Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Tyrocidine: An antibiotic mixture produced by Bacillus brevis which may be separated into three components, tyrocidines A, B, and C. It is the major constituent (40-60 per cent) of tyrothricin, gramicidin accounting for the remaining 10-20 per cent active material. It is a topical antimicrobial agent, that is very toxic parenterally.Momordica: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE. It is a source of momordin.Cyclotides: A continuous circle of peptide bonds, typically of 2-3 dozen AMINO ACIDS, so there is no free N- or C-terminus. They are further characterized by six conserved CYSTEINE residues that form CYSTINE KNOT MOTIFS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Dianthus: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. Members contain dianthins, which are ribosome inactivating proteins.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oldenlandia: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Some species are used as an ingredient in Chinese and African traditional medicines. Members contain kalata B1, a macrocyclic peptide.Cystine-Knot Miniproteins: A structurally-related family of small proteins that form a stable tertiary fold pattern which is supported by a series of disulfide bonds. The arrangement of disulfide bonds between the CYSTEINE moieties results in a knotted structure which is unique to this family of proteins.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Enviomycin: Cyclic basic peptide related to VIOMYCIN. It is isolated from an induced mutant of Streptomyces griseoverticillatus var. tuberacticus and acts as an antitubercular agent with less ototoxicity than tuberactinomycin.Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.Peptide Biosynthesis, Nucleic Acid-Independent: The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Saponaria: A plant species of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. It is a source of SAPONINS. The common name "Soapwort" is also used with VACCARIA. The common name of "Bouncing Bet" is occasionally used with VIOLA.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Annona: A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. It has edible fruit and seeds which contain acetogenins and benzoquinazoline and other alkaloids.Nanotubes, Peptide: NANOTUBES formed from cyclic peptides (PEPTIDES, CYCLIC). Alternating D and L linkages create planar rings that self assemble by stacking into nanotubes. They can form pores through CELL MEMBRANE causing damage to cells.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Gramicidin: A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Capreomycin: Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.Microcystis: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Polymyxin B: A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.Lipopeptides: Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type: A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Peptide PHI: A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Protein PrecursorsHigh-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CBacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Opioid Peptides: The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
... is a cyclic peptide. It is one of the amatoxins, all of which are found in several members of the Amanita genus of ...
... is a cyclic peptide. It is an amatoxin, all of which are found in several members of the Amanita genus of mushrooms. ...
... or ε-amanitin is a Cyclic peptide. It is an amatoxin, all of which are found in several members of the Amanita ...
Faulstich, H; Buku, A; Bodenmüller, H; Wieland, T (8 July 1980). "Virotoxins: actin-binding cyclic peptides of Amanita virosa ... Virotoxins are monocyclic peptides formed by at least five different compounds: alaviroidin, viroisin, deoxoviroisin, viroidin ... by Abba J. (2013). The handbook of biologically active peptides Chapter 25-Fungal toxins (2. ed.). Amsterdam [u.a.]: Elsevier, ... ISBN 978-012385095-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) LORANGER, A (December 1985). "Toxicity of peptides of Amanita ...
In, Y.; Doi, M.; Inoue, M.; Ishida, T. (1994). "Patellamide A, a cytotoxic cyclic peptide from the ascidian Lissoclinum patella ... Degnan, B.; Hawkins, C.; Lavin, M.; Mccaffrey, E.; Parry, D.; Vandenbrenk, A.; Watters D. (1989). "New cyclic peptides with ... Patellamide A is one of many didemnid peptides. Other closely related peptides include patellamides B, C, and D and trunkamide ... forming the two cyclic peptides, patellamides A and C. Although all the amino acids used in the production of patellamide A are ...
Energy Minimizations for Crystals of Cyclic Peptides and Crambin". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110 (6): 1657-1666. doi:10.1021/ ...
... (Mikamycin B) is an antibiotic cyclic peptide. It is a member of the streptogramin B group of antibiotics and ...
Promanullin is a cyclic nonribosomal peptide. It is an amatoxin, all of which are found in several members of the Amanita genus ...
... is an antifungal cyclic peptide. It was first isolated in 1958 from the bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Banerjee, A. B ...
Lang, Gerhard; Kalvelage, Tim; Peters, Arne; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F. (2008-06-01). "Linear and Cyclic Peptides from ... The biosynthesis of xenortides A-D consists of two non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS) coded by genes XndA and XndB, as well ... The xenortides (A-D) are a class of linear peptides isolated from the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, a symbiont of the ... as well as the final condensation of the enzyme-bound peptide with either decarboxylated phenylalanine (xenortides A and C) or ...
"Hydrophilic interaction/cation-exchange chromatography for separation of cyclic peptides". Journal of Chromatography A. 816 (1 ... D.R. Nau, in: M.T.W. Hearn (Ed.), HPLC of Proteins, Peptides and Polynucleotides: Contemporary Topics and Applications, VCH ... in the analysis of peptides, which became one of the most efficient technique in proteomics afterwards. In 2009, Geng's group ... stronger separation power and wider range of applications compared to RPLC for peptide separations. Hydrophobic interactions in ...
... is a cyclic peptide isolated from endophytic fungi of mangrove. Guo, ZY; Huang, ZJ; Wen, L; Wan, Q; Liu, F; She, ZG ... Lin, YC; Zhou, SN (2007). "The metabolites of cyclic peptides from three endophytic mangrove fungi". Zhong yao cai = ...
... a quality unique to peptides containing cyclic β-amino acids. Nucleotidomimetics do not generally qualify as foldamers. Most ... The largest groups of peptidomimetic consist of β - peptides, γ - peptides and δ - peptides, and the possible monomeric ... β-peptides are composed of amino acids containing an additional CH 2 unit between the amine and carboxylic acid. They are more ... The amino acids of these peptides only differ by one (β), two (γ) or three (δ) methylene carbons, yet the structural changes ...
... s are antifungal cyclic peptides isolated from a marine sponge. There are 3 Aciculitins that are isolated from the ... Cytotoxic and Antifungal Cyclic Peptides from the Lithistid Sponge Aciculites orientalis". Journal of the American Chemical ... Antimicrobial peptides from marine invertebrates as a new frontier for microbial infection control Bewley, Carole A; He, Haiyin ...
Chemically, it is a dichlorinated cyclic peptide. Zhou, ZH; Komiyama, M; Terao, K; Shimada, Y (1994). "Effects of ... Chlorinated Cyclic Peptides from Penicillium islandicum". J. Nat. Prod. 71 (7): 1297-1300. doi:10.1021/np800150m. PMID 18558744 ...
... is a cyclic nonribosomal peptide. It is an amatoxin, all of which are found in several members of the Amanita ...
Present in nature are both linear and cyclic tetrapeptides, tetrapeptides may be cyclized by a fourth peptide bond or other ... Dipeptide Tripeptide Pentapeptide Decapeptide cyclic peptide "Elamipretide". AdisInsight. Retrieved 24 April 2017. Kloner, RA; ... A tetrapeptide is a peptide, classified as an oligopeptide, since it only consists of four amino acids joined by peptide bonds ... Gluten exorphines A4 (H-Gly-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-OH) and B4 (H-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Trp-OH) are peptides isolated from gluten. Tyrosine-MIF-1 (H- ...
Cyclic peptides[edit]. A peptide is a short polymer of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. They have the same chemical ... Cyclic peptides Microcystins Liver Microcystis, Anabaena, Planktothrix (Oscillatoria), Nostoc, Hapalosiphon, Anabaenopsis ... In a cyclic peptide, the ends link to form a stable circular chain. In mammals this stability makes them resistant to the ... Of all the cyanotoxins, the cyclic peptides are of most concern to human health. The microcystins and nodularins poison the ...
... is formed by the normal peptide bond of the carboxyl terminus to the amino terminus of the peptide chain. Unlike most cyclic ... alpha-Amanitin or α-amanitin is a cyclic peptide of eight amino acids. It is possibly the most deadly of all the amatoxins, ... peptides, amatoxins (and phallotoxins) are synthesized on ribosomes. The genes encoding the proprotein for α-amanitin belongs ...
"Ribosomal biosynthesis of the cyclic peptide toxins of Amanita mushrooms". Peptide Science. 94 (5): 659-664. doi:10.1002/bip. ... Phalloidin was one of the first cyclic peptides to be discovered. It was isolated from the death cap mushroom and crystallized ... After translation, the peptide must be proteolyticly excised, cyclized, hydroxylated, Trp-Cys cross-linked to form ... Essentially, it follows typical small peptide synthesis, using hydroxyl-proline. The major difficulty in synthesis is the ...
It is a cyclic fungal peptide, composed of 11 amino acids. Ciclosporin is thought to bind to the cytosolic protein cyclophilin ...
"Hydroxyl-carbonyl interaction in cyclic peptides and depsipeptides / Jean Olwen Thomas". Swansea University Library Catalogue. ... in Chemistry for her thesis titled Hydroxyl-carbonyl interaction in cyclic peptides and depsipeptides. Upon receiving her Ph.D ...
Kohli RM, Walsh CT, Burkart MD (August 2002). "Biomimetic synthesis and optimization of cyclic peptide antibiotics". Nature. ... The D-alanyl-D-serine variation causes a six-fold loss of affinity between vancomycin and the peptide, likely due to steric ... CepA codes for modules 1, 2, and 3. CepB codes for modules 4, 5, and 6, and CepC codes for module 7. The three peptide ... Samel SA, Marahiel MA, Essen LO (May 2008). "How to tailor non-ribosomal peptide products-new clues about the structures and ...
Kohli RM, Walsh CT, Burkart MD (August 2002). "Biomimetic synthesis and optimization of cyclic peptide antibiotics". Nature. ... providing a powerful route to new cyclic compounds. In order for this macrocyclization to occur, the peptide chain must be ... Use of solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) allowed the incorporation of a diverse array of monomers into the peptide chain. ... Elongation of the peptide chain is achieved through condensation of the upstream PCP onto an adjacent downstream PCP-bound ...
... is a biologically active cyclic peptide. Poojary, B. & Belagali, S. L. (2005). "Synthesis, characterization and ... biological evaluation of cyclic peptides: Viscumamide, yunnanin A and evolidine". Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B. 60 (12): ...
The use of antimicrobial peptides against C. acnes is under investigation as a treatment for acne to overcoming antibiotic ... and a cyclic worsening of the affected person's anxiety about their appearance.[61] Rare complications from acne or its ... sebaceous gland cells produce more antimicrobial peptides, such as HBD1 and HBD2, in response to the binding of TLR2 and TLR4.[ ...
Cyclic peptides can be classified according to the types of bonds that comprise the ring. Homodetic cyclic peptides, such as ... Other bicyclic peptides include echinomycin, triostin A, and Celogentin C. There are a number of cyclic peptide hormones which ... Cyclic peptides tend to be extremely resistant to the process of digestion, enabling them to survive in the human digestive ... Cyclic peptides are polypeptide chains which contain a circular sequence of bonds. This can be through a connection between the ...
In the cyclic peptide CP2, R10 could be truncated to aliphatic side chains such as Nva without affecting affinity for KDM4A ( ... highly nonproteinogenic peptides; most notably, de novo macrocyclic peptides (22) from the random nonstandard peptide ... Nonproteinogenic deep mutational scanning of linear and cyclic peptides Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Nonproteinogenic deep mutational scanning of linear and cyclic peptides. Joseph M. Rogers, Toby Passioura, and Hiroaki Suga ...
... cyclic citrullinated peptide) has been found to be better at discriminating Rheumatoid Arthritis patients from patients with ... A synthetic circular peptide containing citrulline called CCP IgG ( ...
Insertion of the amino acid into bioactive peptides enhanced their binding affinity up to 40-fold. Peptides ... ... Small intestine permeable peptides facilitate digestive tract absorption. Because biopharmaceuticals are medium- and high- ... Swiss scientists have developed a new amino acid that can be used to modify the 3-D structure of therapeutic peptides. ...
Can small cyclic peptides have the activity and specificity of proteolytic enzymes?. Matthews BW1, Craik CS, Neurath H. ...
Disclosed herein are cyclic peptide derivatives of the formula ##STR1## wherein A is absent or the tripeptide radical ThrGly ... Cyclic peptide of example 1. 14.3. Cyclic peptide of example 2. 140. Cyclic peptide of example 3. 16. ... More specifically, the invention relates to cyclic peptide derivatives (hereinafter called "peptides" or "cyclic peptides") ... of the protected cyclic peptide to obtain the corresponding peptide of formula 1; and, if desired, transforming the peptide of ...
A positive result for cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies indicates a high likelihood of rheumatoid arthritis ( ... properties of rheumatoid arthritis antibodies recognizing a cyclic citrullinated peptide. Arthritis Rheum 2000 Jan;43(1):155- ...
Nbz-peptide was dissolved in the ligation buffer in 1 mM and the solution was stirred for 24 h. The cyclic peptide was purified ... Cyclic peptide for multiple sclerosis treatment. Kathrin Thell, Roland Hellinger, Emine Sahin, Paul Michenthaler, Markus Gold- ... Cyclic peptide for multiple sclerosis treatment. Kathrin Thell, Roland Hellinger, Emine Sahin, Paul Michenthaler, Markus Gold- ... Nbz-peptide). (4) Full deprotection and resin cleavage of the Nbz-peptide in one step (Ar, Aryl). Peptide cyclization (5a) via ...
... group from the University of California Irvine shows in vitro activity and non-toxicity of the first-in-class cyclic peptide ... The design and preliminary evaluation of UCI-1 demonstrate that cyclic peptides that mimic the conformation of linear peptide ... Specifically designed cyclic peptide inhibitor shown to be active against SARS-CoV-2. *Download PDF Copy ... Specifically designed cyclic peptide inhibitor shown to be active against SARS-CoV-2. News-Medical. 20 September 2020. ,https ...
Cyclic peptide (middle) binds to iPGM (blue).Credit: National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, NIH When you think ... Fighting Parasitic Infections: Promise in Cyclic Peptides. Caption: Cyclic peptide (middle) binds to iPGM (blue).. Credit: ... called cyclic peptides, to find one that could disable a vital enzyme in the disease-causing organisms, but leave similar ... it highlights the value of screening peptides in the search for ways to treat conditions that do not respond well-or have ...
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI- ... Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL). ... Cyclic Peptides. Subscribe to New Research on Cyclic Peptides Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Peptides: 22950*Cyclic Peptides: 55*Octreotide: 4121 ...
Meta-analysis: diagnostic accuracy of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide 2 antibody and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide 3 ... anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody; second-generation assays of anti- ... CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti- CCP), rheumatoid factor (RF) and TNFα, as posible factors implicated in ... depending on anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) status may be helpful in distinguishing different ...
Peptide Chemistry and Cyclic Peptides scheduled on November 19-20, 2020 in November 2020 in London is for the researchers, ... Peptide Chemistry and Cyclic Peptides. ICPCCP 2020: 14. International Conference on Peptide Chemistry and Cyclic Peptides ... Solid phase peptide synthesis. Peptide coupling agents. Chemical ligation. Bioactive peptides. Cyclic peptides. Antimicrobial ... ICPCCP 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Peptide Chemistry and Cyclic Peptides. A number of selected high- ...
The prognostic value of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis.. Kroot ... To study the predictive value of anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid ...
The design and synthesis of β-sheet-based self-assembling cyclic peptides with tunable cavities is described. The incorporation ... Self-assembling α,γ-cyclic peptides that generate cavities with tunable properties N. Rodríguez-Vázquez, R. García-Fandiño, M. ... The design and synthesis of β-sheet-based self-assembling cyclic peptides with tunable cavities is described. The incorporation ... Self-assembling α,γ-cyclic peptides that generate cavities with tunable properties ...
Sample Result: Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies (CCP Antibodies). This browser does not support inline PDFs. To view the ... The cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies blood test measures the autoantibodies produced by the immune system that are ...
... peptides can be prepared rapidly with good purity using microwave-enhanced SPPS on the Liberty Blue automated peptide ... Cyclic disulfide-bridged peptides can be prepared rapidly with good purity using microwave-enhanced SPPS on the Liberty Blue ... Synthesis of the peptide hormone oxytocin was achieved in under 3 h with 69% purity. Preparation of a peptide agonist of BMP ... CHEC-7, a neuroprotective peptide inhibitor of amyloidogenesis, was prepared in under 3 h with 80% purity. Finally, a peptide ...
This application note describes automated cyclic peptide synthesis using on-resin disulphide bridge formation and side-chain to ... How to Automate Cyclic Peptide Synthesis. 17 October 2014 A new application note illustrates the synthesis of two cyclic ... There is growing interest in naturally occurring and designed bioactive cyclic peptides. These peptides often show better ... Automated Synthesis of Cyclic Peptides on Biotage® Initiator+ Alstra™ Part No: AN093.v2 Published: 2014 0.67 MB Format: pdf ...
Application of Synthetic Peptide Arrays To Uncover Cyclic Di-GMP Binding Motifs. Juliane Düvel, Sarina Bense, Stefan Möller, ... we applied a peptide array approach (38) with a series of tiled overlapping peptides derived from the full amino acid sequence ... Bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a universal bacterial secondary messenger and a key player in the decision between the ... Here we show that the use of a synthetic peptide array allowed the identification of a c-di-GMP binding motif of a putative c- ...
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in ... Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP ... Development of a Cyclic Peptide Inhibitor of the p6/UEV Protein-Protein Interaction.. 08:00 EDT 14th August 2019 , BioPortfolio ... Summary of "Development of a Cyclic Peptide Inhibitor of the p6/UEV Protein-. Protein Interaction.". The budding of HIV from ...
... cyclic_peptide:MPI_batchsize_by_level 25 -nstruct 1000 -cyclic_peptide:MPI_sort_by energy -cyclic_peptide:MPI_output_fraction ... cyclic_peptide:MPI_batchsize_by_level 200 2 -nstruct 20000 -cyclic_peptide:MPI_sort_by energy -cyclic_peptide:MPI_output_ ... cyclic_peptide:MPI_batchsize_by_level 10 -cyclic_peptide:MPI_output_fraction 0.1 -nstruct 2500 -cyclic_peptide:sequence_file ... cyclic_peptide:genkic_closure_attempts 1000 -cyclic_peptide:min_genkic_hbonds 2 -mute all -unmute protocols.cyclic_peptide_ ...
However, in cyclic peptide predictions, the server did predict only one cyclic peptide based on the middle hotspot in this ... Not all linear peptides in bound complexes are compatible with cyclic geometry.. That being said, there are many ways of ... And why no other cyclic peptides were predicted based on the other 2 main hotspots in the interaction. ... cyclizing peptides, and to my knowledge, Peptiderive uses a very narrow definition of "compatible with cyclic geometry": it ...
Hypophysectomy increases vasoactive intestinal peptide-stimulated cyclic AMP generation in the hippocampus of the rat. AL ... Hypophysectomy increases vasoactive intestinal peptide-stimulated cyclic AMP generation in the hippocampus of the rat ... Hypophysectomy increases vasoactive intestinal peptide-stimulated cyclic AMP generation in the hippocampus of the rat ... Hypophysectomy increases vasoactive intestinal peptide-stimulated cyclic AMP generation in the hippocampus of the rat ...
LINEAR OR CYCLIC PEPTIDE. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical processes and laboratory procedures in ... I have a data set of peptides containing their sequences. I need to define their configuration (being linear or cyclic) and I ... this will allow you to actually molecular model the peptide chains and see the exact shape of the protein structure generated ...
  • A new application note describes cyclic peptide synthesis using on-resin disulphide bridge formation and side-chain to side-chain cyclization. (biotage.com)
  • On-resin cyclization of peptides is particularly useful, and Branches™ on the Biotage® Initiator+ Alstra™ microwave peptide synthesizer makes this fast, simple and fully automated. (biotage.com)
  • The cyclic peptides synthesized via a disulfide bridge and side-chain to side-chain cyclization. (biotage.com)
  • The simple_cycpep_predict application is intended for rapidly sampling closed conformations of small peptides constrained by backbone cyclization. (rosettacommons.org)
  • That being said, there are many ways of cyclizing peptides, and to my knowledge, Peptiderive uses a very narrow definition of "compatible with cyclic geometry": it only considers cyclization schemes involving disulfides between terminal residues of linear peptides when the terminal residues are already close enough to gether to make disulfide closure likely. (rosettacommons.org)
  • Different cyclization strategies were explored for the synthesis of cyclic arodyn and Dyn A analogs, including cyclization through lactam bond formation or ring-closing metathesis (RCM). (ku.edu)
  • established a method for the preparation of non-protected cyclic peptides by intramolecular transfer of thiolactone and Ag+ ion assisted cyclization. (green-blog.org)
  • For the cyclization of a cysteine-free linear polypeptide, the N-terminal amino group of the linear polypeptide with a sulfophilic Ag+ ion-assisted coordination flexibility forms a cyclic intermediate with the C-terminal thioester, and promotes intramolecular activation by entropy activation. (green-blog.org)
  • The cyclic peptide libraries screened with these methods are generated by altering in a combinatorial fashion the amino acid sequence of the peptides, the number of amino acids in the macrocycle rings, and the cyclization chemistry. (epfl.ch)
  • The results showed that ADTC1 has activity in inhibiting the resealing of the intercellular junctions of the MDCK cell monolayers similar to that of the linear ADT6, indicating that cyclization can maintain the peptide activity. (ku.edu)
  • The "ornithine effect", which describes the conversion of an arginine residue to an ornithine residue via reaction with hydrazine and subsequent preferential cyclization via nucleophilic attack of the ornithine side-chain to the neighboring carbonyl group, inducing heterolytic cleavage of the adjacent amide bond under gentle activation, is used to preferentially open cyclic and stapled rings to linearize these challenging biomolecules. (utexas.edu)
  • Cyclization is one approach to increase the proteolytic resistance of peptides. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Because of a cyclization in a branch-cyclic peptide, the C-terminal series 1 Y and 2 Y are replaced with the N-terminal series 3 B and 6 B. (cas.cz)
  • Peptide cyclization to form cyclic peptides or cyclized peptides is a frequently used strategy for the development of peptides with enhanced conformational stability (compared to their linear analogs). (jpt.com)
  • Depending on the cyclization site, there are nine general methods to synthesize cyclic peptides, e.g. head-to-tail cyclization, side-chain-to-side-chain, head-to-side-chain, and side-chain-to-tail cyclization (see figure below). (jpt.com)
  • Cys-Cys cyclization results from the formation of disulfide bridges between cysteine residues of the peptide. (jpt.com)
  • Synthetically, this is the most straightforward and frequently used peptide cyclization method. (jpt.com)
  • While the activity of UCI-1 is somewhat modest when compared to other known M pro inhibitors, its preliminary evaluation lays the foundation for the development of additional cyclic peptide inhibitor analogs of UCI-1 with enhanced activity against M pro . (news-medical.net)
  • CHEC-7, a neuroprotective peptide inhibitor of amyloidogenesis, was prepared in under 3 h with 80% purity. (cem.com)
  • Development of a Cyclic Peptide Inhibitor of the p6/UEV Protein-Protein Interaction. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We report the development of a cyclic peptide inhibitor of the p6/UEV interaction, from a non cell-permeable parent that was identified in a SICLOPPS screen. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here we report the crystal structures of human CXCR4 in complex with a small molecule antagonist at 2.5 Å resolution and with a cyclic peptide inhibitor at 2.9 Å resolution. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we proposed to improve the affinity of a phage-selected bicyclic peptide inhibitor of coagulation factor XII (FXII) by screening variants with one or two carbon atoms inserted into different positions of the backbone, and thus tapping into a structural space that was not sampled by phage display. (epfl.ch)
  • Here, we report an inhibitor of NADH-dependent dimerization of the C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) transcriptional repressor, identified by screening genetically encoded cyclic peptide libraries of up to 64 million members. (soton.ac.uk)
  • We investigated the effect of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp isomer, on inhibition by SNP or CNP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore, to improve the proteolytic resistance of Polybia-MPI, we have synthesized the MPI cyclic analogs C-MPI-1 (i-to-i+4) and C-MPI-2 (i-to-i+6) by copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Fülöp, Ferenc 2017-05-30 00:00:00 Peptide-based drug research has received high attention in the field of medicinal chemistry over the past decade. (deepdyve.com)
  • Furthermore, the manufacturing technique developed by Associate Professor of Chemistry Danith Ly could further the study of cyclic peptides by making the molecules easier and less expensive to produce. (healthcanal.com)
  • To achieve the aforementioned design, the researchers have utilized the molecular visualization software PyMOL (i.e., an open-source molecular visualization system) to construct an authentic model of the envisioned cyclic peptide. (news-medical.net)
  • The externally triggered self-assembly of these peptides gave rise to viscoelastic hydrogels in which the one-dimensional molecular arrangement was perfectly preserved from the nano- to the micro-scale. (rsc.org)
  • Biophysical studies revealed the molecular mechanism of peptides action and localization within the lipid bilayer of the membrane at high and low pHs. (uri.edu)
  • Coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study the insertion of cyclic peptide nanotubes into cell membranes and to examine whether cyclic peptide nanotubes can function as an ion channel and thereby as an antibacterial agent. (northwestern.edu)
  • Many naturally occurring peptides have one or more intra-molecular disulphide bridges between cysteine side chains forming cyclic peptides. (crbdiscovery.com)
  • Up to ten million different cyclic peptides are rapidly synthesized on TentaGel microbeads by the split-and-pool synthesis method and subjected to a multistage screening protocol which includes magnetic sorting, on-bead enzyme-linked and fluorescence-based assays, and in-solution binding analysis of cyclic peptides selectively released from single beads by fluorescence anisotropy. (osu.edu)
  • The PEPperCHIP® Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Microarray is based on epitopes of the Immune Epitope Database and literature and covers 577 different cyclic peptides printed in duplicate including additional control peptides. (pepperprint.com)
  • The ADTC1 peptide (cyclo(1,8)Ac-CADTPPVC-NH2) was designed by adding two Cys residues at the N- and C-terminus of ADT6 peptide and a disulfide bond from thiol groups of the Cys residues. (ku.edu)
  • The ADTC5 peptide (cyclo(1,7)Ac-CDTPPVC-NH2) was derived from ADTC1 by deleting the alanine residue from the N-terminal region of ADTC1 and ADTC6. (ku.edu)
  • The conjugation of Aib-containing amphipathic helical peptide with cyclo(-Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Phe-Cys-) (cRGDfC) at the C-terminus of the helix peptide (PI) has been reported to be useful for constructing a carrier for targeted siRNA delivery into cells. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • These CG models were verified by performing CG MD and all-atom (AA) MD simulations for a cyclic peptide nanotube, 8 x cyclo[(-D- Ala-L-Glu-D-Ala-L-Gln-) in water and by comparing the results from the two simulations. (northwestern.edu)
  • To study nanotube insertion, a CG cyclic peptide nanotube, 8 x cyclo[(-Trp-D-Leu-) was prepared above the surface of a CG DPPC lipid bilayer, restrained with constraints, and equilibrated, and then a series of CG MD simulations were carried out by lifting the constraints imposed on the nanotube. (northwestern.edu)
  • The subject peptides of the previous reports can be distinguished from the peptides of the present application by characteristic structural and biological differences. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Cyclic peptides have become a subject of major interest in biological sciences because of their enhanced enzymatic stability versus linear peptides. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • In this study, the goal was to design cyclic peptides (ADTC1, ADTC5, and ADTC6) derived from linear ADT6 (Ac-ADTPPV-NH2) to improve their stability and biological activity in improving paracellular delivery of drugs into the brain. (ku.edu)
  • Somatostatin, a peptide hormone possessing a variety of therapeutically-interesting biological activities, contains a beta-turn in its bioactive conformation. (nih.gov)
  • The beta-turn and biological activities of somatostatin have been succesfully mimicked in cyclic hexapeptide analogues. (nih.gov)
  • Specifically, cyclic and stapled peptides have become an intriguing class of biomolecules in drug research afforded to them because of their biological stability and resistance to proteolytic digestions. (utexas.edu)
  • To further investigate the utility of this methodology, the radiosynthesis of two cyclic RGD peptides was carried out, and in vivo biodistribution and microPET studies were performed in tumor-bearing mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The highest tumor to muscle ratio (5.6) was established for asymmetric cyclic peptide, c[E 4 W 5 C], at 24 hours after intravenous administration. (uri.edu)
  • pH-insensitive cyclic peptide c[R 4 W 5 C], where glutamic acid residues (E) were replaced by positively charged arginine residues (R), did not exhibit tumor targeting. (uri.edu)
  • Recently, Wang Youchu reported that a series of cyclic dipeptides were synthesized with reference to Ueda and Cook. (green-blog.org)
  • I have a data set of peptides containing their sequences. (biology-online.org)
  • The development of structured turn scaffolds allows beta-turn sequences to be contained in the context of a compact structure, with less peptidic nature and potentially greater bioavailability than cyclic hexapeptides. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclic and multiturn noncyclic sequences were synthesized, and their structures were characterized in solution and in the solid state. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In this study we present the design and construction of a new class of cyclic (S,S) non-RGD containing peptide sequences, using two Cys as a structural scaffold for the development of antiaggregatory agents. (openarchives.gr)
  • The text window on the right at the bottom (data not shown in the image above) contains a list of all linearized sequences derived from all possible ring opening sites of a branch-cyclic peptide. (cas.cz)
  • The nomenclature of linearized sequences of branch-cyclic peptides simply combines nomenclatures of linearized sequences derived from cyclic and branched peptide sequences. (cas.cz)
  • The sequences are derived the same way like linearized sequences of a cyclic peptide with a difference that all building blocks between "(" and ")" are considered as one building block. (cas.cz)
  • Linearized sequences of a branched fragment are derived similarly to linearized sequences of a branched peptide (see a general fragmentation scheme below). (cas.cz)
  • Our research focuses on the development of potent and highly selective peptide ligands for kappa (κ) opioid receptors and examination of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) for activity at these receptors. (ku.edu)
  • Certain nonproteinogenic amino acids can also improve the otherwise poor in vivo stability of short peptides and/or reduce the excessive polarity that prevents peptides crossing cell membranes ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Bicyclic peptides have improved proteolytic stability and high affinity compared to macrocyclic peptides, and pH-sensitive bicyclic peptides have been developed as potential therapeutics against cancers. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Natural cyclic peptides are conformationally constrained notable biomolecules and reveal several drug-like properties such as high binding affinity, metabolic stability, target selectivity, bioavailability, low toxicity and flexibility. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Soto, C. Converting a peptide into a drug: strategies to improve stability and bioavailability. (eurekaselect.com)
  • An additional enzyme, FMO1, may be used to introduce an unusual tryptothionine cross bridge into the cyclic peptide, further stabilizing the peptide and increasing conformational stability of the peptide ring. (technologypublisher.com)
  • This study highlights the use of circular peptides as orally active T-cell-specific immunosuppressive therapeutics against the MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, without inducing major adverse effects. (pnas.org)
  • Our work provides a proof of principle that nature-derived cyclic peptides serve as oral active therapeutics, utilizing their intrinsic bioactivity and stable three-dimensional structure. (pnas.org)
  • Bicyclic peptides have been developed as potential therapeutics against a wide range of diseases, drug targeting agents, diagnostic probes, and research tools. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Heinis, C. Cyclic peptide therapeutics: past, present and future. (eurekaselect.com)
  • b) Fosgerau, K. Hoffmann, T. Peptide therapeutics: current status and future directions. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Can small cyclic peptides have the activity and specificity of proteolytic enzymes? (nih.gov)
  • Other bicyclic peptides include echinomycin, triostin A, and Celogentin C. There are a number of cyclic peptide hormones which are cyclized through a disulfide bond between two cysteines, for example somatostatin and oxytocin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This project involves the development of conformationally constrained mimetic peptides, informed by the Loop Finder program developed by the Kritzer Lab, to block the interaction between two subunits of a ubiquitin ligase. (tufts.edu)
  • Peptides with a single disulphide bridge are readily synthesized using trityl (Trt) protecting groups on the cysteine side chains which are removed on cleavage from the resin. (crbdiscovery.com)
  • Peptides with two or more disulphide bridges require selective protection of the cysteine side chains to ensure that the correct disulphide bridges are formed. (crbdiscovery.com)
  • Cosmetic Peptides such as Lysine and Cysteine Peptide are used for DPRA (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay) for Skin Sensitization Testing. (jpt.com)
  • Some cyclic depsipeptides are cyclized between the C-terminal carboxyl and the side chain of a Thr or Ser residue in the chain, such as kahalalide F, theonellapeptolide, and didemnin B. Bicyclic peptides such as the amatoxin amanitin and the phallotoxin phalloidin contain a bridging group, generally between two of the side chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phage display is a high-throughput and highly sensitive method which enables the identification of bicyclic peptides. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • PA3740 was shown to bind c-di-GMP with a high affinity, and peptide arrays uncovered LKKALKKQTNLR to be a putative c-di-GMP binding motif. (asm.org)
  • The problem with peptides is that they're small and floppy and, when they bind, they don't bind with high affinity or selectivity. (healthcanal.com)
  • The strategy of ring size variation by one or several atoms should be generally applicable for the affinity maturation of in-vitro-evolved cyclic peptides. (epfl.ch)