3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.2',3'-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases: Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 3: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Nucleotides, Cyclic3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Rolipram: A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 3.4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 7: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the enzyme type exist, each with its own tissue localization. The isoforms are encoded by at least two genes and are a product of multiple alternative splicing of their mRNAs.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESPhosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.PurinonesIsoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Pyrrolidinones: A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Papaverine: An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 2: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Phosphodiesterase I: A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Milrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP: N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Cyclic IMP: Inosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). An inosine nucleotide which acts as a mild inhibitor of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP and as an inhibitor of cat heart cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in the outer segment PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS of the RETINA. It is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. In addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Adenine NucleotidesRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Guanine NucleotidesSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.SulfonesRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Vinca Alkaloids: A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.2',3'-Cyclic Nucleotide 3'-Phosphodiesterase: A phosphodiesterase that specifically cleaves the 3'-phosphate linkage of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. It is found at high level in the cytoplasm of cells that form the MYELIN SHEATH.Cyclic CMP: A cyclic nucleotide formed from CYTIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE by the action of cytidylate cyclase. It is a potential cyclic nucleotide intracellular mediator of signal transductions.Aminophylline: A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Piperazines
Essayan DM (November 2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai. ...
Lugnier C (March 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) superfamily: a new target for the development of specific ... Kakkar R, Raju RV, Sharma RK (July 1999). "Calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE1)". Cell. Mol. Life ... Dousa TP (January 1999). "Cyclic-3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase isozymes in cell biology and pathophysiology of the kidney ... Bender AT, Beavo JA (September 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. ...
Essayan, DM (November 2001). "Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 108 (5): ... As a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, IBMX has IC50 = 2-50 μM and does not inhibit PDE8 or PDE9. ... Soderling, SH; Beavo, JA (April 2000). "Regulation of cAMP and cGMP Signaling: New Phosphodiesterases and New Functions". ... non-competitive selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor which raises intracellular cAMP, activates PKA, inhibits TNFα and ...
Essayan DM (2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 108 (5): 671-80. doi ... Like other methylated xanthine derivatives, pentoxifylline is a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor which ... the effects of non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibition". Clinics. 63 (3): 321-8. doi:10.1590/S1807-59322008000300006. PMC ...
Essayan DM (November 2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 108 (5): ... Caffeine, like other xanthines, also acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. As a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase ... the effects of non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibition". Clinics. 63 (3): 321-8. doi:10.1590/S1807-59322008000300006. PMC ...
Essayan DM (2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555 ... Like other methylated xanthine derivatives, theophylline is both a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which ... The Effects of Non-Specific Phosphodiesterase Inhibition". Clinics (Sao Paulo). 63 (3): 321-8. doi:10.1590/S1807- ...
3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of cAMP and cGMP to the corresponding 5'- ... Loughney K, Taylor J, Florio VA (2005). "3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 11A: localization in human tissues". Int. J ... Yuasa K, Ohgaru T, Asahina M, Omori K (2001). "Identification of rat cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A): ... Beavo JA, Conti M, Heaslip RJ (1994). "Multiple cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". Mol. Pharmacol. 46 (3): 399-405. PMID ...
2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555. PMID ... The Effects of Non-Specific Phosphodiesterase Inhibition". Clinics (Sao Paulo). 63 (3): 321-8. doi:10.1590/S1807- ... Paraxanthine is a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor which raises intracellular cAMP, activates PKA, inhibits ...
2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555. PMID ... Ukena D, Schudt C, Sybrecht GW (February 1993). "Adenosine receptor-blocking xanthines as inhibitors of phosphodiesterase ... These drugs act as both: competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitors which raise intracellular cAMP, activate PKA, ... have been developed searching for compounds with greater selectivity for phosphodiesterase enzyme or adenosine receptor ...
2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555. PMID ... Theobromine is weaker in both its inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and its antagonism of adenosine receptors ... As a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, theobromine prevents the phosphodiesterase enzymes from converting the active cAMP to an ... "Phosphodiesterase". On-Line Medical Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-02-23. "Inhibitor". On-Line Medical Dictionary. Retrieved 2007- ...
2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555. PMID ... and gastric acid secretion by blocking phosphodiesterase which increases tissue concentrations of cyclic adenosine ... Like other methylated xanthine derivatives, aminophylline is both a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor which ... Aminophylline is a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist and phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Intravenous Aminophylline can be ...
2007). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE1C1 in human cardiac myocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (45): 32749-57. doi:10.1074/ ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1C ... Rybalkin SD, Rybalkina I, Beavo JA, Bornfeldt KE (2002). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C promotes human arterial smooth ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Biol Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. "Entrez Gene: ...
"Differential Activation and Inhibition of the Multiple Forms of Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase". Advances in Cyclic ... Weiss, B; Hait, W N (1977). "Selective Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors as Potential Therapeutic Agents". Annual ... Fertel, Richard; Weiss, Benjamin (1976). "Properties and Drug Responsiveness of Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases of Rat ... is a drug used to block the degradative action of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) on cyclic GMP in the smooth ...
2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555. PMID ... competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitors [10] which raise intracellular cAMP, activate PKA, inhibit TNF-α [9][11] ... have been developed searching for compounds with greater selectivity for phosphodiesterase enzyme or adenosine receptor ... correlation of behavioral effects with activity as adenosine receptor antagonists and as phosphodiesterase inhibitors". Life ...
2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) (Ragheb 1999, p. 14). Pérez-Cerdá, Fernando; Sánchez-Gómez, María ...
... cyclic phosphodiesterase 7A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE7A gene. Mammals possess 21 cyclic nucleotide ... Zhou L, Thompson WJ, Potter DE (1999). "Multiple cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in human trabecular meshwork cells". ... "T cell activation up-regulates cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases 8A1 and 7A3". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (11): 6319- ... "Multiple elements jointly determine inhibitor selectivity of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases 4 and 7". J. Biol. Chem. 280 ...
This G protein subunit activates a taste phosphodiesterase and decreases cyclic nucleotide levels. Further steps in the ... HCN1 and HCN4 (HCN channels) were two such proposals; both of these receptors are cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. The two ion ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family, and PDE4 subfamily. This PDE ... Zhou L, Thompson WJ, Potter DE (Jul 1999). "Multiple cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in human trabecular meshwork cells" ( ... cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE4A gene. ... cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase and localization of the gene to the p13.2-q12 region of human chromosome 19 [corrected]" (pdf). ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1B ... 1992). "A polymerase chain reaction strategy to identify and clone cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase cDNAs. Molecular cloning ... "Entrez Gene: PDE1B phosphodiesterase 1B, calmodulin-dependent". Repaske DR, Swinnen JV, Jin SL, et al. ( ... factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/cyclic nucleoside phosphodiesterase ...
1999). "Isolation and characterization of PDE10A, a novel human 3', 5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Gene. 234 (1): 109 ... cAMP and cAMP-inhibited cGMP 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 10A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE10A gene. ... Phosphodiesterases, such as PDE10A, eliminate cAMP- and cGMP-mediated intracellular signaling by hydrolyzing the cyclic ... "Entrez Gene: PDE10A phosphodiesterase 10A". Fujishige K, Kotera J, Yuasa K, Omori K (October 2000). "The human ...
2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555. PMID ... the effects of non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibition". Clinics (São Paulo). 63 (3): 321-8. doi:10.1590/S1807- ...
... "cGMP-Phosphodiesterase Antagonists Inhibit Ca2+-Influx in Dictyostelium discoideum and Bovine Cyclic-Nucleotide-Gated-Channel ... SCH-51866 is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Lusche, DF; Kaneko, H; Malchow, D (18 April 2005). " ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Gene. 191 (1): 89-95. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00046-2. PMID 9210593. "Entrez Gene: ... cGMP-dependent 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE2A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... Sadhu K, Hensley K, Florio VA, Wolda SL (1999). "Differential expression of the cyclic GMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase PDE2A ... PDE2A phosphodiesterase 2A, cGMP-stimulated". Witzenrath M, Gutbier B, Schmeck B, et al. (2005). "Phosphodiesterase 2 ...
2001). "T cell activation up-regulates cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases 8A1 and 7A3". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (11 ... 2003). "Comparison of enzymatic characterization and gene organization of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 8 family in ... High affinity cAMP-specific and IBMX-insensitive 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 8A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: PDE8A phosphodiesterase 8A". Bol SM, Booiman T, Bunnik EM, Moerland PD, van Dort K, Strauss JF III, Sieberer M, ...
"Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... "Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE4D gene. The PDE4D gene is ... Zhang HT (2009). "Cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4 as a target for the development of antidepressant drugs". Current ...
Her research involves the investigation of the mechanism of signal transduction via cyclic nucleotides, phosphodiesterases and ...
Characterization of calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzymes. R K Sharma, J Kalra ... Characterization of calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzymes Message Subject (Your Name) has ... is one of the key enzymes involved in the complex interactions which occur between the cyclic-nucleotide and Ca2+ second- ... Calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase exists in different isoenzymic forms, which exhibit distinct molecular and/or catalytic ...
Meaning of 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases. What does 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases mean? Information ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases. ... or search for 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases inside other ...
Milrinone, a selective phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor with inotropic and lusitropic properties may have potential benefit ... Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) are a family of enzymes that hydrolyse the phosphodiester bond in cAMP and cGMP ... Keravis T, Lugnier C. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) and peptide motifs. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:1114-25. ... cyclic guanyl monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle. The ...
Hagiwara M, Endo T, Hidaka H Effects of vinpocetine on cyclic nucleotide metabolism in vascular smooth muscle . Biochem ... show that Vinpocetine, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor known for its minimal side effects and great potential in cognitive ... Chiu PJ, et al Comparative effects of vinpocetine and 8-Br-cyclic GMP on the contraction and 45Ca-fluxes in the rabbit aorta . ... "Vinpocetine increases blood circulation in the brain by inhibiting an enzyme called phosphodiesterase. It also stimulates ...
... cyclic 3,5-nucleotide phosphodiesterase, cyclic 3,5-phosphodiesterase, 3,5-nucleotide phosphodiesterase, 3:5-cyclic ... monophosphate phosphodiesterase (cyclic CMP), cyclic 3,5-nucleotide monophosphate phosphodiesterase, nucleoside 3,5-cyclic ... 35-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17, cyclic 3,5-mononucleotide phosphodiesterase, PDE, ... Some examples of nucleoside 3,5-cyclic phosphate include: 3,5-cyclic AMP 3,5-cyclic dAMP 3,5-cyclic IMP 3,5-cyclic ...
Nov 2003). "Structural evidence that brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is a member of the 2H phosphodiesterase ... "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2:3- and 3:5-nucleotides". The ... 2,3-Cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase also known as CNPase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CNP gene. ... "Entrez Gene: CNP 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase". Hinman JD, Chen CD, Oh SY, Hollander W, Abraham CR (Jan 2008 ...
Modulation of Leydig cell function by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 8A. Valeria Vasta, Masami Shimizu-Albergine, Joseph A ... Modulation of Leydig cell function by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 8A. Valeria Vasta, Masami Shimizu-Albergine, Joseph A ... Modulation of Leydig cell function by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 8A Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Modulation of Leydig cell function by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 8A. Valeria Vasta, Masami Shimizu-Albergine, and ...
The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) comprise a group of enzymes that degrade the phosphodiester bond in the second ... 35-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, catalytic domain superfamily (IPR036971). Short name: PDEase_catalytic_dom_sf ... They regulate the localisation, duration and amplitude of cyclic nucleotide signalling within subcellular domains. PDEs are ... Type 3 phosphodiesterase inhibitors may be protective against cerebrovascular events in patients with claudication.. null 17 ...
Calcium/calmodulin-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesteraseImported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... Belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family.SAAS annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,Q16713,Q16713_HUMAN Calcium/calmodulin-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 PE= ... p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and ...
The 2020 Gordon Research Seminar on Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases (GRS) will be held in Les Diablerets, Switzerland. ... Conference History Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases Contribute Financially to This Conference Conference Fees ... The Gordon Research Seminar on Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases is a unique forum for graduate students, post-docs, and ... This GRS will be held in conjunction with the "Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases" Gordon Research Conference (GRC). Those ...
... phosphodiesterase ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more. ... 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established ... Your search returned 34 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase ELISA ELISA Kit across 10 suppliers. ...
3,5 Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases class III: members, structure, and catalytic mechanism.. Richter W1. ... 3,5 Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) comprise a superfamily of enzymes that were previously divided by their ... The 3,5 cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli encoded by the cpdA gene does not show any homology to either PDE ... and related proteins allowed the generation of a three-dimensional model for class III cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. ...
... aims to unite global efforts to target the highly druggable class of enzymes called cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs ... Parasite-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors to target Neglected Parasitic Diseases. From 2014-03-01 to ... Final Report Summary - PDE4NPD (Parasite-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors to target Neglected Parasitic ... aims to unite global efforts to target the highly druggable class of enzymes called cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A. Details. Name. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3,5-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3,5-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A. P54750. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A. Details. Name. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3,5-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase ... Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators ... lcl,BSEQ0017142,Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3,5-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A (PDE1A) ... lcl,BSEQ0006867,Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3,5-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A ...
Melatonin Modulates Phosphorylation of 2′,3′-Cyclic Nucleotide-3′-Phosphodiesterase in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX in the ... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) increases. Here, we showed an increase in the degree of phosphorylation of ... melatonin rat brain mitochondria protein phosphorylation protoporphyrin IX non-specific permeability pore 2′,3′-cyclic ... nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) Original Russian Text © O.V. Krestinina, Yu.L. Baburina, I.V. Odinokova, T.S. ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators ... calmodulin-dependent cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity Source: MGIInferred from sequence orthologyi*7568196 ... Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators ... Cluster: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3,5-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C. 34. Q64338-1. UPI0005F385CB. UPI0005F3AE04 ...
3′,5′-Cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase. Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1 Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, ... Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 3 Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4 Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases ... The enzyme is widely distributed in animal tissue and controls the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Also acts on 3,5-cyclic ... An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP to form adenosine 5-phosphate. ...
By catalyzing hydrolysis of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), cyclic nucleotide ... By catalyzing hydrolysis of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), cyclic nucleotide ... and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases are critical regulators of their intracellular ... Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases: important signaling modulators and therapeutic targets. Ahmad, F.; Murata, T.; Shimizu, K ...
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase from Spinacea oleracea L.: Subcellular Distribution and Properties. M. EDWARDS, E. G. BROWN ... Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase from Spinacea oleracea L.: Subcellular Distribution and Properties. M. EDWARDS, E. G. BROWN ... Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase from Spinacea oleracea L.: Subcellular Distribution and Properties Message Subject (Your ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase superfamily, in Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases in Health and Disease (Beavo J, ... Cyclic GMP-binding cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase from lung, in Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases: Structure, ... and inhibitor selectivity of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, in Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases in Health and ... Partial mapping of cyclic nucleotide sites and studies of regulatory mechanisms of phosphodiesterases using cyclic nucleotide ...
Calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity is altered by 20 microT magnetostatic fields ... Localization and regulation of bovine eye calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase by cyclic AMP-dependent ... Differential regulation of bovine brain calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzymes by cyclic AMP- ... Regulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase by the autophosphorylated form of Ca2+/calmodulin- ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators ... Showing Protein Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3,5-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C (HMDBP00605). ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jan 12;271(2):796-806. [PubMed:8557689 ] ... Nucleoside 3,5-cyclic phosphate + Water → nucleoside 5-phosphate. details Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphate. ...
Cyclic nucleotides, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, and development in Myxococcus xanthus. Can. J. Microbiol. 24:1475-1484 ... Sequential changes in the cyclic nucleotide levels and cyclic phosphodiesterase activities during development of M. xanthus. ... coli cAMP phosphodiesterase (CpdA), respectively (6) (Fig. 2). The 3′,5′-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases are classified by ... and PdeC have characteristics of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. We could not find homologues of eukaryotic cyclic ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Cyclic nucleotides achieve signaling specificity through compartmentation, a ... INTEGRATING PHOSPHOLIPID AND CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE SIGNALING: ROLES OF PHOSPHODIESTERASES AS ENZYMES AND TETHERS. ... Studies reported in this thesis demonstrate that human platelets, VECs and VSMCs each contain distinct cyclic nucleotide ... maintain cyclic nucleotide compartmentation through coordinating signaling complexes containing a cAMP or cGMP effector protein ...
  • In addition, the availability of atomic coordinates for several purple acid phosphatases and related proteins allowed the generation of a three-dimensional model for class III cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. (nih.gov)
  • A tBLASTn search of the Myxococcus xanthus genome database at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) identified three genes ( pdeA , pdeB , and pdeC ) that encode proteins homologous to 3′,5′-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. (asm.org)
  • To analyze the roles of E. coli phosphodiesterases, we demonstrated that most of these proteins are expressed under laboratory conditions. (asm.org)
  • Thus, all of these proteins are bona fide phosphodiesterases that are capable of interfering with different c-di-GMP-responsive output systems by affecting the global c-di-GMP pool. (asm.org)
  • They establish local cAMP pools by controlling the intensity, duration and compartmentalization of cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling. (mdpi.com)
  • 7. These findings, in a clonal insulin secreting cell line, are consistent with an important role for PDE3B in regulating the pool of cyclic AMP relevant to the modulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Five CNP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated in a Chinese Han schizophrenia case-control sample set (n = 180) using direct sequencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human genetic studies revealed significant associations of PDE1A single nucleotide polymorphisms with diastolic blood pressure (β= 0.28, p= 2.47x10 -5 ) and carotid intima media thickness (β= -0.0061, p= 2.89x10 -5 ). (clinsci.org)
  • Intracellular levels of the bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) are controlled by antagonistic activities of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases. (asm.org)
  • The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a nearly ubiquitous small signaling molecule which greatly affects bacterial growth and behavior. (asm.org)
  • Both PDE2 and PDE3 may contribute to keep the cyclic nucleotides concentrations at minimum in the absence of adenylyl and/or guanylyl cyclase stimulation. (ubi.pt)
  • IMPORTANCE Most bacteria possess multiple diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases. (asm.org)
  • However, since most cyclases and phosphodiesterases harbor N-terminal signal input domains, it is equally possible that most of these enzymes lack their activating signals under laboratory conditions, thereby simulating signaling specificity on a genetic level. (asm.org)