An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
The act of BREATHING out.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Inorganic chemicals that contain manganese as an integral part of the molecule.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
(GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC (GTP cyclohydrolase II).
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Relating to the size of solids.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Identification and quantification of cocaine N-oxide: a thermally labile metabolite of cocaine. (1/1205)

In this article, we report the identification and quantitation of cocaine N-oxide (CNO), a thermally labile oxidative metabolite, from both animal and human samples. The concentration of CNO is similar to the concentrations of cocaine in the samples analyzed. The technique used for the determination of CNO in this study is liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, which is necessary because CNO is converted to cocaine upon heating. This includes simple heating of aqueous solutions to temperatures in excess of 100 degrees C and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in which CNO is converted to cocaine in the injection port. The thermal conversion of CNO to cocaine is estimated to cause an over-reporting of cocaine levels by 10-20% when using GC-MS.  (+info)

Localization and environment of tryptophans in soluble and membrane-bound states of a pore-forming toxin from Staphylococcus aureus. (2/1205)

The location and environment of tryptophans in the soluble and membrane-bound forms of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin were monitored using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Fluorescence quenching of the toxin monomer in solution indicated varying degrees of tryptophan burial within the protein interior. N-Bromosuccinimide readily abolished 80% of the fluorescence in solution. The residual fluorescence of the modified toxin showed a blue-shifted emission maximum, a longer fluorescence lifetime as compared to the unmodified and membrane-bound alpha-toxin, and a 5- to 6-nm red edge excitation shift, all indicating a restricted tryptophan environment and deeply buried tryptophans. In the membrane-bound form, the fluorescence of alpha-toxin was quenched by iodide, indicating a conformational change leading to exposure of some tryptophans. A shorter average lifetime of tryptophans in the membrane-bound alpha-toxin as compared to the native toxin supported the conclusions based on iodide quenching of the membrane-bound toxin. Fluorescence quenching of membrane-bound alpha-toxin using brominated and spin-labeled fatty acids showed no quenching of fluorescence using brominated lipids. However, significant quenching was observed using 5- and 12-doxyl stearic acids. An average depth calculation using the parallax method indicated that the doxyl-quenchable tryptophans are located at an average depth of 10 A from the center of the bilayer close to the membrane interface. This was found to be in striking agreement with the recently described structure of the membrane-bound form of alpha-toxin.  (+info)

Antioxidative activity of 4-oxy- and 4-hydroxy-nitroxides in tissues and erythrocytes from rats. (3/1205)

AIM: To compare the activities of antioxidation of 4-oxy- and 4-hydroxy-nitroxides in tissues and RBC from rats. METHODS: The homogenates of liver, heart, and kidneys of rats were used to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) formation using TBA colorimetric method. H2O2-caused hemolysis was measured spectrometrically. Superoxide anion from zymosan-stimulated neutrophils of rats was assayed by NBT reduction method. RESULTS: Nitroxide free radicals OTMPO and HTMPO inhibited MDA generation caused by .OH generation system (MIC 10.5 and 21 mumol.L-1, respectively), antagonized hemolysis induced by H2O2 (MIC: 338 and 168 mumol.L-1, respectively), but did not affect O2- formation from activated neutrophils. 1-Hydroxyl compounds OTMPOH and HTMPOH possessed similarly potent antilipoperoxidative activities. But nonfree radical OTMP and HTMP had no effect on peroxidation of tissues. CONCLUSION: Nitroxides exert their antilipoperoxidative effect by specifically scavenging .OH free radicals in biological system. Trapping of .OH free radicals by nitroxides is not by reduction of NO. group in nitroxides. Both NO. group and NOH group are essential active groups.  (+info)

Cycloheximide and 4-OH-TEMPO suppress chloramphenicol-induced apoptosis in RL-34 cells via the suppression of the formation of megamitochondria. (4/1205)

Toxic effects of chloramphenicol, an antibiotic inhibitor of mitochondrial protein synthesis, on rat liver derived RL-34 cell line were completely blocked by a combined treatment with substances endowed with direct or indirect antioxidant properties. A stable, nitroxide free radical scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, and a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suppressed in a similar manner the following manifestations of the chloramphenicol cytotoxicity: (1) Oxidative stress state as evidenced by FACS analysis of cells loaded with carboxy-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and Mito Tracker CMTH2MRos; (2) megamitochondria formation detected by staining of mitochondria with MitoTracker CMXRos under a laser confocal microscopy and electron microscopy; (3) apoptotic changes of the cell detected by the phase contrast microscopy, DNA laddering analysis and cell cycle analysis. Since increases of ROS generation in chloramphenicol-treated cells were the first sign of the chloramphenicol toxicity, we assume that oxidative stress state is a mediator of above described alternations of RL-34 cells including MG formation. Pretreatment of cells with cycloheximide or 4-hydroxy-2,2, 6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, which is known to be localized into mitochondria, inhibited the megamitochondria formation and succeeding apoptotic changes of the cell. Protective effects of cycloheximide, which enhances the expression of Bcl-2 protein, may further confirm our hypothesis that the megamitochondria formation is a cellular response to an increased ROS generation and raise a possibility that antiapoptotic action of the drug is exerted via the protection of the mitochondria functions.  (+info)

EPR spin trapping and 2-deoxyribose degradation studies of the effect of pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) on *OH formation by the Fenton reaction. (5/1205)

The search for effective iron chelating agents was primarily driven by the need to treat iron-loading refractory anemias such as beta-thalassemia major. However, there is a potential for therapeutic use of iron chelators in non-iron overload conditions. Iron can, under appropriate conditions, catalyze the production of toxic oxygen radicals which have been implicated in numerous pathologies and, hence, iron chelators may be useful as inhibitors of free radical-mediated tissue damage. We have developed the orally effective iron chelator pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) and demonstrated that it inhibits iron-mediated oxyradical formation and their effects (e.g. 2-deoxyribose oxidative degradation, lipid peroxidation and plasmid DNA breaks). In this study we further characterized the mechanism of the antioxidant action of PIH and some of its analogs against *OH formation from the Fenton reaction. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap for *OH we showed that PIH and salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) inhibited Fe(II)-dependent production of *OH from H2O2. Moreover, PIH protected 2-deoxyribose against oxidative degradation induced by Fe(II) and H2O2. The protective effect of PIH against both DMPO hydroxylation and 2-deoxyribose degradation was inversely proportional to Fe(II) concentration. However, PIH did not change the primary products of the Fenton reaction as indicated by EPR experiments on *OH-mediated ethanol radical formation. Furthermore, PIH dramatically enhanced the rate of Fe(II) oxidation to Fe(III) in the presence of oxygen, suggesting that PIH decreases the concentration of Fe(II) available for the Fenton reaction. These results suggest that PIH and SIH deserve further investigation as inhibitors of free-radical mediated tissue damage.  (+info)

Surface exposure of the methionine side chains of calmodulin in solution. A nitroxide spin label and two-dimensional NMR study. (6/1205)

Binding of calcium to calmodulin (CaM) causes a conformational change in this ubiquitous calcium regulatory protein that allows the activation of many target proteins. Met residues make up a large portion of its hydrophobic target binding surfaces. In this work, we have studied the surface exposure of the Met residues in the apo- and calcium-bound states of CaM in solution. Complexes of calcium-CaM with synthetic peptides derived from the CaM-binding domains of myosin light chain kinase, constitutive nitric-oxide synthase, and CaM-dependent protein kinase I were also studied. The surface exposure was measured by NMR by studying the effects of the soluble nitroxide spin label, 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6, 6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy, on the line widths and relaxation rates of the Met methyl resonances in samples of biosynthetically 13C-methyl-Met-labeled CaM. The Met residues move from an almost completely buried state in apo-CaM to an essentially fully exposed state in Ca2+4-CaM. Binding of two Ca2+ to the C-terminal lobe of CaM causes full exposure of the C-terminal Met residues and a partial exposure of the N-terminal Met side chains. Binding of the three target peptides blocks the access of the nitroxide surface probe to nearly all Met residues, although the mode of binding is distinct for the three peptides studied. These data show that calcium binding to CaM controls the surface exposure of the Met residues, thereby providing the switch for target protein binding.  (+info)

Re-design of Rhodobacter sphaeroides dimethyl sulfoxide reductase. Enhancement of adenosine N1-oxide reductase activity. (7/1205)

The periplasmic DMSO reductase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides f. sp. denitrificans has been expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells in its mature form and with the R. sphaeroides or E. coli N-terminal signal sequence. Whereas the R. sphaeroides signal sequence prevents formation of active enzyme, addition of a 6x His-tag at the N terminus of the mature peptide maximizes production of active enzyme and allows for affinity purification. The recombinant protein contains 1.7-1.9 guanines and greater than 0.7 molybdenum atoms per molecule and has a DMSO reductase activity of 3.4-3.7 units/nmol molybdenum, compared with 3.7 units/nmol molybdenum for enzyme purified from R. sphaeroides. The recombinant enzyme differs from the native enzyme in its color and spectrum but is indistinguishable from the native protein after redox cycling with reduced methyl viologen and Me2SO. Substitution of Cys for the molybdenum-ligating Ser-147 produced a protein with DMSO reductase activity of 1.4-1.5 units/nmol molybdenum. The mutant protein differs from wild type in its color and absorption spectrum in both the oxidized and reduced states. This substitution leads to losses of 61-99% of activity toward five substrates, but the adenosine N1-oxide reductase activity increases by over 400%.  (+info)

Amyloid beta peptides do not form peptide-derived free radicals spontaneously, but can enhance metal-catalyzed oxidation of hydroxylamines to nitroxides. (8/1205)

Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Free radical generation by Abeta peptides was suggested to be a key mechanism of their neurotoxicity. Reports that neurotoxic free radicals derived from Abeta-(1-40) and Abeta-(25-35) peptides react with the spin trap N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) to form a PBN/.Abeta peptide radical adduct with a specific triplet ESR signal assert that the peptide itself was the source of free radicals. We now report that three Abeta peptides, Abeta-(1-40), Abeta-(25-35), and Abeta-(40-1), do not yield radical adducts with PBN from the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation (OMRF). In contrast to OMRF PBN, incubation of Sigma PBN in phosphate buffer without Abeta peptides produced a three-line ESR spectrum. It was shown that this nitroxide is di-tert-butylnitroxide and is formed in the Sigma PBN solution as a result of transition metal-catalyzed auto-oxidation of the respective hydroxylamine present as an impurity in the Sigma PBN. Under some conditions, incubation of PBN from Sigma with Abeta-(1-40) or Abeta-(25-35) can stimulate the formation of di-tert-butylnitroxide. It was shown that Abeta peptides enhanced oxidation of cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-4-oxo-2,2,6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMPONE-H), which was strongly inhibited by the treatment of phosphate buffer with Chelex-100. It was shown that ferric and cupric ions are effective oxidants of TEMPONE-H. The data obtained allow us to conclude that under some conditions toxic Abeta peptides Abeta-(1-40) and Abeta-(25-35) enhance metal-catalyzed oxidation of hydroxylamine derivatives, but do not spontaneously form peptide-derived free radicals.  (+info)

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Both the blood pressure and the renal vasculature of the SHR have an increased responsiveness and sensitivity to the vasodilation produced by scavenging of O2−. Tempol, a membrane-permeable SOD mimetic, normalized MAP and RVR of SHR. Because the antihypertensive response was blocked by NO synthesis inhibition, it must depend on NO. O2− also appears to be important in the longer-term control of blood pressure in SHR. These results suggest that SHR have increased O2− activity that contributes to their hypertension. In these studies, the effect of tempol on RVR may have been secondary to its effect on blood pressure with engagement of renal autoregulation.. O2− is generated and acts both extracellularly and intracellularly, where it can have harmful effects including lipid peroxidation, protein aggregation, and DNA destruction.25 Previous investigators have used scavengers of O2− to reduce inflammation,26 atherosclerosis,27 and ischemia/reperfusion injury.28 Because native SOD has limited ...
We conducted the present study based on our earlier findings that the stable nitroxide tempol when administered i.p. led to radioprotection of murine salivary glands. We have examined the effects of tempol dose, the route of tempol administration, and the timing of tempol administration in this model. In the previous study, the dose used (275 mg/kg tempol) was 75% of the LD50 when administered i.p. Thus, we initially preformed studies to examine the tempol dose dependence of salivary gland radioprotection. We found equivalent irradiation protection of salivary output after tempol doses of 275 and 137.5 mg/kg body weight. There was no significant protection at lower doses.. Next, we evaluated the significance of the time of tempol i.p. administration. Of the three timepoints tested, only administration 10 minutes before irradiation was effective in protecting salivary gland function. Neither administration 5 minutes before irradiation nor 10 minutes after irradiation was useful. We speculate that ...
Up to the interim analysis, patients are randomized to one of the Otamixaban arms or the control arm (UFH + Eptifibatide). Then after interim analysis, patients will be randomized to the continued Otamixaban arm (per Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) decision based on interim analysis results) or the control arm (UFH + Eptifibatide). Except the DMC, all participants will remain blinded to this decision until the end of study.. The total duration of the study period per subject will range between 30 days and 180 days. Study end date being the Day 30 visit of the last randomized patient, follow up will be until Day 180 or study end date whichever comes first. ...
Up to the interim analysis, patients are randomized to one of the Otamixaban arms or the control arm (UFH + Eptifibatide). Then after interim analysis, patients will be randomized to the continued Otamixaban arm (per Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) decision based on interim analysis results) or the control arm (UFH + Eptifibatide). Except the DMC, all participants will remain blinded to this decision until the end of study.. The total duration of the study period per subject will range between 30 days and 180 days. Study end date being the Day 30 visit of the last randomized patient, follow up will be until Day 180 or study end date whichever comes first. ...
Tempol is a redox-cycling nitroxide that promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improves nitric oxide bioavailability. It has been studied extensively in animal models of oxidative stress. Tempol has been shown to preserve mitochondria against oxidative damage and improve tissue oxygenation. Tempol improved insulin responsiveness in models of diabetes mellitus and improved the dyslipidemia, reduced the weight gain and prevented diastolic dysfunction and heart failure in fat-fed models of the metabolic syndrome. Tempol protected many organs, including the heart and brain, from ischemia/reperfusion damage. Tempol prevented podocyte damage, glomerulosclerosis, proteinuria and progressive loss of renal function in models of salt and mineralocorticosteroid excess. It reduced brain or spinal cord damage after ischemia or trauma and exerted a spinal analgesic action. Tempol improved survival in several models of shock. It protected normal cells from radiation while maintaining
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
The onset of metastases dramatically changes the prognosis of prostate cancer patients, identifying increased morbidity along with a extreme fall in survival expectancy. capability of prostate tumor cells to migrate in bone tissue marrow also to determine blended osteoblastic/osteolytic lesions. As Srebf1 expected by the achievement of current targeted therapy directed to block bone tissue resorption, an improved knowledge of molecular affinity between prostate tumor and bone tissue microenvironment will permit us to get rid of bone tissue metastasis also to improve prognosis of prostate tumor sufferers. 1. Launch Although just 5% of sufferers identified as having prostate tumor (PCa) possess metastatic disease, a lot more than 60% of these who perish from PCa possess metastases disseminated in faraway sites. In early diagnosed, low quality PCa, the operative, rays, and hormone remedies assure an extended life expectancy. Nevertheless the risk for Otamixaban metastatic disease significantly ...
2,2,5,5-Tetramethyl-3-carboxy-3-pyrroline 1-oxide | C9H15NO3 | CID 12610999 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
mice eliminated vascular inflammation, aortic stiffening, renal dysfunction, and hypertension; however, adoptive transfer of T cells restored these processes. Isoketal-protein adducts, which are immunogenic, were increased in aortas, DCs, and macrophages of tgsm/p22phox mice. Autologous pulsing with tgsm/p22phox aortic homogenates promoted DCs of tgsm/p22phox mice to stimulate T cell proliferation and production of IFN-γ, IL-17A, and TNF-α. Treatment with the superoxide scavenger tempol or the isoketal scavenger 2-hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) normalized blood pressure; prevented vascular inflammation, aortic stiffening, and hypertension; and prevented DC and T cell activation. Moreover, in human aortas, the aortic content of isoketal adducts correlated with fibrosis and inflammation severity. Together, these results define a pathway linking vascular oxidant stress to immune activation and aortic stiffening and provide insight into the systemic inflammation encountered in common vascular ...
Tempol is a synthetic compound used to lower stress, prevent oxidative damage, & improve heart disease & diabetes. Learn whether tempol is right for you.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blockade of ATP-sensitive potassium channels prevents the attenuation of the exercise pressor reflex by tempol in rats with ligated femoral arteries. AU - Yamauchi, Katsuya. AU - Stone, Audrey J.. AU - Stocker, Sean D.. AU - Kaufman, Marc P.. PY - 2012/8/1. Y1 - 2012/8/1. N2 - We reported previously that tempol attenuated the exercise pressor and muscle mechanoreceptor reflexes in rats whose femoral arteries were ligated, whereas tempol did not attenuate these reflexes in rats whose femoral arteries were freely perfused. Although the mechanism whereby tempol attenuated these reflexes in rats whose femoral artery was ligated was independent of its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species, its nature remains unclear. An alternative explanation for the tempol-induced attenuation of these reflexes involves ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K Atp) and calcium-activated potassium channels (BK Ca), both of which are opened by tempol. We tested the likelihood of this explanation by ...
The effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the lipid peroxidation of rat heart mitochondria was studied using the spin trapping agent α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-t-butylnitrone (4-POBN) with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer. Two fatty acid spin labels, 5-doxyl-stearic acid (5-DOXYL) and 16-doxyl-stearic acid (16-DOXYL) were used to study the effect of GSE on mitochondrial membrane fluidity. The results showed that the GSE could scavenge the lipid free radicals generated from the mitochondria of rat heart, and protect the mitochondrial membranes damaged by lipid peroxidation. Both the scavenging effect and the protective effect are better in water phase than in lipid phase. And the data indicate that perhaps trimers and other polymers have better scavenging effect on lipid free radicals than monomers.
The detection of protein free radicals using the specific free radical reactivity of nitrone spin traps in conjunction with nitrone-antibody sensitivity and specificity greatly expands the utility of the spin trapping technique, which is no longer dependent on the quantum mechanical electron spin re …
CAS NO:7492-32-2; Chemical name:(3-carbamoyl-3,3-diphenylpropyl)diisopropylmethylammonium ; physical and chemical property of 7492-32-2, (3-carbamoyl-3,3-diphenylpropyl)diisopropylmethylammonium is provided by
Because of all of the descriptions, download Free Nitroxyl provinces have recently cochlear and distributor for the biggest climate of new services devices. countries possibly are the management codes for the long-term beginners resources)Commons( currently in the manifestation of the NFL) in website to provide their account to open their power to the browser, However exact and agricultural settlement citations. cycles speak Federally be their generations and options with servers methods as other codes just ve.
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A media playlist is generated in which media items have a tempo matching a target tempo. The content server receives a seed value and a tempo signal from a client device. The tempo signal indicates a target tempo specified by the user. The content server calculates a target tempo range associated with the target tempo and generates a filtered playlist of media items based on the seed value and the target tempo range. The media items in the in the filtered playlist have tempos within the target tempo range. The content server provides the media items in the filtered playlist to the client device.
We examined whether a nitric oxide scavenger, 2-(4-carboxypheny l)-4,4,5,5-tetramethy l-imidazo line- l-oxy l-3-oxide (carboxy- PTIO), cou ld offer neuroprotective actions and improve cerebra l energy
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
What role does tempo training play in achieving fitness goals? Check out this article and get up to speed on the latest tempo training research.
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Updated for 2015! The key to a great running pack is that it fit so well you forget that its there. The Gregory Tempo 3 hydration pack delivers a dialed-in fit, incorporates run-specific organizational and access features and weighs less than a pound.
Dedicato a tutti coloro mi vengono a trovare e trovano il tempo di salutare Grazie Dedicated to everyone who comes to my place and finds time to say hi Thank you ...
So my band decided that since I am the oldest, most COVID susceptible band member I had to go...also they were planning on playing more high tempo...
The present invention relates to a kind of preparation method of 1,2,3,3 tetramethyl indoles of 6 nitro, with 1,2,3,3 tetramethyl indoles are raw material, using sulfuric acid as solvent, using the nitration mixture of certain concentration as nitrating agent, nitration mixture is added dropwise within a certain period of time and carries out nitration reaction 6 nitros 1,2,3 of generation, 3 tetramethyl indoles, reaction solution is diluted in a certain amount of frozen water and is filtered to remove byproduct, and the reaction solution after filtering obtains 6 nitros 1 by anti-tune, 2,3,3 tetramethyl indoles.Present invention process is simple, product post processing is easy, environmental pollution is small, 6 nitros 1,2 being prepared, 3,3 tetramethyl indoles product quality qualities are high, and stability is good, and obtained product is in addition to it can be used for general applications, the preparation of high-end resin is can be also used for, is a kind of method of suitable
Iso Certificate Tetramethyl Diphenyl Trisiloxane 17875-55-7 , Find Complete Details about Iso Certificate Tetramethyl Diphenyl Trisiloxane 17875-55-7,17875-55-7,Tetramethyl Diphenyl Trisiloxane,Diphenyl Trisiloxane from Electronics Chemicals Supplier or Manufacturer-Wuhan Kemi-Works Chemical Co., Ltd.
The mechanism of the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols by the oxoammonium cation derived from 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) has been investigated computationally at the B3LYP/6-31+G* level, along with free energies of solvation, using a reaction field model. In basic solution, the reaction involves formation of a complex between the alkoxide anion and the oxoammonium cation in a pre-oxidation equilibrium wherein methoxide leads to a much larger formation constant than isopropoxide. The differences in free energy of activation for the rate-determining hydrogen transfer within the pre-oxidation complexes were small; the differences in complex formation constants lead to a larger rate of reaction for the primary alcohol, as is observed experimentally. In acidic solution, rate-determining hydrogen atom transfer from the alcohol to the oxoammonium cation had a large unfavorable free energy change and would proceed more slowly than is observed. A more likely path involves a hydride
2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide: partial structure given in first source; endothelium-derived relaxing factor antagonist
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tempol, a membrane-permeable radical scavenger, reduces oxidant stress-mediated renal dysfunction and injury in the rat. AU - Chatterjee, P K AU - Cuzzocrea, S AU - Brown, P A J AU - Zacharowski, K AU - Stewart, K N AU - Mota-Filipe, H AU - Thiemermann, C PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Background. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the pathogenesis of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tempol in (1) an in vivo rat model of renal ischemia/ reperfusion injury and on (2) cellular injury and death of rat renal proximal tubular (PT) cells exposed to oxidant stress in the form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).Methods. Male Wistar rats underwent bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 45 minutes followed by reperfusion for six hours. Tempol (30 mg/kg/h), desferrioxamine (DEF; 40 mg/kg/h), or a combination of tempol (30 mg/kg/h) and DEF (40 mg/kg/h) were administered prior to and throughout reperfusion. Plasma ...
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The acute oral toxicity of N-Butyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-4-amine was investigated following administration of a single dose to the rat by gavage. A single group of 3 female animals was dosed at a level of 2000 mg/kg. All animals died within 4 hours of dosing. Reduced activity, hunched posture, lethargy and closed eyes were observed prior to death. An additional group of 3 female animals was then dosed at 300 mg/kg and observed for a period of 14 days. No mortality occurred. Clinical signs included piloerection, reduced activity, hunched posture and semi-closed eyes, which were observed on the day of dosing. Recovery had occurred by Day 2. A group of 3 female animals was subsequently dosed at the same level (300 mg/kg) with the same result. Changes in body weight observed in treated animals were not remarkable. A reduced body weight gain or a body weight loss was noted at the end of the first week of the study, but recovery was observed at the end of the study. No abnormalities were ...
adducts with a higher lifetime. (106cells/mL) were incubated for 10 min at 37 °C in Global Veterinaria, 15 (1): 72-81, 2015 darkness with honey at final concentrations of 2, 5, 10 and complex spectra with an increased intensity of the four- 20% (w/v) for each honey sample and then activated for line ESR signal attributed to the DMPO-OH adducts (sign 30 min at 37 °C once again in darkness with PMA at the Ø spectrum 2in Fig. 1b) and a new signal (sign * spectrum final concentration of 0.8 µM. After activation, the cell 2in Fig 1b). Similar data were obtained with MH, but are suspensions were centrifuged for 10 min (450 g) and the not presented here. When, 5% of NH (w/v) were added to supernatants were collected. To measure the total MPO the complete system, there was no real modification of the released by activated neutrophils in the extra-cellular shape of the ESR signal intensity attributed to DMPO-OH milieu, an original Equine MPO ELISA assay designed by adducts and the new signal as shown ...
Avantis nitroxide spin product listing is a group of compounds designed to act as membrane probes. A variety of positions down the hydrophobic chain are
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: (1R,2S,4S,7S,8S,9S,10R,11S,12S,13R,17R,18S)-8,10-Dihydroxy-1,5,9,18-tetramethyl-16,20-dioxahexac.
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Tempo running is a great way to improve your running economy, and make you a better more efficient runner. However, many people do not know how to run a tempo run properly. Oftentimes, they run the tempo to hard leaving them overly tired. Tempo running is something that should be...
Rh(III)-Catalyzed Direct C8-Arylation of Quinoline N-Oxides using Diazonaphthalen-2(1H)-ones: A Practical Approach towards 8-azaBINOL ...
Hora local na cidade de Taoyuan City : Diferença de Tempo, tempo de verão, tempo de inverno, endereços das embaixadas e consulados, previsão do tempo PT
This is a 3 part series guest blogged by Jim Hiserman. Read What is Extensive Tempo Training Part 1 and Part 2 as a primer before reading this article.
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Learn more about 1-4-ethoxycarbonyl-3-5-dimethyl-1h-pyrrol-2-yl-carbonyl-piperidine-3-carboxylic-acid. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
ஆக்சிசன் நிறம் மணம் சுவையற்ற ஒரு வளிமம் .நீர்ம வடிவில் உள்ள ஆக்சிசன் ஒளி ஊடுருவும் நீல நிறத்தில் இருக்கும். சிறிதளவு நிலைப்பெறா காந்தத்தன்மை (paramagnetic) உடையது. காந்தப் புலனுக்கு உட்படுத்தினால் நீர்ம ஆக்சிசன், காந்த முனைகளுக்கு இடையே, இழுப்புண்டு முனைகளை இணைத்து நிற்கும். உறைந்து திண்மமாகச் சுருங்கும் போது வெளிர் நீல நிறத்தைப் பெறுகிறது. இது காற்றை விடச் சற்று கனமானது. நீரில் ...
Datemi tempo , non so se riuscirò a commentare tutti i vostri post ma siate certi che leggerò tutto quello che avete scritto ! ...
Pratite novi serijal emisija u kojima ćemo dovoditi igrače, navijače i prave ljubitelje košarke. Pričaćemo sa njima i približiti vama kako je to igrati u najboljoj amaterskoj košarkaškoj ligi.. ...
X- and W-band EPR spectra, at room and low temperatures, are reported for nitroxide spin labels attached to cysteine residues selectively introduced into two proteins, the DNase domain of colicin-E9 and its immunity protein, Im9. The dynamics of each site of attachment on the individual proteins and in the tight DNase-Im9 complex have been analysed by computer simulations of the spectra using a model of Brownian dynamics trajectories for the spin label and protein. Ordering potentials have been introduced to describe mobility of labels restricted by the protein domain. Label mobility varies with position from completely immobilised, to motionally restricted and to freely rotating. Bi-modal dynamics of the spin label have been observed for several sites. We show that W-band spectra are particularly useful for detection of anisotropy of spin label motion. On complex formation significant changes are observed in the dynamics of labels at the binding interface region. This work reveals multi-frequency EPR
Although the physiological role of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) 2 and 3 is uncertain, their activation by superoxide and by lipid peroxidation products suggest that UCPs are central to the mitochondrial response to reactive oxygen species. We examined whether superoxide and lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal act independently to activate UCPs, or if they share a common pathway, perhaps by superoxide exposure leading to the formation of lipid peroxidation products. This possibility can be tested by blocking the putative reactive oxygen species cascade with selective antioxidants and then reactivating UCPs with distal cascade components. We synthesized a mitochondria-targeted derivative of the spin trap alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, which reacts rapidly with carbon-centered radicals but is unreactive with superoxide and lipid peroxidation products. [4-[4-[[(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-oxidoimino]methyl]phenoxy]butyl]triphenylphosphonium bromide (MitoPBN) prevented the ...
Electron Spin Resonance David J. Lurie, PhD Bio-Medical Physics, School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK 1. 13/02/2020 14/04/2020 Chemistry ABC 0 Comments electron spin resonance, esr, resonance, spectroscopy After Very Hardworking by contacting Toppers of Gate we have got E S R Spectroscopy Handwritten Notes Pdf. • Net spin S = 0 • Some chemical species have UNPAIRED electrons • Atoms H, Na, transition metals • Recall Stern-Gerlach experiment (s = ±±±± ½) • Molecules: O 2, NO Proportionality Factor Atherton, N. M. Principles of Electron Spin Resonance; Ellis Horwood: Chichester, 1993. how is, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance - . nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr), ATOMIC SPECROSCOPY (AS) - . PPT - Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy PowerPoint presentation , free to download - id: 3c9577-Y2VkZ, The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. The PowerPoint PPT presentation: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is the property of ...
Determination of superoxide production in live neuronal cultures by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy Experimental design Measurement of O•2 production in live neuronal cultures was Samples were treated for 2, 6, 12 or 24 h (as indicated) in two carried out by EPR spin trapping method using 70 mM of the treatment groups: cell death-negative control (DMEM/F12 spin trap agent DEPMPO (5-(diethylphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1- media (Invitrogen), pH 7.4, gassed with 21% O2, 5% CO2, bal- pyrroline-N-oxide). DEPMPO readily permeates mouse heart, ance N2), or an ischemic penumbral perfusate mimic (IS, in liver, and brain tissues in vivo and is evenly distributed within mM: K+ 64, Na+ 51, Cl− 77.5, Ca2+ 0.13, Mg2+ 1.5, glucose 3, glu- 15 min (); and DEPMPO-spin adducts diffuse tamate 0.1, [315 mOsM, pH 6.5, 1.5% O2, 15% CO2, balance N2]) through lipid bilayers effectively (Samples (). APV (5 or 50 μM), CNQX (5 or 50 μM), were treated for 2 h before transferring the coverslip to the CrOx ...
Fuel cells are disclosed that operate directly on fuel streams comprising tetramethyl orthocarbonate in which tetramethyl orthocarbonate is directly oxidized at the anode and, more particularly, to solid polymer fuel cells operating directly on liquid fuel streams comprising tetramethyl orthocarbonate. Also disclosed are methods relating thereto.
The BIU EPR center is equipped with the state of the art instrumentation .. The equipments that we have can provide the resources necessary for contemporary research of paramagnetic metals (i.e.: Cu(II), Mn(II/III/IV), Fe(II/III) etc), organic radicals, Oxygen and Nitroxide radicals in biology research, oxidative stress, antioxidants, bioinorganic complexes, changes in structure of paramagnetic electrode, identification and structure of paramagnetic nano particles, comparing size of nano particles, protein having paramagnetic atoms and structural biology. The EPR research center allows a number of groups from Chemistry, Physics and Biology from BIU in which several research projects are being performed.. EMX:. We have been using currently the Bruker EMX EPR 100d X-band Spectrometer. This spectrometer is a continuous wave (CW) spectrometer, operating at 9.5 GHz, 30 mm with center of magnetic field at around 3300 G. It can operate between 150 K to 400 K and is been used for spin trap EPR, metal ...
Part I; DNA and Higher Order Cell Systems The effects of a range of nitroxides on the radiation damage routes in frozen aqueous DNA have been studied by comparison with nitroxide free systems. The results show that nitroxides affect the yield of both primary and secondary radicals in this system. The differences between the effects of the nitroxides studied are attributed to steric effects. A range of spin-labelled polyanmionium cations (PACs) have been used to probe the motion of PACs when they are complexed with DNA. The results suggest that PACs experience virtually free movement along the DNA backbone. The effects of one of these spin-labelled PACs on irradiated frozen aqueous DNA have been studied. The results show that constraining the nitroxide group to be close to the DNA by attaching it to a PAC increases the effect of the nitroxide on irradiated DNA at low temperatures. At higher temperatures the spin-labelled PAC is less effective and it is proposed that this is due to less efficient ...
ESR Spectroscopy (Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy or Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) is a technique used for studying chemical species that
Endothelial dysfunction, in part caused by oxidative inactivation of nitric oxide (NO•) by excess level of O2•-, contributes to various cardiovascular diseases including diabetes (DM). Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD), a secretory Cu enzyme, is the major antioxidant enzyme against O2•- in the vascular extracellular space. However, role of endogenous ecSOD in diabetic vessels remains unclear. Here we show that specific activity of ecSOD, but not cytosolic Cu/Zn SOD, is decreased by 35% in aortas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM mice. This is associated with significantly increased L-NAME-sensitive O2•- production (P,0.05) and increased 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) level, a marker of ONOO-, implicating eNOS uncoupling. Functionally, acetylcholine-induced NO-mediated vasorelaxation is impaired (P,0.05) in mesenteric arteries of DM, which is rescued by SOD mimetic tempol or adenovirus mediated gene transfer of ecSOD. Importantly, supplementation of catalytic cofactor copper (Cu) ...
Aminoxyl-containing radical is provided in polymers and copolymers by replacing a hydroxyl moiety in a carboxyl group at a chain end of a starting material biodegradable polymer or copolymer with imino or oxy linked to aminoxyl-containing radical to form an amide linkage or an oxycarbonyl linkage at the chain end of biocompatible polymers or copolymers to the aminoxyl-containing radical. Preferred starting material polymers and copolymers are prepared from the hydroxy alkyl carboxylic acid monomers glycolic acid and lactic acid. Preferred aminoxyl-containing radical is 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy. Product polymers are useful for aminoxyl-containing radical treatment of tumors, and to increase the efficiency of chemotherapy and ionizing radiation therapy of tumors and for the reconstruction of injured, diseased, or aged human blood vessels.
0036] In certain embodiments, sPLA2 inhibitors for use in the current invention are selected from the group consisting of: {9-[(phenyl)methyl]-5-carbamoylcarbazol-4-yl}oxyacetic acid; 9-benzyl-5,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-4-carboxylic acid hydrazide; 9-benzyl-5,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-4-carboxamide; [9-benzyl-4-carbamoyl-7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazol-5-yl]oxyacetic acid; [9-benzyl-4-carbamoyl-7-methoxycarbazol-5-yl]oxyacetic acid; methyl[9-benzyl-4-carbamoyl-7-methoxycarbazol-5-yl]oxyacetic acid; 9-benzyl-7-methoxy-5-cyanomethyloxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-4-carboxa- mide; 9-benzyl-7-methoxy-5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl-methyl)oxy)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydr- ocarbazole-4-carboxamide; {9-[(phenyl)methyl]-5-carbamoyl-2-methyl-carbazol-4-yl}oxyacetic acid; {9-[(3-fluorophenyl)methyl]-5-carbamoyl-2-methylcarbazol-4-yl}oxyacetic acid; {9-[(3-methylphenyl)methyl]-5-carbamoyl-2-methylcarbazol-4-yl}oxyac- etic acid; {9-[(phenyl)methyl]-5-carbamoyl-2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-car- ...
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 120511-73-1(1,3-Benzenediacetonitrile, α1,α1,α3,α3-tetramethyl-5-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-) for price inquiry. where to buy 120511-73-1(1,3-Benzenediacetonitrile, α1,α1,α3,α3-tetramethyl-5-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-).Also offer free database of 120511-73-1(1,3-Benzenediacetonitrile, α1,α1,α3,α3-tetramethyl-5-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
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Toxicokinetics of 4-Hydroxy TEMPO General The following sections provide an overview of the toxicological profile of 4-Hydroxy TEMPO, and an analysis of the substances toxicokinetic behaviour. Belonging to the group of nitroxyl radicals, it is generally accepted that bio reduction to hydroxylamines represents the main metabolic pathway in mammals. In addition, other metabolites such as secondary amines, ammonium cations, radical adducts or other derivatives may be formed (Kroll & Borchert, 1999). It is assumed that nitroxides follow double exponential decay kinetics, with a fast and a slow component. The fast component resulting from nitroxide distribution is in the order of seconds followed by nitroxide metabolism and clearance in the order of minutes. Toxicological profile In an acute oral toxicity study (CIBA GEYGY Ltd., 1983, Report No. TK 11725/2) according to OECD test guideline 401, a single oral dose of 4-Hydroxy TEMPO was administered to 5 rats per gender in distilled water at doses of ...
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Order 5-Carbamoyl-2-chlorophenylboronic acid pinacol ester 01012648979 at Gentaur 5-Carbamoyl-2-chlorophenylboronic acid, pinacol ester
Aim: The main goal of this study is to determine the effect of Tempol on the flow-induced dilation of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to acute hyperbaric oxygenation. Materials and methods: The study included healthy male Sprague Dawley rats, divided into two groups: CTRL group - heatlhy untreated rats (N=6) and A_HBOT group - rats exposed to acute hyperbaric oxygen in hyperbaric chamber (100 % oxygen; 2 bar/2 hours, N=5). Before decapitation, rats were anesthetized with ketamine (75 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg / kg) anesthesia. The middle cerebral artery was isolated and incubated at a pressure of 80 mmHg. The diameter was measured depending on the pressure gradients (∆10, ∆20, ∆40, ∆60 i ∆100 mmHg), first basal values, and then with Tempol (100 μmol / L). At the end of the experimental protocol, PSS solution in the system was replaced with PSS Ca-free solution so the maximum blood vessel diameter could be measured. Results: The results show that Tempol in vitro improves the level of ...
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Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is an unambiguous method to measure free radicals. The use of selective spin probes...
Overall, the study provides evidence that TEMPOL reduces the onset and severity of disease and inflammation in animals of MS-like disease. One key benefit of TEMPOL is that it can alter immune system responses without suppressing cells. Another important aspect of this study is that TEMPOL can be administered orally and meets the need to establish more DMTs that well tolerated, effective and with reduced risk profiles. In an interview for Centre for Brain Health, Dr. Quandt reiterated that these results, while in their early stages, are promising as TEMPOL modifies the way that harmful immune cells work without eliminating them entirely. More studies are still needed to further explore the benefits of TEMPOL in animals with MS-like disease and answer questions such as: How does TEMPOL work and what molecules does it target? Is it safe? Does it have the potential to be translated into a drug? These basic biomedical studies are the essential first steps to determine if TEMPOL has the potential to ...
1,3,5,7-Tetramethyl-6-phenyl-2,4,6-trioxa-6-phosphaadamantane Pd G4 ≥95%; Synonyms: [(1,3,5,7-Tetramethyl-6-phenyl-2,4,6-trioxa-6-phosphaadamantane)-2-(2′-methylamino-1,1′-biphenyl)]palladium(II) methanesulfonate; find Sigma-Aldrich-900697 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
1226995-21-6|2-(4,4,5,5-TETRAMETHYL-1,3,2-DIOXABOROLAN-2-YL)QUINOLINE|A&J Pharmtech Co. Ltd.|2-(tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)quinoline
declare variable $timesequence := fn:doc(temp_events.xml); let $MAX_DIFF := 2 for sliding window $w in $timesequence/stream/event start $s_curr at $s_pos previous $s_prev when ($s_curr/@time ne $s_prev/@time) or (empty($s_prev)) only end next $e_next when $e_next/@time - $s_curr/@time gt $MAX_DIFF return avg( $w/@temp ) %%% declare variable $timesequence := fn:doc(temp_events.xml); let $SMOOTH_CONST := 0.2 for sliding window $w in $timesequence/stream/event start at $s_pos when true() only end at $e_pos when $e_pos - $s_pos eq 2 return round-half-to-even($SMOOTH_CONST * data($w[3]/@temp) + (1 - $SMOOTH_CONST) * ( $SMOOTH_CONST * data($w[2]/@temp) + (1 - $SMOOTH_CONST) * data($w[1]/@temp) ), 2) %%% declare variable $seq := fn:doc(temp_events.xml); for sliding window $w in $seq/stream/event start $s_curr when fn:true() only end next $next when $next/@time > $s_curr/@time + 3 return let $avg := fn:avg($w/@temp) where $avg * 2 lt xs:double($next/@temp) or $avg div 2 gt xs:double($next/@temp) ...
2-[4-[4-(6-Carbamoyl-3-methylpyrazin-2-yl)phenyl]cyclohexyl]acetic acid | C20H23N3O3 | CID 44126032 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-[(2s)-1-(2-carbamoyl-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl)-4-methyl-1-oxo-2-pentanyl]-l-prolinamide (C15H26N4O3S) from the PQR.
This page contains information on the chemical Ammonium, (3-carbamoyl-3,3-diphenylpropyl)trimethyl-, iodide including: 3 synonyms/identifiers.
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 2-Methyl-3-[(2E,7S,11R)-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-yl]-1,4-naphthoquinone.
Boronpharm offer CAS No.864754-47-2, 2-(4-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane,BP24758,purity 98% Min.,MSDS.
MolCore offers CAS No.1375708-04-5, 6-methoxy-5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)pyridin-2-amine for your research needs.Find product specific information including MFCD22574004,1375708-04-5 MSDS,Price,Custom Synthesis.
Product page for 6-(tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one, MDL/ACD number MFCD27936531, CAS number 1408287-07-9, Molecular Formula C15H17BO4.
Vie académique: comment planifier le temps détudes à luniversité?. Faut-il étudier seul ou en groupe? Cest la question que se posent certains étudiants à la première année académique. Daucuns pensent quétudier seul, permet de mieux se concentrer sur la matière enseignée. Alors quen groupe, on passe plus de temps au bavardage et aux potins. Comment alors planifier le temps détudes une fois à lUniversité? Jody Nkashasama aborde la question avec Marcous Bindungwa, assistant et chercheur à lUniversité Catholique du Congo (UCC).. Pour en savoir plus. Source: ...
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Slim Line Station With In/Out Temp/Humid - Get the lowest price on Slim Line Station With In/Out Temp/Humid, online at
I was glad to see za brought out a vista 64 bit version. After installing the new program ( extreem security) my system froze up with in a couple of days. I noticed that the c drive had no available space. I then found that the windows temp folder was full of pr temp files. not sure of what happend. I cleared them out, but the next day it was full again and the computer was frozen again. after I cleared them out again, I shut down ZA for the night and unplugged the nic card to see if they
the temp. coeffecient of the rate of a reaction is 2.3.How many times will the rate increase if temp. is rised by 25K? ans coeffecient of rate of reaction is d
General Characteristics Amines are susceptible to oxidation. Tertiary amines are oxidized to give N-oxides. Secondary amines having proton(s) at the α-position are oxidized to nitrones. The .... ...
Electron, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Paramagnetic Resonance, Report, Work, Spectroscopy, Crystallin, Lysozyme, Membrane, Spin Labels, Water, Proteins, Cataract, Dissociation, Heat, Shock, ATP, Binding Site, Hydrolysis, Distance
Methyl기를 포함하는 새로운 5종의 crown ether를 합성하였다. 2,3,4,5: 9,10,11,12-Dibenzo-8,8-dimethyl-15,18,1-trioxacycloeicosane, 2,3,4,5: 9,10,11,12-dibenzo-8,8-dimethyl-15,18,21,1-tetraoxacyclotricosane, 2,3,4,5 : 9,10,11,12-dibenzo-8,8-dimethyl-15,18,21,24,1-pentaoxacyclohexacosane, 2,3,4,5 : 9,10,11,12 : 22,23,24,25 : 29,30,31,32-tetrabenzo-8,8,28,28-tetramethyl-15,18,21,35,38,1-hexaoxacyclotetracontane 그리고 2,3,4,5 : 9,10,11,12 : 25,26,27,28:32,33,34,35-tetrabenzo-8,8,31,31-tetramethyl-15,18,21,24,38,41,44,1-octaoxacyclohexatetracontane은 (M = Na, K)존재하에서 4,4-isopropylidenediphenol과 di-, tri- 그리고 tetraethyleneglycol ditosylate의 반응에 의해 합성하였다. Diethyleneglycol ditosylate, triethyleneglycol ditosylate, tetraethyleneglycol ditosylate는 NaOH존재하에서 diethyleneglycol, triethyleneglycol 그리고 tetraethyleneglycol과 p-toluenesulfonylchloride의 반응에 의해 합성하였다 ...
Tempo Argo R3 Tempo Argo is a short-nosed saddle designed to offer endurance cyclists greater stability and better weight distribution. Tempo Argo has been engineered to deliver a riding feel that suits the balanced geometry of todays all-purpose road ma
Hey people. I new to FL Studio, so quick question.. Whenever I start a song I select a tempo. As I begin creating patterns for the tracks, I may want to change the tempo faster or slower at some later point. When I set the tempo to a new one the old patterns at some point decrease or increase in ...
When you need to monitor temperature and humidity, count on Healthmark. The companys TEMP-USB-TH can measure more than 250,000 temperature and humidity
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Theres a lot of debate about which is better: high-temperature dabs or low-temperature dabs. Here are the pros and cons of each style.
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My temp dropped this morning... not to the coverline, but about halfway there. I was afraid to even put it on my chart. I hope it means nothing, but I
I just got my system together and downloaded Real Temp and am noticing an issue. When I checked the bios on powerup it and had the following temps: CPU 39C Board 30C MCP 48C I started Real Temp and is...
... can be produced from low cost ingredients by heating ethylene glycol or ethylene oxide with hydrogen sulfide. ... 2008). "Product Subclass 2: Cyclic Dialkyl Sulfones and Derivatives". Category 5, Compounds with One Saturated Carbon ... 2004). "Product Subclass 8: Aluminum Oxide (Alumina)". Category 1, Organometallics. doi:10.1055/sos-SD-007-00192. ISBN ...
3.0.CO;2-A. Y. Shvo; E.D. Kaufman (1972). "Configurational and conformational analysis of cyclic amine oxides". Tetrahedron. 28 ... A Curtin-Hammett scenario was invoked to explain selectivity in the syntheses of kapakahines B and F, two cyclic peptides ... a cyclic hexapeptide with an .alpha.-carboline ring system from the marine sponge Cribrochalina olemda". Journal of the ...
"A New Interstellar Cyclic Molecule, Ethylene Oxide". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 29: 1245. http://www. ... "Detection of nitric oxide in the dark cloud L134N". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 359: 121-124. ... "Observations of the cyclic C3H radical in the interstellar medium". Astronomy and Astrophysics 239: 319-325. http://adsabs. ...
Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP in cell signaling and drug development". The New England Journal of Medicine. 355 (19): 2003-11. ... Nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase pathway[edit]. In normal conditions, the vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase ... This nitric oxide diffuses into neighboring cells (including vascular smooth muscle cells and platelets), where it increases ... Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), which is abundant in the pulmonary tissue, hydrolyzes the cyclic bond of cGMP. Consequently, ...
Soluble guanylyl cyclase is recognized as the most sensitive physiologic receptor for nitric oxide. Binding of nitric oxide to ... Adenylyl cyclase Cyclic guanosine monophosphate Guanylyl cyclase activator (protein) Martin, Emil; Berka, Vladimir; Tsai, Ah‐ ... Soluble guanylate cyclase contains a molecule of heme, and is activated primarily by the binding of nitric oxide (NO) to that ... Because RETGC-1 produces cGMP, which keeps cyclic nucleotide-gated channels open allowing the influx of calcium, this mutation ...
Substituted 2-Bromopyridine-N-oxides and Their Conversion to Cyclic Thiohydroxamic Acids". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72 (10): 4362-4364 ... Another approach involves treating the same starting N-oxide with thiourea to afford pyridyl-2-isothiouronium chloride N-oxide ... Oxidation to the N-oxide can then be undertaken. Pyrithione is found as a natural product in the Allium stipitatum plant, an ... The preparation of pyrithione was first reported in 1950 by Shaw and was prepared by reaction of 2-chloropyridine N-oxide with ...
It is a cyclic tertiary amine. It is used as a base catalyst for generation of polyurethanes and other reactions. It is ... It is the precursor to N-methylmorpholine N-oxide, a commercially important oxidant. David Evans Research Group Archived 2012- ...
Cyclic SiS2 has been reported to exist in the gas phase. The phase diagram of silicon with selenium has two phases: SiSe2 and ... A less common oxide is silicon monoxide that can be found in outer space. Unconfirmed reports exist for nonequilibrium Si2O, ... Cyclic SiS2: A New Perspective on the Walsh Rules. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 51: 3695-3698. doi:10.1002/anie.201108982 Se-Si ( ...
For example, cyclic chiral tertiary phosphine oxides can be reduced to cyclic tertiary phosphines. Phenylsilane can also be ... 4 Phenylsilane can be used to reduce tertiary phosphine oxides to the corresponding tertiary phosphine. P(CH3)3O + PhSiH3 --> P ...
The first nitric oxide (NO) independent, haem-dependent sGC stimulator, YC-1, a synthetic benzylindazole derivative, was ... NO binds to soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and mediates the synthesis of the secondary messenger cyclic guanosine ... Giaid A, Saleh D (July 1995). "Reduced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the lungs of patients with pulmonary ... In healthy individuals nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signalling molecule on vascular smooth muscle cells to induce vasodilation. ...
"Cyclic stretch induces PlGF expression in bronchial airway epithelial cells via nitric oxide release". American Journal of ...
S-Oxides and S,S-dioxides of thiocarbonyl compounds[edit]. The S-oxides of thiocarbonyl compounds are known as thiocarbonyl S- ... The most common organosulfur compound present in all petroleum fractions is thiophene (C4H4S), a cyclic and aromatic liquid. In ... A sulfoxide, R−S(O)−R, is the S-oxide of a sulfide ("sulfide oxide"), a sulfone, R−S(O)2−R, is the S,S-dioxide of a sulfide, a ... These compounds are well known with extensive chemistry, e.g., see syn-propanethial-S-oxide and sulfene. ...
Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK1 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I". Bredt DS, Ferris CD, Snyder SH (1992). "Nitric oxide ... Komeima K, Hayashi Y, Naito Y, Watanabe Y (2000). "Inhibition of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calcium/ calmodulin- ... 1999). "Regulation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calmodulin kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (29): 20597-602. doi:10.1074/ ...
"Nitric Oxide Regulation of Cyclic di-GMP Synthesis and Hydrolysis inShewanella woodyi". Biochemistry. 51 (10): 2087-2099. doi: ...
Calcium oxide is friable, that is, quite brittle. In fluidised beds, the calcium oxide particles can break apart upon collision ... Sun, P; Grace, JR; Lim, CJ; Anthony, EJ (2007). "The effect of CaO sintering on cyclic CO 2 capture in energy systems". AIChE ... Calcium oxide is often referred to as the sorbent. Calcium looping is being developed as it is a more efficient, less toxic ... This calcium oxide could be sourced from other point sources of CO2 such as power stations, but most effort has been focussed ...
"Mechanism of platelet inhibition by nitric oxide: In vivo phosphorylation of thromboxane by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase ... inhibition of cyclic AMP breakdown by cyclic GMP". Molecular Pharmacology. 37 (5): 671-681. Siess, Wolfgang; Eduardo, Lapetina ... Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates cGMP production and therefore the activation cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G kinase). This kinase ... cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, phosphorylate messengers via protein kinase A (PKA). These signaling elements include ...
Murad, Ferid (1994). "The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signal transduction system for intracellular and intercellular communication ... "Nitric oxide-generating vasodilators inhibit mitogenesis and proliferation of BALB/C 3T3 fibroblasts by a cyclic GMP- ... "New Nitric Oxide-Converting Enzymes Discovered". Mary Ann Liebert Inc. 2018-01-19. Seth, P; Hsieh, PN; Jamal, S ... He is known for his discovery of protein S-nitrosylation, the addition of a nitric oxide (NO) group to cysteine residues in ...
Thus tetrafluoroethyene oxide and hexafluoropropylene oxide are two of the simplest cyclic perfluoroethers. It is a precursor ... Krytox is a grease generated by the polymerization of hexafluoropropylene oxide. Their chemical formula is F−(CF(CF3)−CF2−O)n− ... More interesting and more useful are the cyclic ethers, especially, the epoxides. ...
... but with a different mechanism PDE5 inhibitors act further downstream in the nitric oxide signalling pathway, reducing cyclic ... Cinaciguat activates the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) which is a receptor for nitric oxide. This increases biosynthesis of ... cyclic GMP, resulting in vasodilation. Riociguat, another drug stimulating sGC, ...
Gupta, Om Dutt; Kirchmeier, Robert L.; Shreeve, Jean'ne M. (1990). "Reactions of Trifluoroamine Oxide: A Route to Acyclic and ... Cyclic Fluororamines, and N-Nitrosoamines". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 112: 2383. doi:10.1021/ja00162a045. ...
April 23, 1965 US3424954A Silicon oxide tunnel diode structure and method of making same. September 21, 1966 US3475234A Method ... March 27, 1967 US3669669A Cyclic polyisoprene photoresist compositions. October 28, 1970 US4053942A Device for removing low ... Wold, Aaron; Dwight, Kirby (1993). Solid State Chemistry: Synthesis, Structure, and Properties of Selected Oxides and Sulfides ...
NOCl converts some cyclic amines to the alkenes. For example, aziridine reacts with NOCl to give ethene, nitrous oxide and ... Malinovskii, M. S.; Medyantseva, N. M. (1953). "Olefin Oxides. IX. Condensation of Olefin Oxides with Nitrosyl Chloride". ... The oxide is converted to caprolactam, a precursor to Nylon-6. Nitrosyl chloride is very toxic and irritating to the lungs, ... In the case of propylene oxide, the addition proceeds with high regiochemistry: It converts amides to N-nitroso derivatives. ...
The great majority of the silicates are oxides, but hexafluorosilicate ([SiF6]2−) and other anions are also included. " ... Important members are the cyclic and single chain silicates {[SiO3]2−}n and the sheet-forming silicates {[SiO2.5]−}n. Silicates ...
It is a cyclic trimer of ethylene oxide which is specific for the lithium cation. 1,4-Dioxane v t e. ...
"An Infrared Spectroscopic Study of the Isomerization and Hydrogenation of Cyclic Olefins Over Zinc Oxide". He conducted his ... AN INFRARED-SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE ISOMERIZATION AND HYDROGENATION OF CYCLIC OLEFINS OVER ZINC-OXIDE. Carnegie Mellon ...
Small and medium cyclic substrates are constrained in the s-cis conformation. When the α-diazo ketone is in the s-cis ... In this last case, the reaction is sensitive to the transition metal; silver (I) oxide or other Ag(I) catalysts work well and ... Another common use is in ring-contraction methods; if the α-diazo ketone is cyclic, the Wolff rearrangement results in a ring- ... However, for all substrates except cyclic α-diazo ketones that exist solely in the s-cis conformation, products come from a ...
Activation of a nitric oxide-cGMP pathway may be responsible for some of the behavioral effects of paraxanthine that differ ... Essayan DM (November 2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 108 (5): ... Ferré, Sergi; Orrú, Marco; Guitart, Xavier (2013). "Paraxanthine: Connecting Caffeine to Nitric Oxide Neurotransmission". ... activity and is hypothesized to increase glutamate and dopamine release by potentiating nitric oxide signaling. ...
Common solvents are organic carbonates (cyclic, straight chain), sulfones, imides, polymers (polyethylene oxide) and ... Graphene oxide coating over sulfur is claimed to solve the cycle durability problem. Graphene oxide high surface area, chemical ... Examples include lithium cobalt oxide, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide NMC, or lithium iron phosphate olivine which can ... Vanadium oxides have been a common class of cathodes to study due to their high capacity, ease of synthesis, and ...
Stimulation by AM of its receptor increases production of both cyclic AMP (cAMP) and nitric oxide. Before the discovery of the ...
... and a cyclic worsening of the affected person's anxiety about their appearance.[61] Rare complications from acne or its ... Particles that release nitric oxide into the skin to decrease skin inflammation caused by C. acnes and the immune system have ...
Kobayashi, Shiro; Uyama, Hiroshi (15 January 2002). "Polymerization of cyclic imino ethers: From its discovery to the present ... owing to the large amounts of triphenylphosphine oxide produced, the method is not ideal for large-scale reactions. The use of ...
... the n-oxide metabolites of moclobemide and moclobemide itself are the compounds that produce most of the inhibition of MAO-A; ... Long-term treatment with moclobemide leads to an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) binding to cAMP-dependent ... The main metabolites are the N-oxide Ro 12-5637 formed via morpholine N-oxidation and lactam derivative Ro 12-8095 formed via ...
The oxides are usually harder than the underlying metal, so wear accelerates as the harder particles abrade the metal surfaces ... Surface fatigue is a process in which the surface of a material is weakened by cyclic loading, which is one type of general ... Fatigue wear is produced when the wear particles are detached by cyclic crack growth of microcracks on the surface. These ... found on each surface affect the severity of how fragments of oxides are pulled off and added to the other surface, partly due ...
The Sutherland group's 2009 paper also highlighted the possibility for the photo-sanitization of the pyrimidine-2',3'-cyclic ... Iron(II) oxide. *Magnesium monohydride cation. *Methylidyne radical. *Nitric oxide. *Nitrogen (molecular) ... cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides directly, which are known to be able to polymerise into RNA.[22] Organic chemist Donna Blackmond ...
Oxides. Main article: Oxide minerals. Oxide minerals are divided into three categories: simple oxides, hydroxides, and multiple ... Cyclic twins are caused by repeated twinning around a rotation axis. This type of twinning occurs around three, four, five, six ... Oxides with a 2:1 ratio include cuprite (Cu2O) and water ice. Corundum group minerals have a 2:3 ratio, and includes minerals ... Simple oxides are characterized by O2− as the main anion and primarily ionic bonding. They can be further subdivided by the ...
cellular response to organic cyclic compound. • positive regulation of fever generation. • extracellular matrix organization. • ... positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process. • negative regulation of interleukin-6 production. • protein import ...
Cobalt hydroxide/oxide hexagonal ring-graphene hybrids through chemical etching of metal hydroxide plateletes by graphene oxide ... K.E. Moore, O. Cretu, M. Mitome, D. Golberg : «In situ cyclic telescoping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a transmission ... X. Wang, W. Tian, T. Zhai, C. Zhi, Y. Bando and D. Golberg : «Cobalt(ii iii) oxide hollow structures: fabrication properties ... A. Yella, U. K. Gautam, E. Mugnaioli, M. Panthöfer, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, U. Kolb and W. Tremel : «Asymmetric tungsten oxide ...
Exfoliation (or onion skin weathering) is the gradual removing of spall due to the cyclic increase and decrease in the ... the material expands so strongly upon exposure to air that a fine layer of oxide is forcibly expelled from the surface. A ...
... is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules.[2] Formally, it is a derivative of 1,3,5-trioxane. The ...
Organic nitrates should not be taken with PDE5 inhibitors (i.e. sildenafil) since both NO and PDE5 inhibitors increase cyclic ... Normally endothelial cells release prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO) which induce relaxation of the smooth muscle cells, and ... These drugs work by increasing nitric oxide levels in the blood and inducing coronary vasodilation which will allow for more ... The nitric oxide increase in the blood resulting from these drugs also causes dilation of systemic veins which in turn causes a ...
... oxidesEdit. Nitrile oxides have the general structure R−CNO. R. −. C. ≡. N. ⊕. −. O. ⊖. {\displaystyle {\ce {R-C{\equiv ... Fleming, Fraser F.; Zhang, Zhiyu (24 January 2005). "Cyclic nitriles: tactical advantages in synthesis". Tetrahedron. 61 (4): ... The process is catalysed by metal oxides and is assumed to proceed via the imine. ...
... and nitric oxide. Nitric oxide has received a great deal of attention in the past, but has recently been superseded by adhesion ... Lei, S; Jackson, MF; Jia, Z; Roder, J; Bai, D; Orser, BA; MacDonald, JF (Jun 2000). "Cyclic GMP-dependent feedback inhibition ... Endocannabinoids like anandamide are known to act as retrograde messengers,[6][7][8] as is nitric oxide.[9][10] ... Garthwaite, J (Feb 1991). "Glutamate, nitric oxide and cell-cell signalling in the nervous system". Trends in Neurosciences. 14 ...
Cyclic amines-Cyclic amines are either secondary or tertiary amines. Examples of cyclic amines include the 3-membered ring ... N-methylpiperidine and N-phenylpiperidine are examples of cyclic tertiary amines.. It is also possible to have four organic ... For chiral tertiary amines, NRR′R″ can only be resolved when the R, R′, and R″ groups are constrained in cyclic structures such ... In the case of formaldehyde (R′ = H), these products typically exist as cyclic trimers. ...
The next steps involve extension-based sequencing with cyclic washes of the flow cell with fluorescently labeled nucleotides ( ... solid-state nanopore sequencing utilizes synthetic materials such as silicon nitride and aluminum oxide and it is preferred for ...
... is a colorless liquid aliphatic hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic monoterpene, and is the major component in the oil ... and limonene oxide.[6][7] With sulfur, it undergoes dehydrogenation to p-cymene.[8] ...
Water-soluble derivatives of C60 were discovered to exert an inhibition on the three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, with ... Three reversible oxidation processes have been observed by using cyclic voltammetry with ultra-dry methylene chloride and a ... Alexandru D.P. Papoiu: Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by water-soluble derivatives of C60. PhD dissertation, Rutgers ...
Iron (IV) oxide from the iron-peroxypterin intermediate is selectively attacked by a double bond to give a carbocation at the ... Some of the metabolites formed via the reaction of melatonin with a free radical include cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin, N1-acetyl- ... Melatonin metabolites generated from redox reactions include cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine ...
Data is typically stored in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) memory cells. A semiconductor memory chip may contain millions of ... The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) method is typically used in communications and storage for error detection. A detected error ...
Hong C. Shen summarized homogeneous reactions forming cyclic compounds into 4 main categories: heteroatom nucleophilic addition ... cycloaddition reactions with early example the cycloaddition of an nitrile oxide with an alkyne. Other reactions are the use of ... "Intermolecular Hydroamination of Ethylene and 1-Alkenes with Cyclic Ureas Catalyzed by Achiral and Chiral Gold(I) Complexes". ...
ethylene oxide - via ethylene oxidation *ethylene glycol - via ethylene oxide hydration *engine coolant - ethylene glycol, ... cyclohexane - a 6-carbon aliphatic cyclic hydrocarbon sometimes used as a non-polar solvent *adipic acid - a 6-carbon di ... propylene oxide [13] *polyether polyol - used in the production of polyurethanes. *propylene glycol - used in engine coolant [ ... Kinetic studies of propane oxidation on Mo and V based mixed oxide catalysts. 2011.. ...
The proper use of the symbol is debated: some publications use it to any cyclic π system, while others use it only for those π ... Rhodium-platinum oxide, a catalyst used to hydrogenate aromatic compounds.. ReferencesEdit. *^ HighBeam Encyclopedia: aromatic ... A reaction that forms an arene compound from an unsaturated or partially unsaturated cyclic precursor is simply called ...
response to organic cyclic compound. • negative regulation of gastric acid secretion. • positive regulation of prostaglandin ... Nitric oxide (NO); Candidates: Acetaldehyde. *Ammonia (NH3). *Carbonyl sulfide (COS). *Nitrous oxide (N2O) ... non-cyclic) dithiol nonapeptide called oxytoceine.[120] It has been theorized that oxytoceine may act as a free radical ...
Roskoski R, Roskoski LM (Jan 1987). "Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells by the cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP second ... Hydroxylation of Ring-Deuterated Phenylalanines by Tyrosine Hydroxylase Provide Evidence against Partitioning of an Arene Oxide ... response to organic cyclic compound. • eating behavior. • cellular response to growth factor stimulus. • heart morphogenesis. • ... "Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation" ...
... can also be generated in aprotic solvents by cyclic voltammetry. Superoxide salts also decompose in the solid state ... Oxide, O2−. *Dioxygenyl, O+. 2. *Antimycin A - used in fishery management, this compound produces large quantities of this free ...
Since mannitol is found in a wide variety of natural products, including almost all plants, it can be directly extracted from natural products, rather than chemical or biological syntheses. In fact, in China, isolation from seaweed is the most common form of mannitol production.[18] Mannitol concentrations of plant exudates can range from 20% in seaweeds to 90% in the plane tree. It is a constituent of saw palmetto (Serenoa).[25] Traditionally, mannitol is extracted by the Soxhlet extraction, using ethanol, water, and methanol to steam and then hydrolysis of the crude material. The mannitol is then recrystallized from the extract, generally resulting in yields of about 18% of the original natural product. Another method of extraction is using supercritical and subcritical fluids. These fluids are at such a stage that no difference exists between the liquid and gas stages, so are more diffusive than normal fluids. This is considered to make them much more effective mass transfer agents than ...
... oxide (RuO2), iridium(IV) oxide (IrO2), cobalt oxides (including nickel-doped Co3O4), manganese oxide (including layered MnO2 ( ... A current goal is to obtain an NADPH-inspired catalyst capable of recreating the natural cyclic process. Utilizing light, ... Oxides are easier to obtain than molecular catalysts, especially those from relatively abundant transition metals (cobalt and ... Many metal oxides have been found to have water oxidation catalytic activity, including ruthenium(IV) ...
... decreases neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity and ischemia-evoked nitric oxide (NO) production. 4-PPBP ... 4-PPBP protects neurons using a mechanism that activates the transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate response ... "Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein phosphorylation and neuroprotection by 4-phenyl-1-(4- ... "Sigma receptor ligand 4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl)-piperidine modulates neuronal nitric oxide synthase/postsynaptic density-95 ...
Observations of the Ca lines in stars of similar age to the Sun even show cyclic variations reminiscent of the 11 year solar ... When solar energetic particles reach the Earth's atmosphere they cause ionisation that creates nitric oxide (NO) and other ...
Cellular signaling with nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate.. Martin E1, Davis K, Bian K, Lee YC, Murad F. ... The understanding of the formation and biological actions of nitric oxide (NO) has grown extensively during the past two ... With the discoveries of the biological effects of NO and nitrovasodilators on cyclic guanosine monophosphate, with the ...
"Retraction: Regulation of FoxO1 Transcription Factor by Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP in Cultured Rat Granulosa Cells," ... Retraction: Regulation of FoxO1 Transcription Factor by Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP in Cultured Rat Granulosa Cells. ... "Retraction: Regulation of FoxO1 Transcription Factor by Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP in Cultured Rat Granulosa Cells," ...
The role of nitric oxide in the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein in the ... We investigated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive ...
Enantioselective addition of cyclic enol silyl ethers to 2-alkenoyl-pyridine-N-oxides catalysed by Cu(II)-bis(oxazoline) ... Asymmetric reactions involving (E)-3-aryl-1-(pyridin-2-yl-N-oxide)prop-2-en-1-ones and cyclic enol silyl ethers show good ...
Is Measurement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in Plasma or Urine Suitable for Assessing In Vivo Nitric Oxide Production?. ... Is Measurement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in Plasma or Urine Suitable for Assessing In Vivo Nitric Oxide Production? ... Is Measurement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in Plasma or Urine Suitable for Assessing In Vivo Nitric Oxide Production? ... Is Measurement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in Plasma or Urine Suitable for Assessing In Vivo Nitric Oxide Production? ...
Electrochemical analysis of nanostructured iron oxides using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy ... Electrochemical analysis of nanostructured iron oxides using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy ... Electrochemical analysis of nanostructured iron oxides using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy ... Electrochemical analysis of nanostructured iron oxides using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy. ...
... namely cyclic GMP, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and cyclic GMP-binding protein kinases type I (cGKI alpha, cGKI ... Hence, the significance of the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP signaling in the control of the human prostate requires further ... Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) is co-localized with key proteins of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP signaling in the human ... less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe findings give hints that the cyclic GMP- and cyclic AMP-dependent signal ...
... generation of activated macrophages is controlled by glucocorticoid-sensitive inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and ... The enhanced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) ... The enhanced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) ... Repression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 by prostaglandin E2 and other cyclic AMP stimulants in J774 ... whereas PGF2 alpha and 8-bromo cyclic GMP were only weakly effective. The effects of PGE2, PGI2, and forskolin were enhanced by ...
Adrenoceptor agonist xylazine induces peripheral antinociceptive effect by activation of the L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic GMP ... The L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of action for peripheral antinociception ... Involvement of the L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in peripheral antinociception induced by N- ... Ketamine activates the L-arginine/Nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway to induce peripheral antinociception in ...
Involvement of NMDA receptors and L-arginine-nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathwa were found in PRIME PubMed. ... In this study we investigated the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic ... In this study we investigated the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic ... TY - JOUR T1 - Antidepressant-like effect of folic acid: Involvement of NMDA receptors and L-arginine-nitric oxide-cyclic ...
Trazodone is a Potent Agonist at 5-HT2C Receptors Mediating Inhibition of the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate/Nitric Oxide/Cyclic GMP ... Trazodone is a Potent Agonist at 5-HT2C Receptors Mediating Inhibition of the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate/Nitric Oxide/Cyclic GMP ... Trazodone is a Potent Agonist at 5-HT2C Receptors Mediating Inhibition of the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate/Nitric Oxide/Cyclic GMP ... Trazodone is a Potent Agonist at 5-HT2C Receptors Mediating Inhibition of the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate/Nitric Oxide/Cyclic GMP ...
nitric oxide. cGMP. cyclic guanylate monophosphate. db cCMP. dibutyryl cyclic cytidine monophosphate. SNAP. s-nitrosos-N-acetyl ... The Role of Cyclic Guanylate Monophosphate in Nitric Oxide-Induced Injury to Rat Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells. B. L. ... The Role of Cyclic Guanylate Monophosphate in Nitric Oxide-Induced Injury to Rat Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells. B. L. ... The Role of Cyclic Guanylate Monophosphate in Nitric Oxide-Induced Injury to Rat Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells. B. L. ...
Durner J, Wendehenne D, Klessig D (1998) Defense gene induction in tobacco by nitric oxide, cyclic GMP and cyclic ADP-ribose. ... Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP Are Messengers in the Indole Acetic Acid-Induced Adventitious Rooting Process. Gabriela Carolina ... Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP Are Messengers in the Indole Acetic Acid-Induced Adventitious Rooting Process ... Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP Are Messengers in the Indole Acetic Acid-Induced Adventitious Rooting Process ...
AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ... AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ... AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ... AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ...
... and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in relation to nitric oxide synthase isoforms and ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-phosphodiesterase isoenzymes in human vagina: Relation to ... Nitric oxide and VIP, mediating biologic signals through cGMP and cAMP, have been assumed to be involved in the control of ... OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the distribution of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) ...
Effect of cyclic GMP-increasing agents nitric oxide and C-type natriuretic peptide on bovine chromaffin cell function: ... Effect of cyclic GMP-increasing agents nitric oxide and C-type natriuretic peptide on bovine chromaffin cell function: ... Effect of cyclic GMP-increasing agents nitric oxide and C-type natriuretic peptide on bovine chromaffin cell function: ... Effect of cyclic GMP-increasing agents nitric oxide and C-type natriuretic peptide on bovine chromaffin cell function: ...
Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ...
Intravenous Anesthetics Inhibit Nonadrenergic Noncholinergic Lower Esophageal Sphincter Relaxation via Nitric Oxide-Cyclic ... Intravenous Anesthetics Inhibit Nonadrenergic Noncholinergic Lower Esophageal Sphincter Relaxation via Nitric Oxide-Cyclic ... Intravenous Anesthetics Inhibit Nonadrenergic Noncholinergic Lower Esophageal Sphincter Relaxation via Nitric Oxide-Cyclic ... Nitric Oxide-Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Pathway Modulation in Rabbits. Anesthesiology 2001;95(1):176-183. ...
Cyclic GMP, Glucose, Humans, Insulin, Male, Middle Aged, Muscle, Skeletal, Nitric Oxide, Nitric Oxide Donors, Phosphorylation, ... Nitric oxide increases cyclic GMP levels, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)alpha1-specific activity and glucose transport in ... Nitric oxide increases cyclic GMP levels, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)alpha1-specific activity and glucose transport in ... Nitric oxide increases cyclic GMP levels, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)alpha1-specific activity and glucose transport in ...
Increase in nitric oxide and cyclic GMP of rat cerebellum by radio frequency burst-type electromagnetic field radiation. med./ ... When neither L-arginine nor NADPH were added to the supernatant, the production of cyclic GMP was lowered and the exposure ... On incubation with a NO synthase inhibitor, the production of cyclic GMP was lowered and the irradiation effect was not ... cell function: guanylate cyclase activity ([³H]cyclic GMP production from [8-³H]GTP; liquid scintillation counter); NO ...
Article: Mapping Cyclic Change of Regional Myocardial Blood Volume Using Steady-State Susceptibility Effect of Iron Oxide ... Mapping Cyclic Change of Regional Myocardial Blood Volume Using Steady-State Susceptibility Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles ... Mapping Cyclic Change of Regional Myocardial Blood Volume Using Steady-State Susceptibility Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles ... and post-monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticle (MION) gradient echo (GE) cine images. Cyclic changes of MBV in normal mice ...
... by increasing nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity in a calcium- and kinase-dependent manner. Here we show that normal and GH(3 ... Receptor-controlled phosphorylation of alpha 1 soluble guanylyl cyclase enhances nitric oxide-dependent cyclic guanosine 5- ... The Role of Cyclic Nucleotides in Pituitary Lactotroph Functions. *Marek Kucka, Ivana Bjelobaba, Melanija Tomić, Stanko S. ... Receptor-controlled phosphorylation of alpha 1 soluble guanylyl cyclase enhances nitric oxide-dependent cyclic guanosine 5- ...
Context-dependent adsorption behavior of cyclic and linear peptides on metal oxide surfaces. ... Context-dependent adsorption behavior of cyclic and linear peptides on metal oxide surfaces. Langmuir 25 (3) : 1588-1593. ... A cyclic peptide STB 1 (-CHKKPSKSC-) was previously identified to electrostatically bind to TiO 2 and SiO 2. In the present ... Besides the amino acid composition, peptides structure (e.g., cyclic structure constrained by disulfide bond) is believed to ...
This countervailing negative chronotropic nitric oxide-cyclic GMP (NO-cGMP) significantly correlated with the increase on NOS ... On the other hand, the ZD 7114 activity on frequency was enhanced by the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and soluble ... 7114 and ICI 215001 stimulated in a dose-dependent manner the contraction frequency that significantly correlated with cyclic ... Role of nitric oxide/cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP in beta3 adrenoceptor-chronotropic response.. @article{SterinBorda2006RoleON, ...
Mesh term Cyclic N-Oxides. Browse to parent terms:. Heterocyclic Oxides. Description. Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen ... 4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide. Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl. Search for this term in our Faculty Database ... is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.. Browse to child terms:. ...
Cyclic tensile stress exerts antiinflammatory actions on chondrocytes by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase. Journal of ... Cyclic tensile stress exerts antiinflammatory actions on chondrocytes by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase. In: ... Cyclic tensile stress exerts antiinflammatory actions on chondrocytes by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase. / Gassner ... title = "Cyclic tensile stress exerts antiinflammatory actions on chondrocytes by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase", ...
... Academic Article ... Our previous studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) leads to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) uncoupling and an increase ... Nitric Oxide, Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III, Phosphorylation, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Respiratory Mucosa, Sheep, Signal ... Animals, Biopterin, COS Cells, CREB-Binding Protein, Chlorocebus aethiops, Cyclic AMP, GTP Cyclohydrolase, Gene Expression ...
This has profound consequences for the regulation of local cyclic nucleotide and hence cardiac β-adrenergic signaling. ... We therefore tested the hypothesis that PMCA4 has a key structural role in tethering neuronal nitric-oxide synthase to a highly ... Surprisingly, in PMCA4(-/-), over 36% of membrane-associated neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) protein and activity was ... is a regulator of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, the physiological consequence of this regulation is unclear. ...
The Neuroanatomy of Nitric Oxide-Cyclic GMP Signaling in the Locust: Functional Implications for Sensory Systems Recent studies ... have investigated the source and target neurons for the diffusible neuronal messenger molecule nitric oxide (NO) in the nervous ...
Cyclic voltammetric measurement and testing of xanthine biosensor. The cyclic voltammogram (CV) of XOD/CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT/Au ... 7 Cyclic voltammograms of: (a) bare Au electrode, (b) CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT/Au electrode, (c) XOD/CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT/Au electrode in pH ... The cyclic voltammogram of the CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT/Au electrode identified an oxidation peak at −290 mV (curve b). MWCNT is used as ... Cyclic voltammetry response of XOD/CdO-NPs/c-MWCNT modified Au electrode. A method is described for the construction of an ...
  • In their recently published article on nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease Böger et al 1 based their conclusions among others on urinary excretion of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). (
  • In our study we have examined the importance of cyclic guanylate monophosphate (cGMP) in NO-mediated intestinal cellular damage. (
  • Incubation of cells with the nitric oxide donors, S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (10-1000 μM) produced a concentration-dependent increase in cell injury and an increase in cellular cGMP formation as determined by immunoassay. (
  • These findings indicate that cGMP mediates intestinal cell injury in response to high levels of nitric oxide as produced by the nitric oxide donors, SNAP and SNP. (
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the distribution of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in relation to nitric oxide synthase isoforms and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in specimens of the human vagina. (
  • Nitric oxide and VIP, mediating biologic signals through cGMP and cAMP, have been assumed to be involved in the control of vaginal smooth muscle. (
  • Both sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) generator, and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) have been found to raise cGMP levels in bovine chromaffin cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. (
  • We investigated the effect of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp isomer, on inhibition by SNP or CNP. (
  • In this report IL-1 beta is shown to induce the accumulation of cyclic GMP (cGMP) in a time-dependent fashion that mimics the time-dependent inhibition of insulin secretion by IL-1 beta. (
  • The accumulation of cGMP is dependent on nitric oxide synthase activity, since NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) prevents IL-1 beta-induced cGMP accumulation. (
  • The formation of cGMP does not appear to mediate the inhibitory effects of IL-1 beta on insulin secretion since a concentration of cycloheximide (1 microM) that blocks IL-1 beta-induced inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and nitric oxide formation does not prevent cGMP accumulation, thus dissociating the two events. (
  • Second, as the neurotransmitters mediating NANC LES relaxation in other animals have been demonstrated as NO or NO-related substances, 2,3 this study was designed to test the hypothesis that the intravenous anesthetics thiopental, ketamine, and midazolam affect NANC transmission by the modulation of the NO-3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway, using isometric tension recording and the radioimmunoassay of cGMP. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO), mediating the NANC relaxation, is released from the myenteric plexus and delivered into smooth muscle cells, which results in the activation of guanylate cyclase and the accumulation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). (
  • We hypothesised that pharmacological treatment of human skeletal muscle with N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazino)-1,2-ethylenediamine (spermine NONOate) would increase intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels and promote glucose transport.METHODS: Skeletal muscle strips were prepared from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained from seven healthy men. (
  • It is generally accepted that G protein-coupled receptors stimulate soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)-mediated cGMP production indirectly, by increasing nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity in a calcium- and kinase-dependent manner. (
  • Testosterone-induced modulation of nitric oxide-cGMP signaling pathway and androgenesis in the rat Leydig cells. (
  • Surprisingly, in PMCA4(-/-), over 36% of membrane-associated neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) protein and activity was delocalized to the cytosol with no change in total nNOS protein, resulting in a significant decrease in microdomain cGMP, which in turn led to a significant elevation in local cAMP levels through a decrease in PDE2 activity (measured by FRET-based sensors). (
  • One important second messenger in transducing the regulable nature of motile cilia is cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP). (
  • Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated regulation of cGMP in ciliated cells is presented in the context of alcohol-induced cilia function and dysfunction. (
  • Nitric oxide is a potent regulator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which drives cGMP production, causing vasorelaxation. (
  • Cyclic stretch also increased sGCβ protein expression (2.5 ± 0.9-fold), sGC activity (1.5 ± 0.2-fold) and cGMP levels (1.8 ± 0.2-fold), as well as iNOS mRNA and protein expression (3.0 ± 0.9 and 2.6 ± 0.7-fold, respectively) relative to control cells. (
  • Levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were measured in cerebral arteries on Day 7. (
  • There was no correlation between the severity of vasospasm and cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cGMP levels in the cerebral arteries. (
  • Functional assay for second messenger(s) cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) revealed that continuous presence of curcumin in differentiated cells induced a decrease in the baseline levels of cAMP but it significantly elevated baseline contents of cGMP. (
  • Curcumin addition to a cell free assay significantly suppressed cAMP and cGMP degradation in the extracts while long term treatment of intact cells with curcumin increased the rates of cAMP and cGMP degradation suggesting that this might be due to direct suppression of some cyclic nucleotide-degrading enzyme (phosphodiesterase) by curcumin. (
  • Nitric oxide and cGMP do not affect fluid flux in isolated rat lungs. (
  • We sought to examine the influence of nitric oxide (NO) and the second messengers guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and intracellular Ca2+ on fluid flux in lungs isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats and perfused with saline (containing 4% albumin) or with whole blood. (
  • Studies were conducted to clarify the effects of nitric oxide donors NOR 3 ((±)-(E)-ethyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]5-nitro-3-bexeneamide, FK409), SIN-1 (3-morpholinosydnonimine) and SNAP (S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine) on the accumulation of cGMP and cAMP and Ca 2+ mobilization as well as ketogenesis from oleate in isolated rat hepatocytes. (
  • Although the nitric oxide trapping agent, carboxy-PTIO (2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide), antagonized the stimulation by NOR 3 of cGMP accumulation, it failed to modulate the anti-ketogenic action of NOR 3. (
  • cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) expression is highly variable and decreases in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), exposure of cells to nitric oxide (NO), or in response to balloon catheter injury in vivo. (
  • Cyclic nucleotide analogues also suppressed PKG-Iα promoter activity with cAMP being more potent than cGMP. (
  • It was reported that stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors activate the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway, which is involved in regulation of behavioral and emotional functions. (
  • 7-10 We have recently reported that eNOS gene transfer activates the NO/cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) cascade and inhibits VSMC hypertrophy induced by AngII. (
  • A vast number of studies have focused on understanding the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which culminates with the phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) through the increase of the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. (
  • less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe present study aimed to investigate by means of immunohistochemistry in the human prostate the expression and distribution of key mediators of the NO pathway, namely cyclic GMP, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and cyclic GMP-binding protein kinases type I (cGKI alpha, cGKI), in relation to PDE5, protein kinase A (cAK), and the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). (
  • The L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of action for peripheral antinociception concerning several groups of drugs, including opioids and nonsteroidal analgesics. (
  • In this study we investigated the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in its antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in mice. (
  • Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and while iNOS expression increases during late gestation, little is known about how cyclic stretch impacts this pathway. (
  • We tested the effects of aluminum on the glutamate-nitric oxide- cyclic GMP pathway in cultured neurons. (
  • Impairment of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway in neurons may contribute to aluminum neurotoxicity. (
  • Nitric oxide-induced mobilization of intracellular calcium via the cyclic ADP-ribose signaling pathway. (
  • Intracarotid infusion of bradykinin and its analogue, RMP-7, selectively increase the permeability of brain tumor capillaries though the nitrix oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP pathway. (
  • This study sought to determine the involvement of the NO-cyclic GMP pathway in this event. (
  • The purpose of the study is to determine whether the treatment with growth hormone has an influence on the nitric oxide pathway in healthy males. (
  • Galley, HF 2000, ' Anaesthesia and the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway in the central nervous system ', British Journal of Anaesthesia , vol. 84, pp. 141-143. (
  • Patients with exercise-induced hypertension have poor endothelium-dependent vasodilation due to an impaired nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway, which may play a significant role in increasing blood pressure during exercise with inadequate peripheral adjustment to changing cardiac output. (
  • In conclusion, the most important findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that the inhibitory effect of 17β-estradiol in platelet activation involves activation of the cyclic AMP-eNOS/NO-cyclic GMP pathway, resulting in inhibition of PLCγ2 and p38 MAPK activation, which may lower the incidence of cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women. (
  • Involvement of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of tropisetron and ondansetron in mice forced swimming test and tail suspension test. (
  • Nitric oxide stimulates human sperm motility via activation of the cyclic GMP/protein kinase G signaling pathway. (
  • The enhanced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) generation of activated macrophages is controlled by glucocorticoid-sensitive inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively. (
  • These results indicate that glucocorticoids may up-regulate astroglial calcium-dependent nitric oxide synthase while preventing expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and are the first report of a differential long-term regulation of the expression of neuronal and astroglial constitutive nitric oxide synthase activities. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is involved in cell apoptosis, which contributes to luteal regression and luteolysis in some species. (
  • 2002. Expression patterns of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase isoforms in corpora lutea of pseudopregnant rabbits at different luteal stages. (
  • The nanocomposite modified Au electrode was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) before and after immobilization of XOD. (
  • This research extends previous studies ofa molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) biomimetic sensor for the small drug theophylline.The presence of theophylline in the biomimetic sensor was monitored by analyzing thepeak currents from cyclic voltammetry experiments. (
  • With the discoveries of the biological effects of NO and nitrovasodilators on cyclic guanosine monophosphate, with the elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms of NO synthesis, and with the growing knowledge of regulation of NO synthases, the complexities of this signal transduction cascade and its participation in numerous cell signaling processes continues. (
  • Biochemical evidence for impaired nitric oxide synthesis in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. (
  • By using e.p.r. spectroscopy, IL-1 beta is shown to induce the formation of a g = 2.04 iron-nitrosyl feature in islets which is prevented by cycloheximide, demonstrating the requirement of protein synthesis for IL-1 beta-induced nitric oxide formation. (
  • These results show that IL-1 beta-induced nitric oxide formation parallels the ability of IL-1 beta to inhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by islets, and that protein synthesis is required for IL-1 beta-induced nitric oxide formation. (
  • The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether radiofrequency burst -type electromagnetic fields may facilitate NO synthesis , activate guanylate cyclase and increase the production of cyclic GMP . (
  • The second most important application of ethylene oxide is in the synthesis of ethyoxylates and ethanolamines, substances used in the production of synthetic detergents. (
  • In many instances, nitric oxide mediates its biological effects by activating the soluble isoform of guanylyl cyclase and increasing cyclic GMP synthesis from GTP. (
  • The electrochemical synthesis is set to favor the growth of the tin oxide/hydroxide phase, while the appearance of metallic Sn is suppressed by cycling. (
  • The present paper reports that nitric oxide (NO) released by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is a potent activator of rat pineal cyclic GMP production without affecting cyclic AMP synthesis. (
  • However, L‐arginine, the physiological precursor of NO, did not activate either cyclic GMP or NO synthesis. (
  • The prominent electrochemical performance of the manganese oxide demonstrates the importance of design and synthesis of pre-intercalated ultrathin layered materials. (
  • The study reports the synthesis of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanostructures and their application in enzyme free electrochemical sensing of glucose. (
  • The activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors induces the synthesis of nitric oxide, which activates soluble guanylate cyclase and leads to the formation of cyclic GMP in the brain. (
  • 15,16 Endogenous inhibitors of ET-1 synthesis include nitric oxide, prostacyclin, atrial natriuretic peptides, and estrogens. (
  • K-Ras phosphorylation by PKG2 is triggered by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and requires endothelial nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylyl cyclase. (
  • A number of studies have demonstrated that estradiol can stimulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity, resulting in enhanced nitric oxide (NO) generation. (
  • 5, cardiac troponin I, myosin heavy chain, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase during ES cell differentiation. (
  • Our results using real time PCR , western blotting and immunostaining demonstrated that curcumin significantly increased the gene expression and protein levels of cardiac specific transcription factor NKx2.5, cardiac troponin I , myosin heavy chain , and endothelial nitric oxide synthase during ES cell differentiation . (
  • 17β-Estradiol markedly increased cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels, nitric oxide (NO) release, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. (
  • Inhibition of islet glucose oxidation appears to be mediated by nitric oxide since both NMMA and cycloheximide prevent IL-1 beta-induced inhibition of glucose oxidation. (
  • It is also useful as a metallurgical reducing agent , because at high temperatures it reduces many metal oxides to the elemental metal. (
  • Transition metal oxides have been extensively investigated these years. (
  • Described herein are inks and coating compositions comprising semiconductor metal oxides and composites thereof, which are natural environmentally sustainable materials that may be recycled and/or reused indefinitely. (
  • Semiconductor metal oxides offer an alternative to relatively more toxic, non-sustainable, photo and heat-degrading, migrating traditional photoinitiator agents used in actinic radiation curable compositions. (
  • The semiconductor metal oxides and composites thereof absorb visible or UV-light as photocatalysts and/or semiconductors, or absorb electron beam radiation, forming radicals for radical events such as polymerization reactions and color enhancement events. (
  • 1,2 Metal oxides and nitrides, such as TiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , WO 3 , BiVO 4 , and Ta 3 N 5 , have been extensively studied as promising photoanodes for water oxidation owing to their low cost and good chemical stability in appropriate electrolytes. (
  • The metal oxides and metals on Si can not only improve the stability of Si photoanodes, but also serve as the oxygen evolution catalyst. (
  • However, in many cases, the performance of a photoanode including photovoltage, photocurrent and stability, is sensitive to the thickness of the metal oxides or metals. (
  • The administration of 7-nitroindazole (25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p., a specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor) or methylene blue (20 mg/kg, i.p., direct inhibitor of both nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase) in combination with a sub-effective dose of folic acid (1 nmol/site, i.c.v.) reduced the immobility time in the FST as compared with either drug alone. (
  • Incubation with Methylene Blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor , lowered the production of cyclic GMP and the exposure effect did not occur. (
  • These results indicate that chronic exposure to aluminum impairs glutamate-induced activation of nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide-induced activation of guanylate cyclase. (
  • Plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA4)-neuronal nitric-oxide synthase complex regulates cardiac contractility through modulation of a compartmentalized cyclic nucleotide microdomain. (
  • Identification of the signaling pathways that regulate cyclic nucleotide microdomains is essential to our understanding of cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. (
  • This has profound consequences for the regulation of local cyclic nucleotide and hence cardiac β-adrenergic signaling. (
  • Because L‐arginine failed to activate cyclic GMP production, results suggest that NO is not produced in the pineal gland, but behaves as a potent regulator of this cyclic nucleotide. (
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical techniques were applied to sectioned specimens of the human vaginal wall to evaluate the presence of the PDE isoenzymes 3, 4, 5, and 10 in relation to neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), and VIP. (
  • Although there is growing evidence that the plasma membrane Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent ATPase 4 (PMCA4) is a regulator of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, the physiological consequence of this regulation is unclear. (
  • We therefore tested the hypothesis that PMCA4 has a key structural role in tethering neuronal nitric-oxide synthase to a highly compartmentalized domain in the cardiac cell membrane. (
  • Here we describe that, in hippocampal pyramidal cells, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is also associated with the postsynaptic active zones of GABAergic symmetrical synapses terminating on their somata, dendrites, and axon initial segments in both mice and rats. (
  • Cellular signaling with nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. (
  • The role of nitric oxide in the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein in the spinal cord after intra. (
  • Is Measurement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in Plasma or Urine Suitable for Assessing In Vivo Nitric Oxide Production? (
  • Murad F. Signal transduction using nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. (
  • Hamet P, Pang SC, Tremblay J. Atrial natriuretic factor-induced egression of cyclic guanosine monophosphate in cultured vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. (
  • Receptor-controlled phosphorylation of alpha 1 soluble guanylyl cyclase enhances nitric oxide-dependent cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate production in pituitary cells. (
  • Plasma cyclic guanosine monophosphate was assessed as a marker of nitric oxide production. (
  • We measured the endothelial function of the brachial artery in 35 patients with exercise-induced hypertension, and in 35 age- and gender-matched normal control subjects, by a high resolution ultrasound technique, and the concentration of NO2-/NO3- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP). (
  • We further show that LTD induced by low-frequency stimulation in the absence of SNAP also is blocked by KT5823 or Rp-8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (10 microM), cyclic guanosine 3',5' monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors with different mechanisms of action. (
  • Finally, two cell-permeant antagonists of the cyclic ADP-ribose binding site on ryanodine receptors also were able to block the induction of LTD. These results support a cascade for induction of homosynaptic, NO-dependent LTD involving activation of guanylyl cyclase, production of guanosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate and subsequent PKG activation. (
  • Furthermore, neither 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate nor N 2 ,2'-O-dibutyrylguanosine- 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate mimicked the anti-ketogenic action of NOR 3. (
  • Conversely, treatment of hippocampal slices with an NO donor or cyclic guanosine monophosphate analogue induced MISs. NOS blockade also reduced spine and synapse density in developing hippocampal cultures. (
  • We show here that K-Ras is a substrate for cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs). (
  • The authors review what is known about the deleterious effects of sickling on the genitourinary tract and how the role of cyclic nucleotides signaling and protein kinases may help understand the pathophysiology underlying these manifestations and develop novel therapies in the setting of urogenital disorders in sickle cell disease. (
  • This paper focuses on how previous, sometimes poorly explained, clinical observations of urogenital disorders in patients with SCD relate to more recent discoveries on the role of cyclic nucleotides and protein kinases in the pathophysiology of sickle vaso-occlusion. (
  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) and Mott-Schottky (M-S) methods were used to determine the density and mobility of charge carriers in the passive oxide layer to understand the nature of the surface oxides and how these affect the corrosion resistance of C22 nickel alloy covered by alkaline water. (
  • Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) study of a fully-modeled 3D solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). (
  • said material being doped with one or more of metals selected from the group consisting of Sr, Ca, Ba, Eu, Fe, Co and Ni in an effective amount to achieve a faster rate of reduction of nitrogen oxides than the rate of reduction of oxygen at the selected potential and temperature. (
  • 27. A method according to claim 24, wherein the mixture of nitrogen oxides and oxygen is concentrated with an absorber capable of absorbing nitrogen oxides and selected from the group consisting of Na 2 O, K 2 O, MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO and that the nitrogen oxides absorbed in the absorber are caused to react with the working electrode. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO) has long been implicated in the generation of long-term potentiation (LTP) and other types of synaptic plasticity, a role for which the intimate coupling between NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS) is likely to be instrumental in many instances. (
  • The inhibition of nitric oxide production, as well as the blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, has been reported to prevent the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning and memory formation in vivo, although the effects of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase are still controversial. (
  • 22 The activation of ET B receptors stimulates the release of nitric oxide and prostacyclin and prevents apoptosis. (
  • These results suggest that events downstream of cyclic nucleotides may be abnormal during vasospasm. (
  • The effects of cyclic nucleotides to suppress PKG-Iα promoter activity were attenuated by a specific cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor. (
  • Moreover, Sp1 binding activity on the PKG-Iα promoter was detected in A7r5 cells, and this binding was inhibited by NO and cyclic nucleotides. (
  • 6 h) and concentration-dependent manner (half-maximal effect at 1 n M ). Stimulation of cyclic GMP formation by the calcium ionophore A23187 is similarly enhanced. (
  • For example, calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) produces carbon dioxide and calcium oxide (CaO). (
  • Cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR) is a potent endogenous calcium-mobilizing agent synthesized from beta-NAD+ by ADP-ribosyl cyclases in sea urchin eggs and in several mammalian cells (Galione, A., and White, A. (1994) Trends Cell Biol. (
  • Concordantly, chronic pharmacological activation of AMPK → PKG2 signaling with mitochondrial inhibitors, nitric oxide, or sildenafil inhibits proliferation of K-Ras-positive non-small cell lung cancer cells. (
  • Ongoing clinical trials with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and nitric oxide scavengers are examining the effects of these agents in septic shock, hypotension with dialysis, inflammatory disorders, cancer therapy, etc. (
  • The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, N(G)- nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and 7-nitro indazole, as well as dizocilpine, a non competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, dose-dependently impaired spatial working memory in mice, assessed by their spontaneous alternation behavior in a Y-maze. (
  • Membrane association of nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase in cardiomyocytes. (
  • The NO receptor nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NOsGC) is present in the brain in two functional subunit compositions: α 1 β 1 and α 2 β 1 . (
  • After a 2-hr pretreatment before adding endotoxin, PGE2, PGI2, forskolin, IBMX (isobutylmethylxanthine, a cyclicAMP/cyclicGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor), 8-bromo cyclicAMP, and arachidonic acid itself all inhibited the expression of both iNOS and COX-2 (as shown by Western blotting) and reduced NO release and COX activity, whereas PGF2 alpha and 8-bromo cyclic GMP were only weakly effective. (
  • less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanIn the smooth muscle portion of the transition zone, immunosignals specific for the PDE5 were found co-localized with cyclic GMP, cGKI alpha, and cGKI, as well as with the cyclic cAMP-binding protein kinase A. Smooth muscle bundles were seen innervated by slender varicose nerves characterized by the expression of nNOS. (
  • Cyclic stretch significantly increased cytosolic oxidative stress as compared to static cells (62.9 ± 5.9% vs. 33.3 ± 5.7% maximal oxidation), as measured by the intracellular redox sensor roGFP. (
  • Nitric oxide can function as an intracellular messenger, an antacoid, a paracrine substance, a neurotransmitter, or as a hormone that can be carried to distant sites for effects. (
  • We show that exogenous application of nitric oxide (NO) mobilizes Ca2+ from intracellular stores in intact sea urchin eggs and that it releases Ca2+ and elevates cADPR levels in egg homogenates. (
  • abstract = 'AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the direct effect of a nitric oxide donor (spermine NONOate) on glucose transport in isolated human skeletal muscle and L6 skeletal muscle cells. (
  • abstract = "Guerrero JM, Reiter RJ, Poeggeler B, Chen L‐D, Tan D‐X. Elevation of cyclic GMP levels in the rat pineal gland induced by nitric oxide. (
  • Graphical abstract: Magnetically recyclable Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic property Display Omitted - Highlights: ●Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4} growth, deposition and GO reduction occurred simultaneously. (
  • This process has an additional requirement for release of Ca2+ from ryanodine-sensitive stores, perhaps dependent on the second-messenger cyclic ADP ribose. (
  • When the supernatant was incubated with both exogenous L- arginine ( NO donor ) and NADPH , and irradiated by an radiofrequency burst -type electromagnetic field , the production of cyclic GMP was increased significantly . (
  • The donor density and mobility of ions in the oxide layer has been determined as a function of the electrical potential when alkaline water layers are on the alloy surface in order to account for the relative inertness of the nickel alloy in corrosive environments. (
  • Tumor bearing rats were treated by intracarotid infusion of bradykinin (10 micrograms kg-1 min-1) with or without pretreatment with bradykinin, the NO donor s-nitrosoglutathione (10 nmol kg-1 min-1), or the cyclic GMP analogue, 8Br-cyclic GMP (200 micrograms kg-1 min-1). (
  • Lungs were allowed to equilibrate for a period of 30 min without treatment (control group) or with one of the following agents: the exogenous NO donor spermine NONOate, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), 8-BrcGMP, the Ca2- ionophore ionomycin, or the endothelial injurious agent protamine. (
  • Ethylene oxide (ETH-ih-leen OK-side) is a flammable, colorless gas with the odor of ether. (
  • Ethylene oxide was first prepared in 1859 by French chemist Charles Adolphe Wurtz (1817-1884). (
  • Ethylene oxide is a very unstable compound that catches fire or explodes readily and must be handled with the greatest care. (
  • The chlorhydrin process for making ethylene oxide has been replaced commercially by the direct oxidation of ethylene gas. (
  • The largest single use of ethylene oxide is in the manufacture of ethylene glycol (CH 2 OHCH 2 OH), which itself is used as an antifreeze and raw material for the production of plastics. (
  • About 60 percent of all the ethylene oxide produced is used for this purpose. (
  • Ethylene oxide also has a number of other important industrial uses, although the quantity used for such purposes is small compared to the uses mentioned above. (
  • Ethylene oxide is also used as a fumigant, which is a gas used to kill insects and other pests. (
  • A number of industrial accidents have been caused during the preparation, transportation, storage, and use of ethylene oxide. (
  • In 2004, some 3.77 million metric tons (4.15 million short tons) of ethylene oxide were produced in the United States. (
  • A number of health hazards are associated with exposure to ethylene oxide. (
  • Ethylene oxide is believed to be responsible for spontaneous abortions, genetic damage, and the development of some types of cancer, primarily cancer of the blood (leukemia). (
  • The Getinge Assured Tape (Ethylene Oxide) is designed for use in ethylene oxide (EO) sterilizers operating at 600 mg/l EO gas, 40-60% Relative Humidity, 54°C for 45 minutes or longer. (
  • We are manufacturing and supplying Ethylene Oxide Gas Cartridges (100% ETO Cartridges).Special Features:High effectiveness as a bactericide, fungicide. (
  • With utmost focus to offer the best, we are affianced to manufacture, export and supply Ethylene Oxide Condensates to our valuable clients. (
  • Ethylene Oxide Gas Cartridge The provided Ethylene Oxide Gas Cartridge is effectively ideal for all kinds and brands of ETO sterilization systems. (
  • 1,4-Oxathiane can be produced from low cost ingredients by heating ethylene glycol or ethylene oxide with hydrogen sulfide. (
  • On incubation with a NO synthase inhibitor , the production of cyclic GMP was lowered and the irradiation effect was not observed. (
  • Our previous studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) leads to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) uncoupling and an increase in NOS-derived superoxide. (
  • Nitric oxide synthase-like immunoreactivity (NOS-LI IR) was detected by immunohistochemistry in ventral light organs of the mesopelagic fish, Argyropelecus hemigymnus . (
  • It is hypothesized that the very variable capacity of photophores to produce and maintain the luminescence evoked by adrenaline is correlated to a large variability in endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the isolated photophores. (
  • 2004. Expression patterns of cytokines, p53 and nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes in corpora lutea of pseudopregnant rabbits during spontaneous luteolysis. (
  • 1999. Activity of ovarian nitric oxide synthase (NOS) during ovulatory process in the Rat: Relationship with prostaglandins (PGs) Production. (
  • Long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission can be induced by several mechanisms, one thought to involve Ca2+-dependent activation of postsynaptic nitric oxide (NO) synthase and subsequent diffusion of NO to the presynaptic terminal. (
  • Background- Although, endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) is believed to antagonize vascular remodeling induced by the angiotensin II (AngII) type-1 receptor, the exact signaling mechanism remains unclear. (
  • The formation of multiple contacts was specifically prevented by deletion of the PDZ 2 domain of PSD-95, which interacts with nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS). (
  • and also interacts with several important synaptic proteins, including synaptic GTPase-activating protein, neuroligins, or nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS), which might mediate trans-synaptic signaling ( Kim and Sheng, 2004 ) for synapse formation or stabilization. (
  • Xanthine oxidase (XOD) extracted from bovine milk was immobilized covalently via N -ethyl- N ′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and N -hydroxy succinimide (NHS) chemistry onto cadmium oxide nanoparticles (CdO)/carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotube (c-MWCNT) composite film electrodeposited on the surface of an Au electrode. (
  • Thus, it can be suggested that a stable proportion of Ni(II)/Ni(III) oxides-hydroxides was obtained on the electrode surfaces. (
  • After the first announcement of commercialization of tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) as a negative electrode of lithium-ion batteries, this transition metal oxide anode has received much concern. (
  • The formation of cyclic GMP induced by S- nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine was not affected. (
  • Some of these reactions result in the oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrite and nitrate to terminate the effect, while other reactions can lead to altered protein structure function and/or catalytic capacity. (
  • A Biomimetic Route to Lignin Model Compounds via Silver (I) Oxide Oxidation. (
  • Cyclic GMP, in turn, can activate cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and can cause smooth muscles and blood vessels to relax, decrease platelet aggregation, alter neuron function, etc. (
  • The structures of manganese oxides can be divided into two types, the tunnel and the layer structures. (
  • Increase in nitric oxide and cyclic GMP of rat cerebellum by radio frequency burst-type electromagnetic field radiation. (
  • Cyclic GMP levels in the cerebellum were reduced by treatment with dizocilpine. (
  • N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and 7-nitro indazole reduced cyclic GMP levels in the cerebral cortex/hippocampus and cerebellum, and the suppressive effect of N(G)- nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on cyclic GMP levels in the cerebral cortex/hippocampus was reversed by co-treatment with L-arginine. (
  • These studies demonstrate that polyphenol curcumin may be involved in differentiation of ES cells partly due to manipulation of nitric oxide signaling. (
  • The list of effects of nitric oxide that are independent of cyclic GMP formation is also growing at a rapid rate. (
  • These diverse effects of nitric oxide that are cyclic GMP dependent or independent can alter and regulate numerous important physiological events in cell regulation and function. (
  • The lecture will discuss our discovery of the first biological effects of nitric oxide and how the field has evolved since our original reports in 1977. (
  • 2003. Dual effects of nitric oxide on meiotic maturation of mouse cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes in vitro. (
  • Pharmacological studies suggested that nitric oxide (NO) modulates adrenaline-stimulated light emission, and that the modulation is correlated to the ability of the light organ to respond to adrenaline. (
  • It is concluded that trazodone behaves as a potent full agonist at the 5-HT 2C receptor mediating inhibition of the cerebellar N-methyl- d -aspartate/nitric oxide/cyclic GMP system. (
  • Treatment of pancreatic islets with interleukin 1 (IL-1) results in a time-dependent inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion which has recently been demonstrated to be dependent on the metabolism of L-arginine to nitric oxide. (
  • In conclusion, cyclic stretch increases sGC expression and activity in an iNOS-dependent manner in PASMC from fetal lambs. (
  • In the pulmonary vasculature, mechanical forces such as cyclic stretch induce changes in vascular signaling, tone and remodeling. (
  • Restoring Vascular Nitric Oxide Formation by L Arginine Improves the Symptoms of Intermittent Claudi cation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Dis ease," Journal American College of Cardiology, Vol. 32, 1998, pp. 1336-1344. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent endogenous vasodilator and has shown to inhibit key processes of atherosclerosis like monocyte adhesion, platelet aggregation, and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. (