Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.omega-N-Methylarginine: A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Penicillamine: 3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.Nitroso CompoundsEndothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Ferrosoferric Oxide: Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Molsidomine: A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.S-Nitrosoglutathione: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.CitrullineCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.S-Nitrosothiols: A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Biopterin: A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.Magnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)NADPH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Indazoles4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.OxadiazolesExhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Mice, Inbred C57BLTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Triazenes: Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Arginase: A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.HydrazinesGraphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.DiethylaminesTumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.QuinoxalinesAmidinesVascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Nitroquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Cerium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Manganese Compounds: Inorganic chemicals that contain manganese as an integral part of the molecule.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Tin Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Chromium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Nitrergic Neurons: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.GTP Cyclohydrolase: (GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 3.5.4.16 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 3.5.4.25 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Arsenicals: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome: A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Spin Trapping: A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.PurinonesIron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.

ATP-Dependent efflux of CPT-11 and SN-38 by the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) and its inhibition by PAK-104P. (1/17)

Non-P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug-resistant C-A120 cells that overexpressed multidrug resistance protein (MRP) were 10.8- and 29. 6-fold more resistant to 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11) and SN-38, respectively, than parental KB-3-1 cells. To see whether MRP is involved in CPT-11 and SN-38 resistance, MRP cDNA was transfected into KB-3-1 cells. The transfectant, KB/MRP, which overexpressed MRP, was resistant to both CPT-11 and SN-38. 2-[4-Diphenylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl-5-(trans-4,6-dimethyl-1,3 , 2-dioxaphosphorinan-2-yl)-2, 6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3-pyridinecarboxylate P-oxide (PAK-104P) and MK571, which reversed drug resistance in MRP overexpressing multidrug-resistant cells, significantly increased the sensitivity of C-A120 and KB/MRP cells, but not of KB-3-1 cells, to CPT-11 and SN-38. The accumulation of both CPT-11 and SN-38 in C-A120 and KB/MRP cells was lower than that in KB-3-1 cells. The treatment with 10 microM PAK-104P increased the accumulation of CPT-11 and SN-38 in C-A120 and KB/MRP cells to a level similar to that found in KB-3-1 cells. The ATP-dependent efflux of CPT-11 and SN-38 from C-A120 and KB/MRP cells was inhibited by PAK-104P. DNA topoisomerase I expression, activity, and sensitivity to SN-38 were similar in the three cell lines. Furthermore, the conversion of CPT-11 to SN-38 in KB-3-1 and C-A120 cell lines was similar. These findings suggest that MRP transports CPT-11 and SN-38 and is involved in resistance to CPT-11 and SN-38 and that PAK-104P reverses the resistance to CPT-11 and SN-38 in tumors that overexpress MRP.  (+info)

Effect of multidrug resistance-reversing agents on transporting activity of human canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter. (2/17)

The canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT), also termed MRP2, is a recently identified ATP-binding cassette transporter. We previously established stable human cMOAT cDNA-transfected cells, LLC/cMOAT-1 from LLC-PK1 cells, and LLC/CMV cells that were transfected with an empty vector. We found that LLC/cMOAT-1 cells have increased resistance to vincristine (VCR), 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin, and cisplatin but not to etoposide. The multidrug resistance-reversing agents cyclosporin A (CsA) and 2-[4-(diphenylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]-5-(trans-4,6-dimethyl-1,3, 2-dioxaphosphorinan-2-yl)-2, 6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3-pyridinecarboxylate P-oxide (PAK-104P) almost completely reversed the resistance to VCR, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin, and cisplatin of LLC/cMOAT-1 cells; and DL-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, (3'-oxo-4-butenyl-4-methyl-threonine(1), (valine(2)) cyclosporin (PSC833), and 3-([(3-(2-[7-chloro-2-quinolinyl]ethenyl)phenyl)-((3-dimethylamino-3- oxopropyl)-thio)-methyl]thio)propanoic acid (MK571) partially reversed the resistance to these drugs. CsA and PAK-104P at 10 microM enhanced the accumulation of VCR in LLC/cMOAT-1 cells almost to the level in LLC/CMV cells without the agents. The efflux of VCR from LLC/cMOAT-1 cells was enhanced compared with LLC/CMV cells and inhibited by CsA and PAK-104P. Transport of leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)) and S-(2, 4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione also was studied with membrane vesicles prepared from these cells. LTC(4) and S-(2, 4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione were actively transported into membrane vesicles prepared from LLC/cMOAT-1 cells. The K(m) and V(max) values for the uptake of LTC(4) by the LLC/cMOAT-1 membrane vesicles were 0. 26 +/- 0.05 microM and 7.48 +/- 0.67 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. LTC(4) transport was competitively inhibited by PAK-104P, CsA, MK571, and PSC833, with K(i) values of 3.7, 4.7, 13.1, and 28.9 microM, respectively. These findings demonstrate that cMOAT confers a novel drug-resistance phenotype. CsA and PAK-104P may be useful for reversing cMOAT-mediated drug resistance in tumors.  (+info)

Two pyridine analogues with more effective ability to reverse multidrug resistance and with lower calcium channel blocking activity than their dihydropyridine counterparts. (3/17)

Four pyridine analogues and their dihydropyridine counterparts were examined for their ability to reverse drug resistance in a multidrug-resistant human carcinoma cell line, KB-C2. Two pyridine analogues were more able to reverse drug resistance than their dihydropyridine counterparts. The other two pyridine analogues had an effect on drug resistance similar to their dihydropyridine counterparts. The calcium channel-blocking activity of all the pyridine analogues was considerably lower than that of the dihydropyridine analogues. Of the pyridine analogues, 2-[4-(diphenylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl 5-(trans-4,6-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-2-yl)-2,6-dimethyl-4 -(3- nitrophenyl)-3-pyridinecarboxylate P-oxide (PAK-104P) was the most effective in reversing multidrug resistance. PAK-104P (1 and 5 microM) completely reversed the drug resistance in KB-8-5 and KB-C2 cells, respectively. The reversing effect of PAK-104P was greater than that of other multidrug resistance-reversing agents, cepharanthine, verapamil, nimodipine, and nicardipine. PAK-104P at 1 microM increased about 10-fold the accumulation of vinblastine in KB-C2 cells, whereas verapamil at the same concentration increased the accumulation about 2-fold. The inhibition of [3H]azidopine photolabeling of P-glycoprotein by the pyridine and dihydropyridine analogues except 2-[methyl(phenyl-methyl)amino]ethyl 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-(4-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-2-yl)-1,4-d ihydro-2,6- dimethyl-3-pyridinecarboxylate P-oxide correlated with the reversing of drug resistance by the analogues. Some newly synthesized pyridine analogues seemed to have lower calcium channel-blocking activity and more potent resistance-reversing ability than verapamil and other calcium channel blockers.  (+info)

Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replicon RNA synthesis by PSI-352938, a cyclic phosphate prodrug of beta-D-2'-deoxy-2'-alpha-fluoro-2'-beta-C-methylguanosine. (4/17)

 (+info)

Antinociceptive effect of cyclic phosphatidic acid and its derivative on animal models of acute and chronic pain. (5/17)

 (+info)

Hepatitis C virus nucleotide inhibitors PSI-352938 and PSI-353661 exhibit a novel mechanism of resistance requiring multiple mutations within replicon RNA. (6/17)

 (+info)

Metabolic activation of the anti-hepatitis C virus nucleotide prodrug PSI-352938. (7/17)

 (+info)

Pharmacological immunosuppression in clinical organ grafting. Observations on four agents: cyclosporin A, Asta 5122 (cytimun), lambda carrageenan and promethazine hydrochloride. (8/17)

In this article I have attempted to summarize experiments on four agents investigated for immunosuppressive activity in experimental and clinical organ grafting. The difficulty of finding a suitable laboratory model relevant to man has been demonstrated in this experience. A cyclophosphamide-derivative, Asta-5122 (cytimun), has only a marginally superior immunosuppressive activity in a dog with a renal allograft compared with cyclophosphamide and is much inferior to azathioprine. This agent, however, appears to be valuable in clinical practice in patients with liver grafts. A combination of lambda carrageenan, promethazine hydrochloride and imuran has profound immunosuppressive activity in the same canine model, but proved to be both ineffective and potentially toxic in a limited trial in man. The fungal cyclic peptide, cyclosporin A, has been shown to be an extremely powerful immunosuppressive agent and remarkably non-toxic in dogs with renal allografts and pigs with orthotopic heart grafts. This agent is currently being investigated as an immunosuppressant in patients with organ grafts.  (+info)

Non-P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug-resistant C-A120 cells that overexpressed multidrug resistance protein (MRP) were 10.8- and 29.6-fold more resistant to 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11) and SN-38, respectively, than parental KB-3-1 cells. To see whether MRP is involved in CPT-11 and SN-38 resistance,MRP cDNA was transfected into KB-3-1 cells. The transfectant, KB/MRP, which overexpressed MRP, was resistant to both CPT-11 and SN-38. 2-[4-Diphenylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl-5-(trans-4,6-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-2-yl)-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3-pyridinecarboxylate P-oxide (PAK-104P) and MK571, which reversed drug resistance in MRP overexpressing multidrug-resistant cells, significantly increased the sensitivity of C-A120 and KB/MRP cells, but not of KB-3-1 cells, to CPT-11 and SN-38. The accumulation of both CPT-11 and SN-38 in C-A120 and KB/MRP cells was lower than that in KB-3-1 cells. The treatment with 10 μM PAK-104P increased the ...
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 35264-46-1((8beta)-10methoxy-6-dimethylergoline-8-methanol-5-bromo-3-pyridinecarboxylate(ester)),please inquire us for 35264-46-1((8beta)-10methoxy-6-dimethylergoline-8-methanol-5-bromo-3-pyridinecarboxylate(ester)).
Pyridyne in chemistry is the pyridine analogue of benzyne. This reactive intermediate is of some importance to scientific research. Pyridynes are the class of compounds sharing the pyridyne building motif. Two isomers exist, the 2,3-pyridine (2,3-didehydropyridine) and the 3,4-pyridyne (3,4-didehydropyridine). The reaction of 3-bromo-4-chloropyridine with furan and lithium amalgam gives 1,4-epoxy-dihydroquinoline through the 2,3-pyridyne intermediate. The reaction of 4-bromopyridine with sodium in liquid ammonia gives both 3-aminopyridine and 4-aminopyridine through the 3,4-pyridyne intermediate and an E1cB-elimination reaction. Pyridynes were first postulated by Levine and Leake in 1955. In 1969 Zoltewicz and Nisi trapped 3,4-pyridyne in a reaction of 3-bromopyridine with methylmercaptan and sodium amide in ammonia. The methylthio and amino pyridines were found to be formed in the same ratio. In 1972 Kramer and Berry inferred the formation of 3,4-pyridyne in gas-phase photolysis of ...
2-[(Diphenylmethyl)thio]acetic Acid 63547-22-8 route of synthesis, 2-[(Diphenylmethyl)thio]acetic Acid chemical synthesis methods, 2-[(Diphenylmethyl)thio]acetic Acid synthetic routes ect.
4-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)-diphenylmethyl]phenol 1844-01-5 route of synthesis, 4-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)-diphenylmethyl]phenol chemical synthesis methods, 4-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)-diphenylmethyl]phenol synthetic routes ect.
Phosphonothioic acid, methyl-, O-butyl O-(diphenylmethyl) ester | C18H23O2PS | CID 71388341 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Buy high quality 2-N-[(4-Methoxyphenyl)-diphenylmethyl]-4,6-O-dibenzyl ent-Entecavir 1354695-79-6 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
Lambda Carrageenan is a natural polysaccharide present in some varieties of red algae, capable of forming colloidal dispersions or viscous gels in aqueo...
The invention provides a novel method for the chemical synthesis of 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate and phosphorothioate of mono and terminated oligonucleotides synthesis. The invention also provides a novel method of for the chemical synthesis of 2′,3′- and 3′,5′-cyclic phosphate and phosphorothioate mononucleotide nucleotides. The process is based on quick and efficient cyclization of phosphoramidate moiety and neighboring hydroxyl group. The present invention is directed towards the synthesis of high purity DNA and RNAs, specifically to introduce cyclic phosphate at 3′-end of oligonucleotides. Such DNA and RNAs have extensive application in therapeutics, diagnostics, drug design, and selective inhibition of an RNA sequence within cellular environment, in pre-tRNA cleavage and in ribozyme ligation. The 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate nucleosides are involved in a vast number of applications in molecular biology in general and mammalian cells in particular. The invention also envisions providing kits
This thesis describes the synthesis and radiohalogenation of compounds of potential use for tumor targeting.. The first section describes the synthesis and radioiodination of DNA intercalating compounds. The compounds are derivatives of 9-aminoacridine, and the anthracyclins daunorubicin and doxorubicin. The precursor compounds were labeled with 125I (T1/2 = 60 days), which is an Auger emitting nuclide. 125I decaying in the close vicinity of DNA is known to have a much higher cell killing effect than 125I decaying in the cytoplasm and some of the labeled compounds prepared in this thesis are currently being tested for use in targeted radionuclide therapy for cancer.. The second section describes the radiobromination of closo-carboranes by subjecting the corresponding iodinated compounds to palladium-catalyzed halogen exchange using [76Br]bromide. The 76Br isotope (T1/2 = 16.2 h) is a positron emitting nuclide that is suitable for PET studies. Via the halogen exchange reaction good to excellent ...
While the benefits of transplantation to society are substantial, the ever-growing population of immunosuppressed recipients poses a unique challenge in development of immunization and containment strategies to protect the population from communicable pathogens and weaponized infectious agents. The immunosuppressive regimens that have allowed the emergence of successful transplant therapy not only inhibit T cell-dependent rejection but also cause systemic immunosuppression, which attenuates the response to vaccines in general and precludes the use of live attenuated vaccines. To date, there has been relatively little detailed systematic study of the immune alterations that accompany either the short- or long-term immunosuppressive regimens used in clinical organ transplantation. Despite the recent development of increasingly effective, but also increasingly complex, regimens using drugs with very distinct molecular targets, current policies on vaccination of transplant recipients are generic and ...
1-(4-methoxypyridin-3-ylmethyl)-4-((N-(7-(3-(S)-1-carbamoyl-1,1-diphenylmethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)hept-1-yl)-N-(isopropyl)amino) ...
RZ-2;RS 94287;Ranolazine impurity G;Ranolazine Related CoMpound C;N-(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-1-Piper;1-Piperazineaceto-2,6-xylidide;N-(2,6-DiphenylMethyl)-1-piperazine;N-(2,6-DIMETHYLPHENYL)-1-PIPERAZINEACETAMIDE;N-(2,6-DIMETHYLPHENYL)-1-PIPERAZIN-ACETAMIDE;1-(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-1- ...
Buy high quality 7-Phenylacetamide-3-chloromethyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic Acid Diphenylmethyl Ester 64308-63-0 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
113913-43-2 - YNMBROXXVUCLLU-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Piperazine, 1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-(2-(1-piperidinylmethyl)-2-propenyl)- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
To overcome this issue of reduced resolution in STED imaging due to photodegradation, ITbMs team led by Principal Investigators Shigehiro Yamaguchi, a synthetic chemist and Tetsuya Higashiyama, a plant biologist have developed a new fluorescent dye, C-Naphox that has enhanced photostability relative to conventional dyes. C-Naphox has demonstrated to be extremely photoresistant with almost no degradation of fluorescence even after prolonged STED imaging in live cells.. C-Naphox (diarylmethylene-bridged naphthophosphole P-oxide) consists of an aromatic framework with an amino moiety incorporated for its electron-donating properties and phosphorus oxide for its electron-accepting properties, leading to intense fluorescence emissions.. "Although the previously synthesized molecules in the Yamaguchi group have also led to high fluorescence intensity, it is the carbon-bridged structure in C-Naphox that is the key to its extremely high resistance to high intensity light," says Aiko Fukazawa, an ...
Find discount prices on Calcium Hardness Increaser at InTheSwim.com and helpful on-site resources featuring how-to with customer reviews to help you know the best way to raise or lower calcium hardness levels in your above ground or inground pool.
Eximpulse provides Export Import data on the value and quantity of merchandise exported and imported between various countries and its trading partners. We have one of the largest database in terms of both the number of countries included in its database and providing information about actual overseas importers and exporters. We are providing exim data from 60 countries according to bill of loading and Customs records. We process millions of data in a systematic manner and render them usable and practical for its members. All Services ...
The FDA requires all potential medication risks for PROMETHAZINE HCL (promethazine hydrochloride injection) be disclosed to consumers, no matter how rare. Here are the warnings and precautions for PROMETHAZINE HCL.
1-[[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]methyl]-1,2,4-triazole SD 494A Acetamide, N-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)- Urea, N-(2,6-bis(1-methylethyl)phenyl)-N-(2-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)hexyl)- Benzothiazolium, 3-(3-amino-3-oxopropyl)-2-((4-((2-chloroethyl)ethylamino)phenyl)azo)-6-ethoxy-, (T-4)-tetrachlorozincate(2-) (2:1) 3-(3-Chlorobenzoyl)-4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolinone Ergoline-8-methanol,10-methoxy-1,6- dimethyl-,5-bromo-3-pyridinecarboxylate (ester),(8â)-,(2R,3R)-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioate (salt) Phosphoric acid, 2-chloro-1-phenylvinyl diethyl ester 60328-00-9 (2-(o-Tolyloxy)ethyl)guanidine
Bartl, Joerg; Steenken, S.; Mayr, Herbert und McClelland, R. A. (1990): Photo-heterolysis and -homolysis of substituted diphenylmethyl halides, acetates, and phenyl ethers in acetonitrile: characterization of diphenylmethyl cations and radicals generated by 248-nm laser flash photolysis. In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 112, Nr. 19: S. 6918-6928 ...
PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS, USP ARE CONTRAINDICATED FOR USE IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS LESS THAN TWO YEARS OF AGE. CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED WHEN ADMINISTERING PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS, USP TO PEDIATRIC PATIENTS 2 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER BECAUSE OF THE POTENTIAL FOR FATAL RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION. RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION AND APNEA, SOMETIMES ASSOCIATED WITH DEATH, ARE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED WITH PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS AND ARE NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO INDIVIDUALIZED WEIGHT-BASED DOSING, WHICH MIGHT OTHERWISE PERMIT SAFE ADMINISTRATION. CONCOMITANT ADMINISTRATION OF PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS WITH OTHER RESPIRATORY DEPRESSANTS HAS AN ASSOCIATION WITH RESPIRATORY DESPRESSION, AND SOMETIMES DEATH, IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS. ANTIEMETICS ARE NOT RECOMMENDED FOR TREATMENT OF UNCOMPLICATED VOMITING IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS, AND THEIR USE SHOULD BE LIMITED TO PROLONGED VOMITING OF KNOWN ETIOLOGY. THE EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYMPTOMS WHICH CAN OCCUR SECONDARY TO PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS, USP ADMINISTRATION MAY ...
PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE IS CONTRAINDICATED FOR USE IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS LESS THAN TWO YEARS OF AGE. CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED WHEN ADMINISTERING PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS TO PEDIATRIC PATIENTS 2 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER BECAUSE OF THE POTENTIAL FOR FATAL RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION. RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION AND APNEA, SOMETIMES ASSOCIATED WITH DEATH, ARE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED WITH PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS AND ARE NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO INDIVIDUALIZED WEIGHT-BASED DOSING, WHICH MIGHT OTHERWISE PERMIT SAFE ADMINISTRATION. CONCOMITANT ADMINISTRATION OF PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS WITH OTHER RESPIRATORY DEPRESSANTS HAS AN ASSOCIATION WITH RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION, AND SOMETIMES DEATH, IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS. ANTIEMETICS ARE NOT RECOMMENDED FOR TREATMENT OF UNCOMPLICATED VOMITING IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS, AND THEIR USE SHOULD BE LIMITED TO PROLONGED VOMITING OF KNOWN ETIOLOGY. THE EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYMPTOMS WHICH CAN OCCUR SECONDARY TO PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE ADMINISTRATION MAY BE CONFUSED WITH THE CNS SIGNS ...
PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS ARE CONTRAINDICATED FOR USE IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS LESS THAN TWO YEARS OF AGE.. CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED WHEN ADMINISTERING PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS TO PEDIATRIC PATIENTS 2 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER BECAUSE OF THE POTENTIAL FOR FATAL RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION. RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION AND APNEA, SOMETIMES ASSOCIATED WITH DEATH, ARE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED WITH PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS AND ARE NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO INDIVIDUALIZED WEIGHT-BASED DOSING, WHICH MIGHT OTHERWISE PERMIT SAFE ADMINISTRATION. CONCOMITANT ADMINISTRATION OF PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS WITH OTHER RESPIRATORY DEPRESSANTS HAS AN ASSOCIATION WITH RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION, AND SOMETIMES DEATH, IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS.. ANTIEMETICS ARE NOT RECOMMENDED FOR TREATMENT OF UNCOMPLICATED VOMITING IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS, AND THEIR USE SHOULD BE LIMITED TO PROLONGED VOMITING OF KNOWN ETIOLOGY. THE EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYMPTOMS WHICH CAN OCCUR SECONDARY TO PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE ADMINISTRATION MAY BE CONFUSED WITH THE CNS SIGNS OF UNDIAGNOSED ...
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Acustop information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Apotex, Acustop indications, usages and related health products lists
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 4-{(2r)-3-[4-(diphenylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]-2-hydroxypropoxy}-1h-indole-2-carbonitrile (C29H29N4O2) from the PQR.
Concomitant side effects of phenergan codeine …. Phenergan tablets and elixir contain phenergan with codeine dosage adults the active ingredient promethazine hydrochloride, which is a type of medicine called a sedating. Consumer information about the medication PROMETHAZINE/CODEINE SYRUP - ORAL (Phenergan w/ codeine), includes side effects, drug interactions, …. The combination of promethazine hydrochloride and codeine phosphate is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age. Side effects, dosage…. Find patient medical information for Phenergan Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings Promethazine oral can you buy phenergan over the counter in usa tablet can interact with other medications, vitamins, or herbs you may be taking. Codeine phosphate should be used with caution in the following conditions: • Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the phenergan insomnia Lapp ...
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On the basis of the preclinical and clinical studies, 1592U89 appears to be a promising agent for treatment of HIV infection in children, either as an alternative to currently employed agents, or in combination therapy regimens. A liquid formulation of the drug is available; thus concurrent development of 1592U89 for children and adults is possible.. In part 1, patients will receive 1592U89 monotherapy for 12 weeks. Patients will be assigned initially to a low dose of 1592U89 (Dose A). Those patients who tolerate the drug for at least six weeks without a toxicity of grade 3 or above attributable to study drug will have their 1592U89 dose increased (Dose B). If none of those patients experience a life threatening event attributable to study drug, subsequent enrollees will be assigned initially to Dose B. In part 2, each participant will be assigned randomly (1:1:1:1) within their age and Part 1 regimen stratum to one of the four agents: Zidovudine (ZDV), Stavudine (d4T), Didanosine (ddI) or ...
Includes Phenergan side effects, interactions and indications CNS Depression. We consulted with physicians to get the details on Prilosec and pregnancy Phenergan (promethazine) is can you buy phenergan over the counter in usa used to treat allergy symptoms and prevent motion sickness. Like all other medications they should be used only as directed during pregnancy. Phenergan tablets and elixir contain the active ingredient promethazine hydrochloride, which is a type of medicine called a sedating. Fig. Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction. Side effects, dosage, and. Consumer information about the medication PROMETHAZINE SUPPOSITORY - RECTAL (Phenergan, Promethegan), includes side effects, drug interactions, …. Although several theories have been. What is in this leaflet. Find patient medical information for Phenergan Injection on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings Find patient medical ...
The design and total synthesis of DL-6-deoxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-scyllo-inositol 1:7-cyclic 2,4-trisphosphate (4), a conformationally restricted cyclic phosphate analogue of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P 3 ], is described. The protected inosose 2,4,6/3,5-pentahydroxy-3,5-bis-O-(p-methoxybenzyl)-2,4,6-O- methylidynecyclohexanone (7) was obtained from myoinositol orthoformate in two steps, and Wittig methylenation and then hydroboration-oxidation using 9-BBN-H/OH - /H 2 O 2 gave the axial hydroxymethyl derivative 9. A series of protection/ deprotection steps provided the diol 13, which was converted into two cyclic phosphate esters 14a and 14b, epimeric at phosphorus, by reaction with (benzyloxy)bis(N,N-diisopropylamino)phosphine/ 1H-tetrazole followed by m-CPBA. Two other hydroxyl groups were then exposed and phosphorylated, and total deprotection gave racemic 4. NMR studies confirmed that in 4 the phosphate group equivalent to the 4-phosphate of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 is held in
S-Alkylation of 5-(diphenylmethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thione (3) by 2-chloro-N-(pyrazin-2-yl)acetamide (2) affords the title compound, 2-{[5-(diphenylmethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]sulfanyl}-N-(pyrazin-2-yl)acetamide (4). The intermediate (2), in turn, was prepared by the acetylation of 2-aminopyrazine (1) with chloroacetyl chloride. The structure of the newly synthesized compound is characterized by IR, NMR and mass spectral data.
Disclosed is a toothpaste binder composition comprising semi-refined carrageenan. Examples of semi-refined carrageenan suitable for incorporation into a toothpaste binder are semi-refined kappa carrageenan and semi-refined iota carrageenan. Such a toothpaste binder may comprise, for example, semi-refined kappa carrageenan, semi-refined iota carrageenan, or a combination of both semi-refined kappa and iota carrageenan. Such a formulation is preferably comprised of about 10% to about 20% refined kappa-2/lambda carrageenan; about 35% to about 50% refined iota carrageenan; about 20% to about 30% semi-refined kappa and/or semi-refined iota carrageenan; and about 5% to about 20% standardizing agent; by dry weight. Specific formulations incorporating semi-refined carrageenan are described. Properties and characteristics exhibited by a toothpaste which incorporates the specific binder formulations are also described. Also disclosed is a toothpaste binder composition comprising a semi-refined carrageenan, such
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Flow Properties of Lambda Carrageenan in Aqueous Systems. By Andrea Rivera del Rio, Mariana Ramírez-Gilly and Alberto Tecante. Small amplitude oscillatory and steady shear measurements at 25°C were used to investigate the rheological behavior of λ‐carrageenan solutions at pH 7.0 ± 1.0 without and with added sodium counterion. The dynamic moduli, G′(ω) and G″(ω), show the typical behavior of macromolecular solutions in which the viscous character predominates. The steady shear flow exhibits a Newtonian zero‐shear viscosity (η0) region followed by a shear‐thinning zone. Viscosity data can be well described by the Carreau‐Yasuda model. Without added Na+, the intrinsic viscosity, [η], and the critical overlap concentration, C*, are 204 dL/g and 0.21%, respectively. With 20 mmol/dm3 Na+, [η] = 14.7 dL/g and C* = 0.38%. For concentrations below C*, the viscous character is more sensitive to the presence of added Na+, and the opposite occurs when the concentration exceeds C*. The ...
Gelling in carrageenan is caused by helix formation and this can only occur in repeat structures where the B residue is in a 1-C-4 conformation. Lambda carrageenan has both its sugar residues in a 4-C-1 conformation and does not form gels. All the gelling types of carrageenan which include κ and ι all contain a 3,6 anhydro bridge on the B unit which forces the sugar to flip from a 4-C-1 conformation to a 1-C-4 conformation and can then form cross-link networks and gels.. Some types of seaweed species contains relatively pure carrageenan fractions Eucheuma Cottonii contains largely κ carrageenan and μ carrageenan which may be converted to kappa carrageenan by alkali treatment. Eucheuma Spinosum contains a similarly high level of ι carrageenan with some ν carrageenan precursor. Furcellaran contains a strong gelling type carrageenan which is very much like kappa carrageenan. Other seaweed types, such as chondrus crispus and Gigartina types contain not only a mix of κ and λ type carrageenans ...
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Tpt1 is an essential 230-amino-acid enzyme that catalyzes the final step in yeast tRNA splicing: the transfer of the 2-PO4 from your splice junction to NAD+ to form ADP-ribose 1-2cyclic phosphate and nicotinamide. (Greer et al. 1983; Apostol et al. 1991; Sawaya et al. 2003). Third, the 2-PO4 at the splice junction MYH11 is usually … Continue reading Tpt1 is an essential 230-amino-acid enzyme that catalyzes the final step. ...
Toward a mechanical control of drug delivery. On the relationship between Lipinskis 2nd rule and cytosolic pH changes in doxorubicin resistance levels in cancer cells: a comparison to published ...
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... is an antihistamine that also produces a sedative effect. It is mainly composed of promethazine hydrochloride. This treatment can be found in doses of 20mg, in the form of tablets.. How It Works Histamine is a neurotransmitter that is responsible for wakefulness. When histamine is activated, an individual feels quite energetic and is unable to fall asleep. Sominex contains an antihistamine, which counteracts the effect of the histamine. Promethazine, in particular, is quite adept at crossing the blood-brain barrier. As such, it effects the histamine receptors present in the brain. This creates the feeling of drowsiness and can lead to sleep, especially non-REM sleep.. Uses. Sominex can be used as a sleep aid for individuals who are finding it difficult to fall asleep at night. It is used to help overcome temporary bouts of sleeplessness. In particular, this treatment is used for individuals who are undergoing provisional insomnia due to certain issues such as lifestyle changes or ...
Gigartina is one of the major species used in the extraction of carrageenan. Gigartina is wild harvested in various forms including Gigartina Skottsbergii off the coast of Argentina and Chile, Gigartina Stellata from the coast of France. Gigartina is a mixed weed type. Unlike in some weed types Gigartina has the various carrageenan types actually mixed up along the same polymer chain in a hybrid type of polymer. Iridaea is another type of South American weed found off the coast of Chile. Both of these weed types contain mixtures of kappa, iota and lambda carrageenan. Hybrid weed species are often preferred in some dairy applications.. Eucheuma is a pacific specie and comes in two major commercial forms, Eucheuma Cottonii andEucheuma Spinosum. Unlike the other weed types the Eucheuma species are relatively pure in the carrageenan type they contain. Cottonii is predominantly kappa carrageenan and Spinosum is largely iota carrageenan.This allows greater flexibility in formulation because you are ...
The invention provides a process for preparing a .beta.-lactam derivative represented by the formula ##STR1## the process comprising reacting a .beta.-lactam derivative represented by the following formula (II) and having a protected carboxyl group with a cresol; ##STR2## wherein R represents a benzyl group having an electron-donating group as a substituent on the phenyl ring, a diphenylmethyl group which may have an electron-donating group as a substituent on the phenyl ring or a tert-butyl group.
The relationship between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is unclear and some psychiatrists think that BDD is part of the same family, or even a variation of OCD. A U.S. study of 295 people compared those with OCD, those with BDD and those with both conditions. The groups were fairly similar demographically, became ill at about the same age and suffered for about the same amount of time. However, people with BDD had poorer insight than those with OCD and were more likely to be delusional. Subjects with BDD were also significantly more likely than those with OCS to have suicidal thoughts, depression and substance abuse problems ...
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The time course of lipophilic siRNA accumulation in KB-8-5 cells. The incubation time after carrier-free transfection of cholesterol-conjugated siMDR with hexyl
S-Oxides and S,S-dioxides of thiocarbonyl compounds[edit]. The S-oxides of thiocarbonyl compounds are known as thiocarbonyl S- ... The most common organosulfur compound present in all petroleum fractions is thiophene (C4H4S), a cyclic and aromatic liquid. In ... A sulfoxide, R−S(O)−R, is the S-oxide of a sulfide ("sulfide oxide"), a sulfone, R−S(O)2−R, is the S,S-dioxide of a sulfide, a ... These compounds are well known with extensive chemistry, e.g., see syn-propanethial-S-oxide and sulfene. ...
Small and medium cyclic substrates are constrained in the s-cis conformation. When the α-diazo ketone is in the s-cis ... In this last case, the reaction is sensitive to the transition metal; silver (I) oxide or other Ag(I) catalysts work well and ... Another common use is in ring-contraction methods; if the α-diazo ketone is cyclic, the Wolff rearrangement results in a ring- ... However, for all substrates except cyclic α-diazo ketones that exist solely in the s-cis conformation, products come from a ...
3.0.CO;2-A. Y. Shvo; E.D. Kaufman (1972). "Configurational and conformational analysis of cyclic amine oxides". Tetrahedron. 28 ... A Curtin-Hammett scenario was invoked to explain selectivity in the syntheses of kapakahines B and F, two cyclic peptides ... a cyclic hexapeptide with an .alpha.-carboline ring system from the marine sponge Cribrochalina olemda". Journal of the ...
The great majority of the silicates are oxides, but hexafluorosilicate ([SiF6]2−) and other anions are also included. " ... Important members are the cyclic and single chain silicates {[SiO3]2−}n and the sheet-forming silicates {[SiO2.5]−}n. Silicates ...
... decreases neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity and ischemia-evoked nitric oxide (NO) production. 4-PPBP ... 4-PPBP protects neurons using a mechanism that activates the transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate response ... "Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein phosphorylation and neuroprotection by 4-phenyl-1-(4- ... "Sigma receptor ligand 4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl)-piperidine modulates neuronal nitric oxide synthase/postsynaptic density-95 ...
... inhibition with BAY 73-6691 increases corpus cavernosum relaxations mediated by nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway in mice". ... Essayan DM (November 2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 108 (5): ...
Substituted 2-Bromopyridine-N-oxides and Their Conversion to Cyclic Thiohydroxamic Acids". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72 (10): 4362-4364 ... Another approach involves treating the same starting N-oxide with thiourea to afford pyridyl-2-isothiouronium chloride N-oxide ... Oxidation to the N-oxide can then be undertaken. Pyrithione is found as a natural product in the Allium stipitatum plant, an ... The preparation of pyrithione was first reported in 1950 by Shaw and was prepared by reaction of 2-chloropyridine N-oxide with ...
While studying cyclic GMP, Ignarro read a paper by Ferid Murad, who demonstrated that nitric oxide elevates cyclic GMP levels. ... He is the founder of the Nitric Oxide Society, and founder and editor-in-chief of Nitric Oxide Biology and Chemistry.[3] ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation upon electrical field stimulation cause relaxation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. ... CIBA Award for Hypertension Research for Discovery of the Roles of Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP in Vascular Function. Shared ...
Thus tetrafluoroethyene oxide and hexafluoropropylene oxide are two of the simplest cyclic perfluoroethers. It is a precursor ... Krytox is a grease generated by the polymerization of hexafluoropropylene oxide. Their chemical formula is F−(CF(CF3)−CF2−O)n− ... More interesting and more useful are the cyclic ethers, especially, the epoxides. ...
Gupta, Om Dutt; Kirchmeier, Robert L.; Shreeve, Jean'ne M. (1990). "Reactions of Trifluoroamine Oxide: A Route to Acyclic and ... Cyclic Fluororamines, and N-Nitrosoamines". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 112: 2383. Kitazume, Tomoya; Shreeve, ...
For example, cyclic chiral tertiary phosphine oxides can be reduced to cyclic tertiary phosphines. Phenylsilane can also be ... 4 Phenylsilane can be used to reduce tertiary phosphine oxides to the corresponding tertiary phosphine. P(CH3)3O + PhSiH3 --> P ...
The first nitric oxide (NO) independent, haem-dependent sGC stimulator, YC-1, a synthetic benzylindazole derivative, was ... NO binds to soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and mediates the synthesis of the secondary messenger cyclic guanosine ... Giaid A, Saleh D (July 1995). "Reduced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the lungs of patients with pulmonary ... In healthy individuals nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signalling molecule on vascular smooth muscle cells to induce vasodilation. ...
"Cyclic stretch induces PlGF expression in bronchial airway epithelial cells via nitric oxide release". American Journal of ...
NOCl converts some cyclic amines to the alkenes. For example, aziridine reacts with NOCl to give ethene, nitrous oxide and ... The oxide is converted to caprolactam, a precursor to Nylon-6. Nitrosyl chloride is very toxic and irritating to the lungs, ... Ketenes also add NOCl, giving nitrosyl derivatives: H2C=C=O + NOCl → ONCH2C(O)Cl Propylene oxide reacts with NOCl to give an α- ... NOCl NOCl forms by the direct combination of chlorine and nitric oxide; This reaction reverses above 100 °C. Cl2 + 2 NO → 2NOCl ...
Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK1 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I". Bredt DS, Ferris CD, Snyder SH (1992). "Nitric oxide ... Komeima K, Hayashi Y, Naito Y, Watanabe Y (2000). "Inhibition of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calcium/ calmodulin- ... 1999). "Regulation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calmodulin kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (29): 20597-602. doi:10.1074/ ...
Bredt DS, Ferris CD, Snyder SH (1992). "Nitric oxide synthase regulatory sites. Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein ...
It is a cyclic tetramer of ethylene oxide which is specific for the lithium cation. Its point group is S4. The dipole moment of ...
"Nitric Oxide Regulation of Cyclic di-GMP Synthesis and Hydrolysis inShewanella woodyi". Biochemistry. 51 (10): 2087-2099. doi: ...
"Mechanism of platelet inhibition by nitric oxide: In vivo phosphorylation of thromboxane by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase ... inhibition of cyclic AMP breakdown by cyclic GMP". Molecular Pharmacology. 37 (5): 671-681. Siess, Wolfgang; Eduardo, Lapetina ... Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates cGMP production and therefore the activation cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G kinase). This kinase ... cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, phosphorylate messengers via protein kinase A (PKA). These signaling elements include ...
Cyclic enones can be prepared via the Pauson-Khand reaction. Enones undergo many kinds of reactions. They are electrophilic at ... Some commercially significant enones are produced by condensations of acetone, e.g. mesityl oxide and isophorone. In the Meyer- ...
Stimulation by AM of its receptor increases production of both cyclic AMP (cAMP) and nitric oxide. Before the discovery of the ...
Palmer RM; Ferrige AG; Moncada S (1987). "Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived ... Resting platelets maintain active calcium efflux via a cyclic AMP activated calcium pump. Intracellular calcium concentration ... Thrombus formation on an intact endothelium is prevented by nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and CD39. Endothelial cells are ... The intact endothelial lining inhibits platelet activation by producing nitric oxide, endothelial-ADPase, and PGI2 ( ...
The chemical compound 1,3-dioxetanedione, or 1,3-dioxacyclobutane-2,4-dione is a hypothetical oxide of carbon with formula C2O4 ... It can be considered a cyclic dimer of carbon dioxide (CO2) or as a double ketone of 1,3-dioxetane (1,3-dioxacyclobutane). ...
A cyclic ether and high-boiling solvent (b.p. 101.1 °C). Tetrahydrofuran (THF) A cyclic ether, one of the most polar simple ... Polyethylene oxide (PEO) or polyoxyethylene (POE). Ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide. -CH2CH2O-. Carbowax from Dow ... Polypropylene oxide (PPOX) or polyoxypropylene (POP). Anionic ring-opening polymerization of propylene oxide. -CH2CH(CH3)O-. ... Ethylene oxide Also the simplest epoxide. Dimethyl ether An aerosol spray propellant. A potential renewable alternative fuel ...
Syn-propanethial-S-oxide cut onions. Betacyanins beets, chard, Amaranthus tricolor. betanin isobetanin probetanin neobetanin ... Chlorophyllin Saturated cyclic acids Phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) cereals, nuts, sesame seeds, soybeans, wheat, pumpkin ...
Certain cyclic ketones are converted to the ring-expanded esters using peracids in a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. They are also ... used for the oxidation of amines and thioethers to amine oxides and sulfoxides. The laboratory applications of the valued ... RCO2H This method is popular for converting cyclic anhydrides to the corresponding monoperoxyacids, for example ...
Kobayashi, Shiro; Uyama, Hiroshi (15 January 2002). "Polymerization of cyclic imino ethers: From its discovery to the present ... owing to the large amounts of triphenylphosphine oxide produced, the method is not ideal for large-scale reactions. The use of ...
"Characterisation of a cyclic displacement instability for a thermally grown oxide in a thermal barrier coating system". Acta ... This means that the coatings form an outer layer of chromium oxide (chromia), and a secondary aluminum oxide (alumina) layer ... The alumina controls oxidation mechanisms by limiting oxide growth by self-passivating. The yttrium enhances the oxide ... The Al and Cr form oxide layers that passivate the surface and protect the superalloy from further oxidation while B and Y are ...
Cellular signaling with nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate.. Martin E1, Davis K, Bian K, Lee YC, Murad F. ... The understanding of the formation and biological actions of nitric oxide (NO) has grown extensively during the past two ... With the discoveries of the biological effects of NO and nitrovasodilators on cyclic guanosine monophosphate, with the ...
The role of nitric oxide in the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein in the ... We investigated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive ...
Enantioselective addition of cyclic enol silyl ethers to 2-alkenoyl-pyridine-N-oxides catalysed by Cu(II)-bis(oxazoline) ... Asymmetric reactions involving (E)-3-aryl-1-(pyridin-2-yl-N-oxide)prop-2-en-1-ones and cyclic enol silyl ethers show good ...
Is Measurement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in Plasma or Urine Suitable for Assessing In Vivo Nitric Oxide Production?. ... Is Measurement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in Plasma or Urine Suitable for Assessing In Vivo Nitric Oxide Production? ... Is Measurement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in Plasma or Urine Suitable for Assessing In Vivo Nitric Oxide Production? ... Is Measurement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in Plasma or Urine Suitable for Assessing In Vivo Nitric Oxide Production? ...
Electrochemical analysis of nanostructured iron oxides using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy ... Electrochemical analysis of nanostructured iron oxides using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy ... Electrochemical analysis of nanostructured iron oxides using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy ... Electrochemical analysis of nanostructured iron oxides using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy. ...
... namely cyclic GMP, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and cyclic GMP-binding protein kinases type I (cGKI alpha, cGKI ... Hence, the significance of the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP signaling in the control of the human prostate requires further ... Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) is co-localized with key proteins of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP signaling in the human ... less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe findings give hints that the cyclic GMP- and cyclic AMP-dependent signal ...
Involvement of NMDA receptors and L-arginine-nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathwa were found in PRIME PubMed. ... In this study we investigated the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic ... In this study we investigated the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic ... TY - JOUR T1 - Antidepressant-like effect of folic acid: Involvement of NMDA receptors and L-arginine-nitric oxide-cyclic ...
nitric oxide. cGMP. cyclic guanylate monophosphate. db cCMP. dibutyryl cyclic cytidine monophosphate. SNAP. s-nitrosos-N-acetyl ... The Role of Cyclic Guanylate Monophosphate in Nitric Oxide-Induced Injury to Rat Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells. B. L. ... The Role of Cyclic Guanylate Monophosphate in Nitric Oxide-Induced Injury to Rat Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells. B. L. ... The Role of Cyclic Guanylate Monophosphate in Nitric Oxide-Induced Injury to Rat Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells. B. L. ...
Durner J, Wendehenne D, Klessig D (1998) Defense gene induction in tobacco by nitric oxide, cyclic GMP and cyclic ADP-ribose. ... Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP Are Messengers in the Indole Acetic Acid-Induced Adventitious Rooting Process. Gabriela Carolina ... Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP Are Messengers in the Indole Acetic Acid-Induced Adventitious Rooting Process ... Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP Are Messengers in the Indole Acetic Acid-Induced Adventitious Rooting Process ...
AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ... AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ... AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ... AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ...
... and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in relation to nitric oxide synthase isoforms and ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-phosphodiesterase isoenzymes in human vagina: Relation to ... Nitric oxide and VIP, mediating biologic signals through cGMP and cAMP, have been assumed to be involved in the control of ... OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the distribution of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) ...
Effect of cyclic GMP-increasing agents nitric oxide and C-type natriuretic peptide on bovine chromaffin cell function: ... Effect of cyclic GMP-increasing agents nitric oxide and C-type natriuretic peptide on bovine chromaffin cell function: ... Effect of cyclic GMP-increasing agents nitric oxide and C-type natriuretic peptide on bovine chromaffin cell function: ... Effect of cyclic GMP-increasing agents nitric oxide and C-type natriuretic peptide on bovine chromaffin cell function: ...
Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ...
Article: Mapping Cyclic Change of Regional Myocardial Blood Volume Using Steady-State Susceptibility Effect of Iron Oxide ... Mapping Cyclic Change of Regional Myocardial Blood Volume Using Steady-State Susceptibility Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles ... Mapping Cyclic Change of Regional Myocardial Blood Volume Using Steady-State Susceptibility Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles ... and post-monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticle (MION) gradient echo (GE) cine images. Cyclic changes of MBV in normal mice ...
... by increasing nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity in a calcium- and kinase-dependent manner. Here we show that normal and GH(3 ... Receptor-controlled phosphorylation of alpha 1 soluble guanylyl cyclase enhances nitric oxide-dependent cyclic guanosine 5- ... The Role of Cyclic Nucleotides in Pituitary Lactotroph Functions. *Marek Kucka, Ivana Bjelobaba, Melanija Tomić, Stanko S. ... Receptor-controlled phosphorylation of alpha 1 soluble guanylyl cyclase enhances nitric oxide-dependent cyclic guanosine 5- ...
This countervailing negative chronotropic nitric oxide-cyclic GMP (NO-cGMP) significantly correlated with the increase on NOS ... On the other hand, the ZD 7114 activity on frequency was enhanced by the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and soluble ... 7114 and ICI 215001 stimulated in a dose-dependent manner the contraction frequency that significantly correlated with cyclic ... Role of nitric oxide/cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP in beta3 adrenoceptor-chronotropic response.. @article{SterinBorda2006RoleON, ...
Mesh term Cyclic N-Oxides. Browse to parent terms:. Heterocyclic Oxides. Description. Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen ... 4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide. Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl. Search for this term in our Faculty Database ... is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.. Browse to child terms:. ...
This has profound consequences for the regulation of local cyclic nucleotide and hence cardiac β-adrenergic signaling. ... We therefore tested the hypothesis that PMCA4 has a key structural role in tethering neuronal nitric-oxide synthase to a highly ... Surprisingly, in PMCA4(-/-), over 36% of membrane-associated neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) protein and activity was ... is a regulator of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, the physiological consequence of this regulation is unclear. ...
The Neuroanatomy of Nitric Oxide-Cyclic GMP Signaling in the Locust: Functional Implications for Sensory Systems Recent studies ... have investigated the source and target neurons for the diffusible neuronal messenger molecule nitric oxide (NO) in the nervous ...
Cyclic voltammetric measurement and testing of xanthine biosensor. The cyclic voltammogram (CV) of XOD/CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT/Au ... 7 Cyclic voltammograms of: (a) bare Au electrode, (b) CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT/Au electrode, (c) XOD/CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT/Au electrode in pH ... The cyclic voltammogram of the CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT/Au electrode identified an oxidation peak at −290 mV (curve b). MWCNT is used as ... Cyclic voltammetry response of XOD/CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT modified Au electrode. A method is described for the construction of an ...
dibutyrylguanosine 5′,5′-cyclic monophosphate. cGMP. cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Δ. TLmaxTLmax (control preparations)-TLmax ... inducible nitric oxide synthase. IR. immunoreactivity. Lmax. maximal light emission NO nitric oxide NOS nitric oxide synthase ... endothelial nitric oxide synthase. eNOS-LI IR. endothelial nitric oxide synthase-like immunoreactivity. iNOS. ... NOS-LI IR nitric oxide synthase like immunoreactivity nNOS neuronal nitric oxide synthase nNOS-LI IR neuronal nitric oxide ...
The list of effects of nitric oxide that are independent of cyclic GMP formation is also growing at a rapid rate. For example, ... Discovery of nitric oxide and cyclic GMP in cell signaling and their role in drug development. ... There have been and will continue to be many opportunities from nitric oxide and cyclic GMP march to develop novel and ... Recognition of additional molecular targets in the areas of nitric oxide and cyclic GMP research will continue to promote drug ...
The cyclic voltammetric electrode conditioning reported here allows obtaining a stable proportion of oxides-hydroxides on the ... Oxides-Hydroxides Formation at Ni-Cr Electrodes. Figure 6, panel (a), shows the oxide-hydroxide development obtained with Ni-Cr ... Special potential scan programs were developed for cyclic voltammetric growth of different nickel oxide-hydroxide species on Ni ... Utilization of Special Potential Scan Programs for Cyclic Voltammetric Development of Different Nickel Oxide-Hydroxide Species ...
Synthesis of Five-Membered Cyclic Nitrones (Pyrroline N-Oxides). Gulla, Mahendra / Bierer, Lars / Schmidt, Stefan / Redcliffe, ...
Cyclic Voltammetry. The cyclic voltammogram presented in Fig. ​Fig.22 shows the surface processes occurring on alloy C22 in ... For the oxide film formed at −0.1 V, the content of Cr-oxide is higher in the outer layer of the film, which was ~51% formed in ... However, for the oxide films formed at −0.5 and 0.26 V, this dual-layered structure was not observed. And the Ni-oxides were ... The depth profile for the oxide films on C22 by AES (not shown here) showed more Cr-oxide was formed in 0.1 M KOH, which is ...
  • With the discoveries of the biological effects of NO and nitrovasodilators on cyclic guanosine monophosphate, with the elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms of NO synthesis, and with the growing knowledge of regulation of NO synthases, the complexities of this signal transduction cascade and its participation in numerous cell signaling processes continues. (nih.gov)
  • Biochemical evidence for impaired nitric oxide synthesis in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • By using e.p.r. spectroscopy, IL-1 beta is shown to induce the formation of a g = 2.04 iron-nitrosyl feature in islets which is prevented by cycloheximide, demonstrating the requirement of protein synthesis for IL-1 beta-induced nitric oxide formation. (biochemj.org)
  • These results show that IL-1 beta-induced nitric oxide formation parallels the ability of IL-1 beta to inhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by islets, and that protein synthesis is required for IL-1 beta-induced nitric oxide formation. (biochemj.org)
  • In many instances, nitric oxide mediates its biological effects by activating the soluble isoform of guanylyl cyclase and increasing cyclic GMP synthesis from GTP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The second most important application of ethylene oxide is in the synthesis of ethyoxylates and ethanolamines, substances used in the production of synthetic detergents. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The electrochemical synthesis is set to favor the growth of the tin oxide/hydroxide phase, while the appearance of metallic Sn is suppressed by cycling. (mdpi.com)
  • The prominent electrochemical performance of the manganese oxide demonstrates the importance of design and synthesis of pre-intercalated ultrathin layered materials. (nature.com)
  • The activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors induces the synthesis of nitric oxide, which activates soluble guanylate cyclase and leads to the formation of cyclic GMP in the brain. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The study reports the synthesis of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanostructures and their application in enzyme free electrochemical sensing of glucose. (diva-portal.org)
  • 15,16 Endogenous inhibitors of ET-1 synthesis include nitric oxide, prostacyclin, atrial natriuretic peptides, and estrogens. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we show that nitric oxide, which acts as a signal in the immune, nervous and vascular systems, potentiates the induction of hypersensitive cell death in soybean cells by reactive oxygen intermediates and functions independently of such intermediates to induce genes for the synthesis of protective natural products. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis compromise the hypersensitive disease-resistance response of Arabidopsis leaves to Pseudomonas syringae, promoting disease and bacterial growth. (nih.gov)
  • We determined the effects of repeated episodes of air-jet stress (six episodes given 5 minutes apart) on mean arterial pressure and vascular resistances in the mesenteric bed and intact and sympathetically denervated hindlimb beds of conscious rats treated with saline or the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor N ω -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 25 μmol/kg IV). (ahajournals.org)
  • The progressive diminution of air-jet stress-induced vasodilation in the intact hindlimb of L-NAME-treated rats may be due to the use-dependent depletion of preformed stores of nitric oxide-containing factors that cannot be replenished in the absence of nitric oxide synthesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is also useful as a metallurgical reducing agent , because at high temperatures it reduces many metal oxides to the elemental metal. (britannica.com)
  • Transition metal oxides have been extensively investigated these years. (nature.com)
  • Described herein are inks and coating compositions comprising semiconductor metal oxides and composites thereof, which are natural environmentally sustainable materials that may be recycled and/or reused indefinitely. (sumobrain.com)
  • Semiconductor metal oxides offer an alternative to relatively more toxic, non-sustainable, photo and heat-degrading, migrating traditional photoinitiator agents used in actinic radiation curable compositions. (sumobrain.com)
  • The semiconductor metal oxides and composites thereof absorb visible or UV-light as photocatalysts and/or semiconductors, or absorb electron beam radiation, forming radicals for radical events such as polymerization reactions and color enhancement events. (sumobrain.com)
  • 1,2 Metal oxides and nitrides, such as TiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , WO 3 , BiVO 4 , and Ta 3 N 5 , have been extensively studied as promising photoanodes for water oxidation owing to their low cost and good chemical stability in appropriate electrolytes. (rsc.org)
  • The metal oxides and metals on Si can not only improve the stability of Si photoanodes, but also serve as the oxygen evolution catalyst. (rsc.org)
  • However, in many cases, the performance of a photoanode including photovoltage, photocurrent and stability, is sensitive to the thickness of the metal oxides or metals. (rsc.org)
  • Treatment of pancreatic islets with interleukin 1 (IL-1) results in a time-dependent inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion which has recently been demonstrated to be dependent on the metabolism of L-arginine to nitric oxide. (biochemj.org)
  • Inhibition of islet glucose oxidation appears to be mediated by nitric oxide since both NMMA and cycloheximide prevent IL-1 beta-induced inhibition of glucose oxidation. (biochemj.org)
  • The inhibition of nitric oxide production, as well as the blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, has been reported to prevent the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning and memory formation in vivo, although the effects of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase are still controversial. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The understanding of the formation and biological actions of nitric oxide (NO) has grown extensively during the past two decades. (nih.gov)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) participates in long-term potentiation (LTP) and other forms of synaptic plasticity in many different brain areas but where it comes from and how it acts remain controversial. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recent studies have investigated the source and target neurons for the diffusible neuronal messenger molecule nitric oxide (NO) in the nervous system of the locust. (mpifg.de)
  • 6 h) and concentration-dependent manner (half-maximal effect at 1 n M ). Stimulation of cyclic GMP formation by the calcium ionophore A23187 is similarly enhanced. (wiley.com)
  • For example, calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) produces carbon dioxide and calcium oxide (CaO). (britannica.com)
  • The inhibitory effects of both N(G)- nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and dizocilpine on their behavior were completely reversed by 8-bromo-cyclic GMP. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and 7-nitro indazole reduced cyclic GMP levels in the cerebral cortex/hippocampus and cerebellum, and the suppressive effect of N(G)- nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on cyclic GMP levels in the cerebral cortex/hippocampus was reversed by co-treatment with L-arginine. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Cyclic AMP levels in the brain were not affected by treatment with either dizocilpine, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, or 7-nitro indazole. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Some of the methods to regulate either nitric oxide formation metabolism, or function have been in clinical use for more than a century, as with the use of organic nitrates and nitroglycerin in angina pectoris that was initiated in the 1870s. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Current and future research will undoubtedly expand the clinician's therapeutic armamentarium to manage a number of important diseases by perturbing nitric oxide formation and metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Iron-nitrosyl complex-formation by islets confirms that IL-1 beta induces the generation of nitric oxide by islets, and provides evidence indicating that nitric oxide mediates destruction of iron-sulphur clusters of iron-containing enzymes. (biochemj.org)
  • These results also suggest that nitric oxide mediates IL-1 beta-induced inhibitory effects on the pancreatic beta-cell by functioning as an effector molecule responsible for the destruction of iron-sulphur centres of iron-containing proteins, resulting in an impairment of mitochondrial function. (biochemj.org)
  • Nitric oxide (NO), a free-radical gas produced by many cell types, mediates blood vessel relaxation, functions as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system mediates macrophage cytotoxicity during host defence and leads to tissue injury in some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. (springer.com)
  • Acid-catalyzed positive photoresist compositions which are imageable with 193 nm radiation and are developable to form photoresist structures of high resolution and high etch resistance are enabled by the use of a combination of cyclic olefin polymer, photosensitive acid generator and a hydrophobic non-steroidal. (google.com.au)
  • The cyclic olefin polymers preferably contain i) cyclic olefin units having polar functional moieties, ii) cyclic olefin units having acid labile moieties that inhibit solubility in aqueous alkaline solutions. (google.com.au)
  • Cyclic tetramers of some olefin oxides. (alfa.com)
  • Inhalation of low concentrations of nitric oxide can be beneficial in premature infants with pulmonary hypertension and increase survival rates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Concordantly, chronic pharmacological activation of AMPK → PKG2 signaling with mitochondrial inhibitors, nitric oxide, or sildenafil inhibits proliferation of K-Ras-positive non-small cell lung cancer cells. (asm.org)
  • Analysts have now focused on the use of cadmium oxide (CdO), particularly in the field of devices including solar cells, phototransistors and diodes, transparent terminals and gas sensors. (rsc.org)
  • In contrast, cyclic GMP accumulation in cells treated with lipopolysaccharide is inhibited by dexamethasone. (wiley.com)
  • Examples of systems that may be studied include lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries, nickel metal-hydride batteries, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), direct-methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). (comsol.com)
  • Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species do not elicit hypersensitive cell death but induce apoptosis in the adjacent cells during the defense response of oat. (nih.gov)
  • Nitric oxide as a secretory product of mammalian cells. (springer.com)
  • 1993. Nitric oxide: An inflammatory mediator of glomerular mesangial cells. (springer.com)
  • Neuronal NOS may be responsible for producing nitric oxide in photoreceptors and bipolar cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • The key component is the complexing agent, which comprises a C 3 -C 5 aliphatic alcohol a cyclic, bidentate compound selected from lactams and lactones. (google.es)