An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
The act of BREATHING out.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Inorganic chemicals that contain manganese as an integral part of the molecule.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
(GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC (GTP cyclohydrolase II).
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Relating to the size of solids.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Effects of S-2474, a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on amyloid beta protein-induced neuronal cell death. (1/69)

1. The accumulation of amyloid beta protein (Abeta) in the brain is a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical trials of AD patients with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) indicate a clinical benefit. NSAIDs are presumed to act by suppressing inhibiting chronic inflammation in the brain of AD patients. 2. In the present study, we investigated effects of S-2474 on Abeta-induced cell death in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. 3. S-2474 is a novel NSAID, which inhibits cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and contains the di-tert-butylphenol antioxidant moiety. S-2474 significantly prevented neurons from Abeta(25 - 35)- and Abeta(1 - 40)-induced cell death. S-2474 ameliorated Abeta-induced apoptotic features such as the condensation of chromatin and the fragmentation of DNA completely. 4. Prior to cell death, Abeta(25 - 35) generated prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) and free radicals from neurons. PGD(2) is a product of cyclo-oxygenase (COX), and caused neuronal cell death. 5. S-2474 significantly inhibited the Abeta(25 - 35)-induced generation of PGD(2) and free radicals. 6. The present cortical cultures contained little non-neuronal cells, indicating that S-2474 affected neuronal survival directly, but not indirectly via non-neuronal cells. Both an inhibitory effect of COX-2 and an antioxidant effect might contribute to the neuroprotective effects of S-2474. 7. In conclusion, S-2474 exhibits protective effects against neurotoxicity of Abeta. Furthermore, the present study suggests that S-2474 may possess therapeutic potential for AD via ameliorating degeneration in neurons as well as suppressing chronic inflammation in non-neuronal cells.  (+info)

(-)-(9S)-9-(3-Bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-2,3,5,6,7,9-hexahydrothieno[3,2-b]quinolin-8( 4H)-one 1,1-dioxide (A-278637): a novel ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener efficacious in suppressing urinary bladder contractions. I. In vitro characterization. (2/69)

Alterations in the myogenic activity of the bladder smooth muscle are thought to serve as a basis for the involuntary detrusor contractions associated with the overactive bladder. Activation of ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels has been recognized as a potentially viable mechanism to modulate membrane excitability in bladder smooth muscle. In this study, we describe the preclinical pharmacology of (-)-(9S)-9-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-2,3,5,6,7,9-hexahydrothieno[3,2-b]quinolin-8( 4H)-one 1,1-dioxide (A-278637), a novel 1,4-dihydropyridine K(ATP) channel opener (KCO) that demonstrates enhanced bladder selectivity for the suppression of unstable bladder contractions in vivo relative to other reference KCOs. A-278637 activated K(ATP) channels in bladder smooth muscle cells in a glyburide (glibenclamide)-sensitive manner as assessed by fluorescence membrane potential assays using bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol (EC(50) = 102 nM) and by whole cell patch clamp. Spontaneous (myogenic) phasic activity of pig bladder strips was suppressed (IC(50) = 23 nM) in a glyburide-sensitive manner by A-278637. A-278637 also inhibited carbachol- and electrical field-stimulated contractions of bladder strips, although the respective potencies were 8- and 13-fold lower compared with inhibition of spontaneous phasic activity. As shown in the accompanying article [Brune ME, Fey TA, Brioni JD, Sullivan JP, Williams M, Carroll WA, Coghlan MJ, and Gopalakrishnan M (2002) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 303:387-394], A-278637 suppressed myogenic contractions in vivo in a model of bladder instability with superior selectivity compared with other KCOs, WAY-133537 [(R)-4-[3,4-dioxo-2-(1,2,2-trimethyl-propylamino)cyclobut-1-enylamino]-3-ethyl-be nzonitrile] and ZD6169 [(S)-N-(4-benzoylphenyl)3,3,3-trifluro-2hydroxy-2-methyl-priopionamide]. A-278637 did not interact with other ion channels, including L-type calcium channels or other neurotransmitter receptor systems. The pharmacological profile of A-278637 represents an attractive basis for further investigations of selective K(ATP) channel openers for the treatment of overactive bladder via myogenic etiology.  (+info)

(-)-(9S)-9-(3-Bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-2,3,5,6,7,9-hexahydrothieno[3,2-b]quinolin-8( 4H)-one 1,1-dioxide (A-278637): a novel ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener efficacious in suppressing urinary bladder contractions. II. in vivo characterization. (3/69)

ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel openers (KCOs) have been shown to inhibit spontaneous myogenic contractile activity of the urinary bladder, a mechanism hypothesized to underlie detrusor instability and symptoms of overactive bladder. However, the therapeutic utility of KCOs has been limited by a lack of differentiation of bladder versus vascular effects. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo potency and bladder selectivity of (-)-(9S)-9-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-2,3,5,6,7,9-hexahydrothieno[3,2-b]quinolin-8( 4H)-one 1,1-dioxide (A-278637), a novel dihydropyridine KCO, in a pig model of detrusor instability secondary to partial bladder outlet obstruction. For comparison, we profiled two KCOs, ((R)-4-[3,4-dioxo-2-(1,2,2-trimethyl-propylamino)-cyclobut-1-enylamino]-3-ethyl-b enzonitrile (WAY-133537) and (S)-N-(4-benzoylphenyl)-3,3,3-trifluro-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propionamide (ZD6169), reported previously to have improved bladder selectivity in vivo and a calcium channel blocker, nifedipine. Effective doses of A-278637, WAY-133537, ZD6169, and nifedipine to inhibit unstable contraction area under the curve by 35% and to decrease mean arterial pressure by 10% were 4.2 and 12, 109 and 51, 661 and 371, and 136 and 30 nmol/kg i.v., yielding corresponding bladder selectivity ratios of 3, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.2. Therefore, A-278637 was approximately 5- to 6-fold more bladder-selective than the other KCOs and 15-fold more selective than nifedipine, the latter approximately 4.5-fold vascular-selective. The potency of KCOs to inhibit unstable contraction in vivo was accurately predicted by their potency to inhibit spontaneous contractile activity of pig detrusor strips in vitro. These results indicate that A-278637, with enhanced potency and bladder selectivity compared with the other compounds evaluated, could serve as a useful tool in the investigation of smooth muscle K(ATP) channel openers as novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of overactive bladder.  (+info)

Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of 2-(9-(2-piperidinoethoxy)-4-oxo-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-yloxymethyl)-4-(1-met hylethyl)-6-methoxy-1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one-1,1-dioxide (SSR69071), a novel, orally active elastase inhibitor. (4/69)

Human leukocyte elastase (HLE) is a proteinase capable of degrading a variety of proteins. Under normal circumstances, the proteolytic activity of HLE is effectively controlled by its natural inhibitors. However, an imbalance between elastase and its endogenous inhibitors may result in several pathophysiological states such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and chronic inflammatory diseases. It is anticipated that an orally active HLE inhibitor could be useful for the treatment of these diseases. 2-(9-(2-Piperidinoethoxy)-4-oxo-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-yloxymethyl)-4-(1-met hylethyl)-6-methoxy-1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one-1,1-dioxide (SSR69071) is a potent inhibitor of HLE, with the inhibition constant (K(i)) and the constant for inactivation process (k(on)) being 0.0168 +/- 0.0014 nM and 0.183 +/- 0.013 10(6)/mol sr, respectively. The dissociation rate constant, k(off), was 3.11 + 0.37 10(-6)/s. SSR69071 displays a higher affinity for human elastase than for rat (K(i) = 3 nM), mouse (K(i) = 1.8 nM), and rabbit (K(i) = 58 nM) elastases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice orally treated with SSR69071 inhibits HLE (ex vivo), and in this model, SSR69071 has a dose-dependent efficacy with an ED(50) = 10.5 mg/kg p.o. SSR69071 decreases significantly the acute lung hemorrhage induced by HLE (ED(50) = 2.8 mg/kg p.o.) in mice. Furthermore, SSR69071 prevents carrageenan- (ED(30) = 2.2 mg/kg) and HLE-induced (ED(30) = 2.7 mg/kg) paw edema in rats after p.o. administration. In conclusion, SSR69071 is a selective, orally active, and potent inhibitor of HLE with good penetration in respiratory tissues.  (+info)

2',5'-Bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro-5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''- oxathiole-2'',2'-dioxide)pyrimidine (TSAO) nucleoside analogues: highlyselective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 that are targeted at the viral reverse transcriptase. (5/69)

A series of pyrimidine nucleoside analogues containing [2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro-5''-(4''-amino- 1'',2''-oxathiole-2'',2''-dioxide)]-beta-D-ribofuranose as the pentose were found to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1(IIIB)] replication at a concentration of 0.06-0.8 microM but were not cytotoxic at a 1000- to 10,000-fold higher concentration. These nucleoside derivatives were also effective against various other HIV-1 strains, including those resistant to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, but not against HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus, Moloney murine sarcoma virus, or other RNA or DNA viruses. They proved to be highly specific inhibitors of the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase function of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, showing no marked inhibition of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-associated DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity, HIV-2 reverse transcriptase, DNA polymerase alpha, herpes simplex virus 1 DNA polymerase, or Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase.  (+info)

NN414, a SUR1/Kir6.2-selective potassium channel opener, reduces blood glucose and improves glucose tolerance in the VDF Zucker rat. (6/69)

A novel potassium channel opener compound, NN414, selective for the SUR1/Kir6.2 subtype of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel, was used to examine the effect of reducing beta-cell workload in the male Vancouver diabetic fatty (VDF) Zucker rat model of mild type 2 diabetes. Two chronic dosing protocols of NN414 of 3 weeks' duration were compared with appropriate vehicle-treated controls. In the first group, rats received NN414 (continued group; 1.5 mg/kg p.o. twice daily), during which an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (on day 19 of dosing) was performed and insulin secretion from an in situ perfused pancreas preparation (on day 21) was measured. The second group received NN414 (discontinued group; same dose), but active treatment was replaced by vehicle treatment 2 days before the OGTT and for a further 2 days before the perfused pancreas study. Basal glucose was significantly reduced by NN414, with the fall averaging 0.64 mmol/l after 3 weeks of treatment (P < 0.0001). The glucose excursion and hyperinsulinemia during the OGTT were significantly different between the continued, discontinued, and vehicle groups (glucose area under the curve [AUC]: 640 +/- 29, 740 +/- 27, and 954 +/- 82 mmol. l(-1). min(-1), respectively, P < 0.0001; insulin AUC: 38.9 +/- 4.2, 44.2 +/- 4.2, and 55.1 +/- 2.6 nmol.l(-1).min(-1), respectively, P < 0.0001). Hyperinsulinemia during the pancreas perfusion with 4.4 mmol/l glucose was significantly reduced in both treatment groups versus vehicle (P < 0.0005). Insulin secretory responsiveness to a step increase in glucose from 4.4 to 16.6 mmol/l, calculated relative to basal, was significantly improved in the continued group versus vehicle (P < 0.01). In conclusion, administration of NN414 for 3 weeks in VDF rats reduces basal hyperglycemia, improves glucose tolerance, and reduces hyperinsulinemia during an OGTT and improves insulin secretory responsiveness ex vivo. NN414 may therefore represent a novel approach to the prevention and treatment of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

Improved beta-cell survival and reduced insulitis in a type 1 diabetic rat model after treatment with a beta-cell-selective K(ATP) channel opener. (7/69)

Treatment with ATP-sensitive K(+) channel openers (KCOs) leads to inhibition of insulin secretion and metabolic "rest" in beta-cells. It is hypothesized that in type 1 diabetes this may reduce beta-cell death resulting from metabolic stress as well as reduce the immunogenicity of the beta-cells during autoimmune beta-cell destruction. We have investigated whether the beta-cell-selective KCO compound, NN414, can be used to improve beta-cell survival in DR-BB rats rendered diabetic by modulation of their immune system. The rats were treated three times daily on days 1-19 with NN414, diazoxide, or vehicle. On day 21, an intravenous glucose tolerance test was conducted to assess beta-cell function. Postmortem histological analysis of rats' pancreata assessed the degree of insulitis and beta-cell volume. Among NN414-treated rats, 46% (16 of 35) were found to have a beta-cell mass similar to that of nondiabetic controls and significant glucose-stimulated C-peptide values, whereas only 11% (4 of 36) of vehicle-treated rats possessed a normal beta-cell mass and function (P < 0.002, by chi(2) test). Furthermore, responsive NN414-treated rats were almost free of insulitis. Thus, this study demonstrated that treatment with KCO compounds can indeed lead to preservation of beta-cell function and reduction of insulitis in a rat diabetes model.  (+info)

Glucose- and interleukin-1beta-induced beta-cell apoptosis requires Ca2+ influx and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation and is prevented by a sulfonylurea receptor 1/inwardly rectifying K+ channel 6.2 (SUR/Kir6.2) selective potassium channel opener in human islets. (8/69)

Increasing evidence indicates that a progressive decrease in the functional beta-cell mass is the hallmark of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The underlying causes, beta-cell apoptosis and impaired secretory function, seem to be partly mediated by macrophage production of interleukin (IL)-1beta and/or high-glucose-induced beta-cell production of IL-1beta. Treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients with the potassium channel opener diazoxide partially restores insulin secretion. Therefore, we studied the effect of diazoxide and of the novel potassium channel opener NN414, selective for the beta-cell potassium channel SUR1/Kir6.2, on glucose- and IL-1beta-induced apoptosis and impaired function in human beta-cells. Exposure of human islets for 4 days to 11.1 and 33.3 mmol/l glucose, 2 ng/ml IL-1beta, or 10 and 100 micromol/l of the sulfonylurea tolbutamide induced beta-cell apoptosis and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The deleterious effects of glucose and IL-1beta were blocked by 200 micromol/l diazoxide as well as by 3 and 30 micromol/l NN414. By Western blotting with phosphospecific antibodies, glucose and IL-1beta were shown to activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, an effect that was abrogated by 3 micromol/l NN414. Similarly, 1 micromol/l of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase 1/2 inhibitor PD098059 or 1 micromol/l of the l-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nimodipine prevented glucose- and IL-1beta-induced ERK activation, beta-cell apoptosis, and impaired function. Finally, islet release of IL-1beta in response to high glucose could be abrogated by nimodipine, NN414, or PD098059. Thus, in human islets, glucose- and IL-1beta-induced beta-cell secretory dysfunction and apoptosis are Ca(2+) influx and ERK dependent and can be prevented by the beta-cell selective potassium channel opener NN414.  (+info)

|p|Stattic is a small molecule inhibitor of STAT3 with IC50 values of 2.562 ± 0.409 μM, 3.481 ± 0.953 μM, 2.282 ± 0.423 μM and 2.648 ± 0.542 μM, respectively, in UM-SCC-17B, OSC-19, Cal33 and UM-SCC-22B cell lines [1].|/p||p|Stattic is reported to selecti
Stattic | STAT3 inhibitor | CAS [19983-44-9] | Axon 2314 | Axon Ligand™ with >99% purity available from supplier Axon Medchem, prime source of life science reagents for your research
Purpose : To evaluate the pharmacologic and safety parameters of CKLP1 following topical application in hound dog eyes. Methods : Optimal concentration of CKLP1 for reduction of IOP was established in female hound dogs (n=5) by topical application to the eye with CKLP1 (5-20 mM). Following washout (14 days), the dogs were treated with the optimal dose once daily for 60 consecutive days. IOP was measured 3 times daily (1, 4 and 23 hours post treatment), 3-7 times per week. Blood pressure measurements were recorded using a tail cuff, once daily, 3-5 times per week. For pharmacokinetic studies, both eyes were treated with CKLP1 for 8 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on days 1, 4 and 8 and concentration of CKLP1 and its parent compound levcromakalim were evaluated in the plasma by LC MS/MS. Necropsy was performed on all animals and systemic effects of drug administration were histologically evaluated in 40 different tissue samples from each animal. Results : The 10 mM topical dose of ...
The invention provides compounds of formula (I) and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof: wherein X is CH2, O or S. The compounds inhibit gamma secretase without affecting Notch signalling, and hence find use in the treatment or prevention of Alzheimers disease.
LY-411575 is a potent γ-secretase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.078 nM/0.082 nM (membrane/cell-based), and also inhibits Notch S3 cleavage with IC50 of 0.39 nM. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
RO 4929097 | γ-Secretase inhibitor | RO4929097 | CAS [847925-91-1] | Axon 2521 | Axon Ligand™ with >98% purity available from supplier Axon Medchem, prime source of life science reagents for your research
HJC0416 hydrochloride is a potent and orally active STAT3 inhibitor with an enhanced anticancer profile than Stattic (HY-13818). HJC0416 hydrochloride is a promising anti-cancer agent for breast cancer study. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Our focus is on developing small molecule therapies for patients living with rare and aggressive cancers through gamma secretase inhibitors.
Supplementary data for article: Džambaski, Z.; Markovic, R.; Kleinpeter, E.; Baranac-Stojanović, M. 2-Alkylidene-4-Oxothiazolidine S-Oxides: Synthesis and Stereochemistry. Tetrahedron 2013, 69 (31), 6436-6447. ...
Mittwoch, 17.01.2018 , 14 Uhr , Hörsaal Was der verbesserte Großdetektor HADES mit kollidierenden Neutronensternen zu tun hat Joachim Stroth, GSI Webseite der Vortragsreihe ...
Rapamycin (Sirolimus?) is used to avoid rejection of transplanted organs and coronary restenosis. had been treated with rapamycin (0.25 mg/kg i.p.) or automobile (DMSO) with/without inhibitor of JAK2 (AG-490) or STAT3 (stattic). 1 hour later on the hearts were put through I/R either in Langendorf ligation or mode oleft coronary artery. Caffeic acid Additionally major murine cardiomyocytes had been put through simulated ischemia/reoxygenation (SI-RO) damage targeted knockdown of STAT3 lentiviral vector formulated with brief hairpin RNA was injected into still left ventricle 3 weeks ahead of initiating I/R damage. Infarct size cardiac function cardiomyocyte apoptosis Caffeic acid and necrosis were assessed. Rapamycin decreased infarct size improved cardiac function pursuing I/R limited cardiomyocytes necrosis aswell as apoptosis Caffeic acid pursuing SI-RO that have been obstructed by AG-490 and stattic. In situ knock-down of STAT3 attenuated rapamycin-induced security against I/R damage. ...
immune 7-TM Receptors, ?-secretase inhibitors, AR signaling, Bcl-2 Family, BMP inhibitors, c-MET inhibitors, CETP inhibitors, HDAC Inhibitors, IGK-1R signaling, MAPK inhibitors, MCT, mTOR Signaling, NEDD8, PARP inhibitors, PDE inhibitors, PI3K inhibitors, Potassium Channels, proteases inhibitors, Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, Uncategorized, VEGFR Inhibitor, VEGFR inhibitor, WNT AZD6244, GSK1120212, PD0325901 The recognition of BRAF and NRAS mutations in considerable quantities of melanoma patients as well as the viewing that many melanomas proved constitutive MAPK exercise, led to the creation of smaller molecule MEK inhibitors, such as PD0325901, selumetinib (AZD6244) and CI-1040 in unselected teams of melanoma patients69-71 (Physique 2). The initial scientific tests on PD0325901 demonstrated very little evidence of task, with 2 away from 27 people possessing part reactions and a more 5 people getting stable condition. On the part I trial run of AZD6244 just one BRAF mutant melanoma affected ...
Thus, mice deficient in caspase 1 and therefore unable to process pro IL 1 to mature bi ologically energetic IL 1 are extra insulin sensitive than wild style animals, IL one is secreted buy Stattic by cells exposed to large glucose concentrations and also the adipocytokine leptin and by macrophages exposed to absolutely free fatty acids and islet amyloid polypeptide, the naturally happening IL 1 inhibitor, IL one re ceptor antagonist, protects towards higher glucose induced human cell toxic ity in vitro and dia betes too as cell dysfunction in duced by a high extra fat diet regime in an animal model, elevated IL one lev els contribute to the threat of developing T2D, and IL 1Ra therapy improves cell function in patients with T2D for as much as 39 weeks right after 13 weeks of treat ment. In summary, antiinflammatory treat ment, and specifically inhibition of IL one induced toxicity, has therapeutic po tential in the therapy of the two T1D and T2D. However, antiinflammatory biolog ics are ...
Spirocyclic sulfones as gamma secretase inhibitors | Prodrugs of pyridone amides useful as modulators of sodium channels | Production of lithium diphenylphosphide | Organosilicon compound, adhesive composition and article | Method for producing hydrosilanes containing carbon |
Ramesh N. Patel. 4.1 Introduction 71. 4.2 Saxagliptin: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]N?]Boc?]3?]Hydroxyadamantylglycine 71. 4.3 Sitagliptin: Enzymatic Synthesis of Chiral Amine 72. 4.4 Vanlev: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]6?]Hydroxynorleucine 73. 4.5 Vanlev: Enzymatic Synthesis of Allysine Ethylene Acetal 74. 4.6 Vanlev: Enzymatic Synthesis of Thiazepine 74. 4.7 Tigemonam: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]β?]Hydroxyvaline 76. 4.8 Autoimmune Diseases: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]Neopentylglycine 76. 4.9 Atazanavir: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]Tertiary Leucine 77. 4.10 Thrombin Inhibitor (Inogatran): Synthesis of (R)?]Cyclohexylalanine 78. 4.11 Gamma Secretase Inhibitor: Enzymatic Synthesis of (R)?]5,5,5?]Trifluoronorvaline 79. 4.12 NK1/NK2 Dual Antagonists: Enzymatic Desymmetrization of Diethyl 3?][3′,4′?]Dichlorophenyl] Glutarate 80. 4.13 Pregabalin: Enzymatic Synthesis of Ethyl (S)?]3?]Cyano?]5?]Methylhexanoate 81. 4.14 Chemokine Receptor Modulator: Enzymatic Synthesis of ...
APOBEC3 proteins catalyze deamination of cytidines in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), providing innate protection against retroviral replication by inducing deleterious dC dU hypermutation of replication intermediates. DSB repair, inhibition of APOBEC3G appearance or deaminase activity led to deficient DSB fix, whereas reconstitution of APOBEC3G appearance in leukemia cells improved DSB fix. APOBEC3G activity included digesting of DNA flanking a DSB within an integrated reporter cassette. Atomic power microscopy indicated that APOBEC3G multimers keep company with ssDNA termini, triggering multimer disassembly to multiple catalytic products. These results recognize APOBEC3G being a prosurvival element in lymphoma cells, marking APOBEC3G being a potential focus on for sensitizing lymphoma to rays therapy. Launch Ionizing rays and nearly all anticancer agencies inflict deleterious DNA harm on tumor cells, mostly DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and covalent DNA crosslinks. DNA DSBs are extremely ...
Evidence from clinical studies (Wang et al., 1999; Naslund et al., 2000), in vitro experiments (Lambert et al., 1998; Hartley et al., 1999; Chromy et al., 2003), and in vivo experiments (Shin et al., 1997; Hsia et al., 1999) suggest that the initial pathogenesis of AD is due to the build up of neurotoxic aggregates of the soluble Aβ peptide species Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42). As a result, a number of therapeutic approaches for lowering amyloid are in progress, one of which is the use of γ-secretase inhibitors (Hardy and Selkoe, 2002; Harrison et al., 2004b). With the advent of orally available γ-secretase inhibitors, studies in transgenic mice using these inhibitors have demonstrated reductions of Aβ levels in the brain, CSF, and plasma (Dovey et al., 2001; Lanz et al., 2003, 2004; Wong et al., 2004). However, these models have high levels of Aβ not representative of normal physiological rodent levels.. A previous study used immunoprecipitation and Western blotting to determine the effect of ...
Because NOXA was prominently induced by GSI in melanoma cells but not in melanocytes (Fig. 3A and B), a role for NOXA in GSI (10 μmol/L)-induced apoptosis was further pursued. To determine if p53 status influenced induction of NOXA, three different melanoma cell lines were examined that contained p53 mutations (i.e., C8161, SK-Mel-28, and MUM2B) and compared with two melanoma cell lines with wild-type p53 (RJ002L and SK-Mel-100) as shown in Fig. 3D. Both MUM2B and SK-Mel-28 cells carry homozygous inactivating mutations (R196Stop and L145R, respectively), and little to no p53 was detected before or following GSI exposure. In contrast, C8161 carried a R196Stop mutation in only one allele, and p53 expression, similar to that observed in wild-type cell lines, was evident in response to NOXA. Because SK-Mel-100 cells with wild-type p53 and low Apaf-1 levels (Fig. 1B) were highly sensitive to GSI-mediated killing (Fig. 1A), Apaf-1 and NOXA levels were examined before and after GSI treatment. NOXA ...
Meier, Jeremy A. and Hyun, Moonjung and Cantwell, Marc and Raza, Ali and Mertens, Claudia and Raje, Vidisha and Sisler, Jennifer and Tracy, Erin and Torres-Odio, Sylvia and Gispert, Suzana and Shaw, Peter E. and Baumann, Heinz and Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar and Takabe, Kazuaki and Larner, Andrew C. (2017) Stress-induced dynamic regulation of mitochondrial STAT3 and its association with cyclophilin D reduces mitochondrial ROS production. Science Signaling, 10 (472). eaag2588. ISSN 1937-9145 ...
2017 Keystone Hideout 28RKS available at Kellys RV. KEYSTONE HIDEOUT Walk-On RoofDiamond PlateRadial TiresExterior SpeakersLighted Power AwningPleated ShadesSurround Sound SystemMicrowaveRefrigeratorA/CRangeUnder Bed StorageFoot Flush Toilet
The work by Peters et. al is beautiful and comprehensive in quantitation of plaque growth and formation. They clearly demonstrated better efficacy of the β-secretase inhibitor before individual plaque formation, suggesting that treating during a period of new plaque formation, or even before, will be most effective. This would translate to the 10-20 years before symptom onset in DIAN.. A caveat of the work is that the mouse model overexpresses Aβ production, so the concentrations and kinetics may not replicate typical human plaque growth.. ...
KEDUDUKAN DAN FUNGSI BAHASA INDONESIA, Fungsi Bahasa, Penggunaan Bahasa (3/4): Fungsi Bahasa - Nur Agustinus, Cara Efektif Belajar Bahasa Inggris Otodidak Bag. 4-Fungsi To Be, fungsi bahasa, Fungsi Void #33 | C++ | Bahasa Indonesia
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement of activation of caspases by presenilin 1 gene mutations and its inhibition by secretase inhibitors. AU - Miyoshi, Katsue. AU - Ohyagi, Yasumasa. AU - Sakae, Nobutaka. AU - Motomura, Kyoko. AU - Ma, Linqing. AU - Taniwaki, Takayuki. AU - Furuya, Hirokazu. AU - Tabira, Takeshi. AU - Kira, Jun Ichi. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Presenilin 1 (PS1) gene mutations are the major causes of early-onset familial Alzheimers disease. Acceleration of apoptosis is one of the major pathogenic mechanisms of PS1 mutants, and PS1 mutants have also been reported to induce overproduction of amyloid-β protein 42. Here, we investigated aberrancy in activation of initiator caspases related to two PS1 gene mutations, I143T and G384A. Acceleration of apoptosis, elevation of caspase-3/7 activity, and significant increases in caspase-4, -8 and -9 activities during apoptosis induced by several agents were found in these mutant PS1-transfected cells. Interestingly, thapsigargin treatment ...
High expression of Notch-1 and/or Jagged-1 has negative prognostic significance in breast cancer ( 14, 15), and Notch-1 can transform HMECs ( 16). Our data confirm that Notch-1 and Notch-4 are commonly coexpressed in infiltrating breast cancers of ductal and lobular histologies, which also express Notch ligands Jagged-1 and Delta-1. However, our observations on breast cancer cell lines suggest that there may not be a simple correlation between protein levels of Notch receptor and ligands and Notch pathway activity level. Our data suggest that estrogen inhibits Notch signaling through an ERα-dependent effect, which is at least in part mediated by inhibition of Notch cleavage by γ-secretase. Inhibition of Notch activation by estrogen is observed under physiologic, ligand-induced Notch activation conditions, but it is independent of Notch ligands. Estradiol did not affect expression of Jagged-1, the most abundant Notch ligand in these cells (data not shown). The membrane accumulation of uncleaved ...
Treatment of malignancies within the chest wall, like chest wall recurrence of tumor, advanced cutaneous neoplasm and lymphoma, is still challenging due to the involvement of the critical constructions of heart and lung by the conventional strategy. apoptosis detection, histopathologic exam, and serum biochemistry checks. Our observations shown that [email protected]/Dox nanocomposites, could play the part of magnetic drug targeting to deliver Dox into tumor cells and cells to enhance its chemotherapeutic effectiveness. Besides, with ultraviolet (UV) illumination, [email protected] showed the excellent home of photosensitizer, further attacking the malignancy cells by photodynamic therapy (PDT). Therefore, apoptosis was induced with the photo-chemo therapy synergistically, producing a distinctive improvement in anticancer activity. Since UV includes a limited penetration length in tissue, leading to PDT to fail in the vital buildings of lung and center, cardiopulmonary hurt could possibly be avoided through the ...
In the present study, the routes of elimination and metabolism and the excretion mass balance of zoniporide in humans were investigated after an intravenous infusion of [14C]zoniporide. A dose of 80 mg was administered in this study, which was approximately equal to the anticipated clinical dose to be used in the phase III program. The comparison of metabolite profiles of a drug candidate in animals and humans is essential to ensure that animal species used in toxicological evaluations are appropriate models of humans and to confirm that all human circulating metabolites are covered in these species (Food and Drug Administration, 2008). The metabolic profiles in humans, rat, and dog were compared to assess whether all metabolites observed in human matrices were detected in these two toxicology species. The doses used in the preclinical species were equivalent to the dose in the toxicology studies in which minimum adverse effects were observed.. After intravenous administration, the majority of ...
The 2019 academic year has been a great period of transition for the GSI. We are optimistically anticipating this transition to set the foundation for a new era - GSI 2.0.. To recap some noteworthy moments from this past year, the GSI has observed extensive personnel transitions including Anita DeStefano shifting to another leadership role outside of GSI, Rick Myers blissfully entering retirement, and the previous admin, Katie McCue, receiving a promotion. Despite the GSIs sadness in seeing their team members depart ways from the GSI, it is an exciting venture receiving new blood with raw enthusiasm to facilitate change. Nelson Lau was selected as the GSIs new Director, Rachel Flynn became the new Co-Director, and Emily Piontek now supports the GSI as a financial admin.. Outside of the shift in personnel, the Annual Symposium in November 2018 was well attended in conjunction with a record company sponsorship thanks to Katie McCue, Anita DeStefano, Rick Myers, and Alla Grishok.. The GSI ...
immune 7-TM Receptors, ?-secretase inhibitors, AMPK activators, androgen receptor, AR signaling, Bcl-2 Family, BMP inhibitors, c-MET inhibitors, cell cycle checkpoint, CETP inhibitors, cyclin-dependent kinases(CDKs), EGFR/HER2, HDAC Inhibitors, hif, IGK-1R signaling, JAK inhibitors, MAPK inhibitors, MCT, mTOR Signaling, NEDD8, P53 Apoptosis inhibitors, PARP inhibitors, PDE inhibitors, PI3K Inhibitor, PI3K inhibitors, Potassium Channels, proteases inhibitors, RAAS inhibitors, Raf, Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, ROCKs inhibitor, SIRT1 pathway, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Uncategorized, VEGFR Inhibitor, VEGFR inhibitor, WNT ATM inhibitors, KU-60019, KU60019 Pharmacokinetics of KU60019 Healthier mice have been inoculated by CED beneath the very same coordinates useful for GIC injection (see , CED and Growth Characterization of Orthotopic Cancers and Radiotherapy) with 12.5 ll of 250 lM KU60019 or by i.p. injection with 806 ll of 250 lM KU60019 (the i.c.-injected amount multiplied for the bodyweight). ...
Both workshops are limited competitions for labs to submit an experimental proposal by March 15, 2019. Winners selected by the GSI Review Panel would receive a set of deeply subsidized reagents from the GSI to conduct Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) or a pilot Single-Cell RNA Sequencing experiment (scRNASeq). Three awards for ddPCR (up to $2400 reagent value per lab) and three awards for scRNA-Seq (up to $9000 in reagent value per lab) will be made to the best-chosen proposals. ...
Ližiny Synology Rail Kit jsou určeny k instalaci stanice RackStation do racku. Součástí Synology RKS1317 jsou posuvné ližiny, které usnadňují zasouvání a vysouvání stanice RackStation při údržbě, zatímco Synology RKM114 zajišťují stanici RackStation v racku. ...
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Rorick-Kehn LM, Johnson BG, Burkey JL, Wright RA, Calligaro DO, Marek GJ, Nisenbaum ES, Catlow JT, Kingston AE, Giera DD, Herin MF, Monn JA, McKinzie DL, Schoepp DD.. Neuroscience Discovery Research, Lilly Research Laboratories, Lilly Corporate Center, DC0510, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.. Group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor agonists, including (1S,2S,5R,6S)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylate monohydrate (LY354740) and (-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate (LY379268), have demonstrated efficacy in animal models of anxiety and schizophrenia, and LY354740 decreased anxiety in human subjects. Herein, we report the in vitro pharmacological profile and pharmacokinetic properties of another potent, selective, and structurally novel mGlu2/3 receptor agonist, (-)-(1R,4S,5S,6S)-4-amino-2-sulfonylbicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY404039) and provide comparisons with LY354740. Similar to LY354740, LY404039 is a nanomolar potent agonist at recombinant ...
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Diabetic, non-healing wounds are a major clinical problem with considerable morbidity and associated financial costs. However, mechanisms by which diabetes impedes tissue repair mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies have suggested decreased tissue levels of growth factors, including keratinocyte growth factor, VEGF, PDGF, excess protease activity, decreased angiogenesis, altered inflammation, or an increased microbial load as possible contributing factors for the impaired wound healing observed in diabetes mellitus (Galkowska et al, 2006; Brem & Tomic-Canic, 2007; Grice et al, 2010; Gardner et al, 2013; Eming et al, 2014; Pastar et al, 2014; Lindley et al, 2016; Quinn et al, 2016; Ramirez et al, 2018). In this study, we discovered that the Notch pathway activity is elevated in fibroblasts of human diabetic ulcers and diabetic murine wounds, but not in normal murine acute wounds and non-diabetic ischemic wounds. Furthermore, we uncovered the Notch1 pathway as an important molecular ...
β-Secretase (BACE) is a membrane-bound aspartyl protease that cleaves the amyloid precursor protein and is consequently an excellent target for anti-amyloid therapy in the treatment of Alzheimers disease. Finding inhibitors of β-secretase is one of the major goals of Alzheimers disease drug development. PromoKines β-Secretase Fluorometric Assay Kit provides a convenient, non-radioactive system for detecting β-Secretase activity in biological samples. The kit provides active β-Secretase as positive control, β-Secretase inhibitor as negative control, optimized peptide substrate (conjugated to two reporter molecules), and buffers for convenient measurement of β-Secretase activity in mammalian samples. β-Secretase inhibitors are also available separately. ...
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DAPT (GSI-IX) is a γ-secretase inhibitor with IC50 values of 115 and 200 nM for total Aβ and Aβ42 respectively. Buy Gamma-secretase inhibitor DAPT (GSI-IX) from AbMole BioScience.
Location, location, location. Among those who suggest this real estate mantra deserves higher priority in Alzheimer disease drug design are scientists in Germany who have created a membrane-tethered version of a β-secretase inhibitor. In todays issue of Science, the researchers report that this modified inhibitor reaches endosomes, the subcellular compartments containing active β-secretase, and greatly outperforms free inhibitor at blocking the enzymes activity in cultured cells and in fruit fly and mouse models. While these findings represent a proof of principle for the membrane-anchoring approach, the new strategy faces tough hurdles en route to practical drug therapy.. BACE1, the transmembrane protein that confers β-secretase activity, has become a prime AD drug target in large part because it plays a key role in generating Aβ peptide, whose accumulation in plaques represents a hallmark feature of AD. Partnering with a complex of proteins known as γ-secretase, BACE1 catalyzes the ...
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my $x = $1; $x =~ [email protected]@@gs; if ($x && !($x =~ [email protected]^(Photos,,,,)@i)) { $title .= + $x; } %xegsi; $title =~ s/:\s+/ + /gsi; # split at : or at + my @xrefs = (); my %dups = (); foreach my $act (split (/\s*\+\s*/, $title)) { $act =~ s/,.*$//gsi; # truncate at comma $act =~ s/\s+20\d\d\b//gsi; # take off year $act =~ s/[^a-z\d]*$//gsi; # lose trailing non-alpha $act =~ s/^The\s*//gsi; next if ($act =~ m/anniversary/i); $act = lc($act); push @xrefs, $act unless ($dups{$act}); $dups{$act} = 1; } return ($otitle, @xrefs); } # Populate the %xrefs table with the contents of every gallery: # load each index and parse each title to construct the table. # sub load_xrefs($) { my ($dir) = @_; opendir (my $gdir, $dir) ,, error ($dir: $!); my @gfiles = sort { $b cmp $a } (readdir ($gdir)); closedir $gdir; $dir .= / unless ($dir =~ [email protected]/[email protected]); $dir = if $dir eq ./; print STDERR $progname: scanning xrefs in $dir\n if ($verbose > 2); foreach my $year (@gfiles) { next unless ($year =~ ...
A previous study by our group demonstrated that the expression levels of Notch 1 and Jagged 1 in bladder cancer cells was significantly lower compared with those in normal bladder mucosa, while the expression levels of Notch 1 and Jagged 1 in invasive bladder cancer were higher compared with those in superficial bladder cancer. The present study investigated the effect of the Notch signaling pathway on the drug resistance and invasiveness of bladder cancer cells. It was demonstrated that complete inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway induced significant morphological changes and inhibited cell proliferation and migration ( ...
9.B.47 The γ-Secretase (γ-Secretase) Family. γ-secretase is an unusual membrane-embedded protease, which cleaves the transmembrane domains (TMSs) of type I membrane proteins, including amyloid-beta precursor protein and Notch receptor. A hydrophilic pore is formed by TMS6 and TMS7 of presenilin 1 (PS1), the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase. TMS8, TMS9 and the C-terminus of PS1, which encompass the conserved PAL motif and the hydrophobic C-terminal tip, are critical for the catalytic activity and the formation of the γ-secretase complex. The amino acid residues around the PAL motif and the extracellular/luminal portion of TMS9 are highly water accessible and located in proximity to the catalytic pore (Sato et al., 2008). Furthermore, the region starting from the luminal end of TMS9 toward the C terminus forms an amphipathic alpha-helix-like structure that extends along the interface between the membrane and the extracellular milieu. Competition analysis using γ-secretase inhibitors revealed ...
The report generally describes 1-((quinolin-2-yl)methyl)piperidin-4-one, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 1-((Quinolin-2-yl)methyl)piperidin-4-one
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... can be produced from low cost ingredients by heating ethylene glycol or ethylene oxide with hydrogen sulfide. ... 2008). "Product Subclass 2: Cyclic Dialkyl Sulfones and Derivatives". Category 5, Compounds with One Saturated Carbon ... 2004). "Product Subclass 8: Aluminum Oxide (Alumina)". Category 1, Organometallics. doi:10.1055/sos-SD-007-00192. ISBN ...
3.0.CO;2-A. Y. Shvo; E.D. Kaufman (1972). "Configurational and conformational analysis of cyclic amine oxides". Tetrahedron. 28 ... A Curtin-Hammett scenario was invoked to explain selectivity in the syntheses of kapakahines B and F, two cyclic peptides ... a cyclic hexapeptide with an .alpha.-carboline ring system from the marine sponge Cribrochalina olemda". Journal of the ...
Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP in cell signaling and drug development". The New England Journal of Medicine. 355 (19): 2003-11. ... In normal conditions, the vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase produces nitric oxide from L-arginine in the presence of ... This nitric oxide diffuses into neighboring cells (including vascular smooth muscle cells and platelets), where it increases ... Nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase signaling also leads to anti-inflammatory effects. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), ...
Soluble guanylyl cyclase is recognized as the most sensitive physiologic receptor for nitric oxide. Binding of nitric oxide to ... Adenylyl cyclase Cyclic guanosine monophosphate Guanylyl cyclase activator (protein) Martin, Emil; Berka, Vladimir; Tsai, Ah‐ ... Soluble guanylate cyclase contains a molecule of heme, and is activated primarily by the binding of nitric oxide (NO) to that ... Because RETGC-1 produces cGMP, which keeps cyclic nucleotide-gated channels open allowing the influx of calcium, this mutation ...
Substituted 2-Bromopyridine-N-oxides and Their Conversion to Cyclic Thiohydroxamic Acids". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72 (10): 4362-4364 ... Another approach involves treating the same starting N-oxide with thiourea to afford pyridyl-2-isothiouronium chloride N-oxide ... Oxidation to the N-oxide can then be undertaken. Pyrithione is found as a natural product in the Allium stipitatum plant, an ... The preparation of pyrithione was first reported in 1950 by Shaw and was prepared by reaction of 2-chloropyridine N-oxide with ...
It is a cyclic tertiary amine. It is used as a base catalyst for generation of polyurethanes and other reactions. It is ... It is the precursor to N-methylmorpholine N-oxide, a commercially important oxidant. David Evans Research Group Archived 2012- ...
For example, cyclic chiral tertiary phosphine oxides can be reduced to cyclic tertiary phosphines. Phenylsilane can also be ... 4 Phenylsilane can be used to reduce tertiary phosphine oxides to the corresponding tertiary phosphine. P(CH3)3O + PhSiH3 --> P ...
Cyclic SiS2 has been reported to exist in the gas phase. The phase diagram of silicon with selenium has two phases: SiSe2 and ... A less common oxide is silicon monoxide that can be found in outer space. Unconfirmed reports exist for nonequilibrium Si2O, ... Cyclic SiS2: A New Perspective on the Walsh Rules. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 51: 3695-3698. doi:10.1002/anie.201108982 Se-Si ( ...
The first nitric oxide (NO) independent, haem-dependent sGC stimulator, YC-1, a synthetic benzylindazole derivative, was ... NO binds to soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and mediates the synthesis of the secondary messenger cyclic guanosine ... Giaid A, Saleh D (July 1995). "Reduced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the lungs of patients with pulmonary ... In healthy individuals nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signalling molecule on vascular smooth muscle cells to induce vasodilation. ...
"Cyclic stretch induces PlGF expression in bronchial airway epithelial cells via nitric oxide release". American Journal of ...
Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK1 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I". Bredt DS, Ferris CD, Snyder SH (1992). "Nitric oxide ... Komeima K, Hayashi Y, Naito Y, Watanabe Y (2000). "Inhibition of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calcium/ calmodulin- ... 1999). "Regulation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calmodulin kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (29): 20597-602. doi:10.1074/ ...
"Nitric Oxide Regulation of Cyclic di-GMP Synthesis and Hydrolysis inShewanella woodyi". Biochemistry. 51 (10): 2087-2099. doi: ...
Calcium oxide is friable, that is, quite brittle. In fluidised beds, the calcium oxide particles can break apart upon collision ... Sun, P; Grace, JR; Lim, CJ; Anthony, EJ (2007). "The effect of CaO sintering on cyclic CO 2 capture in energy systems". AIChE ... Calcium oxide is often referred to as the sorbent. Calcium looping is being developed as it is a more efficient, less toxic ... This calcium oxide could be sourced from other point sources of CO2 such as power stations, but most effort has been focussed ...
"Mechanism of platelet inhibition by nitric oxide: In vivo phosphorylation of thromboxane by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase ... inhibition of cyclic AMP breakdown by cyclic GMP". Molecular Pharmacology. 37 (5): 671-681. Siess, Wolfgang; Eduardo, Lapetina ... Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates cGMP production and therefore the activation cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G kinase). This kinase ... cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, phosphorylate messengers via protein kinase A (PKA). These signaling elements include ...
Murad, Ferid (1994). "The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signal transduction system for intracellular and intercellular communication ... "Nitric oxide-generating vasodilators inhibit mitogenesis and proliferation of BALB/C 3T3 fibroblasts by a cyclic GMP- ... "New Nitric Oxide-Converting Enzymes Discovered". Mary Ann Liebert Inc. 2018-01-19. Seth, P; Hsieh, PN; Jamal, S ... He is known for his discovery of protein S-nitrosylation, the addition of a nitric oxide (NO) group to cysteine residues in ...
Thus tetrafluoroethyene oxide and hexafluoropropylene oxide are two of the simplest cyclic perfluoroethers. It is a precursor ... Krytox is a grease generated by the polymerization of hexafluoropropylene oxide. Their chemical formula is F−(CF(CF3)−CF2−O)n− ... More interesting and more useful are the cyclic ethers, especially, the epoxides. ...
... but with a different mechanism PDE5 inhibitors act further downstream in the nitric oxide signalling pathway, reducing cyclic ... Cinaciguat activates the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) which is a receptor for nitric oxide. This increases biosynthesis of ... cyclic GMP, resulting in vasodilation. Riociguat, another drug stimulating sGC, ...
Gupta, Om Dutt; Kirchmeier, Robert L.; Shreeve, Jean'ne M. (1990). "Reactions of Trifluoroamine Oxide: A Route to Acyclic and ... Cyclic Fluororamines, and N-Nitrosoamines". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 112: 2383. doi:10.1021/ja00162a045. ...
April 23, 1965 US3424954A Silicon oxide tunnel diode structure and method of making same. September 21, 1966 US3475234A Method ... March 27, 1967 US3669669A Cyclic polyisoprene photoresist compositions. October 28, 1970 US4053942A Device for removing low ... Wold, Aaron; Dwight, Kirby (1993). Solid State Chemistry: Synthesis, Structure, and Properties of Selected Oxides and Sulfides ...
NOCl converts some cyclic amines to the alkenes. For example, aziridine reacts with NOCl to give ethene, nitrous oxide and ... Malinovskii, M. S.; Medyantseva, N. M. (1953). "Olefin Oxides. IX. Condensation of Olefin Oxides with Nitrosyl Chloride". ... The oxide is converted to caprolactam, a precursor to Nylon-6. Nitrosyl chloride is very toxic and irritating to the lungs, ... In the case of propylene oxide, the addition proceeds with high regiochemistry: It converts amides to N-nitroso derivatives. ...
It is a cyclic trimer of ethylene oxide which is specific for the lithium cation. 1,4-Dioxane v t e. ...
"An Infrared Spectroscopic Study of the Isomerization and Hydrogenation of Cyclic Olefins Over Zinc Oxide". He conducted his ... AN INFRARED-SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE ISOMERIZATION AND HYDROGENATION OF CYCLIC OLEFINS OVER ZINC-OXIDE. Carnegie Mellon ...
Activation of a nitric oxide-cGMP pathway may be responsible for some of the behavioral effects of paraxanthine that differ ... Essayan DM (November 2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 108 (5): ... Ferré, Sergi; Orrú, Marco; Guitart, Xavier (2013). "Paraxanthine: Connecting Caffeine to Nitric Oxide Neurotransmission". ... activity and is hypothesized to increase glutamate and dopamine release by potentiating nitric oxide signaling. ...
Small and medium cyclic substrates are constrained in the s-cis conformation. When the α-diazo ketone is in the s-cis ... In this last case, the reaction is sensitive to the transition metal; silver (I) oxide or other Ag(I) catalysts work well and ... Another common use is in ring-contraction methods; if the α-diazo ketone is cyclic, the Wolff rearrangement results in a ring- ... However, for all substrates except cyclic α-diazo ketones that exist solely in the s-cis conformation, products come from a ...
Common solvents are organic carbonates (cyclic, straight chain), sulfones, imides, polymers (polyethylene oxide) and ... Graphene oxide coating over sulfur is claimed to solve the cycle durability problem. Graphene oxide high surface area, chemical ... Examples include lithium cobalt oxide, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide NMC, or lithium iron phosphate olivine which can ... Vanadium oxides have been a common class of cathodes to study due to their high capacity, ease of synthesis, and ...
Stimulation by AM of its receptor increases production of both cyclic AMP (cAMP) and nitric oxide. Before the discovery of the ...
Palmer RM, Ferrige AG, Moncada S (1987). "Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived ... Resting platelets maintain active calcium efflux via a cyclic AMP-activated calcium pump. Intracellular calcium concentration ... Thrombus formation on an intact endothelium is prevented by nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and CD39. Endothelial cells are ... The intact endothelial lining inhibits platelet activation by producing nitric oxide, endothelial-ADPase, and PGI2 ( ...
They are also used for the oxidation of amines and thioethers to amine oxides and sulfoxides. The laboratory applications of ... Another common reaction is conversion of cyclic ketones to the ring-expanded esters using peracids in a Baeyer-Villiger ... RCO2H This method is popular for converting cyclic anhydrides to the corresponding monoperoxyacids, for example ...
... a cyclic carbonate ester Trimethylene carbonate, another cyclic carbonate ester Poly(propylene carbonate) Poly(bisphenol A ... Many industrial production pathways for carbonates are not green because they rely on phosgene or propylene oxide. In Grignard ... Annual production of cyclic carbonates was estimated at 100,000 tonnes per year in 2010. Industrially, ethylene and propylene ... Cyclic carbonates are susceptible to polymerization. Perez, Serge; Scaringe, Raymond P. (1987). "Crystalline features of 4,4'- ...
For the linear chains, the end phosphorus groups share one oxide and the others phosphorus centres share two oxide centres. The ... Polyphosphates can adopt linear or a cyclic ring structures. In biology, the polyphosphate esters ADP and ATP are involved in ... In the case of the cyclic trimer each tetrahedron shares two vertices with adjacent tetrahedra. Sharing of three corners is ... Structure of triphosphoric acid Polyphosphoric acid Cyclic trimetaphosphate Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) The structure of ...
... and a cyclic worsening of the affected person's anxiety about their appearance.[61] Rare complications from acne or its ... Particles that release nitric oxide into the skin to decrease skin inflammation caused by C. acnes and the immune system have ...
Kobayashi, Shiro; Uyama, Hiroshi (15 January 2002). "Polymerization of cyclic imino ethers: From its discovery to the present ... owing to the large amounts of triphenylphosphine oxide produced, the method is not ideal for large-scale reactions. The use of ...
... the n-oxide metabolites of moclobemide and moclobemide itself are the compounds that produce most of the inhibition of MAO-A; ... Long-term treatment with moclobemide leads to an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) binding to cAMP-dependent ... The main metabolites are the N-oxide Ro 12-5637 formed via morpholine N-oxidation and lactam derivative Ro 12-8095 formed via ...
The oxides are usually harder than the underlying metal, so wear accelerates as the harder particles abrade the metal surfaces ... Surface fatigue is a process in which the surface of a material is weakened by cyclic loading, which is one type of general ... Fatigue wear is produced when the wear particles are detached by cyclic crack growth of microcracks on the surface. These ... found on each surface affect the severity of how fragments of oxides are pulled off and added to the other surface, partly due ...
The Sutherland group's 2009 paper also highlighted the possibility for the photo-sanitization of the pyrimidine-2',3'-cyclic ... Iron(II) oxide. *Magnesium monohydride cation. *Methylidyne radical. *Nitric oxide. *Nitrogen (molecular) ... cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides directly, which are known to be able to polymerise into RNA.[22] Organic chemist Donna Blackmond ...
Oxides. Main article: Oxide minerals. Oxide minerals are divided into three categories: simple oxides, hydroxides, and multiple ... Cyclic twins are caused by repeated twinning around a rotation axis. This type of twinning occurs around three, four, five, six ... Oxides with a 2:1 ratio include cuprite (Cu2O) and water ice. Corundum group minerals have a 2:3 ratio, and includes minerals ... Simple oxides are characterized by O2− as the main anion and primarily ionic bonding. They can be further subdivided by the ...
cellular response to organic cyclic compound. • positive regulation of fever generation. • extracellular matrix organization. • ... positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process. • negative regulation of interleukin-6 production. • protein import ...
Exfoliation (or onion skin weathering) is the gradual removing of spall due to the cyclic increase and decrease in the ... the material expands so strongly upon exposure to air that a fine layer of oxide is forcibly expelled from the surface. A ...
... is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules.[2] Formally, it is a derivative of 1,3,5-trioxane. The ...
Organic nitrates should not be taken with PDE5 inhibitors (i.e. sildenafil) since both NO and PDE5 inhibitors increase cyclic ... Normally endothelial cells release prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO) which induce relaxation of the smooth muscle cells, and ... These drugs work by increasing nitric oxide levels in the blood and inducing coronary vasodilation which will allow for more ... The nitric oxide increase in the blood resulting from these drugs also causes dilation of systemic veins which in turn causes a ...
... oxidesEdit. Nitrile oxides have the general structure R−CNO. R. −. C. ≡. N. ⊕. −. O. ⊖. {\displaystyle {\ce {R-C{\equiv ... Fleming, Fraser F.; Zhang, Zhiyu (24 January 2005). "Cyclic nitriles: tactical advantages in synthesis". Tetrahedron. 61 (4): ... The process is catalysed by metal oxides and is assumed to proceed via the imine. ...
... and nitric oxide. Nitric oxide has received a great deal of attention in the past, but has recently been superseded by adhesion ... Lei, S; Jackson, MF; Jia, Z; Roder, J; Bai, D; Orser, BA; MacDonald, JF (Jun 2000). "Cyclic GMP-dependent feedback inhibition ... Endocannabinoids like anandamide are known to act as retrograde messengers,[6][7][8] as is nitric oxide.[9][10] ... Garthwaite, J (Feb 1991). "Glutamate, nitric oxide and cell-cell signalling in the nervous system". Trends in Neurosciences. 14 ...
Cyclic amines-Cyclic amines are either secondary or tertiary amines. Examples of cyclic amines include the 3-membered ring ... N-methylpiperidine and N-phenylpiperidine are examples of cyclic tertiary amines.. It is also possible to have four organic ... For chiral tertiary amines, NRR′R″ can only be resolved when the R, R′, and R″ groups are constrained in cyclic structures such ... In the case of formaldehyde (R′ = H), these products typically exist as cyclic trimers. ...
The next steps involve extension-based sequencing with cyclic washes of the flow cell with fluorescently labeled nucleotides ( ... solid-state nanopore sequencing utilizes synthetic materials such as silicon nitride and aluminum oxide and it is preferred for ...
... is a colorless liquid aliphatic hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic monoterpene, and is the major component in the oil ... and limonene oxide.[6][7] With sulfur, it undergoes dehydrogenation to p-cymene.[8] ...
Water-soluble derivatives of C60 were discovered to exert an inhibition on the three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, with ... Three reversible oxidation processes have been observed by using cyclic voltammetry with ultra-dry methylene chloride and a ... Alexandru D.P. Papoiu: Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by water-soluble derivatives of C60. PhD dissertation, Rutgers ...
Iron (IV) oxide from the iron-peroxypterin intermediate is selectively attacked by a double bond to give a carbocation at the ... Some of the metabolites formed via the reaction of melatonin with a free radical include cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin, N1-acetyl- ... Melatonin metabolites generated from redox reactions include cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine ...
Hong C. Shen summarized homogeneous reactions forming cyclic compounds into 4 main categories: heteroatom nucleophilic addition ... cycloaddition reactions with early example the cycloaddition of an nitrile oxide with an alkyne. Other reactions are the use of ... "Intermolecular Hydroamination of Ethylene and 1-Alkenes with Cyclic Ureas Catalyzed by Achiral and Chiral Gold(I) Complexes". ...
ethylene oxide - via ethylene oxidation *ethylene glycol - via ethylene oxide hydration *engine coolant - ethylene glycol, ... cyclohexane - a 6-carbon aliphatic cyclic hydrocarbon sometimes used as a non-polar solvent *adipic acid - a 6-carbon di ... propylene oxide [13] *polyether polyol - used in the production of polyurethanes. *propylene glycol - used in engine coolant [ ... Kinetic studies of propane oxidation on Mo and V based mixed oxide catalysts. 2011.. ...
The proper use of the symbol is debated: some publications use it to any cyclic π system, while others use it only for those π ... Rhodium-platinum oxide, a catalyst used to hydrogenate aromatic compounds.. ReferencesEdit. *^ HighBeam Encyclopedia: aromatic ... A reaction that forms an arene compound from an unsaturated or partially unsaturated cyclic precursor is simply called ...
response to organic cyclic compound. • negative regulation of gastric acid secretion. • positive regulation of prostaglandin ... Nitric oxide (NO); Candidates: Acetaldehyde. *Ammonia (NH3). *Carbonyl sulfide (COS). *Nitrous oxide (N2O) ... non-cyclic) dithiol nonapeptide called oxytoceine.[120] It has been theorized that oxytoceine may act as a free radical ...
Roskoski R, Roskoski LM (Jan 1987). "Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells by the cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP second ... Hydroxylation of Ring-Deuterated Phenylalanines by Tyrosine Hydroxylase Provide Evidence against Partitioning of an Arene Oxide ... response to organic cyclic compound. • eating behavior. • cellular response to growth factor stimulus. • heart morphogenesis. • ... "Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation" ...
... can also be generated in aprotic solvents by cyclic voltammetry. Superoxide salts also decompose in the solid state ... Oxide, O2−. *Dioxygenyl, O+. 2. *Antimycin A - used in fishery management, this compound produces large quantities of this free ...
Since mannitol is found in a wide variety of natural products, including almost all plants, it can be directly extracted from natural products, rather than chemical or biological syntheses. In fact, in China, isolation from seaweed is the most common form of mannitol production.[18] Mannitol concentrations of plant exudates can range from 20% in seaweeds to 90% in the plane tree. It is a constituent of saw palmetto (Serenoa).[25] Traditionally, mannitol is extracted by the Soxhlet extraction, using ethanol, water, and methanol to steam and then hydrolysis of the crude material. The mannitol is then recrystallized from the extract, generally resulting in yields of about 18% of the original natural product. Another method of extraction is using supercritical and subcritical fluids. These fluids are at such a stage that no difference exists between the liquid and gas stages, so are more diffusive than normal fluids. This is considered to make them much more effective mass transfer agents than ...
... oxide (RuO2), iridium(IV) oxide (IrO2), cobalt oxides (including nickel-doped Co3O4), manganese oxide (including layered MnO2 ( ... A current goal is to obtain an NADPH-inspired catalyst capable of recreating the natural cyclic process. Utilizing light, ... Oxides are easier to obtain than molecular catalysts, especially those from relatively abundant transition metals (cobalt and ... Many metal oxides have been found to have water oxidation catalytic activity, including ruthenium(IV) ...
... decreases neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity and ischemia-evoked nitric oxide (NO) production. 4-PPBP ... 4-PPBP protects neurons using a mechanism that activates the transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate response ... "Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein phosphorylation and neuroprotection by 4-phenyl-1-(4- ... "Sigma receptor ligand 4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl)-piperidine modulates neuronal nitric oxide synthase/postsynaptic density-95 ...
Observations of the Ca lines in stars of similar age to the Sun even show cyclic variations reminiscent of the 11 year solar ... When solar energetic particles reach the Earth's atmosphere they cause ionisation that creates nitric oxide (NO) and other ...
Rhodium-platinum oxide, a catalyst used to hydrogenate aromatic compounds.. References[edit]. *^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical ... The proper use of the symbol is debated; it is used to describe any cyclic π system in some publications, or only those π ... A reaction that forms an arene compound from an unsaturated or partially unsaturated cyclic precursor is simply called an ...
Moreover, cR10, a cyclic poly-arginine CPP, enabled the endocytose independent transduction of antigen binding proteins through ... Typical examples are Gd3+ low-molecular-weight chelates, and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO). In vivo administration of ... "Translocation Thermodynamics of Linear and Cyclic Nonaarginine into Model DPPC Bilayer via Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics ...
... in the B cyclic hydrocarbon ring.[27][28] Like many steroid hormones, it is hydrophobic. The sulfated derivative, pregnenolone ... it consists of four interconnected cyclic hydrocarbons.[27][28] The compound contains ketone and hydroxyl functional groups, ...
Cellular signaling with nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate.. Martin E1, Davis K, Bian K, Lee YC, Murad F. ... The understanding of the formation and biological actions of nitric oxide (NO) has grown extensively during the past two ... With the discoveries of the biological effects of NO and nitrovasodilators on cyclic guanosine monophosphate, with the ...
"Retraction: Regulation of FoxO1 Transcription Factor by Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP in Cultured Rat Granulosa Cells," ... Retraction: Regulation of FoxO1 Transcription Factor by Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP in Cultured Rat Granulosa Cells. ... "Retraction: Regulation of FoxO1 Transcription Factor by Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP in Cultured Rat Granulosa Cells," ...
The role of nitric oxide in the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein in the ... We investigated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive ...
Enantioselective addition of cyclic enol silyl ethers to 2-alkenoyl-pyridine-N-oxides catalysed by Cu(II)-bis(oxazoline) ... Asymmetric reactions involving (E)-3-aryl-1-(pyridin-2-yl-N-oxide)prop-2-en-1-ones and cyclic enol silyl ethers show good ...
Is Measurement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in Plasma or Urine Suitable for Assessing In Vivo Nitric Oxide Production?. ... Is Measurement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in Plasma or Urine Suitable for Assessing In Vivo Nitric Oxide Production? ... Is Measurement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in Plasma or Urine Suitable for Assessing In Vivo Nitric Oxide Production? ... Is Measurement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in Plasma or Urine Suitable for Assessing In Vivo Nitric Oxide Production? ...
Electrochemical analysis of nanostructured iron oxides using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy ... Electrochemical analysis of nanostructured iron oxides using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy ... Electrochemical analysis of nanostructured iron oxides using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy ... Electrochemical analysis of nanostructured iron oxides using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy. ...
... namely cyclic GMP, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and cyclic GMP-binding protein kinases type I (cGKI alpha, cGKI ... Hence, the significance of the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP signaling in the control of the human prostate requires further ... Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) is co-localized with key proteins of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP signaling in the human ... less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe findings give hints that the cyclic GMP- and cyclic AMP-dependent signal ...
Adrenoceptor agonist xylazine induces peripheral antinociceptive effect by activation of the L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic GMP ... The L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of action for peripheral antinociception ... Involvement of the L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in peripheral antinociception induced by N- ... Ketamine activates the L-arginine/Nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway to induce peripheral antinociception in ...
Involvement of NMDA receptors and L-arginine-nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathwa were found in PRIME PubMed. ... In this study we investigated the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic ... In this study we investigated the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic ... TY - JOUR T1 - Antidepressant-like effect of folic acid: Involvement of NMDA receptors and L-arginine-nitric oxide-cyclic ...
Trazodone is a Potent Agonist at 5-HT2C Receptors Mediating Inhibition of the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate/Nitric Oxide/Cyclic GMP ... Trazodone is a Potent Agonist at 5-HT2C Receptors Mediating Inhibition of the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate/Nitric Oxide/Cyclic GMP ... Trazodone is a Potent Agonist at 5-HT2C Receptors Mediating Inhibition of the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate/Nitric Oxide/Cyclic GMP ... Trazodone is a Potent Agonist at 5-HT2C Receptors Mediating Inhibition of the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate/Nitric Oxide/Cyclic GMP ...
nitric oxide. cGMP. cyclic guanylate monophosphate. db cCMP. dibutyryl cyclic cytidine monophosphate. SNAP. s-nitrosos-N-acetyl ... The Role of Cyclic Guanylate Monophosphate in Nitric Oxide-Induced Injury to Rat Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells. B. L. ... The Role of Cyclic Guanylate Monophosphate in Nitric Oxide-Induced Injury to Rat Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells. B. L. ... The Role of Cyclic Guanylate Monophosphate in Nitric Oxide-Induced Injury to Rat Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells. B. L. ...
Durner J, Wendehenne D, Klessig D (1998) Defense gene induction in tobacco by nitric oxide, cyclic GMP and cyclic ADP-ribose. ... Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP Are Messengers in the Indole Acetic Acid-Induced Adventitious Rooting Process. Gabriela Carolina ... Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP Are Messengers in the Indole Acetic Acid-Induced Adventitious Rooting Process ... Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP Are Messengers in the Indole Acetic Acid-Induced Adventitious Rooting Process ...
AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ... AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ... AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ... AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ...
... and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in relation to nitric oxide synthase isoforms and ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-phosphodiesterase isoenzymes in human vagina: Relation to ... Nitric oxide and VIP, mediating biologic signals through cGMP and cAMP, have been assumed to be involved in the control of ... OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the distribution of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) ...
Effect of cyclic GMP-increasing agents nitric oxide and C-type natriuretic peptide on bovine chromaffin cell function: ... Effect of cyclic GMP-increasing agents nitric oxide and C-type natriuretic peptide on bovine chromaffin cell function: ... Effect of cyclic GMP-increasing agents nitric oxide and C-type natriuretic peptide on bovine chromaffin cell function: ... Effect of cyclic GMP-increasing agents nitric oxide and C-type natriuretic peptide on bovine chromaffin cell function: ...
Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ...
Intravenous Anesthetics Inhibit Nonadrenergic Noncholinergic Lower Esophageal Sphincter Relaxation via Nitric Oxide-Cyclic ... Intravenous Anesthetics Inhibit Nonadrenergic Noncholinergic Lower Esophageal Sphincter Relaxation via Nitric Oxide-Cyclic ... Intravenous Anesthetics Inhibit Nonadrenergic Noncholinergic Lower Esophageal Sphincter Relaxation via Nitric Oxide-Cyclic ... Nitric Oxide-Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Pathway Modulation in Rabbits. Anesthesiology 2001;95(1):176-183. ...
Cyclic GMP, Glucose, Humans, Insulin, Male, Middle Aged, Muscle, Skeletal, Nitric Oxide, Nitric Oxide Donors, Phosphorylation, ... Nitric oxide increases cyclic GMP levels, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)alpha1-specific activity and glucose transport in ... Nitric oxide increases cyclic GMP levels, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)alpha1-specific activity and glucose transport in ... Nitric oxide increases cyclic GMP levels, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)alpha1-specific activity and glucose transport in ...
Article: Mapping Cyclic Change of Regional Myocardial Blood Volume Using Steady-State Susceptibility Effect of Iron Oxide ... Mapping Cyclic Change of Regional Myocardial Blood Volume Using Steady-State Susceptibility Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles ... Mapping Cyclic Change of Regional Myocardial Blood Volume Using Steady-State Susceptibility Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles ... and post-monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticle (MION) gradient echo (GE) cine images. Cyclic changes of MBV in normal mice ...
... by increasing nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity in a calcium- and kinase-dependent manner. Here we show that normal and GH(3 ... Receptor-controlled phosphorylation of alpha 1 soluble guanylyl cyclase enhances nitric oxide-dependent cyclic guanosine 5- ... The Role of Cyclic Nucleotides in Pituitary Lactotroph Functions. *Marek Kucka, Ivana Bjelobaba, Melanija Tomić, Stanko S. ... Receptor-controlled phosphorylation of alpha 1 soluble guanylyl cyclase enhances nitric oxide-dependent cyclic guanosine 5- ...
Context-dependent adsorption behavior of cyclic and linear peptides on metal oxide surfaces. ... Context-dependent adsorption behavior of cyclic and linear peptides on metal oxide surfaces. Langmuir 25 (3) : 1588-1593. ... A cyclic peptide STB 1 (-CHKKPSKSC-) was previously identified to electrostatically bind to TiO 2 and SiO 2. In the present ... Besides the amino acid composition, peptides structure (e.g., cyclic structure constrained by disulfide bond) is believed to ...
This countervailing negative chronotropic nitric oxide-cyclic GMP (NO-cGMP) significantly correlated with the increase on NOS ... On the other hand, the ZD 7114 activity on frequency was enhanced by the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and soluble ... 7114 and ICI 215001 stimulated in a dose-dependent manner the contraction frequency that significantly correlated with cyclic ... Role of nitric oxide/cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP in beta3 adrenoceptor-chronotropic response.. @article{SterinBorda2006RoleON, ...
Mesh term Cyclic N-Oxides. Browse to parent terms:. Heterocyclic Oxides. Description. Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen ... 4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide. Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl. Search for this term in our Faculty Database ... is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.. Browse to child terms:. ...
Cyclic tensile stress exerts antiinflammatory actions on chondrocytes by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase. Journal of ... Cyclic tensile stress exerts antiinflammatory actions on chondrocytes by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase. In: ... Cyclic tensile stress exerts antiinflammatory actions on chondrocytes by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase. / Gassner ... title = "Cyclic tensile stress exerts antiinflammatory actions on chondrocytes by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase", ...
This has profound consequences for the regulation of local cyclic nucleotide and hence cardiac β-adrenergic signaling. ... We therefore tested the hypothesis that PMCA4 has a key structural role in tethering neuronal nitric-oxide synthase to a highly ... Surprisingly, in PMCA4(-/-), over 36% of membrane-associated neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) protein and activity was ... is a regulator of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, the physiological consequence of this regulation is unclear. ...
Cyclic voltammetric measurement and testing of xanthine biosensor. The cyclic voltammogram (CV) of XOD/CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT/Au ... 7 Cyclic voltammograms of: (a) bare Au electrode, (b) CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT/Au electrode, (c) XOD/CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT/Au electrode in pH ... The cyclic voltammogram of the CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT/Au electrode identified an oxidation peak at −290 mV (curve b). MWCNT is used as ... Cyclic voltammetry response of XOD/CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT modified Au electrode. A method is described for the construction of an ...
dibutyrylguanosine 5′,5′-cyclic monophosphate. cGMP. cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Δ. TLmaxTLmax (control preparations)-TLmax ... inducible nitric oxide synthase. IR. immunoreactivity. Lmax. maximal light emission NO nitric oxide NOS nitric oxide synthase ... endothelial nitric oxide synthase. eNOS-LI IR. endothelial nitric oxide synthase-like immunoreactivity. iNOS. ... NOS-LI IR nitric oxide synthase like immunoreactivity nNOS neuronal nitric oxide synthase nNOS-LI IR neuronal nitric oxide ...
Effect of Nb Content on Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of As-Cast Ti-1100 Alloys *Yingjun Song ... Structures of stable Ti-rich Ti-oxides at high pressures: a Ti2O in the P-3m1 structure; b Ti2O in the Cmcm structure; c Ti3O ... Predicting the structure and stability of titanium oxide electrides. *Xin Zhong ORCID:,2,3. , ... Zhong, X., Xu, M., Yang, L. et al. Predicting the structure and stability of titanium oxide electrides. npj Comput Mater 4, 70 ...
The Neuroanatomy of Nitric Oxide-Cyclic GMP Signaling in the Locust: Functional Implications for Sensory Systems Recent studies ... have investigated the source and target neurons for the diffusible neuronal messenger molecule nitric oxide (NO) in the nervous ...
Cyclic Voltammetry. The cyclic voltammogram presented in Fig. ​Fig.22 shows the surface processes occurring on alloy C22 in ... For the oxide film formed at −0.1 V, the content of Cr-oxide is higher in the outer layer of the film, which was ~51% formed in ... However, for the oxide films formed at −0.5 and 0.26 V, this dual-layered structure was not observed. And the Ni-oxides were ... The depth profile for the oxide films on C22 by AES (not shown here) showed more Cr-oxide was formed in 0.1 M KOH, which is ...
  • In their recently published article on nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease Böger et al 1 based their conclusions among others on urinary excretion of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). (
  • In our study we have examined the importance of cyclic guanylate monophosphate (cGMP) in NO-mediated intestinal cellular damage. (
  • Incubation of cells with the nitric oxide donors, S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (10-1000 μM) produced a concentration-dependent increase in cell injury and an increase in cellular cGMP formation as determined by immunoassay. (
  • These findings indicate that cGMP mediates intestinal cell injury in response to high levels of nitric oxide as produced by the nitric oxide donors, SNAP and SNP. (
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the distribution of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in relation to nitric oxide synthase isoforms and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in specimens of the human vagina. (
  • Nitric oxide and VIP, mediating biologic signals through cGMP and cAMP, have been assumed to be involved in the control of vaginal smooth muscle. (
  • Both sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) generator, and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) have been found to raise cGMP levels in bovine chromaffin cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. (
  • We investigated the effect of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp isomer, on inhibition by SNP or CNP. (
  • In this report IL-1 beta is shown to induce the accumulation of cyclic GMP (cGMP) in a time-dependent fashion that mimics the time-dependent inhibition of insulin secretion by IL-1 beta. (
  • The accumulation of cGMP is dependent on nitric oxide synthase activity, since NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) prevents IL-1 beta-induced cGMP accumulation. (
  • The formation of cGMP does not appear to mediate the inhibitory effects of IL-1 beta on insulin secretion since a concentration of cycloheximide (1 microM) that blocks IL-1 beta-induced inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and nitric oxide formation does not prevent cGMP accumulation, thus dissociating the two events. (
  • Second, as the neurotransmitters mediating NANC LES relaxation in other animals have been demonstrated as NO or NO-related substances, 2,3 this study was designed to test the hypothesis that the intravenous anesthetics thiopental, ketamine, and midazolam affect NANC transmission by the modulation of the NO-3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway, using isometric tension recording and the radioimmunoassay of cGMP. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO), mediating the NANC relaxation, is released from the myenteric plexus and delivered into smooth muscle cells, which results in the activation of guanylate cyclase and the accumulation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). (
  • We hypothesised that pharmacological treatment of human skeletal muscle with N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazino)-1,2-ethylenediamine (spermine NONOate) would increase intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels and promote glucose transport.METHODS: Skeletal muscle strips were prepared from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained from seven healthy men. (
  • It is generally accepted that G protein-coupled receptors stimulate soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)-mediated cGMP production indirectly, by increasing nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity in a calcium- and kinase-dependent manner. (
  • Testosterone-induced modulation of nitric oxide-cGMP signaling pathway and androgenesis in the rat Leydig cells. (
  • Surprisingly, in PMCA4(-/-), over 36% of membrane-associated neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) protein and activity was delocalized to the cytosol with no change in total nNOS protein, resulting in a significant decrease in microdomain cGMP, which in turn led to a significant elevation in local cAMP levels through a decrease in PDE2 activity (measured by FRET-based sensors). (
  • Nitric oxide is a potent regulator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which drives cGMP production, causing vasorelaxation. (
  • Cyclic stretch also increased sGCβ protein expression (2.5 ± 0.9-fold), sGC activity (1.5 ± 0.2-fold) and cGMP levels (1.8 ± 0.2-fold), as well as iNOS mRNA and protein expression (3.0 ± 0.9 and 2.6 ± 0.7-fold, respectively) relative to control cells. (
  • Levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were measured in cerebral arteries on Day 7. (
  • There was no correlation between the severity of vasospasm and cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cGMP levels in the cerebral arteries. (
  • cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) expression is highly variable and decreases in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), exposure of cells to nitric oxide (NO), or in response to balloon catheter injury in vivo. (
  • Cyclic nucleotide analogues also suppressed PKG-Iα promoter activity with cAMP being more potent than cGMP. (
  • It was reported that stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors activate the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway, which is involved in regulation of behavioral and emotional functions. (
  • Nitric oxide and cGMP do not affect fluid flux in isolated rat lungs. (
  • We sought to examine the influence of nitric oxide (NO) and the second messengers guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and intracellular Ca2+ on fluid flux in lungs isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats and perfused with saline (containing 4% albumin) or with whole blood. (
  • 7-10 We have recently reported that eNOS gene transfer activates the NO/cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) cascade and inhibits VSMC hypertrophy induced by AngII. (
  • A vast number of studies have focused on understanding the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which culminates with the phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) through the increase of the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. (
  • Most of the effects of the signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) are mediated by cGMP, which is synthesized by soluble guanylyl cyclase and degraded by phosphodiesterases. (
  • The pathway involving the cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) may provide a unique signaling mechanism in regulating axon branching. (
  • less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe present study aimed to investigate by means of immunohistochemistry in the human prostate the expression and distribution of key mediators of the NO pathway, namely cyclic GMP, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and cyclic GMP-binding protein kinases type I (cGKI alpha, cGKI), in relation to PDE5, protein kinase A (cAK), and the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). (
  • The L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of action for peripheral antinociception concerning several groups of drugs, including opioids and nonsteroidal analgesics. (
  • In this study we investigated the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in its antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in mice. (
  • Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and while iNOS expression increases during late gestation, little is known about how cyclic stretch impacts this pathway. (
  • We tested the effects of aluminum on the glutamate-nitric oxide- cyclic GMP pathway in cultured neurons. (
  • Impairment of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway in neurons may contribute to aluminum neurotoxicity. (
  • Intracarotid infusion of bradykinin and its analogue, RMP-7, selectively increase the permeability of brain tumor capillaries though the nitrix oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP pathway. (
  • This study sought to determine the involvement of the NO-cyclic GMP pathway in this event. (
  • The purpose of the study is to determine whether the treatment with growth hormone has an influence on the nitric oxide pathway in healthy males. (
  • Galley, HF 2000, ' Anaesthesia and the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway in the central nervous system ', British Journal of Anaesthesia , vol. 84, pp. 141-143. (
  • Patients with exercise-induced hypertension have poor endothelium-dependent vasodilation due to an impaired nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway, which may play a significant role in increasing blood pressure during exercise with inadequate peripheral adjustment to changing cardiac output. (
  • In conclusion, the most important findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that the inhibitory effect of 17β-estradiol in platelet activation involves activation of the cyclic AMP-eNOS/NO-cyclic GMP pathway, resulting in inhibition of PLCγ2 and p38 MAPK activation, which may lower the incidence of cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women. (
  • Involvement of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of tropisetron and ondansetron in mice forced swimming test and tail suspension test. (
  • Nitric oxide stimulates human sperm motility via activation of the cyclic GMP/protein kinase G signaling pathway. (
  • The nanocomposite modified Au electrode was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) before and after immobilization of XOD. (
  • This research extends previous studies ofa molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) biomimetic sensor for the small drug theophylline.The presence of theophylline in the biomimetic sensor was monitored by analyzing thepeak currents from cyclic voltammetry experiments. (
  • With the discoveries of the biological effects of NO and nitrovasodilators on cyclic guanosine monophosphate, with the elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms of NO synthesis, and with the growing knowledge of regulation of NO synthases, the complexities of this signal transduction cascade and its participation in numerous cell signaling processes continues. (
  • Biochemical evidence for impaired nitric oxide synthesis in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. (
  • By using e.p.r. spectroscopy, IL-1 beta is shown to induce the formation of a g = 2.04 iron-nitrosyl feature in islets which is prevented by cycloheximide, demonstrating the requirement of protein synthesis for IL-1 beta-induced nitric oxide formation. (
  • These results show that IL-1 beta-induced nitric oxide formation parallels the ability of IL-1 beta to inhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by islets, and that protein synthesis is required for IL-1 beta-induced nitric oxide formation. (
  • In many instances, nitric oxide mediates its biological effects by activating the soluble isoform of guanylyl cyclase and increasing cyclic GMP synthesis from GTP. (
  • The second most important application of ethylene oxide is in the synthesis of ethyoxylates and ethanolamines, substances used in the production of synthetic detergents. (
  • The electrochemical synthesis is set to favor the growth of the tin oxide/hydroxide phase, while the appearance of metallic Sn is suppressed by cycling. (
  • The present paper reports that nitric oxide (NO) released by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is a potent activator of rat pineal cyclic GMP production without affecting cyclic AMP synthesis. (
  • However, L‐arginine, the physiological precursor of NO, did not activate either cyclic GMP or NO synthesis. (
  • The prominent electrochemical performance of the manganese oxide demonstrates the importance of design and synthesis of pre-intercalated ultrathin layered materials. (
  • The study reports the synthesis of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanostructures and their application in enzyme free electrochemical sensing of glucose. (
  • The activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors induces the synthesis of nitric oxide, which activates soluble guanylate cyclase and leads to the formation of cyclic GMP in the brain. (
  • 15,16 Endogenous inhibitors of ET-1 synthesis include nitric oxide, prostacyclin, atrial natriuretic peptides, and estrogens. (
  • The administration of 7-nitroindazole (25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p., a specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor) or methylene blue (20 mg/kg, i.p., direct inhibitor of both nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase) in combination with a sub-effective dose of folic acid (1 nmol/site, i.c.v.) reduced the immobility time in the FST as compared with either drug alone. (
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical techniques were applied to sectioned specimens of the human vaginal wall to evaluate the presence of the PDE isoenzymes 3, 4, 5, and 10 in relation to neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), and VIP. (
  • Plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA4)-neuronal nitric-oxide synthase complex regulates cardiac contractility through modulation of a compartmentalized cyclic nucleotide microdomain. (
  • Although there is growing evidence that the plasma membrane Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent ATPase 4 (PMCA4) is a regulator of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, the physiological consequence of this regulation is unclear. (
  • We therefore tested the hypothesis that PMCA4 has a key structural role in tethering neuronal nitric-oxide synthase to a highly compartmentalized domain in the cardiac cell membrane. (
  • Recent studies have investigated the source and target neurons for the diffusible neuronal messenger molecule nitric oxide (NO) in the nervous system of the locust. (
  • These results indicate that glucocorticoids may up-regulate astroglial calcium-dependent nitric oxide synthase while preventing expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and are the first report of a differential long-term regulation of the expression of neuronal and astroglial constitutive nitric oxide synthase activities. (
  • Here we describe that, in hippocampal pyramidal cells, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is also associated with the postsynaptic active zones of GABAergic symmetrical synapses terminating on their somata, dendrites, and axon initial segments in both mice and rats. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO) has long been implicated in the generation of long-term potentiation (LTP) and other types of synaptic plasticity, a role for which the intimate coupling between NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS) is likely to be instrumental in many instances. (
  • Cellular signaling with nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. (
  • The role of nitric oxide in the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein in the spinal cord after intra. (
  • Is Measurement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in Plasma or Urine Suitable for Assessing In Vivo Nitric Oxide Production? (
  • Murad F. Signal transduction using nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. (
  • Hamet P, Pang SC, Tremblay J. Atrial natriuretic factor-induced egression of cyclic guanosine monophosphate in cultured vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. (
  • Receptor-controlled phosphorylation of alpha 1 soluble guanylyl cyclase enhances nitric oxide-dependent cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate production in pituitary cells. (
  • Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a target enzyme for endogenous nitric oxide (NO), and it converts GTP to cyclic GMP (guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate) as part of a cascade that results in physiological processes such as smooth muscle relaxation, neurotransmission, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. (
  • Plasma cyclic guanosine monophosphate was assessed as a marker of nitric oxide production. (
  • We measured the endothelial function of the brachial artery in 35 patients with exercise-induced hypertension, and in 35 age- and gender-matched normal control subjects, by a high resolution ultrasound technique, and the concentration of NO2-/NO3- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP). (
  • We further show that LTD induced by low-frequency stimulation in the absence of SNAP also is blocked by KT5823 or Rp-8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (10 microM), cyclic guanosine 3',5' monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors with different mechanisms of action. (
  • Finally, two cell-permeant antagonists of the cyclic ADP-ribose binding site on ryanodine receptors also were able to block the induction of LTD. These results support a cascade for induction of homosynaptic, NO-dependent LTD involving activation of guanylyl cyclase, production of guanosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate and subsequent PKG activation. (
  • Also, immunocytochemical analysis revealed that A23187-treated cells expressing nNOS-α produced more 8-nitroguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, a second messenger in NO/ROS redox signaling, than did the cells expressing nNOS-µ. (
  • Conversely, treatment of hippocampal slices with an NO donor or cyclic guanosine monophosphate analogue induced MISs. NOS blockade also reduced spine and synapse density in developing hippocampal cultures. (
  • It is also useful as a metallurgical reducing agent , because at high temperatures it reduces many metal oxides to the elemental metal. (
  • Transition metal oxides have been extensively investigated these years. (
  • Described herein are inks and coating compositions comprising semiconductor metal oxides and composites thereof, which are natural environmentally sustainable materials that may be recycled and/or reused indefinitely. (
  • Semiconductor metal oxides offer an alternative to relatively more toxic, non-sustainable, photo and heat-degrading, migrating traditional photoinitiator agents used in actinic radiation curable compositions. (
  • The semiconductor metal oxides and composites thereof absorb visible or UV-light as photocatalysts and/or semiconductors, or absorb electron beam radiation, forming radicals for radical events such as polymerization reactions and color enhancement events. (
  • 1,2 Metal oxides and nitrides, such as TiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , WO 3 , BiVO 4 , and Ta 3 N 5 , have been extensively studied as promising photoanodes for water oxidation owing to their low cost and good chemical stability in appropriate electrolytes. (
  • The metal oxides and metals on Si can not only improve the stability of Si photoanodes, but also serve as the oxygen evolution catalyst. (
  • However, in many cases, the performance of a photoanode including photovoltage, photocurrent and stability, is sensitive to the thickness of the metal oxides or metals. (
  • Identification of the signaling pathways that regulate cyclic nucleotide microdomains is essential to our understanding of cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. (
  • This has profound consequences for the regulation of local cyclic nucleotide and hence cardiac β-adrenergic signaling. (
  • Because L‐arginine failed to activate cyclic GMP production, results suggest that NO is not produced in the pineal gland, but behaves as a potent regulator of this cyclic nucleotide. (
  • The inhibition of nitric oxide production, as well as the blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, has been reported to prevent the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning and memory formation in vivo, although the effects of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase are still controversial. (
  • 22 The activation of ET B receptors stimulates the release of nitric oxide and prostacyclin and prevents apoptosis. (
  • We show here that K-Ras is a substrate for cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs). (
  • The authors review what is known about the deleterious effects of sickling on the genitourinary tract and how the role of cyclic nucleotides signaling and protein kinases may help understand the pathophysiology underlying these manifestations and develop novel therapies in the setting of urogenital disorders in sickle cell disease. (
  • This paper focuses on how previous, sometimes poorly explained, clinical observations of urogenital disorders in patients with SCD relate to more recent discoveries on the role of cyclic nucleotides and protein kinases in the pathophysiology of sickle vaso-occlusion. (
  • K-Ras phosphorylation by PKG2 is triggered by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and requires endothelial nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylyl cyclase. (
  • Membrane association of nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase in cardiomyocytes. (
  • The NO receptor nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NOsGC) is present in the brain in two functional subunit compositions: α 1 β 1 and α 2 β 1 . (
  • A number of studies have demonstrated that estradiol can stimulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity, resulting in enhanced nitric oxide (NO) generation. (
  • 17β-Estradiol markedly increased cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels, nitric oxide (NO) release, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. (
  • less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanIn the smooth muscle portion of the transition zone, immunosignals specific for the PDE5 were found co-localized with cyclic GMP, cGKI alpha, and cGKI, as well as with the cyclic cAMP-binding protein kinase A. Smooth muscle bundles were seen innervated by slender varicose nerves characterized by the expression of nNOS. (
  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) and Mott-Schottky (M-S) methods were used to determine the density and mobility of charge carriers in the passive oxide layer to understand the nature of the surface oxides and how these affect the corrosion resistance of C22 nickel alloy covered by alkaline water. (
  • Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) study of a fully-modeled 3D solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). (
  • These results suggest that events downstream of cyclic nucleotides may be abnormal during vasospasm. (
  • The effects of cyclic nucleotides to suppress PKG-Iα promoter activity were attenuated by a specific cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor. (
  • Moreover, Sp1 binding activity on the PKG-Iα promoter was detected in A7r5 cells, and this binding was inhibited by NO and cyclic nucleotides. (
  • Concordantly, chronic pharmacological activation of AMPK → PKG2 signaling with mitochondrial inhibitors, nitric oxide, or sildenafil inhibits proliferation of K-Ras-positive non-small cell lung cancer cells. (
  • Ongoing clinical trials with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and nitric oxide scavengers are examining the effects of these agents in septic shock, hypotension with dialysis, inflammatory disorders, cancer therapy, etc. (
  • The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, N(G)- nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and 7-nitro indazole, as well as dizocilpine, a non competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, dose-dependently impaired spatial working memory in mice, assessed by their spontaneous alternation behavior in a Y-maze. (
  • Inhibition of islet glucose oxidation appears to be mediated by nitric oxide since both NMMA and cycloheximide prevent IL-1 beta-induced inhibition of glucose oxidation. (
  • abstract = 'AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the direct effect of a nitric oxide donor (spermine NONOate) on glucose transport in isolated human skeletal muscle and L6 skeletal muscle cells. (
  • abstract = "Guerrero JM, Reiter RJ, Poeggeler B, Chen L‐D, Tan D‐X. Elevation of cyclic GMP levels in the rat pineal gland induced by nitric oxide. (
  • Graphical abstract: Magnetically recyclable Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic property Display Omitted - Highlights: ●Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4} growth, deposition and GO reduction occurred simultaneously. (
  • Nitric oxide synthase-like immunoreactivity (NOS-LI IR) was detected by immunohistochemistry in ventral light organs of the mesopelagic fish, Argyropelecus hemigymnus . (
  • It is hypothesized that the very variable capacity of photophores to produce and maintain the luminescence evoked by adrenaline is correlated to a large variability in endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the isolated photophores. (
  • These results indicate that chronic exposure to aluminum impairs glutamate-induced activation of nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide-induced activation of guanylate cyclase. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is involved in cell apoptosis, which contributes to luteal regression and luteolysis in some species. (
  • 2002. Expression patterns of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase isoforms in corpora lutea of pseudopregnant rabbits at different luteal stages. (
  • 2004. Expression patterns of cytokines, p53 and nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes in corpora lutea of pseudopregnant rabbits during spontaneous luteolysis. (
  • 1999. Activity of ovarian nitric oxide synthase (NOS) during ovulatory process in the Rat: Relationship with prostaglandins (PGs) Production. (
  • Long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission can be induced by several mechanisms, one thought to involve Ca2+-dependent activation of postsynaptic nitric oxide (NO) synthase and subsequent diffusion of NO to the presynaptic terminal. (
  • Lungs were allowed to equilibrate for a period of 30 min without treatment (control group) or with one of the following agents: the exogenous NO donor spermine NONOate, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), 8-BrcGMP, the Ca2- ionophore ionomycin, or the endothelial injurious agent protamine. (
  • Background- Although, endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) is believed to antagonize vascular remodeling induced by the angiotensin II (AngII) type-1 receptor, the exact signaling mechanism remains unclear. (
  • 1994. Expression of nitric oxide synthase in rat glomerular mesangial cells mediated by cyclic AMP. (
  • 1994. Two distinct signaling pathways trigger the expression of nitric oxide synthase in rat renal mesangial cells. (
  • The formation of multiple contacts was specifically prevented by deletion of the PDZ 2 domain of PSD-95, which interacts with nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS). (
  • and also interacts with several important synaptic proteins, including synaptic GTPase-activating protein, neuroligins, or nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS), which might mediate trans-synaptic signaling ( Kim and Sheng, 2004 ) for synapse formation or stabilization. (
  • 6 h) and concentration-dependent manner (half-maximal effect at 1 n M ). Stimulation of cyclic GMP formation by the calcium ionophore A23187 is similarly enhanced. (
  • For example, calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) produces carbon dioxide and calcium oxide (CaO). (
  • Cyclic stretch significantly increased cytosolic oxidative stress as compared to static cells (62.9 ± 5.9% vs. 33.3 ± 5.7% maximal oxidation), as measured by the intracellular redox sensor roGFP. (
  • Some of these reactions result in the oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrite and nitrate to terminate the effect, while other reactions can lead to altered protein structure function and/or catalytic capacity. (
  • The chlorhydrin process for making ethylene oxide has been replaced commercially by the direct oxidation of ethylene gas. (
  • A Biomimetic Route to Lignin Model Compounds via Silver (I) Oxide Oxidation. (
  • This process has an additional requirement for release of Ca2+ from ryanodine-sensitive stores, perhaps dependent on the second-messenger cyclic ADP ribose. (
  • Ethylene oxide (ETH-ih-leen OK-side) is a flammable, colorless gas with the odor of ether. (
  • Ethylene oxide was first prepared in 1859 by French chemist Charles Adolphe Wurtz (1817-1884). (
  • Ethylene oxide is a very unstable compound that catches fire or explodes readily and must be handled with the greatest care. (
  • The largest single use of ethylene oxide is in the manufacture of ethylene glycol (CH 2 OHCH 2 OH), which itself is used as an antifreeze and raw material for the production of plastics. (
  • About 60 percent of all the ethylene oxide produced is used for this purpose. (
  • Ethylene oxide also has a number of other important industrial uses, although the quantity used for such purposes is small compared to the uses mentioned above. (
  • Ethylene oxide is also used as a fumigant, which is a gas used to kill insects and other pests. (
  • A number of industrial accidents have been caused during the preparation, transportation, storage, and use of ethylene oxide. (
  • In 2004, some 3.77 million metric tons (4.15 million short tons) of ethylene oxide were produced in the United States. (
  • A number of health hazards are associated with exposure to ethylene oxide. (
  • Ethylene oxide is believed to be responsible for spontaneous abortions, genetic damage, and the development of some types of cancer, primarily cancer of the blood (leukemia). (
  • The Getinge Assured Tape (Ethylene Oxide) is designed for use in ethylene oxide (EO) sterilizers operating at 600 mg/l EO gas, 40-60% Relative Humidity, 54°C for 45 minutes or longer. (
  • We are manufacturing and supplying Ethylene Oxide Gas Cartridges (100% ETO Cartridges).Special Features:High effectiveness as a bactericide, fungicide. (
  • With utmost focus to offer the best, we are affianced to manufacture, export and supply Ethylene Oxide Condensates to our valuable clients. (
  • Ethylene Oxide Gas Cartridge The provided Ethylene Oxide Gas Cartridge is effectively ideal for all kinds and brands of ETO sterilization systems. (
  • 1,4-Oxathiane can be produced from low cost ingredients by heating ethylene glycol or ethylene oxide with hydrogen sulfide. (
  • Enantioselective addition of cyclic enol silyl ethers to 2-alkenoyl-pyridine-N-oxides catalysed by Cu(II)-bis(oxazoline) complexes. (
  • Asymmetric reactions involving (E)-3-aryl-1-(pyridin-2-yl-N-oxide)prop-2-en-1-ones and cyclic enol silyl ethers show good yields and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99.9 % ee) when catalysed by bis(oxazoline)-Cu(II) complexes. (
  • The formation of cyclic GMP induced by S- nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine was not affected. (
  • It is concluded that trazodone behaves as a potent full agonist at the 5-HT 2C receptor mediating inhibition of the cerebellar N-methyl- d -aspartate/nitric oxide/cyclic GMP system. (
  • Treatment of pancreatic islets with interleukin 1 (IL-1) results in a time-dependent inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion which has recently been demonstrated to be dependent on the metabolism of L-arginine to nitric oxide. (
  • Nitric oxide can function as an intracellular messenger, an antacoid, a paracrine substance, a neurotransmitter, or as a hormone that can be carried to distant sites for effects. (
  • Cyclic GMP, in turn, can activate cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and can cause smooth muscles and blood vessels to relax, decrease platelet aggregation, alter neuron function, etc. (
  • The donor density and mobility of ions in the oxide layer has been determined as a function of the electrical potential when alkaline water layers are on the alloy surface in order to account for the relative inertness of the nickel alloy in corrosive environments. (
  • Tumor bearing rats were treated by intracarotid infusion of bradykinin (10 micrograms kg-1 min-1) with or without pretreatment with bradykinin, the NO donor s-nitrosoglutathione (10 nmol kg-1 min-1), or the cyclic GMP analogue, 8Br-cyclic GMP (200 micrograms kg-1 min-1). (
  • The list of effects of nitric oxide that are independent of cyclic GMP formation is also growing at a rapid rate. (
  • These diverse effects of nitric oxide that are cyclic GMP dependent or independent can alter and regulate numerous important physiological events in cell regulation and function. (
  • The lecture will discuss our discovery of the first biological effects of nitric oxide and how the field has evolved since our original reports in 1977. (
  • 2003. Dual effects of nitric oxide on meiotic maturation of mouse cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes in vitro. (
  • Some of the methods to regulate either nitric oxide formation metabolism, or function have been in clinical use for more than a century, as with the use of organic nitrates and nitroglycerin in angina pectoris that was initiated in the 1870s. (
  • Current and future research will undoubtedly expand the clinician's therapeutic armamentarium to manage a number of important diseases by perturbing nitric oxide formation and metabolism. (
  • Recognition of additional molecular targets in the areas of nitric oxide and cyclic GMP research will continue to promote drug discovery and development programs in the field. (
  • 18. The method of claim 1, wherein said polyalkylene oxide has a number average molecular weight of from about 200 to about 100,000. (
  • Cyclic GMP has been proposed to regulate axonal development, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the formation of axon branches are not well understood. (
  • Xanthine oxidase (XOD) extracted from bovine milk was immobilized covalently via N -ethyl- N ′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and N -hydroxy succinimide (NHS) chemistry onto cadmium oxide nanoparticles (CdO)/carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotube (c-MWCNT) composite film electrodeposited on the surface of an Au electrode. (
  • Thus, it can be suggested that a stable proportion of Ni(II)/Ni(III) oxides-hydroxides was obtained on the electrode surfaces. (
  • After the first announcement of commercialization of tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) as a negative electrode of lithium-ion batteries, this transition metal oxide anode has received much concern. (
  • In the pulmonary vasculature, mechanical forces such as cyclic stretch induce changes in vascular signaling, tone and remodeling. (
  • Restoring Vascular Nitric Oxide Formation by L Arginine Improves the Symptoms of Intermittent Claudi cation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Dis ease," Journal American College of Cardiology, Vol. 32, 1998, pp. 1336-1344. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent endogenous vasodilator and has shown to inhibit key processes of atherosclerosis like monocyte adhesion, platelet aggregation, and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. (
  • N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and 7-nitro indazole reduced cyclic GMP levels in the cerebral cortex/hippocampus and cerebellum, and the suppressive effect of N(G)- nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on cyclic GMP levels in the cerebral cortex/hippocampus was reversed by co-treatment with L-arginine. (
  • Cyclic GMP levels in the cerebellum were reduced by treatment with dizocilpine. (
  • Iron-nitrosyl complex-formation by islets confirms that IL-1 beta induces the generation of nitric oxide by islets, and provides evidence indicating that nitric oxide mediates destruction of iron-sulphur clusters of iron-containing enzymes. (
  • These results also suggest that nitric oxide mediates IL-1 beta-induced inhibitory effects on the pancreatic beta-cell by functioning as an effector molecule responsible for the destruction of iron-sulphur centres of iron-containing proteins, resulting in an impairment of mitochondrial function. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO), a free-radical gas produced by many cell types, mediates blood vessel relaxation, functions as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system mediates macrophage cytotoxicity during host defence and leads to tissue injury in some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. (
  • Hence, the significance of the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP signaling in the control of the human prostate requires further clarification. (
  • The role of nitric oxide in cellular signaling in the past three decades has become one of the most rapidly growing areas in biology. (
  • Acid-catalyzed positive photoresist compositions which are imageable with 193 nm radiation and are developable to form photoresist structures of high resolution and high etch resistance are enabled by the use of a combination of cyclic olefin polymer, photosensitive acid generator and a hydrophobic non-steroidal. (
  • The cyclic olefin polymers preferably contain i) cyclic olefin units having polar functional moieties, ii) cyclic olefin units having acid labile moieties that inhibit solubility in aqueous alkaline solutions. (
  • Cyclic tetramers of some olefin oxides. (