An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
The act of BREATHING out.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Inorganic chemicals that contain manganese as an integral part of the molecule.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
(GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC (GTP cyclohydrolase II).
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Relating to the size of solids.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Identification and quantification of cocaine N-oxide: a thermally labile metabolite of cocaine. (1/1205)

In this article, we report the identification and quantitation of cocaine N-oxide (CNO), a thermally labile oxidative metabolite, from both animal and human samples. The concentration of CNO is similar to the concentrations of cocaine in the samples analyzed. The technique used for the determination of CNO in this study is liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, which is necessary because CNO is converted to cocaine upon heating. This includes simple heating of aqueous solutions to temperatures in excess of 100 degrees C and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in which CNO is converted to cocaine in the injection port. The thermal conversion of CNO to cocaine is estimated to cause an over-reporting of cocaine levels by 10-20% when using GC-MS.  (+info)

Localization and environment of tryptophans in soluble and membrane-bound states of a pore-forming toxin from Staphylococcus aureus. (2/1205)

The location and environment of tryptophans in the soluble and membrane-bound forms of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin were monitored using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Fluorescence quenching of the toxin monomer in solution indicated varying degrees of tryptophan burial within the protein interior. N-Bromosuccinimide readily abolished 80% of the fluorescence in solution. The residual fluorescence of the modified toxin showed a blue-shifted emission maximum, a longer fluorescence lifetime as compared to the unmodified and membrane-bound alpha-toxin, and a 5- to 6-nm red edge excitation shift, all indicating a restricted tryptophan environment and deeply buried tryptophans. In the membrane-bound form, the fluorescence of alpha-toxin was quenched by iodide, indicating a conformational change leading to exposure of some tryptophans. A shorter average lifetime of tryptophans in the membrane-bound alpha-toxin as compared to the native toxin supported the conclusions based on iodide quenching of the membrane-bound toxin. Fluorescence quenching of membrane-bound alpha-toxin using brominated and spin-labeled fatty acids showed no quenching of fluorescence using brominated lipids. However, significant quenching was observed using 5- and 12-doxyl stearic acids. An average depth calculation using the parallax method indicated that the doxyl-quenchable tryptophans are located at an average depth of 10 A from the center of the bilayer close to the membrane interface. This was found to be in striking agreement with the recently described structure of the membrane-bound form of alpha-toxin.  (+info)

Antioxidative activity of 4-oxy- and 4-hydroxy-nitroxides in tissues and erythrocytes from rats. (3/1205)

AIM: To compare the activities of antioxidation of 4-oxy- and 4-hydroxy-nitroxides in tissues and RBC from rats. METHODS: The homogenates of liver, heart, and kidneys of rats were used to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) formation using TBA colorimetric method. H2O2-caused hemolysis was measured spectrometrically. Superoxide anion from zymosan-stimulated neutrophils of rats was assayed by NBT reduction method. RESULTS: Nitroxide free radicals OTMPO and HTMPO inhibited MDA generation caused by .OH generation system (MIC 10.5 and 21 mumol.L-1, respectively), antagonized hemolysis induced by H2O2 (MIC: 338 and 168 mumol.L-1, respectively), but did not affect O2- formation from activated neutrophils. 1-Hydroxyl compounds OTMPOH and HTMPOH possessed similarly potent antilipoperoxidative activities. But nonfree radical OTMP and HTMP had no effect on peroxidation of tissues. CONCLUSION: Nitroxides exert their antilipoperoxidative effect by specifically scavenging .OH free radicals in biological system. Trapping of .OH free radicals by nitroxides is not by reduction of NO. group in nitroxides. Both NO. group and NOH group are essential active groups.  (+info)

Cycloheximide and 4-OH-TEMPO suppress chloramphenicol-induced apoptosis in RL-34 cells via the suppression of the formation of megamitochondria. (4/1205)

Toxic effects of chloramphenicol, an antibiotic inhibitor of mitochondrial protein synthesis, on rat liver derived RL-34 cell line were completely blocked by a combined treatment with substances endowed with direct or indirect antioxidant properties. A stable, nitroxide free radical scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, and a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suppressed in a similar manner the following manifestations of the chloramphenicol cytotoxicity: (1) Oxidative stress state as evidenced by FACS analysis of cells loaded with carboxy-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and Mito Tracker CMTH2MRos; (2) megamitochondria formation detected by staining of mitochondria with MitoTracker CMXRos under a laser confocal microscopy and electron microscopy; (3) apoptotic changes of the cell detected by the phase contrast microscopy, DNA laddering analysis and cell cycle analysis. Since increases of ROS generation in chloramphenicol-treated cells were the first sign of the chloramphenicol toxicity, we assume that oxidative stress state is a mediator of above described alternations of RL-34 cells including MG formation. Pretreatment of cells with cycloheximide or 4-hydroxy-2,2, 6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, which is known to be localized into mitochondria, inhibited the megamitochondria formation and succeeding apoptotic changes of the cell. Protective effects of cycloheximide, which enhances the expression of Bcl-2 protein, may further confirm our hypothesis that the megamitochondria formation is a cellular response to an increased ROS generation and raise a possibility that antiapoptotic action of the drug is exerted via the protection of the mitochondria functions.  (+info)

EPR spin trapping and 2-deoxyribose degradation studies of the effect of pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) on *OH formation by the Fenton reaction. (5/1205)

The search for effective iron chelating agents was primarily driven by the need to treat iron-loading refractory anemias such as beta-thalassemia major. However, there is a potential for therapeutic use of iron chelators in non-iron overload conditions. Iron can, under appropriate conditions, catalyze the production of toxic oxygen radicals which have been implicated in numerous pathologies and, hence, iron chelators may be useful as inhibitors of free radical-mediated tissue damage. We have developed the orally effective iron chelator pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) and demonstrated that it inhibits iron-mediated oxyradical formation and their effects (e.g. 2-deoxyribose oxidative degradation, lipid peroxidation and plasmid DNA breaks). In this study we further characterized the mechanism of the antioxidant action of PIH and some of its analogs against *OH formation from the Fenton reaction. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap for *OH we showed that PIH and salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) inhibited Fe(II)-dependent production of *OH from H2O2. Moreover, PIH protected 2-deoxyribose against oxidative degradation induced by Fe(II) and H2O2. The protective effect of PIH against both DMPO hydroxylation and 2-deoxyribose degradation was inversely proportional to Fe(II) concentration. However, PIH did not change the primary products of the Fenton reaction as indicated by EPR experiments on *OH-mediated ethanol radical formation. Furthermore, PIH dramatically enhanced the rate of Fe(II) oxidation to Fe(III) in the presence of oxygen, suggesting that PIH decreases the concentration of Fe(II) available for the Fenton reaction. These results suggest that PIH and SIH deserve further investigation as inhibitors of free-radical mediated tissue damage.  (+info)

Surface exposure of the methionine side chains of calmodulin in solution. A nitroxide spin label and two-dimensional NMR study. (6/1205)

Binding of calcium to calmodulin (CaM) causes a conformational change in this ubiquitous calcium regulatory protein that allows the activation of many target proteins. Met residues make up a large portion of its hydrophobic target binding surfaces. In this work, we have studied the surface exposure of the Met residues in the apo- and calcium-bound states of CaM in solution. Complexes of calcium-CaM with synthetic peptides derived from the CaM-binding domains of myosin light chain kinase, constitutive nitric-oxide synthase, and CaM-dependent protein kinase I were also studied. The surface exposure was measured by NMR by studying the effects of the soluble nitroxide spin label, 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6, 6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy, on the line widths and relaxation rates of the Met methyl resonances in samples of biosynthetically 13C-methyl-Met-labeled CaM. The Met residues move from an almost completely buried state in apo-CaM to an essentially fully exposed state in Ca2+4-CaM. Binding of two Ca2+ to the C-terminal lobe of CaM causes full exposure of the C-terminal Met residues and a partial exposure of the N-terminal Met side chains. Binding of the three target peptides blocks the access of the nitroxide surface probe to nearly all Met residues, although the mode of binding is distinct for the three peptides studied. These data show that calcium binding to CaM controls the surface exposure of the Met residues, thereby providing the switch for target protein binding.  (+info)

Re-design of Rhodobacter sphaeroides dimethyl sulfoxide reductase. Enhancement of adenosine N1-oxide reductase activity. (7/1205)

The periplasmic DMSO reductase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides f. sp. denitrificans has been expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells in its mature form and with the R. sphaeroides or E. coli N-terminal signal sequence. Whereas the R. sphaeroides signal sequence prevents formation of active enzyme, addition of a 6x His-tag at the N terminus of the mature peptide maximizes production of active enzyme and allows for affinity purification. The recombinant protein contains 1.7-1.9 guanines and greater than 0.7 molybdenum atoms per molecule and has a DMSO reductase activity of 3.4-3.7 units/nmol molybdenum, compared with 3.7 units/nmol molybdenum for enzyme purified from R. sphaeroides. The recombinant enzyme differs from the native enzyme in its color and spectrum but is indistinguishable from the native protein after redox cycling with reduced methyl viologen and Me2SO. Substitution of Cys for the molybdenum-ligating Ser-147 produced a protein with DMSO reductase activity of 1.4-1.5 units/nmol molybdenum. The mutant protein differs from wild type in its color and absorption spectrum in both the oxidized and reduced states. This substitution leads to losses of 61-99% of activity toward five substrates, but the adenosine N1-oxide reductase activity increases by over 400%.  (+info)

Amyloid beta peptides do not form peptide-derived free radicals spontaneously, but can enhance metal-catalyzed oxidation of hydroxylamines to nitroxides. (8/1205)

Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Free radical generation by Abeta peptides was suggested to be a key mechanism of their neurotoxicity. Reports that neurotoxic free radicals derived from Abeta-(1-40) and Abeta-(25-35) peptides react with the spin trap N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) to form a PBN/.Abeta peptide radical adduct with a specific triplet ESR signal assert that the peptide itself was the source of free radicals. We now report that three Abeta peptides, Abeta-(1-40), Abeta-(25-35), and Abeta-(40-1), do not yield radical adducts with PBN from the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation (OMRF). In contrast to OMRF PBN, incubation of Sigma PBN in phosphate buffer without Abeta peptides produced a three-line ESR spectrum. It was shown that this nitroxide is di-tert-butylnitroxide and is formed in the Sigma PBN solution as a result of transition metal-catalyzed auto-oxidation of the respective hydroxylamine present as an impurity in the Sigma PBN. Under some conditions, incubation of PBN from Sigma with Abeta-(1-40) or Abeta-(25-35) can stimulate the formation of di-tert-butylnitroxide. It was shown that Abeta peptides enhanced oxidation of cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-4-oxo-2,2,6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMPONE-H), which was strongly inhibited by the treatment of phosphate buffer with Chelex-100. It was shown that ferric and cupric ions are effective oxidants of TEMPONE-H. The data obtained allow us to conclude that under some conditions toxic Abeta peptides Abeta-(1-40) and Abeta-(25-35) enhance metal-catalyzed oxidation of hydroxylamine derivatives, but do not spontaneously form peptide-derived free radicals.  (+info)

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Both the blood pressure and the renal vasculature of the SHR have an increased responsiveness and sensitivity to the vasodilation produced by scavenging of O2−. Tempol, a membrane-permeable SOD mimetic, normalized MAP and RVR of SHR. Because the antihypertensive response was blocked by NO synthesis inhibition, it must depend on NO. O2− also appears to be important in the longer-term control of blood pressure in SHR. These results suggest that SHR have increased O2− activity that contributes to their hypertension. In these studies, the effect of tempol on RVR may have been secondary to its effect on blood pressure with engagement of renal autoregulation.. O2− is generated and acts both extracellularly and intracellularly, where it can have harmful effects including lipid peroxidation, protein aggregation, and DNA destruction.25 Previous investigators have used scavengers of O2− to reduce inflammation,26 atherosclerosis,27 and ischemia/reperfusion injury.28 Because native SOD has limited ...
We conducted the present study based on our earlier findings that the stable nitroxide tempol when administered i.p. led to radioprotection of murine salivary glands. We have examined the effects of tempol dose, the route of tempol administration, and the timing of tempol administration in this model. In the previous study, the dose used (275 mg/kg tempol) was 75% of the LD50 when administered i.p. Thus, we initially preformed studies to examine the tempol dose dependence of salivary gland radioprotection. We found equivalent irradiation protection of salivary output after tempol doses of 275 and 137.5 mg/kg body weight. There was no significant protection at lower doses.. Next, we evaluated the significance of the time of tempol i.p. administration. Of the three timepoints tested, only administration 10 minutes before irradiation was effective in protecting salivary gland function. Neither administration 5 minutes before irradiation nor 10 minutes after irradiation was useful. We speculate that ...
Up to the interim analysis, patients are randomized to one of the Otamixaban arms or the control arm (UFH + Eptifibatide). Then after interim analysis, patients will be randomized to the continued Otamixaban arm (per Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) decision based on interim analysis results) or the control arm (UFH + Eptifibatide). Except the DMC, all participants will remain blinded to this decision until the end of study.. The total duration of the study period per subject will range between 30 days and 180 days. Study end date being the Day 30 visit of the last randomized patient, follow up will be until Day 180 or study end date whichever comes first. ...
Up to the interim analysis, patients are randomized to one of the Otamixaban arms or the control arm (UFH + Eptifibatide). Then after interim analysis, patients will be randomized to the continued Otamixaban arm (per Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) decision based on interim analysis results) or the control arm (UFH + Eptifibatide). Except the DMC, all participants will remain blinded to this decision until the end of study.. The total duration of the study period per subject will range between 30 days and 180 days. Study end date being the Day 30 visit of the last randomized patient, follow up will be until Day 180 or study end date whichever comes first. ...
Tempol is a redox-cycling nitroxide that promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improves nitric oxide bioavailability. It has been studied extensively in animal models of oxidative stress. Tempol has been shown to preserve mitochondria against oxidative damage and improve tissue oxygenation. Tempol improved insulin responsiveness in models of diabetes mellitus and improved the dyslipidemia, reduced the weight gain and prevented diastolic dysfunction and heart failure in fat-fed models of the metabolic syndrome. Tempol protected many organs, including the heart and brain, from ischemia/reperfusion damage. Tempol prevented podocyte damage, glomerulosclerosis, proteinuria and progressive loss of renal function in models of salt and mineralocorticosteroid excess. It reduced brain or spinal cord damage after ischemia or trauma and exerted a spinal analgesic action. Tempol improved survival in several models of shock. It protected normal cells from radiation while maintaining
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
The onset of metastases dramatically changes the prognosis of prostate cancer patients, identifying increased morbidity along with a extreme fall in survival expectancy. capability of prostate tumor cells to migrate in bone tissue marrow also to determine blended osteoblastic/osteolytic lesions. As Srebf1 expected by the achievement of current targeted therapy directed to block bone tissue resorption, an improved knowledge of molecular affinity between prostate tumor and bone tissue microenvironment will permit us to get rid of bone tissue metastasis also to improve prognosis of prostate tumor sufferers. 1. Launch Although just 5% of sufferers identified as having prostate tumor (PCa) possess metastatic disease, a lot more than 60% of these who perish from PCa possess metastases disseminated in faraway sites. In early diagnosed, low quality PCa, the operative, rays, and hormone remedies assure an extended life expectancy. Nevertheless the risk for Otamixaban metastatic disease significantly ...
2,2,5,5-Tetramethyl-3-carboxy-3-pyrroline 1-oxide | C9H15NO3 | CID 12610999 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
mice eliminated vascular inflammation, aortic stiffening, renal dysfunction, and hypertension; however, adoptive transfer of T cells restored these processes. Isoketal-protein adducts, which are immunogenic, were increased in aortas, DCs, and macrophages of tgsm/p22phox mice. Autologous pulsing with tgsm/p22phox aortic homogenates promoted DCs of tgsm/p22phox mice to stimulate T cell proliferation and production of IFN-γ, IL-17A, and TNF-α. Treatment with the superoxide scavenger tempol or the isoketal scavenger 2-hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) normalized blood pressure; prevented vascular inflammation, aortic stiffening, and hypertension; and prevented DC and T cell activation. Moreover, in human aortas, the aortic content of isoketal adducts correlated with fibrosis and inflammation severity. Together, these results define a pathway linking vascular oxidant stress to immune activation and aortic stiffening and provide insight into the systemic inflammation encountered in common vascular ...
Tempol is a synthetic compound used to lower stress, prevent oxidative damage, & improve heart disease & diabetes. Learn whether tempol is right for you.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blockade of ATP-sensitive potassium channels prevents the attenuation of the exercise pressor reflex by tempol in rats with ligated femoral arteries. AU - Yamauchi, Katsuya. AU - Stone, Audrey J.. AU - Stocker, Sean D.. AU - Kaufman, Marc P.. PY - 2012/8/1. Y1 - 2012/8/1. N2 - We reported previously that tempol attenuated the exercise pressor and muscle mechanoreceptor reflexes in rats whose femoral arteries were ligated, whereas tempol did not attenuate these reflexes in rats whose femoral arteries were freely perfused. Although the mechanism whereby tempol attenuated these reflexes in rats whose femoral artery was ligated was independent of its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species, its nature remains unclear. An alternative explanation for the tempol-induced attenuation of these reflexes involves ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K Atp) and calcium-activated potassium channels (BK Ca), both of which are opened by tempol. We tested the likelihood of this explanation by ...
The effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the lipid peroxidation of rat heart mitochondria was studied using the spin trapping agent α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-t-butylnitrone (4-POBN) with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer. Two fatty acid spin labels, 5-doxyl-stearic acid (5-DOXYL) and 16-doxyl-stearic acid (16-DOXYL) were used to study the effect of GSE on mitochondrial membrane fluidity. The results showed that the GSE could scavenge the lipid free radicals generated from the mitochondria of rat heart, and protect the mitochondrial membranes damaged by lipid peroxidation. Both the scavenging effect and the protective effect are better in water phase than in lipid phase. And the data indicate that perhaps trimers and other polymers have better scavenging effect on lipid free radicals than monomers.
The detection of protein free radicals using the specific free radical reactivity of nitrone spin traps in conjunction with nitrone-antibody sensitivity and specificity greatly expands the utility of the spin trapping technique, which is no longer dependent on the quantum mechanical electron spin re …
CAS NO:7492-32-2; Chemical name:(3-carbamoyl-3,3-diphenylpropyl)diisopropylmethylammonium ; physical and chemical property of 7492-32-2, (3-carbamoyl-3,3-diphenylpropyl)diisopropylmethylammonium is provided by
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A media playlist is generated in which media items have a tempo matching a target tempo. The content server receives a seed value and a tempo signal from a client device. The tempo signal indicates a target tempo specified by the user. The content server calculates a target tempo range associated with the target tempo and generates a filtered playlist of media items based on the seed value and the target tempo range. The media items in the in the filtered playlist have tempos within the target tempo range. The content server provides the media items in the filtered playlist to the client device.
We examined whether a nitric oxide scavenger, 2-(4-carboxypheny l)-4,4,5,5-tetramethy l-imidazo line- l-oxy l-3-oxide (carboxy- PTIO), cou ld offer neuroprotective actions and improve cerebra l energy
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
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Dedicato a tutti coloro mi vengono a trovare e trovano il tempo di salutare Grazie Dedicated to everyone who comes to my place and finds time to say hi Thank you ...
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The present invention relates to a kind of preparation method of 1,2,3,3 tetramethyl indoles of 6 nitro, with 1,2,3,3 tetramethyl indoles are raw material, using sulfuric acid as solvent, using the nitration mixture of certain concentration as nitrating agent, nitration mixture is added dropwise within a certain period of time and carries out nitration reaction 6 nitros 1,2,3 of generation, 3 tetramethyl indoles, reaction solution is diluted in a certain amount of frozen water and is filtered to remove byproduct, and the reaction solution after filtering obtains 6 nitros 1 by anti-tune, 2,3,3 tetramethyl indoles.Present invention process is simple, product post processing is easy, environmental pollution is small, 6 nitros 1,2 being prepared, 3,3 tetramethyl indoles product quality qualities are high, and stability is good, and obtained product is in addition to it can be used for general applications, the preparation of high-end resin is can be also used for, is a kind of method of suitable
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The mechanism of the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols by the oxoammonium cation derived from 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) has been investigated computationally at the B3LYP/6-31+G* level, along with free energies of solvation, using a reaction field model. In basic solution, the reaction involves formation of a complex between the alkoxide anion and the oxoammonium cation in a pre-oxidation equilibrium wherein methoxide leads to a much larger formation constant than isopropoxide. The differences in free energy of activation for the rate-determining hydrogen transfer within the pre-oxidation complexes were small; the differences in complex formation constants lead to a larger rate of reaction for the primary alcohol, as is observed experimentally. In acidic solution, rate-determining hydrogen atom transfer from the alcohol to the oxoammonium cation had a large unfavorable free energy change and would proceed more slowly than is observed. A more likely path involves a hydride
2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide: partial structure given in first source; endothelium-derived relaxing factor antagonist
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tempol, a membrane-permeable radical scavenger, reduces oxidant stress-mediated renal dysfunction and injury in the rat. AU - Chatterjee, P K AU - Cuzzocrea, S AU - Brown, P A J AU - Zacharowski, K AU - Stewart, K N AU - Mota-Filipe, H AU - Thiemermann, C PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Background. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the pathogenesis of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tempol in (1) an in vivo rat model of renal ischemia/ reperfusion injury and on (2) cellular injury and death of rat renal proximal tubular (PT) cells exposed to oxidant stress in the form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).Methods. Male Wistar rats underwent bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 45 minutes followed by reperfusion for six hours. Tempol (30 mg/kg/h), desferrioxamine (DEF; 40 mg/kg/h), or a combination of tempol (30 mg/kg/h) and DEF (40 mg/kg/h) were administered prior to and throughout reperfusion. Plasma ...
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The acute oral toxicity of N-Butyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-4-amine was investigated following administration of a single dose to the rat by gavage. A single group of 3 female animals was dosed at a level of 2000 mg/kg. All animals died within 4 hours of dosing. Reduced activity, hunched posture, lethargy and closed eyes were observed prior to death. An additional group of 3 female animals was then dosed at 300 mg/kg and observed for a period of 14 days. No mortality occurred. Clinical signs included piloerection, reduced activity, hunched posture and semi-closed eyes, which were observed on the day of dosing. Recovery had occurred by Day 2. A group of 3 female animals was subsequently dosed at the same level (300 mg/kg) with the same result. Changes in body weight observed in treated animals were not remarkable. A reduced body weight gain or a body weight loss was noted at the end of the first week of the study, but recovery was observed at the end of the study. No abnormalities were ...
adducts with a higher lifetime. (106cells/mL) were incubated for 10 min at 37 °C in Global Veterinaria, 15 (1): 72-81, 2015 darkness with honey at final concentrations of 2, 5, 10 and complex spectra with an increased intensity of the four- 20% (w/v) for each honey sample and then activated for line ESR signal attributed to the DMPO-OH adducts (sign 30 min at 37 °C once again in darkness with PMA at the Ø spectrum 2in Fig. 1b) and a new signal (sign * spectrum final concentration of 0.8 µM. After activation, the cell 2in Fig 1b). Similar data were obtained with MH, but are suspensions were centrifuged for 10 min (450 g) and the not presented here. When, 5% of NH (w/v) were added to supernatants were collected. To measure the total MPO the complete system, there was no real modification of the released by activated neutrophils in the extra-cellular shape of the ESR signal intensity attributed to DMPO-OH milieu, an original Equine MPO ELISA assay designed by adducts and the new signal as shown ...
Avantis nitroxide spin product listing is a group of compounds designed to act as membrane probes. A variety of positions down the hydrophobic chain are
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: (1R,2S,4S,7S,8S,9S,10R,11S,12S,13R,17R,18S)-8,10-Dihydroxy-1,5,9,18-tetramethyl-16,20-dioxahexac.
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Rh(III)-Catalyzed Direct C8-Arylation of Quinoline N-Oxides using Diazonaphthalen-2(1H)-ones: A Practical Approach towards 8-azaBINOL ...
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Learn more about 1-4-ethoxycarbonyl-3-5-dimethyl-1h-pyrrol-2-yl-carbonyl-piperidine-3-carboxylic-acid. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
ஆக்சிசன் நிறம் மணம் சுவையற்ற ஒரு வளிமம் .நீர்ம வடிவில் உள்ள ஆக்சிசன் ஒளி ஊடுருவும் நீல நிறத்தில் இருக்கும். சிறிதளவு நிலைப்பெறா காந்தத்தன்மை (paramagnetic) உடையது. காந்தப் புலனுக்கு உட்படுத்தினால் நீர்ம ஆக்சிசன், காந்த முனைகளுக்கு இடையே, இழுப்புண்டு முனைகளை இணைத்து நிற்கும். உறைந்து திண்மமாகச் சுருங்கும் போது வெளிர் நீல நிறத்தைப் பெறுகிறது. இது காற்றை விடச் சற்று கனமானது. நீரில் ...
O Melhor Rastreador de Vôos: Mapas de Rastreio em Tempo Real, Estado de Vôos e Atrasos nos Aeroportos para vôos de linhas aéreas, vôos privados e gerais e aeroportos.
Datemi tempo , non so se riuscirò a commentare tutti i vostri post ma siate certi che leggerò tutto quello che avete scritto ! ...
Pratite novi serijal emisija u kojima ćemo dovoditi igrače, navijače i prave ljubitelje košarke. Pričaćemo sa njima i približiti vama kako je to igrati u najboljoj amaterskoj košarkaškoj ligi.. ...
... and a series of cyclic sulfur oxides, SnOx (x = 1, 2), based on cyclic Sn rings. Interest in the lower sulfur oxides has ... Both cyclic and chain structures were found. A number of monoxides SnO are known where n = 5-10. The oxygen atom is exocyclic. ... The lower sulfur oxides are a group of inorganic compounds with the formula SmOn, where 2m > n. These species are often ... ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8. R. Steudel (2003). "Sulfur-Rich Oxides SnO and SnO2". In Steudel, R. (ed.). Elemental Sulfur und Sulfur ...
... can be produced from low cost ingredients by heating ethylene glycol or ethylene oxide with hydrogen sulfide. ... 2008). "Product Subclass 2: Cyclic Dialkyl Sulfones and Derivatives". Category 5, Compounds with One Saturated Carbon ... 2004). "Product Subclass 8: Aluminum Oxide (Alumina)". Category 1, Organometallics. doi:10.1055/sos-SD-007-00192. ISBN ...
3.0.CO;2-A. Y. Shvo; E.D. Kaufman (1972). "Configurational and conformational analysis of cyclic amine oxides". Tetrahedron. 28 ... A Curtin-Hammett scenario was invoked to explain selectivity in the syntheses of kapakahines B and F, two cyclic peptides ... a cyclic hexapeptide with an .alpha.-carboline ring system from the marine sponge Cribrochalina olemda". Journal of the ...
... is an organic compound with the formula C2H4O. It is a cyclic ether and the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ... Synthesis of ethylene oxide. Overview of reactions of formation of ethylene oxide and other α-oxides". Ethylene oxide. Khimiya ... "Ethylene Oxide (EO)". Ineos Oxide. Archived from the original on 8 June 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2009. "Ethylene oxide ... Review of the individual reactions of ethylene oxide". Ethylene oxide. M.: Khimiya. pp. 90-120. "Epoxyethane (Ethylene Oxide ...
These molecular layered materials are synthesized using cyclic voltammetry. Thus far, YBCO layered with alkylamines, arylamines ... a lanthanum barium copper oxide becomes superconducting at 35 K. This oxide was an oxygen-deficient perovskite-related material ... Oxide materials such as this are brittle, and forming them into superconducting wires by any conventional process does not ... It is part of the more general group of rare-earth barium copper oxides (ReBCO) in which, instead of yttrium, other rare earths ...
There is evidence that tiny quantities of cyclic ozone exist at the surface of magnesium oxide crystals in air. Cyclic ozone ... "Cyclic Ozone Identified in Magnesium Oxide (111) Surface Reconstructions" (PDF). Physical Review Letters. 81 (22): 4891-4894. ... Cyclic ozone is a theoretically predicted form of ozone. Like ordinary ozone (O3), it would have three oxygen atoms. It would ... It has been speculated that, if cyclic ozone could be made in bulk, and if it proved to have good stability properties, it ...
Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP in cell signaling and drug development". The New England Journal of Medicine. 355 (19): 2003-11. ... In normal conditions, the vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase produces nitric oxide from L-arginine in the presence of ... This nitric oxide diffuses into neighboring cells (including vascular smooth muscle cells and platelets), where it increases ... Nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase signaling also leads to anti-inflammatory effects. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), ...
Soluble guanylyl cyclase is recognized as the most sensitive physiologic receptor for nitric oxide. Binding of nitric oxide to ... to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and pyrophosphate: GTP = 3′,5′-cyclic GMP + diphosphate It is often part of the G ... Soluble guanylate cyclase contains a molecule of heme, and is activated primarily by the binding of nitric oxide (NO) to that ... Adenylyl cyclase Cyclic guanosine monophosphate Guanylyl cyclase activator (protein) Martin, Emil; Berka, Vladimir; Tsai, Ah‐ ...
Substituted 2-Bromopyridine-N-oxides and Their Conversion to Cyclic Thiohydroxamic Acids". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72 (10): 4362-4364 ... Another approach involves treating the same starting N-oxide with thiourea to afford pyridyl-2-isothiouronium chloride N-oxide ... Oxidation to the N-oxide can then be undertaken. Pyrithione is found as a natural product in the Allium stipitatum plant, an ... The preparation of pyrithione was first reported in 1950 by Shaw and was prepared by reaction of 2-chloropyridine N-oxide with ...
ISBN 978-0-471-72091-1. Amine Oxides. VIII. Medium-sized Cyclic Olefins from Amine Oxides and Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides ... Soc., 1960, 82 (17), pp 4663-4669 doi:10.1021/ja01502a053 Amine Oxides. VII. The Thermal Decomposition of the N-Oxides of N- ... Cope, Arthur C.; Towle, Philip H. (1949). "Rearrangement of Allyldialkylamine Oxides and Benzyldimethylamine Oxide". Journal of ... The amine oxide is prepared by oxidation of the corresponding amine with an oxidant such as meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid ( ...
It is a cyclic tertiary amine. It is used as a base catalyst for generation of polyurethanes and other reactions. It is ... It is the precursor to N-methylmorpholine N-oxide, a commercially important oxidant. David Evans Research Group Archived 2012- ...
For example, cyclic chiral tertiary phosphine oxides can be reduced to cyclic tertiary phosphines. Phenylsilane combines with ... 4 Phenylsilane can be used to reduce tertiary phosphine oxides to the corresponding tertiary phosphine. P(CH3)3O + PhSiH3 → P( ...
Cyclic SiS2 has been reported to exist in the gas phase. The phase diagram of silicon with selenium has two phases: SiSe2 and ... A less common oxide is silicon monoxide that can be found in outer space. Unconfirmed reports exist for nonequilibrium Si2O, ... Mück, Leonie Anna; Lattanzi, Valerio; Thorwirth, Sven; McCarthy, Michael C.; Gauss, Jürgen (2012-02-28). "Cyclic SiS2: A New ...
It is a cyclic tetramer of ethylene oxide which is specific for the lithium cation. 12-Crown-4 can be synthesized using a ... Sigma-Aldrich Cyclic tetramer of ethylene oxide which is specific for the lithium cation. 98%, 2018 Crown ether Cyclen, a ... 2 H2O It also forms from the cyclic oligomerization of ethylene oxide in the presence of gaseous boron trifluoride. Like other ...
With two shared oxides bound to each silicon, cyclic or polymeric structures can result. The cyclic metasilicate ring Si 6O12− ... When treated with calcium oxides and water, silicate minerals form Portland cement. Equilibria involving hydrolysis of silicate ...
"Cyclic stretch induces PlGF expression in bronchial airway epithelial cells via nitric oxide release". American Journal of ...
Silicon oxide tunnel diode structure and method of making same, (1969). Method for making MIS structures, (1969). Cyclic ... Wold, Aaron; Dwight, Kirby (1993). Solid State Chemistry: Synthesis, Structure, and Properties of Selected Oxides and Sulfides ...
Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK1 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I". Bredt DS, Ferris CD, Snyder SH (1992). "Nitric oxide ... Komeima K, Hayashi Y, Naito Y, Watanabe Y (2000). "Inhibition of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calcium/ calmodulin- ... 1999). "Regulation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calmodulin kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (29): 20597-602. doi:10.1074/ ...
In common with other compounds with the general formula RAsO, PhAsO forms a cyclic oligomer. A range of ring sizes are possible ... Phenylarsine oxide (PAO or PhAsO) is an organometallic compound with the empirical formula C6H5AsO. It contains a phenyl group ... 3.0.CO;2-6. Verspohl, EJ (2006). "Effect of PAO (phenylarsine oxide) on the inhibitory effect of insulin and IGF-1 on insulin ... Gerhard, R; John, H; Aktories, K; Just, I (2003). "Thiol-modifying phenylarsine oxide inhibits guanine nucleotide binding of ...
Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK4 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV". Bredt DS, Ferris CD, Snyder SH (1992). "Nitric oxide ... Komeima K, Hayashi Y, Naito Y, Watanabe Y (2000). "Inhibition of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calcium/ calmodulin- ... 1999). "Regulation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calmodulin kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (29): 20597-602. doi:10.1074/ ...
"Nitric Oxide Regulation of Cyclic di-GMP Synthesis and Hydrolysis inShewanella woodyi". Biochemistry. 51 (10): 2087-2099. doi: ...
Tetrafluoroethyene oxide and hexafluoropropylene oxide are two of the simplest cyclic perfluoroethers. These are precursors of ... Krytox is a grease generated by the polymerization of hexafluoropropylene oxide. Its chemical formula is F−(CF(CF3)−CF2−O)n− ... More interesting and more useful are the cyclic ethers, especially, the epoxides. ...
"Mechanism of platelet inhibition by nitric oxide: In vivo phosphorylation of thromboxane by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase ... inhibition of cyclic AMP breakdown by cyclic GMP". Molecular Pharmacology. 37 (5): 671-681. PMID 2160060. Siess, Wolfgang; ... Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates cGMP production and therefore the activation cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G kinase). This kinase ... cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, phosphorylate messengers via protein kinase A (PKA). These signaling elements include ...
Murad, Ferid (1994). "The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signal transduction system for intracellular and intercellular communication ... "Nitric oxide-generating vasodilators inhibit mitogenesis and proliferation of BALB/C 3T3 fibroblasts by a cyclic GMP- ... "New Nitric Oxide-Converting Enzymes Discovered". Mary Ann Liebert Inc. 2018-01-19. Pawloski, JR; Hess, DT; ... He is known for his discovery of protein S-nitrosylation, the addition of a nitric oxide (NO) group to cysteine residues in ...
Most COC grades can undergo sterilization by gamma radiation, steam, or ethylene oxide. These polymers are commercially used in ... Cyclic olefin copolymers are produced by chain copolymerization of cyclic monomers such as 8,9,10-trinorborn-2-ene (norbornene ... In 2005 there were "several types of commercial cyclic olefin copolymers based on different types of cyclic monomers and ... Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is an amorphous polymer made by several polymer manufacturers. COC is a relatively new class of ...
... but with a different mechanism PDE5 inhibitors act further downstream in the nitric oxide signalling pathway, reducing cyclic ... Cinaciguat activates the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) which is a receptor for nitric oxide. This increases biosynthesis of ... cyclic GMP, resulting in vasodilation. Riociguat, another drug stimulating sGC, ...
Gupta, Om Dutt; Kirchmeier, Robert L.; Shreeve, Jean'ne M. (1990). "Reactions of Trifluoroamine Oxide: A Route to Acyclic and ... Cyclic Fluororamines, and N-Nitrosoamines". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 112: 2383. doi:10.1021/ja00162a045. ...
The first nitric oxide (NO) independent, haem-dependent sGC stimulator, YC-1, a synthetic benzylindazole derivative, was ... NO binds to soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and mediates the synthesis of the secondary messenger cyclic guanosine ... Giaid A, Saleh D (July 1995). "Reduced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the lungs of patients with pulmonary ... In healthy individuals nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signalling molecule on vascular smooth muscle cells to induce vasodilation. ...
NOCl converts some cyclic amines to the alkenes. For example, aziridine reacts with NOCl to give ethene, nitrous oxide and ... Malinovskii, M. S.; Medyantseva, N. M. (1953). "Olefin Oxides. IX. Condensation of Olefin Oxides with Nitrosyl Chloride". ... In the case of propylene oxide, the addition proceeds with high regiochemistry: It converts amides to N-nitroso derivatives. ... NOCl By the direct combination of chlorine and nitric oxide; This reaction reverses above 100 °C. Cl2 + 2 NO → 2 NOCl By ...
It is a cyclic trimer of ethylene oxide which is specific for the lithium cation. 1,4-Dioxane v t e (Articles without KEGG ...
... increases cyclic GMP levels in the brain and liver by activation of guanylate cyclase. Sodium azide solutions ... The sodium amide is subsequently combined with nitrous oxide: 2 NaNH2 + N2O → NaN3 + NaOH + NH3 These reactions are the basis ... Kimura, Hiroshi; Mittal, Chandra K.; Murad, Ferid (1975-10-23). "Increases in cyclic GMP levels in brain and liver with sodium ...
Kobayashi, Shiro; Uyama, Hiroshi (15 January 2002). "Polymerization of cyclic imino ethers: From its discovery to the present ... This method proceeds under relatively mild conditions, however, owing to the large amounts of triphenylphosphine oxide produced ...
... and transformation of ethylene oxide to ethylene glycol in the early 1950s. Ethylene oxide, a gas, was used for synthesis of ... Scientific Design announced a boron-mediated process for the oxidation of cyclic aliphatics such as cyclohexane. The oxidation ... Propylene oxide is used in polyurethane foams and in rigid polymers. The side products of the reaction include styrene and tert ... In the late 1970s Halcon and Arco planned to build two new plants at Channelview, Texas, one for propylene oxide processing, ...
The successive approximation or cyclic DAC, which successively constructs the output during each cycle. Individual bits of the ... These typically take the form of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) mixed-signal integrated circuit chips that integrate both ...
... constituting a family of about 60 bi-cyclic and tri-cyclic compounds. Like most other neurological processes, the effects of ... Nitric Oxide. 111-112: 45-63. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2021.04.001. PMID 33838343. S2CID 233205099. H.K. Kalant; W.H.E. Roschlau ( ... and nitrogen oxides, but lower levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study found that directly ...
Base mediates the oxidation of a phosphine ligand by palladium(II) to a phosphine oxide. Oxidative addition then generates the ... Intramolecular variants of the reaction may be used to generate cyclic products containing endo or exo double bonds. Ring sizes ...
... application to nitric oxide synthase". AAPS PharmSci. 2 (1): 68-77. doi:10.1208/ps020108. PMC 2751003. PMID 11741224. Loo JA, ... the enzyme that degrades the signalling molecule cyclic guanosine monophosphate. This signalling molecule triggers smooth ...
Some cyclic molecules containing a ketone undergo a cheletropic extrusion reaction, leaving new carbon-carbon π bonds on the ... H2 Decarbonylation can be induced photochemically as well as using reagents such as trimethylamine N-oxide: Me3NO + L + Fe(CO)5 ... 2-diols to cyclobutenodehydroannulenes and higher oxides of carbon". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112 (4): 1607-1617. doi:10.1021/ ...
Meurer S, Pioch S, Wagner K, Müller-Esterl W, Gross S (2005). "AGAP1, a novel binding partner of nitric oxide-sensitive ... "Guanylyl cyclases and signaling by cyclic GMP". Pharmacol. Rev. 52 (3): 375-414. PMID 10977868. Chhajlani V, Frändberg PA, ... Russwurm M, Wittau N, Koesling D (2002). "Guanylyl cyclase/PSD-95 interaction: targeting of the nitric oxide-sensitive ... catalyzes the conversion of GTP to the second messenger cGMP and functions as the main receptor for nitric oxide and ...
Common solvents are organic carbonates (cyclic, straight chain), sulfones, imides, polymers (polyethylene oxide) and ... Graphene oxide coating over sulfur is claimed to solve the cycle durability problem. Graphene oxide high surface area, chemical ... Examples include lithium cobalt oxide, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide NMC, or lithium iron phosphate olivine which can ... Vanadium oxides have been a common class of cathodes to study due to their high capacity, ease of synthesis, and ...
The melted sand is generally a mixture of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, aluminum oxide, and silicon oxide (commonly referred ... Additional factors contributing to failure of TBCs include mechanical rumpling of the bond coat during thermal cyclic exposure ... The TBC can also be locally modified at the interface between the bond coat and the thermally grown oxide so that it acts as a ... The growth of the thermally-grown oxide (TGO) layer is the most important cause of TBC spallation failure. When the TGO forms ...
Synthetic Cyclic KTS Peptides as Novel Dual Antagonists of α1β1/α2β1 Integrins with Antiangiogenic Activity". In Momic, Tatjana ... "Data Mining and Machine Learning Tools for Combinatorial Material Science of All-Oxide Photovoltaic Cells". Molecular ...
1,3 dipolar cycloadditions have been developed as a bioorthogonal reaction using a nitrile oxide as a 1,3-dipole and a ... "Application of Metal Free Triazole Formation in the Synthesis of Cyclic RGD DTPA Conjugates". ChemBioChem. 9 (11): 1805-15. doi ... The unstable ylide is hydrolyzed to form phosphine oxide and a primary amine. However, this reaction is not immediately ... The drawbacks of this reaction include the cross-reactivity of the nitrile oxide due to strong electrophilicity and slow ...
They suggested that it is a cyclic hydroxamic acid related to pyridine. It can be reduced to a neutral deoxyaspergillic acid, ... Because of this, aspergillic acid has been assigned the corresponding l-oxide or tautomeric pyridine hydroxamic acid structure ...
It is an oxide of carbon (an oxocarbon), which can be viewed as the fourfold ketone of dioxane. It can also be viewed as the ... Gambi, A.; Guimanini, A. G.; Strazzolini, P. (2001). "Theoretical investigations on (CO)n(CO2)m cyclic cooligomers". Journal of ... cyclic dimer of oxiranedione (C2O3), the hypothetical anhydride of oxalic acid. In 1998, Paolo Strazzolini and others ...
Bismuth oxides are characterized by having visible light absorption properties, just like vanadates. For this reason, the ... Members are tris(bipyridine) cobalt(II), compounds of cobalt ligated to certain cyclic polyamines, and certain cobaloximes. In ... Ropero-Vega, J. L.; Meléndez, A. M.; Pedraza-Avella, J. A.; Candal, Roberto J.; Niño-Gómez, M. E. (July 2014). "Mixed oxide ... "Hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of aqueous solutions of phenol using mixed oxide semiconductor films of Bi-Nb-M-O (M= ...
... is a cyclic diketone used in organic chemistry to determine whether a compound contains an aldehyde group. ... Dimedone is prepared from mesityl oxide and diethyl malonate. Dimedone usually comes in the form of white crystals. It is ...
Cyclic enones can be prepared via the Pauson-Khand reaction. Regiospecific formation is the controlled enolate formation by the ... One type of conjugate addition is the Michael addition, which is used commercially in the conversion of mesityl oxide into ... Some commercially significant enones produced by condensations of acetone are mesityl oxide (dimer of acetone) and phorone and ... Examples of unsaturated carbonyls are acrolein (propenal), mesityl oxide, acrylic acid, and maleic acid. Unsaturated carbonyls ...
The oxides are usually harder than the underlying metal, so wear accelerates as the harder particles abrade the metal surfaces ... Surface fatigue is a process in which the surface of a material is weakened by cyclic loading, which is one type of general ... Fatigue wear is produced when the wear particles are detached by cyclic crack growth of microcracks on the surface. These ... found on each surface affect the severity of how fragments of oxides are pulled off and added to the other surface, partly due ...
With transition metal alkyls, these oxides behave as electrophiles and insert into the bond between metals and their relatively ... Factors affecting the rate of olefin insertions include the formation of the cyclic, planar, four-center transition state ... and nitric oxide. These reactions have limited or no practical significance, but are of historic interest. ... Wilkinson Decarbonylation Reaction for an example of this elementary organometallic step in synthesis Many electrophilic oxides ...
Generally, CVD growth of TMDs is achieved by putting precursors to the material, typically a transition-metal oxide and pure ... sulfide layers also produce different electrical properties than even numbers of molybdenum sulfide layers due to cyclic ...
... (1-[Bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxide hexafluorophosphate, Hexafluorophosphate ... which stabilises the incoming amine through a hydrogen-bonded 7-membered cyclic transition state. "Amine to Amide (Coupling) - ...
Iron (IV) oxide from the iron-peroxypterin intermediate is selectively attacked by a double bond to give a carbocation at the ... Melatonin metabolites generated from redox reactions include cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine ...
Due to the cyclic continuous pi bonds between the carbon atoms, benzene is classed as an aromatic hydrocarbon. Benzene is a ... Pure benzene, for example, oxidizes in the body to produce an epoxide, benzene oxide, which is not excreted readily and can ... In 1929, the cyclic nature of benzene was finally confirmed by the crystallographer Kathleen Lonsdale using X-ray diffraction ... to a cyclic diol with two double bonds, breaking the aromaticity. Next, the diol is newly reduced by NADH to catechol. The ...
The iron oxide concretions found in the Navajo Sandstone exhibit a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Their shape ranges from ... September 2001). last accessed August 18, 2013 Chan, M.A., and A.W. Archer (2000) Cyclic Eolian Stratification on the Jurassic ... Initially, this iron accumulated as iron-oxide coatings, which formed slowly after the sand had been deposited. Later, after ... The Navajo Sandstone is also well known among rockhounds for its hundreds of thousands of iron oxide concretions. Informally, ...
A series of south-southeast dipping cyclic magmatic layers make up the intrusion, similar to those of the surrounding ... stratigraphically under the oxide facies iron formation. Iron production from the West and North Pits of Sherman Mine came from ...
These studies link traditional electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry to direct observations of interfacial ... materials systems are used to study interactions between catalytically active metal particles and supporting oxides; these are ...
Gamma irradiation has been used in the synthesis of nanoparticles of gold on iron oxide (Fe2O3). It has been shown that the ... is similar to the idea of the non-electrochemical reactions which follow the electrochemical event which is observed in cyclic ... If oxygen, acetone, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride or nitrobenzene is present in the mixture, then the reaction rate is ... effects of various sorbants and nitrous oxide", Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2006, 75, 403-407 Energy Citations Database ( ...
Use of Cyclic bioisosteres of purine system derivatives for the treatment of diseases caused by disorders of nitrergic and ... "Nitric oxide synthase activity and the level of nitrates/nitrites in brain regions during spontaneous morphine withdrawal in ... "Nitric oxide synthase activity and the level of nitrates/nitrites in brain regions during spontaneous morphine withdrawal in ... "Effects of morphine withdrawal on the indices of free radical homeostasis and nitric oxide system in rat liver and thymus". ...
AsPO4, "which is virtually a covalent oxide", has been referred to as a double oxide, of the form As2O3·P2O5. It consists of ... It shows reluctance to acquire "the high positive oxidation numbers characteristic of nonmetals". It can form cyclic ... Silicon and germanium are obtained from their oxides by heating the oxide with carbon or hydrogen: SiO2 + C → Si + CO2; GeO2 + ... Tellurium forms a polymeric, amphoteric, glass-forming oxide TeO2. It is a "conditional" glass-forming oxide - it forms a glass ...
Graphene Oxide-Cyclic R10 Peptide Nuclear Translocation Nanoplatforms for the Surmounting of Multiple-Drug Resistance. Z. Tu, I ... Graphene Oxide-Cyclic R10 Peptide Nuclear Translocation Nanoplatforms for the Surmounting of Multiple-Drug Resistance ... Graphene Oxide-Cyclic R10 Peptide Nuclear Translocation Nanoplatforms for the Surmounting of Multiple-Drug Resistance ... In this work, a cyclic R10 peptide (cR10) is conjugated to polyglycerol‐covered nanographene oxide to engineer a nanoplatform ...
This has profound consequences for the regulation of local cyclic nucleotide and hence cardiac β-adrenergic signaling. ... We therefore tested the hypothesis that PMCA4 has a key structural role in tethering neuronal nitric-oxide synthase to a highly ... Surprisingly, in PMCA4(-/-), over 36% of membrane-associated neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) protein and activity was ... is a regulator of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, the physiological consequence of this regulation is unclear. ...
Hydrogen-bonded cyclic water clusters nucleated on an oxide surface. In: Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014 ; Vol. ... Hydrogen-bonded cyclic water clusters nucleated on an oxide surface. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014 Sep 24;136( ... Hydrogen-bonded cyclic water clusters nucleated on an oxide surface. Coleman X. Kronawitter, Christoph Riplinger, Xiaobo He, ... title = "Hydrogen-bonded cyclic water clusters nucleated on an oxide surface",. abstract = "We report the observation and ...
A New Pathway of Nitric Oxide/Cyclic GMP Signaling InvolvingS-Nitrosoglutathione*. *B. Mayer, S. Pfeiffer, A. Schrammel, D. ... Oxidation and Nitrosation of Thiols at Low Micromolar Exposure to Nitric Oxide. *D. Jourdheuil, F. Jourdheuil, M. Feelisch ... S-Nitroglutathione, a Product of the Reaction between Peroxynitrite and Glutathione That Generates Nitric Oxide*. *M. Balazy, P ... The oxidative and nitrosative chemistry of the nitric oxide/superoxide reaction in the presence of bicarbonate.. *D. ...
Nitric Oxide; Cyclic Nucleotide; Ethanol; Inflammation ... In addition, this is the first time that cyclic nucleotides ... a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor; and Rp-8-Br-cGMP-S, an antagonist analogue of cGMP. TLR2 was measured using real-time ...
... of potassium channels and cGMP-dependent pathways in the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle to the novel nitric oxide donor, ... Involvement of cyclic GMP and potassium channels in relaxation evoked by the nitric oxide donor, diethylamine NONOate, in the ... Involvement of cyclic GMP and potassium channels in relaxation evoked by the nitric oxide donor, diethylamine NONOate, in the ... Analysis of Variance, Animals, Cyclic GMP, Hydrazines, Male, Mesenteric Arteries, Muscle, Smooth, Vascular, Nitric Oxide Donors ...
Do avanafil and zaprinast exert positive effects on bone tissue via the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein ... exert positive effects on bone healing and mineralization by activation the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein ... OXIDE, EXPRESSION, ESTROGEN, FRACTURE, STRESS, MODEL, HPLC ...
Nitric oxide, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and the anesthetic state. Johns RA. Johns RA. Anesthesiology. 1996 Sep;85(3):457- ...
Recyclable hypervalent-iodine-mediated solid-phase peptide synthesis and cyclic peptide synthesis ... Functionalization of imidazole N-oxide: a recent discovery in organic transformations *Koustav Singha, ... Recyclable hypervalent-iodine-mediated solid-phase peptide synthesis and cyclic peptide synthesis. Dan Liu, Ya-Li Guo, Jin Qu ...
Spinel transition metal oxides are important electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries, whose lithiation undergoes a two- ... Graphene-wrapped Fe3O4 anode material with improved reversible capacity and cyclic stability for lithium ion batteries. Chem. ... The spinel transition metal oxide family-which includes LiMn2O4, Li4Ti5O12, Fe3O4, Co3O4, Mn3O4, among others-is an important ... He, K., Zhang, S., Li, J. et al. Visualizing non-equilibrium lithiation of spinel oxide via in situ transmission electron ...
Inhibition of PDE5 increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) activity, which increases the vasodilatory effects of nitric ... oxide. Sexual stimulation is necessary to activate response. Increased sensitivity for erections may last 36 hours with ...
One group is that of nitric oxide increasing supplements, so-called NO-boosters, which are claimed to improv... ... NO acts as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor with vasodilator properties while elevating intracellular cyclic guanosine ... One group is that of nitric oxide increasing supplements, so-called NO-boosters, which are claimed to improve the supply of ... Bescos R, Sureda A, Tur JA, Pons A. The effect of nitric-oxide-related supplements on human performance. Sports Med. 2012;42(2 ...
... nitric oxide - cyclic guanosine monophosphate - protein kinase G; NOX2, NADPH oxidase 2; PA, palmitic acid; PCr/ATP, ... ROS is also an upstream driver of endothelial dysfunction associated with heart failure, by the increase of nitric oxide ... endothelial nitric oxide synthase; ETC, electron transport chain; HAEC, human aortic endothelial cells; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; ... induced endothelial dysfunction by activating the PI3K/AKT/eNOS signaling pathway and increasing the levels of nitric oxide (NO ...
... smooth muscle cell dysfunction may involve impaired cyclic guanosine monophosphate and hemodynamic response to nitric oxide. [ ... Nitric oxide levels continue to be increased even in the headache-free period in migraineurs. [25] In premenopausal women with ... Increased nitric oxide stress is associated with migraine. Cephalalgia. 2010 Apr. 30(4):486-92. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... 24] Nitric oxide released by microglia is a potentially cytotoxic proinflammatory mediator, initiating and maintaining brain ...
KEYWORDS: BAY 41-2272, cyclic GMP, enteroendocrine cells, Nitric oxide, YC-1. ...
Filters: Keyword is Cyclic N-Oxides [Clear All Filters]. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide as a spin trapping agent.", J Agric Food Chem, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 4906-10, 2005. ...
Here, we synthesized the Fe-doped titanium oxide-based aerogels (TA/Fes) by the sol–gel method combined with thermal ... CV (cyclic voltammetry) was first used to evaluate the ORR catalytic performance of the materials. The titanium oxide-based ... Cyclic voltammetry (CV) test was conducted at a scan rate of 100 mV·s−1 without rotating, and the CV curves were obtained in N2 ... Figure 8. CV curves of the titanium oxide-based aerogel catalysts doped by different Fe sources: (a) N2 test condition, (b) O2 ...
Heterogeneous Catalysis• Homogeneous Catalysis• Green Chemistry: - CO2-fixation into cyclic and polymeric carbonates - ... Sustainable selective oxidations - From biobased molecules to valuable products• Metal oxides• Silsesquioxanes• Silicates• ...
Wang X, Chu S, Qian T, Chen J, Zhang J. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves male copulatory behavior via nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine ... Ginsenosides-induced nitric oxide-mediated relaxation of the rabbit corpus cavernosum. Br J Pharmacol 1995;115:15-8. View ... The relaxation effects of ginseng saponin in rabbit corporal smooth muscle: is it a nitric oxide donor? Br J Urol 1998;82:744-8 ... Bai CX, Takahashi K, Masumiya H, Sawanobori T, Furukawa T. Nitric oxide-dependent modulation of the delayed rectifier K+ ...
... nitric oxide exerts a favorable effect on vascular homeostasis through upregulation of cyclic GMP. ... Enhancing cyclic guanosine monophosphate reduced heart failure hospitalization in patients with worsening disease. An ... Enhancing cyclic guanosine monophosphate reduced heart failure hospitalization in patients with worsening disease ... Vericiguat enhances the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP), which is a pathway that is critical for normal ...
"Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Angiogenesis in Vivo Using Polyvalent Cyclic RGD-Iron Oxide Microparticle Conjugates ... "Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Angiogenesis in Vivo Using Polyvalent Cyclic RGD-Iron Oxide Microparticle Conjugates ... Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of angiogenesis in vivo using polyvalent cyclic RGD-iron oxide microparticle conjugates. , ... Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of angiogenesis in vivo using polyvalent cyclic RGD-iron oxide microparticle conjugates.,/ ...
Mo and Cr were found to improve the thermal stability of iron oxide in the cyclic process.The improved redox stability after ... Subsequently, the partially or fully reduced metal oxide is oxidised with air or steam to re-generate the original metal oxide ... These materials include natural ilmenite (Fe and Ti mixed oxide often denoted as FeTiO3), iron ore, manganese ore and oxide ... Current practices include doping, introducing a diffusional barrier provided by a second oxide, and/or adding a second oxide ...
These comprise immune responses with the formation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines, ... Several groups of compounds (metalloporphyrins, metallocorroles, Mn biliverdins, Mn cyclic polyamines, Mn salens, and metal ... oxides and salts) have been described. Their ability to catalyze the dismutation of O 2 ·- , [ k cat (O 2 ·- )], thermodynamic ...
The process was found to be highly selective and quantitative for the production of the six-membered cyclic carbonate, ... trimethylene oxide) and carbon dioxide catalyzed by VO(acac)2 in the presence of an onium salt was studied. ... trimethylene oxide. were shown to similarly selectively afford the corresponding cyclic carbonates upon reaction with CO2. ... trimethylene oxide. and carbon dioxide. D. J. Darensbourg, A. Horn Jr and A. I. Moncada, Green Chem., 2010, 12, 1376 DOI: ...
Many developing insect neurones pass through a phase when they respond to nitric oxide (NO) by producing cyclic GMP. Studies on ... Cyclic GMP likely constitutes part of a retrograde signalling pathway between a neurone and its synaptic partner. NO ... Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylate cyclase activity is associated with the maturational phase of neuronal development in insects. ... Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylate cyclase activity is associated with the maturational phase of neuronal development in insects ...
Anodized aluminium and aluminium alloys - Accelerated test of weather fastness of coloured anodic oxide coatings using cyclic ... Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys - Assessment of quality of sealed anodic oxide coatings by measurement of the loss of ... Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys - Estimation of loss of absorptive power of anodic oxide coatings after sealing - Dye ... Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys - Assessment of quality of sealed anodic oxide coatings by measurement of admittance or ...
Transpulmonary Difference of Plasma Guanosine-3,5-Cyclic Monophosphate Concentration during the Inhalation of Nitric Oxide, ... NITRIC oxide (NO) is produced in endothelial cells from L-arginine by the enzyme NO synthase. Nitric oxide rapidly diffuses to ... cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). [1-6]Cyclic GMP initiates a cascade of events that lead to smooth muscle relaxation and is rapidly ... NO = nitric oxide; ZAP = zaprinast. n = 8 in groups of NO 5, NO 20, ZAP 10, ZAP 20. n = 6 in groups of ZAP 30, NO5/Zap10, NO20/ ...
Nebivolol inhibits vascular smooth cell proliferation by mechanisms involving nitric oxide but not cyclic GMP. Nitric Oxide 7: ... Nitric Oxide 19:29-35.. Zeng, X.F., F.L. Wang, X. Fan, W.J. Yang, B. Zhou, P.F. Li, Y.L. Yin, G. Wu, and J.J. Wang. 2008. ... Arginine metabolism: nitric oxide and beyond. Biochem. J. 336:1-17.. Wu, G., W.G. Pond, S.P. Flynn, T.L. Ott, and F.W. Bazer. ... Nitric Oxide 19:259-265.. Orellana, R.A., A. Suryawan, S.R. Kimball, G. Wu, H.V. Nguyen, L.S. Jefferson, and T.A. Davis. 2008. ...
Hydrogen Oxidation Artifact During Platinum Oxide Reduction in Cyclic Voltammetry Analysis of Low-Loaded PEMFC Electrodes. ... Impact of cyclic mechanical compression on the electrical contact resistance between the gas diffusion layer and the bipolar ...
... mechanism for sensitization of soluble guanylyl cyclase reveals extensive nitric oxide-mediated upregulation of cyclic GMP in ... Nitric oxide synthase in the thoracic ganglia of the locust: distribution in the neuropiles and morphology of neurones. J. Comp ... London and at the University of Sussex elucidating the functional neuroanatomy of nitric oxide signalling in invertebrates. I ...
  • Do avanafil and zaprinast exert positive effects on bone tissue via the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase-G signaling pathway in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis? (
  • Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5Is) exert positive effects on bone healing and mineralization by activation the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase-G (NO/cGMP/PKG) signaling pathway. (
  • Among multiple effects on muscle physiology, NO acts as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor with vasodilator properties while elevating intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) (levels) in smooth muscle cells (1-3). (
  • Zaprinast, an inhibitor of guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-selective phosphodiesterase, augments smooth muscle relaxation induced by endothelium-dependent vasodilators (including inhaled nitric oxide [NO]). The present study was designed to examine the effects of inhaled nebulized zaprinast, alone, and combined with inhaled NO. (
  • Nitric oxide rapidly diffuses to the subjacent smooth muscle cell, where it activates soluble guanylate cyclase and increases the intracellular concentration of guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). (
  • The erectile process depends on the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine mono-phosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway. (
  • At physiological levels, NO is essential for neuronal function, differentiation and survival through activation of signalling pathways that include the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway [ 4 ] and S-nitrosylation, in which NO reversibly binds to thiol groups of proteins [ 5 ]. (
  • Causes the local tissues to release nitric oxide NO which increases the amount of a chemical called cyclic guanosine monophosphate cGMP. (
  • Strauss and his colleagues postulate that both neurotransmitters together with cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) form the perfect storage media for short-term memories. (
  • Nitric oxide causes the stimulation and synthesis of cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP) enzymes that relax the muscles. (
  • Inhaled nitric oxide increases urinary nitric oxide metabolites and cyclic guanosine monophosphate in premature infants: relationship to pulmonary outcome. (
  • Cialis is an effective, reversible, selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE 5) specific to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). (
  • This leads to the activation of the enzyme guanylate cyclase to convert guanosine triphosphate (GTP) into cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which is mainly responsible for relaxing the smooth muscle cells in the corpus cavernosum that allows increased blood flow into the penis, resulting in an erection. (
  • Phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5) enzyme breaks down or destroys cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). (
  • This was based largely on circumstantial evidence, i.e. prominent staining for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) or soluble guanylyl cyclase, an effector enzyme activated by NO, in local interneurons of the olfactory bulb. (
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a cytokine involved in angiogenesis and is closely related to the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, a target for sildenafil. (
  • Surprisingly, in PMCA4(-/-), over 36% of membrane-associated neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) protein and activity was delocalized to the cytosol with no change in total nNOS protein, resulting in a significant decrease in microdomain cGMP, which in turn led to a significant elevation in local cAMP levels through a decrease in PDE2 activity (measured by FRET-based sensors). (
  • The relative functional importance of potassium channels and cGMP-dependent pathways in the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle to the novel nitric oxide donor, diethylamine NONOate (DEA NONOate), was investigated in a resistance artery. (
  • Zaprinast, an inhibitor of the type 5 class of phosphodiesterases, selectively blocks the hydrolysis of cGMP with minimal effects on the breakdown of adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. (
  • Figure 1: cGMP Standard was diluted in 1X Cell Lysis Buffer #9803 and samples were assayed following the Cyclic GMP XP ® Chemiluminescent Assay Kit protocol. (
  • Figure 2: Treatment of RFL-6 cells with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) increases cGMP concentration as detected by Cyclic GMP XP ® Chemiluminescent Assay Kit #8020. (
  • SNP is a nitric oxide donor that directly activates soluble guanylyl cyclases and increases cellular cGMP concentration. (
  • The nitric oxide stimulates an enzyme that then synthesizes cGMP. (
  • Either the nitric oxide itself or cGMP accumulate in a segment of the doughnut-shaped ellipsoid body that corresponds to the original direction taken by the fly. (
  • When sexual stimulation causes local release of nitric oxide, inhibition of PDE 5 by Cialis leads to increase of cGMP levels in the cavernous body of penis. (
  • If you buy Hard On Jelly this medication inhibits an enzyme called phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) and this causes levels of cyclic guanine mono phosphate (cGMP) to increase. (
  • 2004. Developmental changes in nitric oxide synthesis in the ovine conceptus. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO) may mediate such a transition, because it can suppress DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. (
  • PDE5 enzymes negate the synthesis of nitric oxide which ensures proper erection function. (
  • Topologically interesting cyclic polymers can be prepared by metathesis polymerization, but their precise synthesis has suffered from the catalyst's vulnerability and inseparability. (
  • With the help of customized glassware (a cyclic polymer dispenser), the use of this quarantined catalyst enables a continuous circular process of in situ polymerization, polymer separation, and catalyst recovery, giving a scalable process for the synthesis of cyclic polycyclopentene. (
  • Cyclic polymers are topologically interesting and envisioned as a lubricant material, but methods for the scalable synthesis of pure cyclic polymers are currently elusive. (
  • Ethylene oxide/propylene oxide copolymer is used as a food additive. (
  • According to the latest report by IMARC Group, The global propylene oxide market exhibited moderate growth during 2015-2020. (
  • Propylene oxide (C3H6O), also called epoxypropane, refers to a synthetic cyclic ether usually manufactured by the dehydrochlorination of propylene chlorohydrin or the indirect oxidation of propylene. (
  • The expanding applications of propylene oxide across several end-use industries are primarily driving the propylene oxide market. (
  • Propylene glycol ethers and polyether polyols derived from propylene oxide are often used in the automotive, textile, construction, automotive, and aerospace sectors. (
  • Furthermore, small quantities of propylene oxide can be used for sterilizing medical equipment. (
  • Besides this, significant growth in the food processing sector is propelling the demand for packaged food products, thereby further driving the market for propylene oxide. (
  • Propylene oxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) . (
  • There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of propylene oxide. (
  • DNA adducts of propylene oxide are formed in various organs of mice, rats and dogs. (
  • Occupational exposure occurs during the production of propylene oxide and its derivatives and during production of hydroxypropyl starch ethers. (
  • Especially supplements aimed at increasing the production of nitric oxide (NO) in blood vessels (so called NO-boosters) make up one of the most popular supplement categories in the sport industry today. (
  • These are compounds containing a cyclic ether with three ring atoms (one oxygen. (
  • abstract = "We report the observation and molecular-scale scanning probe electronic structure (dI/dV) mapping of hydrogen-bonded cyclic water clusters nucleated on an oxide surface. (
  • abstract = "Nitric oxide (NO) has been long assumed to play a key role in mammalian olfaction. (
  • Plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA4)-neuronal nitric-oxide synthase complex regulates cardiac contractility through modulation of a compartmentalized cyclic nucleotide microdomain. (
  • Identification of the signaling pathways that regulate cyclic nucleotide microdomains is essential to our understanding of cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. (
  • This has profound consequences for the regulation of local cyclic nucleotide and hence cardiac β-adrenergic signaling. (
  • Now, a scalable process has been developed by leveraging heterogeneity of the catalysts with the help of compartmentalized custom glassware, namely, a cyclic polymer dispenser. (
  • By suppressing the production of nitric oxide, PDE5 affects the proper blood flow by clogging and narrowing the arterial passages that carry blood to the penile. (
  • Effect of Substituents and Conformations on the Optical Rotations of Cyclic Oxides and Related Compounds. (
  • Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen. (
  • UV-vis spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and cyclic voltammetry analyses are used to investigate the UV-induced polymerization of several plant-derived phenolic compounds including pyrogallol, tannic acid, caffeic acid, and gallic acid. (
  • 2004. An evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensitization of soluble guanylyl cyclase reveals extensive nitric oxide-mediated upregulation of cyclic GMP in insect brain. (
  • The effect of the calcination temperatures on the electrochemical properties was studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. (
  • The chemistry driving this chemical looping (CL) process involves the reduction of metal oxides by methane and the oxidation of lower oxidation state metal oxides with steam. (
  • Behrens, M. Dynamics of Reactive Oxygen Species on Cobalt-Containing Spinel Oxides in Cyclic CO Oxidation. (
  • Peng, B. Identification of Active Sites in the Catalytic Oxidation of 2‐Propanol over Co 1+x Fe 2‐x O 4 Spinel Oxides at Solid/Liquid and Solid/Gas Interfaces. (
  • Other derivatives of trimethylene oxide were shown to similarly selectively afford the corresponding cyclic carbonates upon reaction with CO 2 . (
  • Nitrogen and oxygen form an extensive series of oxides with the general formula NxOy. (
  • NO is readily oxidized to the nitrosonium cation (NO + ), which is moderately stable in aqueous solutions but highly reactive with nucleophiles or other nitrogen oxides. (
  • Under aerobic conditions, these reactive nitrogen oxides ( Reactive oxygen species-Table 18.1 ) can be trapped by various amines, in particular by aromatic amines to form diazonium salts or by aromatic 1,2-diamines to form benzotriazoles ( Figure 18.3.3 ). (
  • There are two main sources of nitric oxide: from penile nerve endings (nNO) and from healthy endothelial lining (eNO). (
  • Its inhibition leads to the discharge of a powerful substance known as, Nitric oxide (NO) into the penile tissues. (
  • In the hemodynamic process of penile erection, nitric oxide (NO) is produced and released in the corpus cavernosum of the penis from nerve endings and endothelial cells during sexual stimulation. (
  • [1-6] Cyclic GMP initiates a cascade of events that lead to smooth muscle relaxation and is rapidly hydrolyzed and inactivated within the smooth muscle cell by phosphodiesterases. (
  • Background: Resveratrol increases nitric oxide (NO) production via increased expression and activation of endothelial-form-NO-synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells. (
  • 300mg of Natural Caffeine-Green Coffee Beans (SUSTAINABLE ENERGY) Potent central nervous system stimulant, increases the release of adrenaline and extends the life of cyclic AMP. (
  • NITRIC oxide (NO) is produced in endothelial cells from L-arginine by the enzyme NO synthase. (
  • In this work, a cyclic R10 peptide (cR10) is conjugated to polyglycerol‐covered nanographene oxide to engineer a nanoplatform for the surmounting of multidrug resistance. (
  • Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylate cyclase activity is associated with the maturational phase of neuronal development in insects. (
  • 1998. Nitric oxide synthase in the thoracic ganglia of the locust: distribution in the neuropiles and morphology of neurones. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous messenger molecule synthesized from L-arginine and molecular oxygen by three different NO synthases, that is, neuronal (nNOS), endothelial (eNOS), and inducible (iNOS) form [ 1 ]. (
  • both of which cause stress by decreasing band 3 channel activity with an increase in RBCs adhesion to endothelial cells (EC) by elevating band 3 phosphorylation (Tyr21), methemoglobin level and decreasing nitric oxide level. (
  • Although genetic polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene may impair endogenous NO formation, there is little information about how eNOS polymorphisms and haplotypes affect the responses to sildenafil. (
  • As a result, levels of the naturally occurring chemical in the body called nitric oxide increase and this causes blood vessels to relax and dilate. (
  • PO binding in mouse liver DNA was about one-twentieth that of ethylene oxide (EO). (
  • The lithiation of spinel iron oxide was investigated by Thackeray et al . (
  • Tüysüz, H. Phase Segregation in Cobalt Iron Oxide Nanowires toward Enhanced Oxygen Evolution Reaction Activity. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that vivianite authigenesis is pervasive in the iron-oxide-rich sediments below the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ). (
  • Tüysüz, H. Surface Boron Modulation on Cobalt Oxide Nanocrystals for Electrochemical Oxygen Evolution Reaction. (
  • Although there is growing evidence that the plasma membrane Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent ATPase 4 (PMCA4) is a regulator of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, the physiological consequence of this regulation is unclear. (
  • 2001), Nitric oxide is an essential negative regulator. (
  • Nitric oxide is an essential negative regulator of cell proliferation in Xenopus brain . (
  • These characteristics result in much enhanced performance for in situ nitric oxide detection. (
  • We therefore tested the hypothesis that PMCA4 has a key structural role in tethering neuronal nitric-oxide synthase to a highly compartmentalized domain in the cardiac cell membrane. (
  • 2009. Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen: V. Nitric oxide synthase, GTP cyclohydrolase and ornithine decarboxylase in ovine uteri and peri-implantation conceptuses. (
  • Nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity has been found in the CB and in the petrosal ganglion. (
  • Genetic variation in nitric oxide synthase 2A (NOS2A) and risk for multiple sclerosis. (
  • The coupling of oxetane ( trimethylene oxide ) and carbon dioxide catalyzed by VO(acac) 2 in the presence of an onium salt was studied. (
  • The measurements are made on a new type of cyclic water cluster that is characterized by simultaneous and cooperative bonding interactions among molecules as well as with both metal and oxygen sites of an oxide surface. (
  • One group is that of nitric oxide increasing supplements, so-called 'NO-boosters', which are claimed to improve the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the muscle by enhancing vasodilation. (
  • This process utilises oxygen from oxide materials that are able to transfer oxygen and eliminates the need of purified oxygen for combustion. (
  • Tüysüz, H. Cobalt Oxide Nanowires with Controllable Diameters and Crystal Structures for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction. (
  • Tüysüz, H. Principles of Water Electrolysis and Recent Progress of Cobalt, Nickel, and Iron-based Oxides for Oxygen Evolution Reaction. (
  • Tüysüz, H. Impact of Single-Pulse, Low-Intensity Laser Post-Processing on Structure and Activity of Mesostructured Cobalt Oxide for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction. (
  • However, it has not been reported whether resveratrol has effects on cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase G, PKG), a biologically- and clinically-important serine/threonine-kinase mediating many physiological and pharmacological effects of nitric oxide (NO), an important pro-angiogenic factor, or on downstream proteins regulated by PKG. (
  • M7891 , M7926 ) spontaneously release NO (and superoxide in the case of SIN-1) under physiological conditions ( Figure 18.3.2 ), thereby stimulating cyclic GMP production. (
  • They have identified two gaseous messenger substances that play an important role in signal transmission in the nerve cells, i.e., nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide. (
  • The response to field stimulation in the presence of alpha-chymotrypsin (the putative nitric oxide component), at all the frequencies tested, was potentiated significantly by the PDE IV inhibitors rolipram (1 and 10 microM) and denbufylline (3 and 10 microM) as were responses to SIN-1. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as an inhibitory modulator of carotid body chemosensory responses to hypoxia. (
  • The effect of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) isozyme selective inhibitors siguazodan (PDE III-selective), rolipram (PDE IV-selective), denbufylline (PDE IV-selective) and zaprinast (PDE V-selective) was examined on the relaxant responses to field stimulation and on relaxations elicited by the nitric oxide donor 3-morpholinosydnonimine-N-ethylcarbamide (SIN-1). (
  • Measurement of metal and oxide coating thickness by microscopical examination of a cross-section. (
  • Spinel transition metal oxides are important electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries, whose lithiation undergoes a two-step reaction, whereby intercalation and conversion occur in a sequential manner. (
  • The process was found to be highly selective and quantitative for the production of the six-membered cyclic carbonate , trimethylene carbonate, under very mild reaction conditions of 60 °C and 1.7 MPa. (
  • The small ring organophosphorus-based catalyst (1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane P-oxide) together with phenylsilane as mild terminal reductant mediate the selective installation of the methylamino group. (
  • Involvement of cyclic GMP and potassium channels in relaxation evoked by the nitric oxide donor, diethylamine NONOate, in the rat small isolated mesenteric artery. (
  • Density functional theory + U + D calculations confirm the stability of these clusters and are used to discuss other potential water-oxide bonding scenarios. (
  • A wide range of functionalized (hetero)aryl chlorides reacted with various primary and cyclic secondary amines to afford the desired products in good to excellent yields. (
  • These results suggest that the nitric oxide component of the nonadrenergic, noncholinergic relaxant response is mediated primarily via cyclic AMP whose action is inactivated by a PDE IV isozyme and also by cyclic GMP which is inactivated by a PDE V isozyme. (
  • We hypothesized that nitric oxide (NO), a prominent determinant for RBC structural stability, would protect RBCs from stressors. (
  • It was already known that, for the purposes of memory formation, nitric oxide (NO) is essential for the feedback of information between two nerve cells. (