c, CDK4, CDK6, Cyclin E2. Cell cycle progression, cellular. [40] [41]. E6. mir-218. Down-regulated. LAMB3. No identified ... p18Ink4c, CDK4, CDK6, Cyclin E2, E2F1, E2F3, E2F5, BCL2, BIRC3, and DcR3. ↓CIN I, ↓↓CIN II, ↓↓↓CIN III. [40,41]. ...
Besides its expression during spermatogenesis, cyclin A1 is also exp ... Cyclin A1 differs from other cyclins in its highly restricted expression pattern. ... Comparison of cyclin A1 and cyclin A promoter activity in adherent and myeloid leukemia cell lines showed that the cyclin A1 ... The cyclin A1 gene differs from other human cyclin genes in several ways. Cyclin A1 is not related to cellular proliferation ...
Cyclin PHO80-like (IPR013922) ... cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclins, together with the p34 (cdc2) or cdk2 kinases, form ... Mating factor A1 (IPR035382) ... protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Upstream regulation of a locus ... ... cyclins that partner with the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK ... ...
cyclin A1 [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:1577]. Mouse Orthologue:. Ccna1. Mouse Description:. cyclin A1 Gene [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc: ... cyclin-A1 [Source:RefSeq peptide;Acc:NP_997983]. Human Orthologue:. CCNA1. Human Description:. ...
Regulator of cyclin A1Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... "Rca1 inhibits APC-Cdh1(Fzr) and is required to prevent cyclin degradation in G2.". Grosskortenhaus R., Sprenger F.. Dev Cell 2: ... "Rca1 inhibits APC-Cdh1(Fzr) and is required to prevent cyclin degradation in G2.". Grosskortenhaus R., Sprenger F.. Dev Cell 2: ...
Nucleic acid constructs containing a cyclin A1 promoter, and kit. US20020056148 *. 30 Jul 2001. 9 May 2002. Readhead Carol W.. ... US 2007/042017 A1, US 20070042017 A1, US 20070042017A1, US 2007042017 A1, US 2007042017A1, US-A1-20070042017, US-A1-2007042017 ... US2007/0042017A1, US2007/042017A1, US20070042017 A1, US20070042017A1, US2007042017 A1, US2007042017A1. Inventors. Michael ... Ephrin-A1, E-selectin, leptin, heparin, interleukin 8, thyroxine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate. ...
  • Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (wikipedia.org)
  • This cyclin binds both Cdk1 and Cdk2 kinases, which give two distinct kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2, and thus regulate separate functions in cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin A1 is a member of the highly conserved cyclin family whose members are able to control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 1991). Cyclin A family members are characterized by a typical periodicity in protein abundance through the cell division cycle functioning as activating subunits of enzymatic complexes, together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) (Lapenna and Giordano, 2009). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. (novusbio.com)
  • cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cyclins, together with the p34 (cdc2) or cdk2 kinases , form the Maturation Promoting Factor. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) 1 and their specific regulators cyclins are the best described regulators monitoring the cell cycle progression. (mcponline.org)
  • Coordinates cell division via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases. (springer.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is a family of serine/threonine kinases. (psu.edu)
  • Although cyclins were initially characterized as molecules whose expression "cycled" (hence the name) once per cell cycle, it is now known that they function both as activating regulatory subunits and substrate specificity-determining components for cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) ( 9 , 27 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Cyclins control the activation of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) by associating with them to form a cyclin-CDK complex able to phosphorylate selected proteins and to induce downstream processes. (beckman.com)
  • Cyclins are eukaryotic proteins that form holoenzymes with cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdk), which they activate. (academic.ru)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins regulate with the help of different interacting proteins the progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle. (plantcell.org)
  • Cell proliferation is controlled by a universally conserved molecular machinery in which the core key players are Ser/Thr kinases, known as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (plantcell.org)
  • Although many cell cycle genes of plants have been identified in the last decade (for review, see Stals and Inzé, 2001 ), the correct number of CDKs, cyclins, and interacting proteins with a role in cell cycle control is unknown. (plantcell.org)
  • Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and interacting with viral proteins (Giordano et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2005). Human cyclin A1 interacts with CDK2 in vitro and in vivo (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2001). Moreover the cyclin A1-CDK2 complex regulates DNA double-strand break repair following radiation damage (Müller-Tidow et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2004) by competing with CDK2-cyclin A2 for the binding to Ku70, a pivotal player in the non-homologous end-joining double strand break repair pathway, and inhibiting apoptosis through modulating RB functions in leukemia cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • CDK2 is a member of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase family that is ubiquitously expressed. (thermofisher.com)
  • CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase, and essential for cell cycle G1/S phase transition. (thermofisher.com)
  • CDK2 associates with and is regulated by the regulatory subunits of the complex including Cyclin A or E, CDK inhibitor p21Cip1 (CDKN1A) and p27Kip1 (CDKN1B). (thermofisher.com)
  • Recombinant full-length human CDK2 and CyclinA1 were co-expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag on both proteins. (thermofisher.com)
  • In vitro the CIZ1 N-terminus interacts with cyclins E and A via distinct sites, enabling functional cooperation with cyclin A-Cdk2 to promote replication initiation. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In the late G1 phase, CDK2/cyclin E complexes regulate the transition from G1 to S phase (21,22). (psu.edu)
  • Then CDK2/cyclin A complexes plays an important role in S phase progression. (psu.edu)
  • In the late G1 phase, CDK2/cyclin E complex. (psu.edu)
  • The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex initiates DNA replication and is required for S phase progression. (beckman.com)
  • La quinasa dependiente de ciclina 2 , también conocida como Cdk2 , es una proteína codificada en humanos por el gen cdk2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • El papel de esta proteína en la transición G1/S ha sido cuestionado recientemente al haberse observado que la transición G1/S se producía sin problemas en células que no poseían Cdk2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Se ha observado que, en melanocitos , la expresión del gen cdk2 es regulada por el factor de transcripción asociado con microftalmia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Western Blot: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-02902] - Cyclin A1 western with U2OS cells. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-02902] - Human testis after heat-induced antigen retrieval. (novusbio.com)
  • Lane 1:A549 cell lysates probed with Rabbit Anti-Cyclin A1 Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated (ABIN714026) at 1:300 overnight at 4 °C. Followed by conjugation to secondary antibody at 1:5000 for 90 min at 37 °C. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Microinjection of anti-Xtr antibody into immature oocytes followed by reinitiation of oocyte maturation did not affect germinal vesicle break down and the oscillation of Cdc2/cyclin B activity during meiotic progression but caused abnormal spindle formation and chromosomal alignment at meiotic metaphase I and II. (wiley.com)
  • CDK1/CDC2-cyclin-B controls pronuclear union in interphase fertilized eggs. (abcam.com)
  • During G2 and early mitosis, CDC25A/B/C-mediated dephosphorylation activates CDK1/cyclin complexes which phosphorylate several substrates that trigger at least centrosome separation, Golgi dynamics, nuclear envelope breakdown and chromosome condensation. (abcam.com)
  • Finally CDK1/cyclin B c. (psu.edu)
  • For passage through G2 to M phase, cyclin A2 complexes to the CDK1 (also called CDC2). (beckman.com)
  • S100A6 depletion caused a decrease in both cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and phospho-CDK1 levels, which are essential for eukaryote cell-cycle progression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • S100A6 depletion also decreased expression of CDK1, cyclin A1 (CCNA1) and cyclin B (CCNB1) genes with effects on cell-cycle progression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This cyclin was found to bind to important cell cycle regulators, such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F1, and the Kip/Cip family of CDK-inhibitor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation of proteins involved in the G2/M transition by Cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes. (uniprot.org)
  • 4 However, we have recently demonstrated that cyclin A1 associates with the retinoblastoma gene product (Rb) and E2F-1 in leukemia cells in vivo and the interaction can change functional properties of the involved proteins. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In humans, in addition to the mouse homologue, two more cyclin D proteins have been identified. (academic.ru)
  • These human proteins, called cyclin D1 , cyclin D2 , and cyclin D3 are expressed in most proliferating cells and the relative amounts expressed differs in various cell types. (academic.ru)
  • In general, all stages of the cell cycle are chronologically separated in humans and are triggered by cyclin-Cdk complexes which are periodically expressed and partially redundant in function. (academic.ru)
  • Even though cyclin D levels in proliferating cells are sustained as long as the growth factors are present, a key player for G1/S transition is active cyclin D-Cdk4/6 complexes. (academic.ru)
  • Cyclin-A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibitor of CDK, cyclin A1 interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INCA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, transfection of primary human embryonic fibroblasts with a c-myb expression vector led to induction of the endogenous cyclin A1 gene. (bloodjournal.org)
  • E XPRESSION OF THE human cyclin A1 gene is restricted to very few tissues. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Recently, we cloned the promoter of the cyclin A1 gene to elucidate the mechanisms of expression of this gene. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In addition, forced expression of c-myb in human embryonic fibroblasts induces the endogenous cyclin A1 gene. (bloodjournal.org)
  • CCNA1 (Cyclin A1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene that encodes cyclin A1. (springer.com)
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that Sam68 is recruited to the human CCND1 gene encoding cyclin D1 and that it binds to cyclin D1 mRNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This gene encodes for two alternative transcripts: the common cyclin D1a isoform, containing all five exons, and cyclin D1b, which derives from retention of intron 4 and premature termination of the transcript ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Active cyclin D/Cdk4 and -6 inhibit Rb by partial phosphorylation, reducing its binding to E2F and thereby allowing E2F-mediated activation of the transcription of the cyclin E gene and the cell progresses towards S-phase. (academic.ru)
  • 1998). Cyclin A1 interacts also with E2F1 and the retinoblastoma protein (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that in these post-replicative cells CIZ1 interacts with the germ cell specific cyclin, A1, that has been implicated in DNA double-strand break repair. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In contrast with cyclin D1a, which interacts with AR and represses its transcriptional activity, cyclin D1b associates with the receptor without interfering with it ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The yeast homologue of cyclin D, referred to as Cln3 , interacts with Cdc28 (cell division control protein) during G1. (academic.ru)
  • Cyclin A1 primarily functions in the meiotic cell cycle, but it also seems to contribute to G1/S cell cycle progression in somatic cells (Ji et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Mechanistically, nuclear FoxO3a promotes cell cycle progression by transcriptional upregulation of cyclin A1, promoting proliferation of human ATC cells. (elsevier.com)
  • These combined data suggest an entirely novel function for FoxO3a in ATC promotion by enhancing cell cycle progression and tumor growth through transcriptional upregulation of cyclin A1. (elsevier.com)
  • High Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1) is an architectural chromatin protein whose overexpression is a feature of malignant neoplasias with a causal role in cancer initiation and progression. (nature.com)
  • Because cyclin A2 was stimulated by cAMP, we assessed the role of cylcin A2 in cell cycle progression in Min6 and isolated islet β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Given its implication for PCa progression, it is crucial to understand the molecular basis of cyclin D1b expression in PCa cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Surprisingly, the E-type cyclins appear to be dispensable for cell cycle progression in normally cycling cells, but they are essential for cell cycle reentry ( 13 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Cyclin D is a member of the cyclin protein family that is involved in regulating cell cycle progression. (academic.ru)
  • In proliferating cells, cyclin D-Cdk4/6 complex accumulation is of great importance for cell cycle progression. (academic.ru)
  • Namely, cyclin D-Cdk4/6 complex partially phosphorylates Rb, which is able to induce expression of some genes (for example: cyclin E) important for S phase progression. (academic.ru)
  • In its un-phosphorylated form, Rb binds a member of E2F family of transcription factors which controls expression of several genes involved in cell cycle progression (example, cyclin E). Rb acts as a repressor, so in complex with E2F it prevents expression of E2F regulates genes, and this inhibits cells from progressing through G1. (academic.ru)
  • Jim DeCaprio ( [email protected] ) suggested adding cyclin D2 (CCND2) and 3 (CCND3) in addition to Cyclin D1 (CCND1) as MAPK targets. (cancer.gov)
  • Minigene reporter assays showed that Sam68 directly affected alternative splicing of CCND1 message, with a preference for the A870 allele that is known to favor cyclin D1b splicing. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results identify Sam68 as the first splicing factor to affect CCND1 alternative splicing in prostate cancer cells, and suggest that increased levels of Sam68 may stimulate cyclin D1b expression in human prostate cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Acinus S422D, an SRPK2 phosphorylation mimetic, enhances cyclin A1 transcription, whereas acinus S422A, an unphosphorylatable mutant, blocks the stimulatory effect of SRPK2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • WO9835015A1 ] An isolated nucleic acid molecule is disclosed which encodes a novel human cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) which comprises a novel cyclin binding domain signature sequence and lacks several heretofore conserved amino acid residues involved in regulation of the cdk/cyclin complex. (epo.org)
  • Cyclin A1 is also expressed in several myeloid leukemia cell lines and various other tumour types (Yang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Comparison of cyclin A1 and cyclin A promoter activity in adherent and myeloid leukemia cell lines showed that the cyclin A1 promoter is preferentially active in myeloid cell lines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 15 We show here that the cyclin A1 promoter is preferentially active in myeloid leukemia cell lines and is transactivated by c-myb. (bloodjournal.org)
  • One of the best known substrates of cyclin D/Cdk4 and -6 is the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein ( Rb ). (academic.ru)
  • RESULTS- Mice treated with exendin-4 showed increased β-cell proliferation, elevated islet protein levels of cyclin A2 with unchanged D-type cyclins, elevated PDX-1 and Skp2 levels, and reduced p27 levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Notably, Sam68 expression positively correlates with levels of cyclin D1b, but not D1a, in human prostate carcinomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1997). The cyclin A1 promoter does not possess a TATA box, whereas the region upstream of the transcriptional start site region contains four GC boxes, with multiple Sp1-binding sites important for the regulation of cyclin A1 expression (Müller et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • This preferential activity was present in a small, 335-bp cyclin A1 promoter fragment that contained several potential c-myb binding sites. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Coexpression of a c-myb expression vector with the cyclin A1 promoter constructs significantly increased the reporter activity in adherent CV-1 as well as in myeloid U937 cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Gel-shift assays demonstrated that c-myb could bind to the cyclin A1 promoter at a binding site located near the transcription start site. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Taken together, c-myb can directly transactivate the promoter of cyclin A1, and c-myb might be involved in the high-level expression of cyclin A1 observed in acute myeloid leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Exendin-4 stimulated cyclin A2 promoter activity via the cAMP-cAMP response element binding protein pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, cyclin E expression from the cyclin D1 promoter completely rescues phenotypic consequences of cyclin D1 loss by bypassing cyclin D1's function in the cell cycle ( 12 ), suggesting that the essential role of cyclin D is to activate cyclin E expression. (asm.org)
  • HDAC10 regulates cyclin A2 expression by deacetylating histones near the let-7 promoter, thereby repressing transcription. (asm.org)
  • HMGA2 loss resulted in enrichment of the transcriptional repressor E4F at the cyclin A2 promoter. (asm.org)
  • We investigated mechanisms that might contribute to cyclin A1 expression in hematopoietic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The splicing factors that regulate alternative splicing of cyclin D1b remain unknown despite the likelihood that they contribute to cyclin D1 oncogenicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Loss of HDAC1 and -2 induces expression of these cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, leading to a cell cycle block in G 1 . (asm.org)
  • Here, we show that SRPK2 binds and phosphorylates acinus, an SR protein essential for RNA splicing, and redistributes it from the nuclear speckles to the nucleoplasm, resulting in cyclin A1 but not A2 up-regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • [ 4 ] Viral cyclin D binds human Cdk6 and inhibits Rb by phosphorylating it, which subsequently inhibits expression of genes important for DNA synthesis. (academic.ru)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Changes in islet protein levels of cyclins and of two critical cell cycle regulators cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) were assessed in mice treated with exendin-4 and in a mouse model with specific upregulation of nuclear cAMP signaling exhibiting increased β-cell proliferation (CBP-S436A mouse). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • One of the members of the pathways, MAPK activates a transcription factor Myc, which alters transcription of genes important in cell cycle, among which is cyclin D. In this way, cyclin D is synthesized as long as the growth factor is present. (academic.ru)
  • 3 The relevance of cyclin A1 for the cell cycle in somatic cells is unclear. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Cyclin A1 is only expressed in meiosis and very early embryos, whereas cyclin A2 is present in proliferating somatic cells. (beckman.com)
  • Cyclin A2 overexpression in primary islets increased proliferation and reduced p27. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Transient overexpression and RNAi knockdown experiments indicated that Sam68 acts to enhance endogenous expression of cyclin D1b. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we report that HDAC10 regulates the cell cycle via modulation of cyclin A2 expression, and cyclin A2 overexpression rescues HDAC10 knockdown-induced G 2 /M transition arrest. (asm.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS- Cyclin A2 is required for β-cell proliferation, exendin-4 stimulates cyclin A2 expression via the cAMP pathway, and exendin-4 stimulation of cAMP requires PDX-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mechanistically, lncSHGL recruited heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) to enhance the translation efficiency of CALM mRNAs to increase calmodulin (CaM) protein level without affecting their transcription, leading to the activation of the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and repression of the mTOR/SREBP-1C pathway independent of insulin and calcium in hepatocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cyclin A2 is degraded via the ubiquitin-dependant proteolysis pathway in the early phases of mitosis. (beckman.com)
  • The abundance of cyclins is generally regulated by protein synthesis and degradation through an APC/c dependent pathway. (academic.ru)
  • Cyclin D is regulated by the downstream pathway of mitogen receptors via the Ras/ MAP kinase and the β-catenin-Tcf/ LEF pathways and PI3K . (academic.ru)
  • Interestingly, cyclin D1b favors PCa cell proliferation through an aberrant regulation of AR activity ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, MEFs lacking cyclin F, while viable, do exhibit cell cycle defects, including reduced population-doubling time and a delay in cell cycle reentry from quiescence, indicating that cyclin F plays a role in cell cycle regulation. (asm.org)
  • 2004). Cyclin A1 has an important role in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): its localization in normal hematopoietic cells is nuclear, whereas in leukemic cells from AML patients and cell lines, it is predominantly cytoplasmic (Ekberg et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Besides its expression during spermatogenesis, cyclin A1 is also expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells and in acute myeloid leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Evaluation of cyclin A1-specific T cells as a potential treatment for acute myeloid leukemia. (stembook.org)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (novusbio.com)
  • Below are the list of possible G2/mitotic-specific cyclin products. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as G2/mitotic-specific cyclin C13-1 (A-like cyclin). (mybiosource.com)
  • 2/mitotic-specific cyclin essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G2/M (mitosis) transition. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as G2/mitotic-specific cyclin S13-6 (B-like cyclin). (mybiosource.com)
  • The mitotic A- and B-type cyclins are not formally interchangeable, since animals carrying single mutations of cyclin A2 or cyclin B1 result in embryonic lethality ( 3 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Mammalian cyclin A1 is primarily localized in the nuclei of spermatocytes in mouse and human (Liu et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • and modulates Fas/Fas-ligand-mediated apoptosis, p53, mammalian target of rapamycin, and cyclins and various phosphodiesterases. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In agreement with this observation, cdc2 kinase, a cdc2/cyclin B complex essential for G 2 -M phase transition, phosphorylates SF2/ASF ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • promotes G2-M transition, and regulates G1 progress and G1-S transition via association with multiple interphase cyclins. (abcam.com)
  • The mitosis-to-endocycle transition requires the controlled inactivation of M phase-associated cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. (ugent.be)
  • The synthesis of cyclin D is initiated during G1 and drives the G1/S phase transition. (academic.ru)
  • Despite this, cyclin D has no effect on G1/S transition unless it forms a complex with Cdk 4 or 6. (academic.ru)
  • Furthermore, both SRPK2 and acinus are overexpressed in some human acute myelogenous leukemia patients and correlate with elevated cyclin A1 expression levels, fitting with the oncogenic activity of cyclin A1 in leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Both isoforms are frequently upregulated in human cancers, but cyclin D1b displays relatively higher oncogenic potential. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin D1b showed higher oncogenic potential than cyclin D1a in NIH-3T3 cells possibly due to its more pronounced nuclear localization ( 8 , 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin A1 was shown to be expressed in testis and brain, as well as in several leukemic cell lines, and is thought to primarily function in the control of meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 Under physiological conditions, the highest concentrations of cyclin A1 are found in testis and lower levels are found in hematopoietic tissue. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 2 Cyclin A1 is thought to play an important role in the first meiotic cell division in testis and impaired spermatogenesis occurs in mice with cyclin A1 deletion. (bloodjournal.org)
  • qRT-PCR of snap-frozen EOC specimens and of cDNA from healthy tissues, showing high Cyclin A1 expression in testis and seven of the nine EOCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns that contribute to the temporal coordination of cell cycle events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin A1 differs from other cyclins in its highly restricted expression pattern. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Ablation of acinus or SRPK2 abrogates cyclin A1 expression in leukemia cells and arrest cells at G 1 phase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Clk/Sty was initially cloned as a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-like kinase by PCR ( 4 , 5 ), as well as a dual specificity kinase in an expression screening ( 6 - 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we report that Sam68, an RNA-binding protein frequently overexpressed in prostate cancer cells, enhances splicing of cyclin D1b and supports its expression in prostate cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This is not due to disparate biochemical capabilities but rather to tissue-specific expression patterns, since each D cyclin appears to be capable of substituting for the other ( 4 , 10 , 32 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Cyclin A1 expression and paclitaxel resistance in human ovarian cancer cells. (genscript.com)
  • Cyclin A1 transfected 293T cell line lysate. (abcam.com)
  • Male knockout mice lacking cyclin A1 are infertile owing to a cell cycle arrest before the first meiotic division (Liu et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Moreover, cyclin D1b is upregulated in several types of cancers, including PCa ( 10 ), and it has been correlated with higher risk of cell transformation and poor prognosis in selected tumor types ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclins are key components of the core cell cycle machinery. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, SIX1 was reported to abolish the G2 cell cycle checkpoint and upregulate cyclin A1 to promote cell proliferation in breast cancer ( 8 , 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To investigate the role of cyclin F in vivo, we generated mice deficient for cyclin F and conditionally deficient mice as well as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) conditionally deficient for cyclin F. Heterozygous animals are normal and fertile, but CycF −/− animals, with a myriad of developmental anomalies due in large part to failures in yolk sac and chorioallantoic placentation, die around embryonic day 10.5. (asm.org)
  • PDX-1 knockdown reduced exendin-4-stimulated cAMP synthesis and cyclin A2 transcription. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • C-terminal sequences anchor CIZ1 to fixed sites on the nuclear matrix imposing spatial constraint on cyclin dependent kinase activity. (lancs.ac.uk)