Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 3: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 2: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.2',3'-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases: Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.Nucleotides, CyclicPhosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 7: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the enzyme type exist, each with its own tissue localization. The isoforms are encoded by at least two genes and are a product of multiple alternative splicing of their mRNAs.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Rolipram: A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESPurinonesIsoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in the outer segment PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS of the RETINA. It is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. In addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 3.Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4.4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP: N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Phosphodiesterase I: A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.Milrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Pyrrolidinones: A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Adenine NucleotidesCyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Papaverine: An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.Cyclic IMP: Inosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). An inosine nucleotide which acts as a mild inhibitor of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP and as an inhibitor of cat heart cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Guanine NucleotidesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Vinca Alkaloids: A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Cyclic P-OxidesEnzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 3: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 2: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.2',3'-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases: Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.Nucleotides, CyclicPhosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Chlorpheniramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.ChicagoRod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in the outer segment PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS of the RETINA. It is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. In addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Momordica charantia: A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE. It is a source of ribosome-inactivating proteins and triterpene glycosides.Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Momordica: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE. It is a source of momordin.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Apocynaceae: The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Nomograms: Graphical representation of a statistical model containing scales for calculating the prognostic weight of a value for each individual variable. Nomograms are instruments that can be used to predict outcomes using specific clinical parameters. They use ALGORITHMS that incorporate several variables to calculate the predicted probability that a patient will achieve a particular clinical endpoint.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Psychosomatic Medicine: A system of medicine which aims at discovering the exact nature of the relationship between the emotions and bodily function, affirming the principle that the mind and body are one.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Glucosylceramidase: A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Huntington Disease: A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Toyocamycin: 4-Amino-5-cyano-7-(D-ribofuranosyl)-7H- pyrrolo(2,3-d)pyrimidine. Antibiotic antimetabolite isolated from Streptomyces toyocaensis cultures. It is an analog of adenosine, blocks RNA synthesis and ribosome function, and is used mainly as a tool in biochemistry.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Light Signal Transduction: The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1: A PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is found in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. It mediates light-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of RHODOPSIN and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.Cell Engineering: Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.RGS Proteins: A large family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that function as negative regulators of HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. RGS PROTEINS act by increasing the GTPase activity of the G alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein, causing it to revert to its inactive (GDP-bound) form.Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.BALB 3T3 Cells: Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).Dacryocystitis: Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Secretory Component: The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Harvey murine sarcoma virus: A replication-defective mouse sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) first described by J.J. Harvey in 1964.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Chlorogenic Acid: A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.BenzoxazolesRolipram: A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4: A serine protease that catalyses the release of an N-terminal dipeptide. Several biologically-active peptides have been identified as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 substrates including INCRETINS; NEUROPEPTIDES; and CHEMOKINES. The protein is also found bound to ADENOSINE DEAMINASE on the T-CELL surface and is believed to play a role in T-cell activation.

Potency and mechanism of action of E4021, a type 5 phosphodiesterase isozyme-selective inhibitor, on the photoreceptor phosphodiesterase depend on the state of activation of the enzyme. (1/192)

The ability of inhibitors selective for the type 5 phosphodiesterase isozyme (PDE5) to act on the photoreceptor PDE isozyme (PDE6, the central effector enzyme for visual transduction) is poorly understood. Because PDE5 inhibitors are currently used as therapeutic agents, it is important to assess the potency and mechanism of action of this class of PDE inhibitor on PDE6. We show that E4021 (sodium 1-[6-chloro-4-(3, 4-methylenedioxybenzyl)-aminoquinazolin-2-yl]piperidine-4-ca rboxylate sesquihydrate) inhibits activated PDE6 (KI = 1.7 nM) as potently as PDE5. This makes E4021 the most potent inhibitor of PDE6 discovered to date. The effectiveness of E4021 to inhibit nonactivated PDE6 (with bound inhibitory gamma subunits) is reduced 40-fold compared with the activated enzyme. Furthermore, at intermediate E4021 concentrations and high cGMP concentrations, nonactivated PDE undergoes activation of cGMP hydrolysis rather than inhibition. We demonstrate direct competition of E4021 and the gamma subunits for binding to the catalytic site. Measurements of cGMP binding to noncatalytic regulatory sites on the catalytic subunits of PDE6 rule out an allosteric effect of E4021 by direct binding to these noncatalytic sites. We conclude that E4021 is a competitive inhibitor of cGMP hydrolysis and that the gamma subunit also competes with both E4021 and substrate for catalytic site binding. An understanding of the effects of PDE5-targeted drugs on retinal PDE6 requires a knowledge of the complex interactions among substrate, drug, and inhibitory gamma subunit at the catalytic site of both nonactivated and activated forms of PDE6.  (+info)

cGMP binding to noncatalytic sites on mammalian rod photoreceptor phosphodiesterase is regulated by binding of its gamma and delta subunits. (2/192)

The binding of cGMP to the noncatalytic sites on two isoforms of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) from mammalian rod outer segments has been characterized to evaluate their role in regulating PDE during phototransduction. Nonactivated, membrane-associated PDE (PDE-M, alpha beta gamma2) has one exchangeable site for cGMP binding; endogenous cGMP remains nonexchangeable at the second site. Non-activated, soluble PDE (PDE-S, alpha beta gamma2 delta) can release and bind cGMP at both noncatalytic sites; the delta subunit is likely responsible for this difference in cGMP exchange rates. Removal of the delta and/or gamma subunits yields a catalytic alphabeta dimer with identical catalytic and binding properties for both PDE-M and PDE-S as follows: high affinity cGMP binding is abolished at one site (KD >1 microM); cGMP binding affinity at the second site (KD approximately 60 nM) is reduced 3-4-fold compared with the nonactivated enzyme; the kinetics of cGMP exchange to activated PDE-M and PDE-S are accelerated to similar extents. The properties of nonactivated PDE can be restored upon addition of gamma subunit. Occupancy of the noncatalytic sites by cGMP may modulate the interaction of the gamma subunit with the alphabeta dimer and thereby regulate cytoplasmic cGMP concentration and the lifetime of activated PDE during visual transduction in photoreceptor cells.  (+info)

cGMP phosphodiesterase-alpha mutation causes progressive retinal atrophy in the Cardigan Welsh corgi dog. (3/192)

PURPOSE: To screen the alpha-subunit of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE6A) as a potential candidate gene for progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) in the Cardigan Welsh corgi dog. METHODS: Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was used to screen short introns of the canine PDE6A gene for informative polymorphisms in members of an extended pedigree of PRA-affected Cardigan Welsh corgis. After initial demonstration of linkage of a polymorphism in the PDE6A gene with the disease locus, the complete coding region of the PDE6A gene of a PRA-affected Cardigan Welsh corgi was cloned in overlapping fragments and sequenced. SSCP-based and direct DNA sequencing tests were developed to detect the presence of a PDE6A gene mutation that segregated with disease status in the extended pedigree of PRA-affected Cardigan Welsh corgis. Genomic DNA sequencing was developed as a diagnostic test to establish the genotype of Cardigan Welsh corgis in the pet population. RESULTS: A polymorphism within intron 18 of the canine PDE6A gene was invariably present in the homozygous state in PRA-affected Cardigan Welsh corgis. The entire PDE6A gene was cloned from one PRA-affected dog and the gene structure and intron sizes established and compared with those of an unaffected animal. Intron sizes were identical in affected and normal dogs. Sequencing of exons and splice junctions in the affected animal revealed a 1-bp deletion in codon 616. Analysis of PRA-affected anti obligate carrier Cardigan Welsh corgis showed that this mutation cosegregated with disease status. CONCLUSIONS: A single base deletion at codon 616 in the PDE6A gene cosegregated with PRA status with zero discordance in Cardigan Welsh corgis with PRA. A lod score of 4.816 with a recombination fraction (theta) of zero strongly suggests that this mutation is responsible for PRA in the breed. The mutation is predicted to lead to a frame shift resulting in a string of 28 altered codons followed by a premature stop codon. The authors suggest that this type of PRA be given the name rod-cone dysplasia 3 (rcd3).  (+info)

Screening of the gene encoding the alpha'-subunit of cone cGMP-PDE in patients with retinal degenerations. (4/192)

PURPOSE: To screen the exons of the gene encoding the alpha'-subunit of cone cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP>phosphodiesterase (PDE6C) for mutations in a group of 456 unrelated patients with various forms of inherited retinal disease, including cone dystrophy, cone-rod dystrophy, macular dystrophy, and simplex/multiplex and autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. METHODS: The 22 exons of the PDE6C gene were screened for mutations either by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and single-strand conformation polymorphism electrophoresis (SSCP) or by SSCP alone; variants were sequenced directly. RESULTS: Although many sequence variants were found, none could be associated with disease. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that PDE6C was not the site of the amutations responsible for the types of inherited retinal degenerations analyzed in the large population of patients 'in the present study. The types of degeneration included those that predominantly affect cone-mediated function (cone and cone-rod dystrophies) or rod-mediated function (retinitis pigmentosa) or that have a predilection for disease in the macula (macular dystrophies).  (+info)

Frequency of mutations in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of rod cGMP-phosphodiesterase in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. (5/192)

PURPOSE: To determine the mutation spectrum of the PDE6A gene encoding the alpha subunit of rod cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)phosphodiesterase and the proportion of patients with recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) due to mutations in this gene. METHODS: The single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique and a direct genomic sequencing technique were used to screen all 22 exons of this gene for mutations in 164 unrelated patients with recessive or isolate RP. Variant DNA fragments revealed by SSCP analysis were subsequently sequenced. Selected alleles that altered the coding region or intron splice sites were evaluated further through segregation analysis in the families of the index cases. RESULTS: Four new families were identified with five novel mutations in this gene that cosegregated with disease. Combining the data presented here with those published earlier by the authors, eight different mutations in six families have been discovered to be pathogenic. Two of the mutations are nonsense, five are missense, and one affects a canonical splice-donor site. CONCLUSIONS: The PDE6A gene appears to account for roughly 3% to 4% of families with recessive RP in North America. A compilation of the pathogenic mutations in PDE6A and those reported in the homologous gene PDE6B encoding the beta subunit of rod cGMP-phosphodiesterase shows that the cGMP-binding and catalytic domains are frequently affected.  (+info)

Rescue from photoreceptor degeneration in the rd mouse by human immunodeficiency virus vector-mediated gene transfer. (6/192)

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited retinal disease, in which photoreceptor cells degenerate, leading to blindness. Mutations in the rod photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase beta subunit (PDEbeta) gene are found in patients with autosomal recessive RP as well as in the rd mouse. We have recently shown that lentivirus vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 achieve stable and efficient gene transfer into retinal cells. In this study, we evaluated the potential of HIV vector-mediated gene therapy for RP in the rd mouse. HIV vectors containing a gene encoding a hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged PDEbeta were injected into the subretinal spaces of newborn rd mouse eyes. One to three rows of photoreceptor nuclei were observed in the eyes for at least 24 weeks postinjection, whereas no photoreceptor cells remained in the eyes of control animals at 6 weeks postinjection. Expression of HA-tagged PDEbeta in the rescued photoreceptor cells was confirmed by two-color confocal immunofluorescence analysis using anti-HA and anti-opsin antibodies. HIV vector-mediated gene therapy appears to be a promising means for the treatment of recessive forms of inherited retinal degeneration.  (+info)

The delta subunit of rod specific cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, PDE delta, interacts with the Arf-like protein Arl3 in a GTP specific manner. (7/192)

Recently, we have shown that the delta subunit of the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE delta) interacts with the retinitis pigmentosa guanine regulator (RPGR). Here, using the two-hybrid system, we identify a member of the Arf-like protein family of Ras-related GTP-binding proteins, Arl3, that interacts with PDE delta. The interaction was verified by fluorescence spectroscopy and co-immunoprecipitation. Arl3 features an unusually low affinity for guanine nucleotides, with a KD of 24 nM for GDP and 48 microM for GTP. Fluorescence spectroscopy shows that PDE delta binds and specifically stabilizes the GTP-bound form of Arl3 by strongly decreasing the dissociation rate of GTP. Thus, PDE delta is an effector of Arl3 and could provide a novel nucleotide exchange mechanism by which PDE delta stabilizes Arl3 in its active GTP-bound form.  (+info)

A point mutation (W70A) in the rod PDE-gamma gene desensitizing and delaying murine rod photoreceptors. (8/192)

PURPOSE: To examine the corneal electroretinogram (ERG) of transgenic mice (W70A mice) carrying a point mutation (W70A) in the gene encoding for the gamma-subunit of rod cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDEgamma). METHODS: The ERG of W70A mice was compared with that of normal mice. Cone responses were separated from rod responses by light adaptation, whereas rod sensitivity was assessed by threshold stimulation with dim light. Spectral sensitivity curves of the ERG were obtained using a constant response criterion. RESULTS: The ERG of the W70A mouse has a desensitized, delayed rod b-wave at threshold, and a prolonged rod b-wave at higher flash intensities. The a-wave is absent even at maximal stimulation. The cone ERG of the W70A mouse is indistinguishable from that of normal mice. The spectral sensitivity of the W70A mouse is maximal in the UV spectrum, in contrast to the normal mouse, which is most sensitive in the green region of the spectrum. This supports the interpretation of the results as normal cone and abnormal rod function in the W70A mouse. CONCLUSIONS: The W70A mouse represents new model of stationary nyctalopia that can be recognized by its unusual ERG features.  (+info)

*Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor

"Functional and biochemical evidence for diazepam as a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor" (pdf). British ... A phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, commonly referred to as a PDE4 inhibitor, is a drug used to block the degradative action ... Barad M, Bourtchouladze R, Winder DG, Golan H, Kandel E (1998). "Rolipram, a type IV-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, ... Dinter, H (February 2000). "Phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors: potential in the treatment of multiple sclerosis?". BioDrugs. ...

*TNF inhibitor

Essayan DM (November 2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai. ... Cannabinoid type 2 receptor-dependent and -independent immunomodulatory effects". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (20): 14192-206. doi: ... "Binding and Functional Comparisons of Two Types of Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonists". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental ... 12 (6-7): 445-52. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2003.12.011. PMID 16008121. Raduner S, Majewska A, Chen JZ, Xie XQ, Hamon J, Faller B, ...

*PDE8B

2003). "Comparison of enzymatic characterization and gene organization of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 8 family in ... 2003). "Alterations on phosphodiesterase type 7 and 8 isozyme mRNA expression in Alzheimer's disease brains examined by in situ ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 250 (3): 751-6. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.9379. PMID 9784418. " ... High affinity cAMP-specific and IBMX-insensitive 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 8B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by ...

*Cyclic nucleotide

Cyclic nucleotides can be found in many different types of eukaryotic cells, including photo-receptor rods and cones, smooth ... cAMP's role in this process terminates upon hydrolysis to AMP by phosphodiesterase. Cyclic nucleotides are well-suited to act ... The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) and cyclic ... A cyclic nucleotide (cNMP) is a single-phosphate nucleotide with a cyclic bond arrangement between the sugar and phosphate ...

*Emoxypine

Modulates the activity of membrane-bound enzymes: phosphodiesterase, cyclic nucleotides, adenylate cyclase, aldoreductase, ... Its chemical structure resembles that of pyridoxine (a type of vitamin B6). It is not approved for any medical use in the ... Emoxypine (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine), also known as Mexidol or Mexifin when used as the succinate salt, is an ... 158 (6): 756-761. doi:10.1007/s10517-015-2855-3. S. A. Rumyantseva A.; I. Fedin; O. N. Sokhova (October 2012). "Antioxidant ...

*Phosphodiesterase

Usually, phosphodiesterase refers to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, which have great clinical significance and are ... Sildenafil (Viagra) is an inhibitor of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5, which enhances the vasodilatory effects of cGMP ... "Differential activation and inhibition of the multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Advances in Cyclic ... as well as numerous less-well-characterized small-molecule phosphodiesterases. The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases ...

*PDE1C

2007). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE1C1 in human cardiac myocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (45): 32749-57. doi:10.1074/ ... 2006). "Subcellular localization and regulation of type-1C and type-5 phosphodiesterases". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 341 ( ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1C ... Rybalkin SD, Rybalkina I, Beavo JA, Bornfeldt KE (2002). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C promotes human arterial smooth ...

*PDE4B

This gene is a member of the type IV, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family. Cyclic ... The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate the cellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides and thereby play a ... "Pivotal role of cyclic nucleoside phosphodiesterase 4 in Tat-mediated CD4+ T cell hyperactivation and HIV type 1 replication". ... cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE4B gene. ...

*Phosphodiesterase 3

September 2003). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity, expression, and targeting in cells of the cardiovascular system ... PDE3A can be either membrane-associated or cytosolic, depending on the variant and the cell type it is expressed in. The PDE3 ... Lugnier C (March 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) superfamily: a new target for the development of specific ... Bender AT, Beavo JA (September 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. ...

*ABCC5

This export contributes to the degradation of phosphodiesterases and possibly an elimination pathway for cyclic nucleotides. ... "cDNA cloning of a short type of multidrug resistance protein homologue, SMRP, from a human lung cancer cell line". Biochemical ... This protein functions in the cellular export of its substrate, cyclic nucleotides. ... a transporter for cyclic nucleotides, in human placenta and cultured human trophoblasts: effects of gestational age and ...

*PDE9A

1998). "Identification and characterization of a novel cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase gene (PDE9A) that maps to 21q22.3: ... "Identification and characterization of a new human type 9 cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase splice variant (PDE9A5). Differential ... High affinity cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 9A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE9A gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: PDE9A phosphodiesterase 9A". Verhoest PR, Fonseca KR, Hou X, et al. (2012). "Design and discovery of 6-[(3S,4S)-4- ...

*Taste receptor

This G protein subunit activates a taste phosphodiesterase and decreases cyclic nucleotide levels. Further steps in the ... taste receptors, type 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) taste receptors, type 2 at the ... HCN1 and HCN4 (HCN channels) were two such proposals; both of these receptors are cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. The two ion ... The fourth type - filiform papillae do not contain taste buds). Beyond the papillae, taste receptors are also in the palate and ...

*Oligodendrocyte

2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) (Ragheb 1999, p. 14). Pérez-Cerdá, Fernando; Sánchez-Gómez, María ... They are the last cell type to be generated in the CNS. Oligodendroglia, types of glial cells, arise during development from ... Oligodendrocytes (from Greek, meaning cells with a few branches), or oligodendroglia, are a type of neuroglia discovered by Pío ... "Epidermal growth factor induces the progeny of subventricular zone type B cells to migrate and differentiate into ...

*GAF domain

In mammals, GAF domains are found in five members of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase superfamily: PDE2, PDE5, and PDE6 ... The GAF domain is a type of protein domain that is found in a wide range of proteins from all species. The GAF domain is named ... The two GAF domains in phosphodiesterase 2A have distinct roles in dimerization and in cGMP binding. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S ... Structure of the GAF domain, a ubiquitous signaling motif and a new class of cyclic GMP receptor. EMBO J.. 2000;19(20):5288-99 ...

*PDE4D

"Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... These proteins degrade the second messenger cAMP, which is a key signal transduction molecule in multiple cell types, including ... "Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE4D gene. The PDE4D gene is ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.160 --- 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases MeSH D08.811. ... myosin type iii MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.525.843 --- myosin type iv MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.525.875 --- myosin type v MeSH ... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.125 --- cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases ... nitric oxide synthase type i MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.500 --- nitric oxide synthase type ii MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772. ...

*Phosphodiesterase 2

"Positive inotropic effect of the inhibition of cyclic GMP-stimulated 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2) on guinea ... As different PDE types may affect different cAMP pools, the different PDEs may regulate different processes in the cell. PDE2 ... "Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic Nucleotide ... June 1997). "cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulates the basal calcium current in human atrial myocytes ...

*Myelin basic protein

Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and multiple molecules of the Immune system. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000197971 ... In general, the major form of MBP is a protein of about 18.5 Kd (170 residues). In melanocytic cell types, MBP gene expression ... 21 (6): 665-76. doi:10.1111/j.1755-148X.2008.00505.x. PMID 19067971. "Entrez Gene: myelin basic protein". Berger T, Rubner P, ... 6 (1): 16-22. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(90)90443-X. PMID 1689270. Kishimoto A, Nishiyama K, Nakanishi H, et al. (1985). "Studies on ...

*Discovery and development of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors

Lugnier, C. (2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) superfamily: A new target for the development of specific ... Yu, J. Y.; Kang, K. K. & Yoo, M. (2006). "Erectile potentials of a new phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, DA-8159, in diet- ... McMahon, C. G.; McMahon, C. N.; Leow, L. J. & Winestock, C. G. (2006). "Efficacy of type-5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the ... Ravipati, G.; McClung, J. A.; Aronow, W. S.; Peterson, S. J.; Frishman, W. H. (2007). "Type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors in ...

*Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder

Methylxanthines such as caffeine inhibit the action of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, which normally acts to break down ... Symptoms must also not have a more likely clinical cause, such as another type of anxiety disorder, come before the ingestion ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or cAMP, is a second messenger important in many cellular processes and is a critical factor in ... Adenosine acts on A1 receptors to decrease opening of N-type Ca2+ channels in some hippocampal neurons, and therefore decrease ...

*PDE6B

Rod cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit beta is the beta subunit of the protein complex PDE6 that is encoded ... Journal of Cyclic Nucleotide Research. 2 (3): 139-48. PMID 6493. Keeler, CE (20 March 1928). "The Geotropic Reaction of Rodless ... There are two types of photoreceptors: cones and rods. The rod and cone PDE6 complexes have different structures. PDE6β ... Organization of the gene for the beta-subunit of human photoreceptor cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase]". Bioorganicheskaia Khimiia ...

*Heterotrimeric G protein

The GTP form of the α subunit of transducin (Gt) activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase from retinal rod outer segments, ... Fung, BKK; Hurley, JB; Stryer, L (1981). "Flow of information in the light-triggered cyclic nucleotide cascade of vision". Proc ... They can also activate L-type calcium channels, as in H3 receptor pharmacology. Hurowitz EH, Melnyk JM, Chen YJ, Kouros-Mehr H ... The pure beta-adrenergic receptor and guanine nucleotide regulatory protein confer hormone responsiveness on the resolved ...

*Neuronal calcium sensor-1

... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases ARF1 (ADP Ribosylation factor 1) A type (Kv4.3; Shal-related subfamily, member 3) voltage- ... The designation 'NCS-1' came from the assumption that the protein was expressed only in neuronal cell types, which is not the ... type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase β) IP3 receptor (this activity is inhibited by lithium - a drug used for the treatment ... 116 (6): 1668-74. doi:10.1172/JCI22466. PMC 1459068 . PMID 16691292. Hui H, McHugh D, Hannan M, Zeng F, Xu SZ, Khan SU, ...

*Phosphodiesterase inhibitor

2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai ... Jan 2012). "Neuroprotective efficacy of quinazoline type phosphodiesterase 7 inhibitors in cellular cultures and experimental ... Fertel, R. and Weiss, B.: Properties and drug responsiveness of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases of rat lung" Mol. ... Weiss B (1975). "Differential activation and inhibition of the multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Adv. ...

*Pharmacology of antidepressants

... by adenylyl cyclase and metabolized by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). One manifestation of depression is an ... a type of glutamate receptor - produces rapid (within 2 hours), robust and sustained (lasting for up to a fortnight) ... Rodent studies have consistently shown upregulation of the 3, 5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) system induced by ... "Interaction between the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of beta adrenergic agonists and the cyclic AMP PDE inhibitor ...

*Enzyme inhibitor

This compound is a potent inhibitor of cGMP specific phosphodiesterase type 5, the enzyme that degrades the signalling molecule ... This block of nucleotide biosynthesis is more toxic to rapidly growing cells than non-dividing cells, since a rapidly growing ... cyclic guanosine monophosphate. This signalling molecule triggers smooth muscle relaxation and allows blood flow into the ... Although it is possible for mixed-type inhibitors to bind in the active site, this type of inhibition generally results from an ...
Agility Training: Cardigan Welsh Corgis can be taught to accomplish obstacle courses, relays, and agility courses. With dedication, clear instructions and proper incentives, Cardigan Welsh Corgis have been known to rank well in agility competitions. Though they are not as speedy as other dog breeds, the Cardigan general stability, physical stamina and strength enable them to engage in intense competition.. Agility training must be completed with an experienced dog trainer, who will know the pace at which training should progress. Corgis should hold off on jumping and heavy contact sections until they are older than 18-24 months. Their spinal structures need ample time to develop, so be sure to protect young dogs from over-training. A dogs growth plates typically close when they are between 9-14 months old, meaning that training should not commence until the dogs dwarfish anatomy can sustain it. Likewise, monitoring diet is an important aspect of skill training, since Corgis have a tendency to ...
Detailed Information on Cardigan Welsh Corgi, from Health to Temperment you will find the information you need on Cardigan Welsh Corgi
Classic Elite Majestic Tweed HRH Cardigan Kit - Womens Cardigans Kits - Taken from Classic Elite Booklet 9248 Nobility: A cardigan with cables on each front and a wide collar. This pattern is from Classic Elite Booklet 9248 Nobility, pg 12 - HRH Size US 9- 24 circular and straight needles (or size needed to obtain gauge), a cable needle, stitch markers, and stitch holders are required but not included. Finished Bust Measurements: 31.5 (35.5, 39.5, 43.5, 47.5, 51.5) after blocking. Gauge: 16 sts & 24 rows over 4 Color Shown is 7227 Congnac. Classic Elite Majestic Tweed HRH Cardigan Kit - Womens Cardigans Kits are available now at Jimmy Beans Wool with Free U.S. Flat Rate shipping for orders over $75, $4 U.S. Flat Rate shipping on all other orders!
The Cardigan was bred for guarding, managing cattle, and vermin hunting. They are an affectionate and active companion that excels in herding. Learn more...
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warm enough premature baby Autumn 2013 cardigans for premature babies when baby is allowed layers in the special care by unit you may like to pick out a tiny bay cardigan to keep them warm enough and cosy.new lines have just arrived for premature babies ,loads of snug fitting fancy cardigans see them here for both boys and girls Cheeky …Continue reading →. ...
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No seams! No sewing! No sagging! Easy and beautiful baby fern lace pattern accents waist and then flares slightly at the hips to flatter your figure. Elegant neckline wont slide off your shoulders or hang awkwardly around your throat. Cardigan can be worn open at the front or you can use your favorite method to add buttonholes (recommended if you are more busty than model). Its easy to adjust the length of body and sleeves as you knit. Pattern also includes several options for hems. Made with an easy care cotton blend yarn that resists pilling and stretching and has a lovely sheen, this will be your favorite cardigan for every season.
This hairy alpaca cardigan is perfect for becoming a proper ice queen, with a touch of irony. It is a cardigan with pom-poms and a hood, open in the front with a zipper. A truly versatile garment dedicated to anyone who faces life with a smile.
Onto something a tad more cheerful than the state of my under-insulated office: a new cardigan! I have been on the hunt for the perfect cardigan for months! I found one that almost fit the bill at Forever 21 a couple of months ago but just wasnt blown away by it; I found several cute ones at New York & Co. and Old Navy (and did buy 1 that I adore), but they still werent matching the vision inside my head; and while Id continually checked Target (it is my mecca afterall, so Im there more often than I care to admit) even this love of my life couldnt deliver. In fact, I was seriously disappointed with Targets cardigan and sweater selection this year. I mean, come on Target, cardigans are all the rage right now, plus the world is full of nerdy all-the-time-cardigan-lovers like me and all you have are thin worthless ones or basic cardis?! Unacceptable. Well, after last night, Target and I are back on good terms again because I found exactly what Id been looking for (and for only $20) ...
Cambia is a light and feminine cardigan that works as an extra layer to wear at work, but its pretty enough to go out to dinner that evening. The front edgings cleverly form a sash that ties in the front and each edging is flanked by a pretty openwork cable. The cable is repeated on the sleeves for a charming accent, and also appears on the back. The rest of the body is in stockinette stitch. The sweater is knitted in one piece from the bottom up, the visual effect of the vertical cables will be slimming to many figures while the gentle waist shaping creates a flattering fit.
The fabric: a snuggly burgundy knit thats a stretchy fit with a lightweight feel. The fit: a draped front that flatters, with a slightly longer hem. But wait, theres more; the black stripes lend a minimalist touch that catches the eye without overwhelming the look.|div||br||/div||div||b|Model is 5’10”, size 1|br||/b||div||ul||li style=LIST-STYLE-POSITION: outside !important; LIST-STYLE-TYPE: disc !important|Size 1 measures 47 from shoulder|/li||li style=LIST-STYLE-POSITION: outside !important; LIST-STYLE-TYPE: disc !important|Acrylic/wool|/li||li style=LIST-STYLE-POSITION: outside !important; LIST-STYLE-TYPE: disc !important|Wash cold, dry flat|/li||li style=LIST-STYLE-POSITION: outside !important; LIST-STYLE-TYPE: disc !important|Imported plus size cardigan|/li||/ul||/div||/div|
The wonderful Otto cardigan is made from a chunky wool mix in dark navy. It has a v neck and chunky buttons at the front. It has charming little ticket pockets at both the front and the back and it has elbow patches.
Lush hibiscus blossoms in dark olive on navy pattern this jacquard-knit cardigan of softest pima. The knit stitch drapes beautifully and looks stunning belted with its removable sash. Styled with a ribbed shawl collar and buttonless placket.
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Oh, this is about to be your favorite skull cardigan. It has an edgy black and white striped design. It's so soft and smooth, you're going to love wrapping up in it. And it's finished with a cool drape front that boosts this cardi's style quotient to another level.|ul||li| Size 1 measures 28 3/4 from shoulder|/li||li|Cotton/rayon/nylon|/li||li|Wash cold, dry flat|/li||li|Imported|/li||/ul|
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Tap into printed pretty style with our ribbed cardigan with all over red rose print. Pair your cardi with some denim jeans for an effortless look that will look great. 98% Polyester, 2% Elastane. Machine wash ...
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The yarn is lovely, but a little too heavy for this design. Or I stretched it too much when I washed the cardigan. At least, is has grown somewhat longer than I intended, and I had to shorten the sleeves again. Thankfully this was easy because they are knitted top-down ...
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Long cardigan | Thick, knitted quality | Regular fit | Long sleeved | Open with no closure | Front pockets | Ribbed at all edges | Length: 70 cm in a size S | The model is 180 cm tall and is wearing a size S
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Progressive paralysis. Description: Degenerative disease of the spinal cord causing progressive paralysis. Symptoms : Loss of coordination (ataxia) in the hind limbs until paraplegia, loss of urinary and fecal continence. If signs progress for a longer period of time, eventually weakness will develop in the front limbs.. Age of onset : Between 8 and 14 years old. Frequency : _. Gene involved : SOD1. Tested mutation : c.118G>A. Transmission : Autosomal Recessive. Patent : _. Notes : PrintSend to a friendTweet WidgetPartager sur Facebook ...
I have done this. It is heart wrenching to watch as your plans and future "disappear" but that is part of the commitment of breeding for a better future.. I also agree with breeders who decide to breed a dog between the ages of 1 - 2 when they have such a stellar pedigree of "passing" or "clear" hips, when they do the breeding in a knowledgeable way. They will breed this individual to a dog who has his/her hip clearances or the dog is from a pedigree of clear testing. I have done this as well. ...
RT @joshgondelman There should be a bot that tweets "I know you are but what am I" at any completely anonymous account that uses "snowflake" as an insult.. About a year ago from Vanessa Howes Twitter via Twitter for iPhone ...
Ever wondered what Girls Generation wore or what items they were seen with? This site brings the answers to your questions! We provide I.D. on things the girls were seen with, articles, tutorials, and much more! Browse around and drop a comment!. Found something we havent posted yet? Something wrong with a post? Feel free to send us an inquiry or notification to [email protected] Please note: We no longer answer any questions or requests about I.Ding items that have not been posted on the site, upon receiving many emails of this nature.. ...
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Get ready to snap up this top in every single color. Its THE perfect piece for layering underneath cardigans and blazers for work, or wearing on its own with jeans and skirts for the weekend. Body length: 26 1/2. Poly. Bra keeps. Machine wash. Import.
green and white stripes hooded polo (mint), brown pants (bossini), black cardigan with white detailing (bench), brown sneaks with red detailing (lacoste), plaid messenger bag (ralph lauren) ...
Purpose: : Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a common cause of infantile blindness. Here we study one LCA subtype caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein like 1 (AIPL1). AIPL1 is an FK506-binding homolog specifically expressed in photoreceptor cells. Previous studies suggest that AIPL1 serves as a specialized chaperone for the synthesis of rod cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6) in photoreceptor cells. However, it is not yet clear whether AIPL1 primarily serves as a quantity control or a quality control. To address this question, we co-express AIPL1 and subunits of PDE6 followed by biochemical characterization. Methods: : To introduce AIPL1 into HEK293 cells, an AIPL1 HEK 293 stable cell line was established. Plasmids expressing PDE6 subunits were then transduced into HEK293 cells and the AIPL1 HEK293 stable cell line, respectively. Immunoblotting was used to determine the expression levels for PDE6 subunits. SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting was ...
What is the difference between a Pembroke and a Cardigan Welsh Corgi?. Until 1934, the Kennel Club (Great Britain) classed the Pembroke and Cardigan Welsh Corgis as two varieties of one breed. Most fanciers believe that the two breeds evolved separately, the Pembroke from the Spitz family and the Cardigan from the Dachshund family.. The theory is plausible, with anatomical evidence to support it, but impossible to verify or disprove. Interbreeding between the two breeds occurred but was not widespread. With the recognition of the breeds as totally separate by the Kennel Club, breeders gave up interbreeding and the individual integrity of both breeds were saved.. The differences between Pems and Cardis are as notable as are the similarities:. Similarities: Erect ears; foxy head; long, low body; intelligent; energetic; ability to herd and act as a guard dog. Differences: The Pembroke is an extroversive breed, the Cardi is friendly but may be reserved with strangers. The Pembrokes ears are erect, ...
The rod photoreceptor cGMP-gated cation channel, consisting of three α- and one β subunit, controls ion flow into the rod outer segment (ROS). In addition to the β-subunit, the Cngb1 locus encodes an abundant soluble protein, GARP2 that binds stoichiometrically to rod photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase type 6 (PDE6). To examine the in vivo functional role of GARP2 we generated opsin promoter-driven transgenic mice overexpressing GARP2 three-fold specifically in rod photoreceptors. In the GARP2 overexpressing transgenic mice (tg), the endogenous channel β-subunit, cGMP phosphodiesterase α-subunit, peripherin2/RDS and guanylate cyclase I were present at WT levels and were properly localized within the ROS. While localized properly within ROS, two proteins cGMP phosphodiesterase α-subunit (1.4-fold) and cGMP-gated cation channel α-subunit (1.2-fold) were moderately, but significantly elevated. Normal stratification of all retinal layers was observed, and ROS were stable in numbers but were 19%
Classic Elite Firefly Azul Hooded Cardigan Kit - Crochet for Adults Kits - Taken from Classic Elite Surfs Up: A cardigan with hood and tie closure with flowing lacy trim at hem and cuffs. This pattern is from Classic Elite Surfs Up, pg 10 - Azul Size US F/5 crochet hook (or size needed to obtain gauge) required but not included. Finished Bust Measurements: 33 (36, 39, 46, 49, 52) after blocking. Gauge: 20 sts and 9 rows over 4 Color Shown is 7757 Chicory. Classic Elite Firefly Azul Hooded Cardigan Kit - Crochet for Adults Kits are available now at Jimmy Beans Wool with Free U.S. Flat Rate shipping for orders over $75, $4 U.S. Flat Rate shipping on all other orders!
Im a breeder and exhibitor of Cardigan Welsh Corgis under the Cheysuli kennel prefix. I started with Labs many years ago in obedience, then got talked into *A* Cardigan by a breeder-friend. Heh. One was not enough! I also teach conformation handling classes. My "real job" is being a fulltime fantasy author. I have three series published: The Chronicles of the Cheysuli (where my kennel name came from); the Sword-Dancer saga; the first two books in the 4-volume Karavans series, plus a few historical novels ...
Im a breeder and exhibitor of Cardigan Welsh Corgis under the Cheysuli kennel prefix. I started with Labs many years ago in obedience, then got talked into *A* Cardigan by a breeder-friend. Heh. One was not enough! I also teach conformation handling classes. My "real job" is being a fulltime fantasy author. I have three series published: The Chronicles of the Cheysuli (where my kennel name came from); the Sword-Dancer saga; the first two books in the 4-volume Karavans series, plus a few historical novels ...
Cardigan Bay is home to the only resident population Bottle-nosed Dolphins in English and Welsh waters. They are regular visitors to this part of the coast, especially during calm weather, although their visits are impossible to predict. They provide an unforgettable sight as they leap high out of the water ...
A beautifully-made, expertly-finished baby and child cardigan in 100% fine organic Merino wool, with pearl buttons. A sober yet beautiful and timeless design. Buy now while stock lasts.
A beautifully-made, expertly-finished baby and child cardigan in 100% fine organic Merino wool, with pearl buttons. A sober yet beautiful and timeless design. Buy now while stock lasts.
It is historically unclear whether the CWC was used primarily for moving cattle and sheep only for short distances, or whether the CWC was occasionally used to move herds of cattle or flocks of sheep longer distances into the flatter pasturelands and markets of England. In either case, the CWC had to be a sound working animal capable of sudden energy bursts and longer, more energy efficient movement.-- All of this while still in a small, dwarfed body! This generalised approach to the job of a farm dog does not allow for a specialised structure (e.g. greyhound for speed at the gallop, or a German Shepherd Dog for fast moving trot.) Instead the Cardigan Welsh Corgi structure requires a very careful balancing act between its three primary functions ...
In simple terms, genes are like recipes for making proteins. All the cells in our bodies "read" genetic information so they can make the critical proteins necessary to stay healthy and function properly. If there is a mistake in a gene - that is, a misspelling - a protein might not be made correctly and cells in the retina might degenerate and cause vision loss.. These misspellings are called mutations, and just like a mistake in a recipe, some mutations are more devastating than others. For example, when baking a cake, lets say there is an error in the recipe. It incorrectly calls for a quarter cup of sugar, when the right amount is a half of a cup. The cake may not taste great, but it is still edible. But lets say the instruction for adding flour is omitted entirely. Then the cake will be a complete failure and go uneaten.. Well, the same concept applies to genetic mutations in inherited retinal diseases. Some mutations can lead to devastating vision loss while others cause less severe, ...
The gene therapy technology already exists to treat most inherited retinal disease. The current challenge is to drive down the costs of implementing the technology.
I fell in love with Cardigan Corgis in 2004. Since then I learned LOTS on dog breeding, showing and exhibiting. I enjoy having fun with the pack - that includes dog shows and trials. I go to comic cons with my service dog and lots of concerts. "If you are not having fun, might as well be dead" - Hemmingway ...
I fell in love with Cardigan Corgis in 2004. Since then I learned LOTS on dog breeding, showing and exhibiting. I enjoy having fun with the pack - that includes dog shows and trials. I go to comic cons with my service dog and lots of concerts. "If you are not having fun, might as well be dead" - Hemmingway ...
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LOCH-Class Anti-Submarine Frigate ordered from Henry Robb of Leith in 1943 and was to be named LOCH LAXFORD. However after a policy change to meet the need for anti-aircraft, escorts for service in the Far East, the contract was changed. She was completed to a revised design as a BAY-Class Anti-aircraft frigate and laid down on 14th April 1944 as Job No J11861 (Yard Number 348). Launched on 28th December 1944 as HMS CARDIGAN BAY and the first RN ship to carry the name. Her build was completed on 15th June 1945. (See General Information for details of design changes to the basic LOCH Class hull structure).. G e o g r a p h i c D a t a. Grid Reference:SN4080.. Bay on west coast of Wales and an extension of St. George s Channel.. (Note: Coastline of 130 miles includes Guided Weapons firing range off. Aberporth at southern end.). B a t t l e H o n o u r s. KOREA 1950 53. H e r a l d i c D a t a. Badge: On a Field, Barry wavy of 10 White and Blue,. a demi-dragon erased rampant red, armed and. with ...
This sweater looks like fun! Shell love wearing the knit Zippered Striped Cardigan because of its stripes‚ because of its short sleeves‚ because of its zipper! What great features to have in a sweater that‚s ready for fun. Other details include ribbing e
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The Charcoal Maxi Cardigan. Head online and shop this seasons range of knitwear at PrettyLittleThing. Express delivery available.
The cardigan you can-and will-wear with just about everything.
  • Relaxed fit.
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  • Dry clean.
  • Import.
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curly red haired girl undresses her white panties and cardigan while eating an apple in the bed 740176: -Plato, Epigram VII Atalanta, also of Greek mythology, raced all her suitors in an attempt to avoid marriage. She outran all but Hippomenes (a.k.a. Melanion, a name possibly derived from melon the Greek word for both apple and fruit in general), who defeated her by cunning, not speed. Hippomenes knew that he could not win in a fair race, so he used three golden apples (gifts of Aphrodite, the goddess of love) to distract Atalanta. It took all three apples and all of his speed, but Hipp…
If you own, or are thinking about owning, a Welsh corgi, you need to know these corgi dog-care facts. Plus, get tips on Welsh corgi care and grooming. Were also sharing our cutest corgi-inspired gifts.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
After enduring 16 years, of bottom heavy, jewel toned, pantsuits, our eyes are now firmly focused above the waist on Michelles cardigans, biceps and belts. Michelles figure, defies anatomical reality, (see Divadebbi, Pears and Squares March 2008). Despite being very short torsoed, Michelle tops everything with an (often too wide) belt, that sometimes settles on her upper rib cage. Against all odds, it works! I am also grateful for her reinvention of the cardigan. I too, wear them over all my sheath dresses, extending the length of functional calendar time I can wear them. They look less fussy and are more comfortable, than the dozen or more blazers, (I have no idea what to do about), that I will haul into summer hibernation, for another season. The "new" cardigan is shorter, shaped and is often adorned with ruffles or tulle. It is perfect for the office or an overly air conditioned restaurant, it dresses up jeans and a tank top, and is perfect for travel. Of course, it also looks great belted ...
Last week I proudly presented you my Fake Frankie cardigan. An easy top-down raglan cardigan with a simple pattern of garter stitch rows on stockinette background. Last week I may have bragged how experienced I am in knitting (and crocheting) such top-down constructions. This week I frogged the Fake Frankie cardigan… No, dont be afraid, […]. ...
I know this isnt a dress, but regular readers will know of my preoccupation -- really, obsession -- with short-sleeved cardigan sweaters. I *love* them. There is no better A/C-fighter/shoulder-coverup in the summer than a short-sleeved cardigan. A cardigan, a nice tee, and a pretty skirt is perfect for nearly any occasion ... but its…
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The products featured on this blog are chosen by me, and I do not receive gifts to endorse them. The compensation I may receive from affiliate links has no influence on the items I choose to feature. Full disclosure for any products I review on behalf of a manufacturer or distributor is provided in the post for that review ...
When Emma Pillsbury, the school guidance counsellor with a morbid fear of dirt and disarray, first appeared on Glee, you could have been forgiven for not instantly recognising her as a fashion revolutionary. Cute as a button on a pastel cardigan, sure, but a style icon? Yet thats what she and her superlative sweater-clips have become. The Guardian recently singled Emma out as one of the best-dressed characters on TV: "Those sugar sorbet shades, those 50s-style shift dresses, that endless selection of delicately embellished cardigans: this isnt a TV character, this is a model for Marc by Marc Jacobs," they wrote. New York Magazine ran an Emma lookbook, complete with commentary from Glees costume designer, Lou Eyrich (whos won her own Emmy for her brilliant work). And if that wasnt enough, check out the twinset homages on www.wwepw.com - yup, a website that is indeed called What Would Emma Pillsbury Wear? So we decided to take things one step further and get Jayma Mays, the brilliant ...
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Maternity Clothes: Whilst hanging around the casa, PJs are the name of my game {mostly nursing gowns}. If we brave the outside world or if guests are visiting, Im rocking the Old Navy maternity maxi skirt or Ingrid & Isabel leggings with a nursing tank and a LEC Heritage cardigan. {Side Note: WHAT HAPPENED TO THE HERITAGE CARDIGAN? If its discontinued. this will be worse than the Michael C. Hall / Jennifer Carpenter divorce, for reals, yall ...
Im looking for what might be called a hipster fragrance; not necessarily something that a hipster would actually buy (it doesnt need to be free-trade/organic/vegan/etc), but something that would go with the sort of hipster outfit given in the thread title. It should be something that would work year-round, with a casual, fresh vibe. And most importantly, I would like it to have a touch of incense, as well as a discernible woodiness (ideally cedar). So far the best thing Ive come up
In this post, Professor Michaelides imagines a future of better retinal disease diagnostics and treatments, especially for inherited retinal diseases.
A group for Corgi owners, future Corgi owners, and lovers of the breed who live in Wisconsin. All Corgis, whether purebred or mixed, are welcome!
Ive been bragging about our versatile cardigans, and how nicely their historical traits (herding, family dogs, watch the children…) have been shining. Bing loves Elizabeth. Kate is interested mostly in EKAs business end. Both corgis have been very good with … Continue reading →. ...
I started this little cardigan last September, with the intention of finishing it on our two week holiday in Tassie. There was a bit of driving involved and I was knitting a 12 month size so it really was quite a reasonable aim. The lengths I went to to knit this cardie will have non-knitters backing away uncomfortably and pointing and whispering "weird". I flew to Tassie with the kids and spent a night in a motel while Andy came over on the boat. A night in a motel equals ample knitting time. One problem. We were flying Jetstar light, which meant only carry on baggage and at that time in history, no knitting needles allowed. You would not believe the far fetched and ridiculous ideas I came up with to get my needles to Tassie. Luckily a fellow knitter came to the rescue and dropped some tips at the motel I was staying at for me, so all I needed to bring was my yarn and cable ...
What I really wanted was one nice photo of me and all three of my children - I dont ask it enough for fear of making everyone groan, but it is important to me. We didnt manage that today, although I do really like the photos of me with them individually (except I wish I wasnt rocking so much of a hobo look with my extra long cardigan under my coat and my battered driving trainers).. This moment actually sparked a bit of a family conversation afterwards, in which I essentially pleaded to the children (and Sam!) that photos make me happy and sometimes all I want is one nice photo of everybody, and in future can we think about making it a rule that in exchange for giving you guys a fun holiday/trip/day out whatever, that you agree to stand with me for just one photo. Desperate times call for desperate measures! But actually I do think this conversation sparked a bit of thought, in Arlo and Sam especially…or so we shall see.. We finished up with a walk around Clifton and a really lovely lunch ...
Nicole Kidman: Motherhood is Bittersweet Nicole Kidman takes the cover of Parade Jessica Simpsons movie gets sent straight to DVD Sweaters and cardigans in all sizes and colors Kim Kardashian celebrates…
STAGE: EVERYDAY, SCHOOL, WORK, MATERNITY, NURSING This oversized geometric cardigan is perfect for the cooler weather months. In a kimono style design, it flows with you and keeps you comfy and stylish.
ORIGINAL PRICE: $35 STAGE: EVERYDAY, SCHOOL, WORK, MATERNITY, NURSING Everyone loves a good duster (an extra long cardigan)! This extremely versatile piece makes getting dressed in the morning super easy, no matter what life stage you may be in. Great for everyday wear, nursing moms, pregnant moms, or for rocking at the office on casual Fridays!
From great fitting everyday knitwear styles such as turtleneck jumpers and roll neck sweaters to beautifully embroidered cardigans and jumpers, youll love the warmth and quality of our knitwear.
RBP-4 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 204 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 23 kDa.
The U.S Food and Drug Administration in October 2017 revealed their plans to recommend gene therapy as a way to treat inherited retinal diseases. These diseases usually cause a gradual loss of sight that eventually leads to total blindness.. What are Inherited Retinal Diseases (IRDs)?. Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are rare eye problems that are caused by mutations that occur in the RPE65 gene. These types of gene mutations are hereditary and responsible for specific conditions that include Lebers congenital amaurosis and some forms of retinitis pigmentosa. Gene therapy can be used to treat these eye disorders.. How gene therapy can treat inherited retinal diseases. People suffering from various types of inherited retinal diseases either have genes that dont work, or are missing. Gene therapy can be used to treat these diseases by adding new genes to their cells to replace the missing or dysfunctional ones.. Usually, they use a specific prepared virus that introduces its own different ...
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Retinitis Pigmentosa and other inherited retinal diseases can now be diagnosed with advanced electrophysiology, optical imaging, and genetic testing. In addition, innovative thereuputics including gene therapy and cell transplant are now being tested by our faculty.. ...
90s -JR Nites- Womens black background polyester, acetate lined wicked 90s cocktail style cardigan shirt jacket with v-neckline, button front closure, beaded abstract design along torso, flutter cut longsleeves, light shoulder pads and princess seaming for a fitted waistline.
curly red haired girl undresses her white panties and cardigan while eating an apple in the bed 740178: The Apple in the Garden of Eden Though the forbidden fruit in the Book of Genesis is not identified, popular Christian tradition has held that it was an apple that Eve coaxed Adam to share with her. This may have been the result of Renaissance painters adding elements of Greek mythology into biblical scenes (alternative interpretations also based on Greek mythology occasionally replace the apple with a pomegranate). In this case the unnamed fruit of Eden became an apple under the influence…
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A wool blend cardigan made for layering. Were talking tees, jumpers (if youre super cold) to shirts Anything is possible with this textured number, which has trimmed pockets, turnback cuffs (for a little constrast) and a longline fit. Versatility at its finest.. Features ...
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I make cards and I wear a lot of cardigans. Its as simple as that. Im a twenty-something year-old middle school science teacher who loves just about anything and everything crafty and outdoorsy. I get to indulge the crafty side of me with cards, cakes, and anything else I can get my hands on. I then satisfy the outdoorsy side by backpacking, cycling, hiking, kayaking, scuba diving, and skiing with my handsome husband. Of course, I cant go without mentioning my love of languages and my dream of traveling. I have a laundry list of languages to learn and a map of the world to cover ...
|div class=descriptionTabContent| |p|Relaxed fit and lightweight, our |strong|Open Front Cardigan|/strong| keeps you covered, including your hands, with extended sleeves cut with thumbholes. Featuring a NEW longer length than some of our other sun wrap
In bullfrog (Rana catesbiana) rods the activity of cyclic GMP (cGMP) phosphodiesterase was stimulated 10 times by washing disc membranes with an isotonic, GTP-containing buffer. This stimulation was maintained following hydrolysis of GTP and after removal of guanine nucleotides. At least 60-70% of the inhibitory gamma subunit of cGMP phosphodiesterase (P gamma) was physically released from membranes by these washing procedures. When cGMP phosphodiesterase was activated by a hydrolysis-resistant GTP analogue, P gamma was found in the supernatant complexed with the transducin alpha subunit (T alpha) using three chromatography systems. When GTP was used to activate cGMP phosphodiesterase, P gamma was also found in the supernatant complexed with GDP.T alpha. This complex was also isolated using the same three chromatography systems, indicating that P gamma remained tightly bound to T alpha even after bound GTP was hydrolyzed. Interaction with the beta,gamma subunits of transducin, which remained associated
Canine degenerative myelopathy, also known as chronic degenerative radiculomyelopathy, is an incurable, progressive disease of the canine spinal cord that is similar in many ways to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Onset is typically after the age of 7 years and it is seen most frequently in the German shepherd dog, Pembroke Welsh corgi, and boxer dog, though the disorder is strongly associated with a gene mutation in SOD1 that has been found in 43 breeds as of 2008, including the wire fox terrier, Chesapeake Bay retriever, Rhodesian ridgeback, and Cardigan Welsh corgi.[1][2] Progressive weakness and incoordination of the rear limbs are often the first signs seen in affected dogs, with progression over time to complete paralysis. Myelin is an insulating sheath around neurons in the spinal cord. One proposed cause of degenerative myelopathy is that the immune system attacks this sheath, breaking it down. This results in a loss of communication between nerves in lower body of the animal and ...
Charity Choice list of charities includes Oxygen Therapy Centre Cardigan Ltd.Oxygen Therapy Centre Cardigan Ltd in Wales charity database on Charity Choice.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a locus, distinct from RDS-peripherin, for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa on chromosome 6p. AU - Knowles, James A.. AU - Shugart, Yin. AU - Banerjee, Poulabi. AU - Gilliam, T. Conrad. AU - Lewis, Charles A.. AU - Jacobson, Samuel G.. AU - Ott, Jurg. PY - 1994/8. Y1 - 1994/8. N2 - We performed a genomic search for linkage to autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in a large pedigree obtained from the Dominican Republic using microsatellite markers. Regions of the genome known to contain genes for retinitis pigmentosa were preferentially tested. One of these regions, on chromosome 6p, which contains the gene for peripherin, gave positive lod scores. Use of a mononucleotide repeat polymorphism in the peripherin gene excluded this locus. Two- and multi-point analyses suggest that the most likely location for the disease gene is near D6S291, which is located approximately 20 centimorgans telomeric from peripherin.. AB - We performed a genomic search for ...
Purpose: : To identify possible mutations in known candidate genes in Italian patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (ARRP). Methods: : One hundred ARRP unrelated Italian patients were screened for mutations in genes responsible for this condition, using an integrated strategy based on the use of a microarray chip containing disease-associated sequence variants in seventeen ARRP genes, DHPLC analysis and direct sequencing. The RP diagnosis was based on Snellen visual acuity evaluation, slit lamp biomicroscopy, retinography, perimetry and electroretinography (ERG). Results: : Preliminary analysis showed that causative mutations were found in 23 ARRP families in the USH2A (13%), PDE6B (6%), PNR (2%), CNGA1 (1%) and PDE6A (1%) genes. Two of the mutations identified represent novel sequence variants in the PDE6B gene. The clinical features of each patient, together with the segregation analysis within the families strongly support the pathogenicity of these mutations. Conclusions: : ...
To determine the clinic phenotypes of patients with inherited retinal disease including vision, visual fields, nystagmus, optical coherence tomography of optic nerve and macula, visual evoked potential, and electroretinography and correlate this with genetic testing (when available) and known hereditary/inheritance patterns.. For this study, we are planning to study at least four types of inherited retinal disease: Bardet Biedl, female carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, incontinentia pigment and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). These are rare diseases. In the database of patients enrolled in EyeGene, there are 15 patients with FEVR, one patient with incontinentia pigmenti, and 150 with retinal degenerations that includes an estimated 15 patients with x-linked retinitis pigments and approximately 2-3 female carriers with significant clinical findings. We anticipate that these numbers will be slightly larger when we also include those patients identified by ICD-9 code as not ...

The effect of EDN2 loss on mutant PR survival in vivo a | Open-iThe effect of EDN2 loss on mutant PR survival in vivo a | Open-i

Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6/metabolism. *Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/metabolism. *Humans ... B,C) The loss of EDN2 in Tg(RHO P347S) retinas resulted in a mean 63% increase in ONL thickness at PN40 (n = 6; p,0.005) (C) ... B,C) The loss of EDN2 in Tg(RHO P347S) retinas resulted in a mean 63% increase in ONL thickness at PN40 (n = 6; p,0.005) (C) ... and a mean 110% increase in ONL thickness in Pde6brd1/rd1 retinas at PN15 (n = 6; p,0.005) (B). (D) ONL thickness in WT, ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3585171_pone.0058023.g002&req=4

Diane Thiboutot, MD - Research Output
     - Penn StateDiane Thiboutot, MD - Research Output - Penn State

6]. Zaenglein, A. L. & Thiboutot, D. M., Mar 1 2007, In : Pediatrics. 119, 3, p. 650-651 2 p.. Research output: Contribution to ... 6, p. 1365-1366 2 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Letter ...
more infohttps://pennstate.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/diane-thiboutot/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Fletter

Department of Dermatology - Research Output
     - Penn StateDepartment of Dermatology - Research Output - Penn State

Hennessy, J., Clarke, L. E., Ioffreda, M. & Helm, K., Jun 1 2009, In : Journal of Cutaneous Pathology. 36, 6, p. 711-712 2 p.. ... Stanhewicz, A. E., Ferguson, S., Bruning, R. S. & Alexander, L. M., Jan 1 2014, In : JAMA Dermatology. 150, 6, p. 658-660 3 p. ... Helm, T. N. & Helm, K., Jun 1 2018, In : American Journal of Dermatopathology. 40, 6, p. 465-467 3 p.. Research output: ... Sansone, R. A., Lam, C. & Wiederman, M. W., May 1 2010, In : Journal of Opioid Management. 6, 3, p. 159-160 2 p.. Research ...
more infohttps://pennstate.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/department-of-dermatology-2/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Fletter

Direct allosteric regulation between the GAF domain and catalytic domain of photoreceptor phosphodiesterase PDE6.Direct allosteric regulation between the GAF domain and catalytic domain of photoreceptor phosphodiesterase PDE6.

Cyclic GMP * Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6 * Dose-Response Relationship, Drug * Imidazoles ... Unlike most GAF domain-containing cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, little is known about direct allosteric communication ... Photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6) is the central enzyme in the visual transduction cascade. The PDE6 catalytic ... Direct allosteric regulation between the GAF domain and catalytic domain of photoreceptor phosphodiesterase PDE6. Academic ...
more infohttps://findscholars.unh.edu/display/publication76722

Engineered Biosynthesis of 5/5/6 Type Polycyclic Tetramate Macrolactams in an Ikarugamycin (5/6/5 Type)-Producing Chassis.Engineered Biosynthesis of 5/5/6 Type Polycyclic Tetramate Macrolactams in an Ikarugamycin (5/6/5 Type)-Producing Chassis.

Combinatorial biosynthesis of 5/5/6 type polycyclic tetramate macrolactams (PoTeMs) was achieved in an engineered ikarugamycin ... Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1. A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily ... Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3,5-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class ... type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2617609/Engineered-Biosynthesis-of-5-5-6-Type-Polycyclic-Tetramate-Macrolactams-in-an.html

Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor - WikipediaPhosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor - Wikipedia

"Functional and biochemical evidence for diazepam as a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor" (pdf). British ... A phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, commonly referred to as a PDE4 inhibitor, is a drug used to block the degradative action ... Barad M, Bourtchouladze R, Winder DG, Golan H, Kandel E (1998). "Rolipram, a type IV-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, ... Dinter, H (February 2000). "Phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors: potential in the treatment of multiple sclerosis?". BioDrugs. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphodiesterase-4_inhibitor

Effect of type-selective inhibitors on cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and insulin secretion in the clonal insulin...Effect of type-selective inhibitors on cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and insulin secretion in the clonal insulin...

... cyclic AMP, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, type 1, glucose, humans, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, islets of ... Effect of type-selective inhibitors on cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and insulin secretion in the clonal insulin ... Effect of type-selective inhibitors on cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and insulin secretion in the clonal insulin ... 1. The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) present in an insulin secreting cell line, BRIN - BD11, were characterized ...
more infohttps://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/34954/

Frontiers | EF hand-mediated Ca2+- signalling in photoreceptor synaptic terminals | Frontiers in Molecular NeuroscienceFrontiers | EF hand-mediated Ca2+- signalling in photoreceptor synaptic terminals | Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience

... cyclic nucleotide-gated channel; HCN channel, hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel; LTCC, L-type ... A light-induced conformational change of rhodopsin leads to a transducin-mediated activation of phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6) and ... Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels could be further effectors of presynaptic cGMP. HCN1 ... Biel, M., and Michalakis, S. (2009). Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. Handb. Exp. Pharamacol. 191, 111-136. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2012.00026/full

JoVE Search Results: Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases%2C Type 5JoVE Search Results: Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases%2C Type 5

The roles of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in steroidogenesis. Abstract Baillie, George S. University of Glasgow ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase type 4 protects against atrial arrhythmias. Abstract Parent, Carole A. ... Cyclic nucleotide compartmentalization: contributions of phosphodiesterases and ATP-binding cassette transporters. Abstract ... Cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase, PDE8A1, is activated by protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation. Abstract ...
more infohttp://labindex.jove.com/group/Cyclic-Nucleotide-Phosphodiesterases%2C-Type-5

TNF inhibitor - WikipediaTNF inhibitor - Wikipedia

Essayan DM (November 2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai. ... Cannabinoid type 2 receptor-dependent and -independent immunomodulatory effects". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (20): 14192-206. doi: ... "Binding and Functional Comparisons of Two Types of Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonists". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental ... 12 (6-7): 445-52. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2003.12.011. PMID 16008121. Raduner S, Majewska A, Chen JZ, Xie XQ, Hamon J, Faller B, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TNF_inhibitor

Il6 Antibody (OASA05650)Il6 Antibody (OASA05650)

1995) Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type IV participates in the regulation of IL-10 and in the subsequent inhibition of ... Negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. 66. ... IL-6 ELISA Kit (Human) : 96 Wells (OKAG00041). Application: ELISA. Species: Human. ... Rat anti Mouse Interleukin-6 antibody, clone MP5-20F3 may be used to neutralize IL-6 bioactivity in a functional assay (Abrams ...
more infohttps://www.avivasysbio.com/il6-antibody-oasa05650.html

Gene expression of the phosphodiesterases 3A and 5A in human corpus cavernosum penis. - Semantic ScholarGene expression of the phosphodiesterases 3A and 5A in human corpus cavernosum penis. - Semantic Scholar

OBJECTIVE The following study was performed to evaluate the importance of phosphodiesterases 3A (PDE3A) and 5A (PDE5A) for the ... Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6. *Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. *Cardiovascular Diseases ... Clinical update on phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction. *Alberto Briganti, A Salonia, +4 authors ... Phosphodiesterase isoenzymes in the human urethra: a molecular biology and functional study.. *George T. Kedia, Matthias Oelke ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Gene-expression-of-the-phosphodiesterases-3A-and-5A-K%C3%BCthe-M%C3%A4gert/844fccc2fb13edb94b52f3f48a31962e3744dfe2

Scheitrum C[au] - PubMed - NCBIScheitrum C[au] - PubMed - NCBI

The upstream conserved regions (UCRs) mediate homo- and hetero-oligomerization of type 4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases ( ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase type 4 protects against atrial arrhythmias.. Molina CE, Leroy J, Richter W, ... Phosphodiesterase 4B in the cardiac L-type Ca²⁺ channel complex regulates Ca²⁺ current and protects against ventricular ... Anchored PDE4 regulates chloride conductance in wild-type and ΔF508-CFTR human airway epithelia. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Scheitrum+C%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Restoration of Neuronal Plasticity by a Phosphodiesterase Type 1 Inhibitor in a Model of Fetal Alcohol Exposure | Journal of...Restoration of Neuronal Plasticity by a Phosphodiesterase Type 1 Inhibitor in a Model of Fetal Alcohol Exposure | Journal of...

Kakkar R, Raju RVS, Sharma RK (1999) Calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE1). Cell Mol Life Sci 55: ... Restoration of Neuronal Plasticity by a Phosphodiesterase Type 1 Inhibitor in a Model of Fetal Alcohol Exposure. Alexandre E. ... Restoration of Neuronal Plasticity by a Phosphodiesterase Type 1 Inhibitor in a Model of Fetal Alcohol Exposure ... Restoration of Neuronal Plasticity by a Phosphodiesterase Type 1 Inhibitor in a Model of Fetal Alcohol Exposure ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/26/3/1057

DIGITAL.CSIC: Phosphodiesterase 7 inhibition preserves dopaminergic neurons in cellular and rodent models of Parkinson diseaseDIGITAL.CSIC: Phosphodiesterase 7 inhibition preserves dopaminergic neurons in cellular and rodent models of Parkinson disease

Cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Neuroblastoma sh-sy5y cells. Binding-protein-beta. ... Phosphodiesterase 7 plays a major role in down-regulation of protein kinase A activity by hydrolyzing cAMP in many cell types. ... This cyclic nucleotide plays a key role in signal transduction in a wide variety of cellular responses. In the brain, cAMP has ... Phosphodiesterase 7 inhibition preserves dopaminergic neurons in cellular and rodent models of Parkinson disease. ...
more infohttps://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/39715

Parasite-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors to target Neglected Parasitic Diseases | Projects | FP7-HEALTH...Parasite-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors to target Neglected Parasitic Diseases | Projects | FP7-HEALTH...

... aims to unite global efforts to target the highly druggable class of enzymes called cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs ... Activity type: Higher or Secondary Education Establishments. Administrative contact: Joe Galloway. Tel.: +44 141 330 3884. E- ... Parasite-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors to target Neglected Parasitic Diseases. From 2014-03-01 to ... Final Report Summary - PDE4NPD (Parasite-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors to target Neglected Parasitic ...
more infohttps://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/185453_en.html

SMART: Secondary literature for GAF domainSMART: Secondary literature for GAF domain

Human cyclic GMP-stimulated 3,5-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2A3) cDNAs were cloned from hippocampus and fetal ... Inhibition of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type V (PDE5) has been shown to improve penile erection in patients with erectile ... Two cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases (DdPDE 1 and 2) have been identified previously, an extracellular dual-specificity ... We have cloned and characterized the first human isozyme in a new family of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, PDE9A. By ...
more infohttp://smart.embl.de/smart/show_secondary.cgi?domain=GAF

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) 3 and 4 in normal, malignant, and HTLV-I transformed human lymphocytesCyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) 3 and 4 in normal, malignant, and HTLV-I transformed human lymphocytes

type. Contribution to journal publication status. published. subject. *Endocrinology and Diabetes. keywords. human lymphocytes ... Intracellular cyclic AMP, determined in part by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs), regulates proliferation and immune ... Intracellular cyclic AMP, determined in part by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs), regulates proliferation and immune ... Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) 3 and 4 in normal, malignant, and HTLV-I transformed human lymphocytes. Ekholm, Dag ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1115613

Browse by Ulster Authors and Editors - Ulster Institutional RepositoryBrowse by Ulster Authors and Editors - Ulster Institutional Repository

Effect of type-selective inhibitors on cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and insulin secretion in the clonal insulin ... The role of the cyclic GMP-inhibited cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE3) in regulating clonal BRIN-BD11 insulin ... Effects of type selective inhibitors can cAMP phosphodiesterase activity and insulin secretion in the clonal beta cell BRIN ... Characterisation and functional role of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases in clonal beta-cells. DIABETOLOGIA, 41 (Suppl.). p. 521 ...
more infohttp://uir.ulster.ac.uk/view/author_or_editor/228.html

Gendoo - Relevant featuresGendoo - Relevant features

Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6 - Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)- エンケファリン-Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)- ... Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein cAMP応答DNA結合蛋白質 ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 Ca(2+)-カルモデュリン依存性プロテインキナーゼ2 ... 3,5-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases 3,5-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases Quinones キノン ...
more infohttp://gendoo.dbcls.jp/cgi-bin/gendoo.cgi?geneid=156&taxonomy=human

Microarray-based mutation detection and phenotypic characterization in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa.  - PubMed -...Microarray-based mutation detection and phenotypic characterization in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa. - PubMed -...

Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6. *PDE6B protein, human. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Europe ... Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication type. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... phosphodiesterase 6B [PDE6B], peripherin 2 [PRPH2], and retinitis pigmentosa 1 [RP1]) were identified in 26 of the 336 patients ... although it has proven to be reliable and efficient for high-throughput genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=77385

A novel mutation and phenotypes in phosphodiesterase 6 deficiency.  - PubMed - NCBIA novel mutation and phenotypes in phosphodiesterase 6 deficiency. - PubMed - NCBI

Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6/deficiency*. *Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6/genetics* ... Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support. Publication types. *Case Reports. *Research Support, N.I.H., ... A novel mutation and phenotypes in phosphodiesterase 6 deficiency.. Tsang SH1, Tsui I, Chou CL, Zernant J, Haamer E, Iranmanesh ... and to report new genotype-phenotype correlations for phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6)-based RP mutations. ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=38260

Controlling Myocyte cGMP - Semantic ScholarControlling Myocyte cGMP - Semantic Scholar

... often suppressing an acute rise in a given cyclic nucleotide back to baseline within seconds to minutes.2 It is also ... but also by their hydrolysis catalyzed by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). PDE regulation is quite potent, ... the duration and magnitude of these signaling cascades are determined not only by generation of cyclic nucleotides, ... Each cyclic nucleotide has a corresponding primary targeted protein kinase, protein kinase (PK)A for cAMP, and PKG for cGMP. ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Controlling-Myocyte-cGMP-Takimoto/fc1f414b76f7fa62c97ef86e201e6aef0efb09d9

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Stephen  H. TsangProtocols and Video Articles Authored by Stephen H. Tsang

... of Guanylate Cyclase 2e or Cyclic Nucleotide Gated Channel Alpha 1 Increases Photoreceptor Survival in a CGMP Phosphodiesterase ... The murine opsin promoter was used to drive the expression of a mutant N74A and a wild-type PDE6γ control transgene in the ... Pubmed ID: 24101599 Deficiencies in rod-specific cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6) are the third ... Oct, 2011 , Pubmed ID: 21616145 The inhibitory subunit of rod cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase, PDE6γ, ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Stephen++H._Tsang
  • Anchored PDE4 regulates chloride conductance in wild-type and ΔF508-CFTR human airway epithelia. (nih.gov)
  • While inactivation of PDE4B, but not other PDE4 isotypes, is known to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) production in macrophages, a cell type critical in mediating innate immunity, the impact of PDE4B on many other inflammatory responses in these cells remains largely unknown. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • sup] By increasing intracellular cAMP level, phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors are being developed as anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and psoriasis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Furthermore, the effects of ICA on the mRNA expression of specific cGMP-binding phosphodiesterase type V (PDE5) in rat penis were also observed. (springer.com)
  • After incubation with ICA for 6 h or 14 h respectively, the levels of PDE5 mRNA were examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (springer.com)
  • Although some studies showed the efficacy of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors as neuronal plasticity enhancers, little is known about the effectiveness of these drugs to improve plasticity in cases of mental retardation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The feasibility of using multipotent neural precursors to replace diseased neurons was tested in adult mouse neocortex with experimentally induced neurodegeneration using the approach of targeted photolytic neuronal degeneration ( 2 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Neuronal degeneration that is spatially defined and cell population-specific can be produced by noninvasive photoactivation of retrogradely transported nanospheres carrying the photoactive chromophore chlorin e 6 within targeted pyramidal neurons in lamina II/III with trans-callosal projections. (pnas.org)
  • The results reveal that the GoldenGate assay may not be an efficient method for molecular diagnosis in RP patients with rare mutations, although it has proven to be reliable and efficient for high-throughput genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. (cdc.gov)
  • This includes a few exogenous, vertically transmitted and endogenous viruses of mice (type B) and some primate and sheep viruses (type D). MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, MOUSE is the type species. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The inhibitory effect of rolipram on CCL3 production was mimicked by the protein kinase A activator 6-Bnz-cAMP, but not the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP activator 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Implant-type tissue-engineered cartilage derived from human auricular chondrocyte may maintain cartilaginous property even under osteoinductive condition. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Rat anti Mouse Interleukin-6 antibody, clone MP5-20F3 recognizes mouse Interleukin 6 (IL-6). (avivasysbio.com)
  • Rat anti Mouse Interleukin-6 antibody, clone MP5-20F3 may be used to neutralize IL-6 bioactivity in a functional assay (Abrams et al. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Ventricular phosphodiesterase-5 expression is increased in patients with advanced heart failure and contributes to adverse ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 9576942 Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is a wide-spectrum mitogenic, angiogenic, and neurotrophic factor that is expressed at low levels in many tissues and cell types and reaches high concentrations in brain and pituitary. (jove.com)
  • These data suggest that such neural precursors might be used therapeutically to replace lost neural cell types. (pnas.org)
  • Etanercept was tested for treating patients with breast cancer and ovarian cancer showing prolonged disease stabilization in certain patients via downregulation of IL-6 and CCL2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical data suggest the presence of at least one cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) that is activated by cGMP. (embl.de)
  • 1993) Immunocytochemical evidence that S-100- positive cells of the mouse anterior pituitary contain Interleukin-6 immunoreactivity. (avivasysbio.com)