Inosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). An inosine nucleotide which acts as a mild inhibitor of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP and as an inhibitor of cat heart cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)
A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS that plays a role in the inhibition of endothelial cell growth and PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.
An infraorder of PRIMATES comprised of the families CERCOPITHECIDAE (old world monkeys); HYLOBATIDAE (siamangs and GIBBONS); and HOMINIDAE (great apes and HUMANS). With the exception of humans, they all live exclusively in Africa and Asia.
A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; and B CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
An order of the class MAMMALS that consists of one family, TUPAIIDAE (tree shrews), 5 genera (one of which is TUPAIA), and 16 species. Their recent distribution is from India to the Philippines, southern China to Java, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali, and other islands in those regions.
A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on activated LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
Pain in the breast generally classified as cyclical (associated with menstrual periods), or noncyclical, i.e. originating from the breast or nearby muscles or joints, ranging from minor discomfort to severely incapacitating.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Visits to the patient's home by professional personnel for the purpose of diagnosis and/or treatment.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.
A phosphodiesterase that specifically cleaves the 3'-phosphate linkage of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. It is found at high level in the cytoplasm of cells that form the MYELIN SHEATH.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.
An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the etiologic agent of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER. Its cells are slightly smaller and more uniform in size than those of RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII.
An acute febrile illness caused by RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII. It is transmitted to humans by bites of infected ticks and occurs only in North and South America. Characteristics include a sudden onset with headache and chills and fever lasting about two to three weeks. A cutaneous rash commonly appears on the extremities and trunk about the fourth day of illness.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by renal electrolyte transport dysfunctions. Congenital forms are rare autosomal disorders characterized by neonatal hypertension, HYPERKALEMIA, increased RENIN activity and ALDOSTERONE concentration. The Type I features HYPERKALEMIA with sodium wasting; Type II, HYPERKALEMIA without sodium wasting. Pseudohypoaldosteronism can be the result of a defective renal electrolyte transport protein or acquired after KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Presence of small calculi in the terminal salivary ducts (salivary sand), or stones (larger calculi) found in the larger ducts.
Short-term debt obligations and assets occurring in the regular course of operational transactions.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).
Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.
Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.

Mechanism of allosteric modulation of rod cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. (1/24)

The cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel of retinal rod photoreceptor cells is an allosteric protein whose activation is coupled to a conformational change in the ligand-binding site. The bovine rod CNG channel can be activated by a number of different agonists, including cGMP, cIMP, and cAMP. These agonists span three orders of magnitude in their equilibrium constants for the allosteric transition. We recorded single-channel currents at saturating cyclic nucleotide concentrations from the bovine rod CNG channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes as homomultimers of alpha subunits. The median open probability was 0.93 for cGMP, 0.47 for cIMP, and 0.01 for cAMP. The channels opened to a single conductance level of 26-30 pS at +80 mV. Using signal processing methods based on hidden Markov models, we determined that two closed and one open states are required to explain the gating at saturating ligand concentrations. We determined the maximum likelihood rate constants for two gating schemes containing two closed (denoted C) and one open (denoted O) states. For the C left and right arrow C left and right arrow O scheme, all rate constants were dependent on cyclic nucleotide. For the C left and right arrow O left and right arrow C scheme, the rate constants for only one of the transitions were cyclic nucleotide dependent. The opening rate constant was fastest for cGMP, intermediate for cIMP, and slowest for cAMP, while the closing rate constant was fastest for cAMP, intermediate for cIMP, and slowest for cGMP. We propose that interactions between the purine ring of the cyclic nucleotide and the binding domain are partially formed at the time of the transition state for the allosteric transition and serve to reduce the transition state energy and stabilize the activated conformation of the channel. When 1 microM Ni2+ was applied in addition to cyclic nucleotide, the open time increased markedly, and the closed time decreased slightly. The interactions between H420 and Ni2+ occur primarily after the transition state for the allosteric transition.  (+info)

Sequence of events underlying the allosteric transition of rod cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. (2/24)

Activation of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels involves a conformational change in the channel protein referred to as the allosteric transition. The amino terminal region and the carboxyl terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of CNG channels have been shown to be involved in the allosteric transition, but the sequence of molecular events occurring during the allosteric transition is unknown. We recorded single-channel currents from bovine rod CNG channels in which mutations had been introduced in the binding domain at position 604 and/or the rat olfactory CNG channel amino terminal region had been substituted for the bovine rod amino terminal region. Using a hidden Markov modeling approach, we analyzed the kinetics of these channels activated by saturating concentrations of cGMP, cIMP, and cAMP. We used thermodynamic mutant cycles to reveal an interaction during the allosteric transition between the purine ring of the cyclic nucleotides and the amino acid at position 604 in the binding site. We found that mutations at position 604 in the binding domain alter both the opening and closing rate constants for the allosteric transition, indicating that the interactions between the cyclic nucleotide and this amino acid are partially formed at the time of the transition state. In contrast, the amino terminal region affects primarily the closing rate constant for the allosteric transition, suggesting that the state-dependent stabilizing interactions between amino and carboxyl terminal regions are not formed at the time of the transition state for the allosteric transition. We propose that the sequence of events that occurs during the allosteric transition involves the formation of stabilizing interactions between the purine ring of the cyclic nucleotide and the amino acid at position 604 in the binding domain followed by the formation of stabilizing interdomain interactions.  (+info)

Do phosphatidylinositides modulate vertebrate phototransduction? (3/24)

Mammalian rod cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channels (i.e., alpha plus beta subunits) are strongly inhibited by phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) when they are expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied in giant membrane patches. Cytoplasmic Mg-ATP inhibits CNG currents similarly, and monoclonal antibodies to PIP(2) reverse the effect and hyperactivate currents. When alpha subunits are expressed alone, PIP(2) inhibition is less strong; olfactory CNG channels are not inhibited. In giant patches from rod outer segments, inhibition by PIP(2) is intermediate. Other anionic lipids (e.g., phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidic acid), a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, and full-length diacylglycerol have stimulatory effects. Although ATP also potently inhibits cGMP-activated currents in rod patches, the following findings indicate that ATP is used to transphosphorylate GMP, generated from cGMP, to GTP. First, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, Zaprinast, blocks inhibition by ATP. Second, inhibition can be rapidly reversed by exogenous regulator of G-protein signaling 9, suggesting G-protein activation by ATP. Third, the reversal of ATP effects is greatly slowed when cyclic inosine 5'-monophosphate is used to activate currents, as expected for slow inosine 5' triphosphate hydrolysis by G-proteins. Still, other results remain suggestive of regulatory roles for PIP(2). First, the cGMP concentration producing half-maximal CNG channel activity (K(1/2)) is decreased by PIP(2) antibody in the presence of PDE inhibitors. Second, the activation of PDE activity by several nucleotides, monitored electrophysiologically and biochemically, is reversed by PIP(2) antibody. Third, exogenous PIP(2) can enhance PDE activation by nucleotides.  (+info)

Transient repression of catabolite-sensitive enzyme synthesis elicited by 2,4-dinitrophenol. (4/24)

Transient inhibition of catabolic enzyme synthesis in Escherichia coli occurred when a low concentration of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) was simultaneously added with inducer. Using mutant strains defective for gamma-gene product or constitutive for lac enzymes, it was found that the inhibition is not due to the exclusion of inducer by uncoupling. The addition of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate overcame repression. The components of the lac operon coordinately responded to DNP inhibition. From deoxyribonucleic acid-ribonucleic acid hybridization experiments, it was found that the inhibition of beta-galactosidase induction occurred at the level of messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis specific for the lac operon. It seems probable that DNP represses induction in a similar manner to that of transient repression observed upon the addition of glucose. Furthermore, it was found that transient repression disappeared if cells were preincubated with DNP before induction. This indicates that new contact of cells with DNP is obligatory for transient repression. From these results, it is suggested that the cell membrane may be responsible for regulation of catabolite-sensitive enzyme synthesis.  (+info)

Comparison of the effects of 6- thio- and 6-methylthiopurine ribonucleoside cyclic monophosphates withtheir corresponding nucleosides on the growth of rat hepatoma cells. (5/24)

The cyclic nucleotide forms of 6-mercaptopurine and 6-methylmercaptopurine have been found to be cytotoxic to rat hepatoma cells. Studies with an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase suggest that the cytotoxicity of both cyclic nucleotides results principally from conversion to the 5'-nucleotide. A comparison of the two thiopurine cyclic nucleotides with their nucleoside counterparts has suggested that (a) the thio derivatives act by a common mechanism which is different from that exerted by the methylthio derivatives, and (b) the methylthio cyclic nucleotide acts, at least in part, by a mechanism which differs from that exerted by the methylthio nucleoside.  (+info)

Substrate and effector specificity of a guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase from rat liver. (6/24)

Guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterases, which appear to be under allosteric control, have been partially purified from rat liver supernatant and particulate fractions. The preferred substrate for both phosphodiesterases was cGMP (Km values: cGMP less than cIMP less than cAMP). At subsaturating concentrations of substrate, the phosphodiesterases were stimulated by purine cyclic nucleotides. The order of effectiveness for activation of cyclic nucleotide hydrolysis was cGMP greater than cIMP greater than cAMP greater than cXMP. Using cAMP derivatives as activators of cIMP hydrolysis, modifications in the ribose, cyclic phosphate, and purine moieties were shown to alter the ability of the cyclic nucleotide to activate the supernatant enzyme. cGMP, at concentrations that stimulated cyclic nucleotide hydrolysis, enhanced chymotryptic inactivation of the supernatant phosphodiesterase. At similar concentrations, cAMP was not effective. It appears that on interaction with appropriate cyclic nucleotides, this phosphodiesterase undergoes conformational changes that are associated with increased catalytic activity and enhanced susceptibility to proteolytic attack. Divalent cation may not be required for the nucleotide-phosphodiesterase interaction and resultant change in conformation.  (+info)

3':5'-cyclic AMP-dependent 3':5'-cyclic GMP accumulation in Dictyostelium discoideum. (7/24)

Suspensions of 3':5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP)-sensitive cells of Dictyostelium discoideum responded to a cAMP pulse with increased 3':5'-cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels. Under the assay conditions used (2 x 10(8) cells per ml in 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.0) cAMP (5 x 10(-8) M final concentration) increased cGMP levels from 1 pmol per 10(7) cells to 7 pmol per 10(7) cells in 10 sec and basal levels were recovered in 20-25 sec. cGMP accumulation did not occur when cells were in the cAMP-insensitive stage. cAMP-sensitive cells responded with increased cGMP levels when triggered by 5 x 10(-8) M 5'-CH(2)-cAMP or 10(-5) M adenosine-5'-methylmonophosphate (5'-AMPMe) but not after addition of 5 x 10(-8) M 3':5'-cyclic IMP (cIMP) or 5 x 10(-8) M 5'-AMP. As agonists of cAMP, 5'-CH(2)-cAMP and 5'-AMPMe have, respectively, more than 10% and 1% the chemotactic activity of cAMP, while cIMP has 0.01% the activity of cAMP and 5'-AMP is inactive up to a concentration of 10(-3) M. cAMP-mediated cGMP formation was dependent upon cAMP concentration, with a half-maximal cAMP concentration of about 10(-8) M. This cAMP concentration agrees closely with that necessary for half-maximal receptor occupation. cAMP-mediated cGMP formation was independent of the presence of extracellular Ca(2+); cell aggregation and chemotaxis were also independent of the presence of external Ca(2+). Therefore, cAMP action does not depend on stimulation of the Ca(2+) influx. cAMP was found to mediate desensitization of cAMP-dependent cGMP formation. Addition of 5 x 10(-8) M cAMP to sensitive cells induced a desensitization period that lasted 1-5 min. Desensitization was dependent on the cAMP concentration. Finally, we propose that the translation of a chemotactic signal from the cell surface to pseudopod formation in Dictyostelium involves changes in the levels of cGMP.  (+info)

Determination of the syn-anti equilibrium of some purine 3':5'-nucleotides by nuclear-magnetic-relaxation perturbation in the presence of a lanthanide-ion probe. (8/24)

The aqueous solution conformation of four purine 3':5'-nucleotides varying in their substituents at C-6 and C-8 has been studied using gadolinium(III) to perturb the proton relaxation times. The ribose conformations are inferred. All the nucleotides are best described as being in a dynamic equilibrium between syn and anti conformations and the position of this equilibrium is not dramatically affected by changing the substituent at C-6. These nucleotides in their neutral base form slightly favour an anti conformation. In the presence of a bulky methylthio group at C-8 the equilibrium is shifted towards a dominance from the syn conformation due to steric repulsion factors.  (+info)

Alders R G, Spradbrow P B and Young M P 2009 Village chickens, poverty alleviation and the sustainable control of Newcastle disease. In: Proceedings of an International Conference held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 5-7 October 2005. ACIAR Proceedings No. 131, pp 235.. Anjum M S and Khan S H 2008 Effect of different energy protein ratio on the performance of Desi native chickens during growing phase. Asian Journal of Poultry Science 2(1):42-47.. Bett, H K, Bett R C, Peters K J, Kahi A K and Bokelmann W 2012 Linking Utilisation and Conservation of Indigenous Chicken Genetic Resources to Value Chains. Journal of Animal Production Advances 2(1):33-51.. Bhuiyan, A K F H, Bhuiyan M S A and Deb G K 2005 . Indigenous chicken genetic resources in Bangladesh: current status and future outlook. Animal Genetic Resources 36,73-84.. Biswas P K, Uddin G M N, Barua H, Roy K, Biswas D, Ahad A and Debnath N C 2008 Survivability and causes of loss of broody-hen chicks on smallholder households in Bangladesh. ...
Introduction. There is inconsistent information about the optimal dietary energy requirements for indigenous chickens. Tadelle & Ogle (2000) reported that energy requirement of indigenous chickens as determined from the chemical analysis of the crop contents is 11.99 MJ ME/kg. The NRC (1994), however, recommended that the required energy in growing indigenous chicken diets should be 12.14 MJ ME/kg. Furthermore, Payne (1990) recommended 11.46 MJ ME/kg DM feed for one to six weeks of growth and 10.86 MJ ME/kg feed during the 6 to 12 weeks of the growing period. Mbajiorgu (2010) reported that a diet containing a crude protein content level of 178 g per kg DM and energy level of 14 MJ ME per kg DM allowed for optimal utilization of absorbed protein and energy for growth of Venda chickens between one and six weeks old. Thus, because information on dietary energy requirements for indigenous chickens is limiting and not conclusive, the objective of this study was to determine dietary energy levels for ...
Five microsatellite markers with high polymorphism were selected to test the genetic diversity of seven chicken breeds,five of which were Shandong indigenous ones,Rizhao Pockmarked,Shouguang,Luxi Fighting,Jining Hundred,Laiwu Black,and one was foreign chicken--Anoka Yellow,and another one was Guangxi indigenous chicken--Guangxi Yellow.40 alleles were found,and alleles frequencies and variation within breed were analyzed.Neis standard genetic distance (D_S,1972)and D_A genetic distance(Nei,et al,1983)among breeds were calculated.NJ tree and UPGMA tree were constructed using D_S and D_A.The result showed that D_A--UPGMA tree was more robust with higher bootstrap values.
Management of breeding cocks Introduce one new cock for every 10 hens every two years, in order to avoid inbreeding. Improved indigenous chickens for improving
OverviewOver the past few years, the demand by consumers for poultry meat in Myanmar has increased dramatically. Rises in urbanization, incomes and population size are significant factors in this trend. However, the supply of indigenous chickens is often inadequate to meet consumer demand due to reliance on normal village extensive production methods, i.e. natural mating with
2017 Abolnik et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.. Metadata checked and updated. PDF uploaded. Article type changed to Short Note. Evidence of peer review saved. Funders added. Made live. KP 20.9.17 ...
A Village-based Advisor in Singida district in Tanzania shows the range of inputs that he is promoting to improve the food security of farmers in his Village.. Inputs include improved varieties of sorghum (Macia), cowpeas (Tumaini), pearl millet (Okoa), sunflower (Record), Sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and a thermo-stable Newcastle disease vaccine to protect indigenous chickens against the Newcastle disease.. The Farming System Improvement component inherently recognizes differences in gender and wealth, and that not all resource-poor farmers are initially able to adopt expensive inputs. For example, while a farmer may not initially be able to afford expensive seed and fertilizer to grow maize, she may be able to vaccinate her chickens. After selling her chickens, she may be able to buy the seed and/or fertilizer.. ...
Dingaan Ndlovu GOATS are regarded as highly adaptable to arid conditions and are now widely promoted as one of the means of adapting to the increasing droughts due to climate change. In addition, they are together with indigenous chickens being promoted as a way of improving livelihoods of resource poor smallholder farmers. Goat production is […]
MTILENI, B.J. et al. A comparison of genetic diversity between South African conserved and field chicken populations using microsatellite markers. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2010, vol.40, n.5, pp.462-466. ISSN 2221-4062.. The objective of the study was to determine genetic diversity within South African indigenous chicken populations and the effectiveness of the current conservation flocks in capturing the available diversity in the founder populations. Two chicken populations, Venda (VD_C) and Ovambo (OV_C) conservation flocks (n = 56) from the Animal Production Institute in Irene and two founder population from which these conservation flocks were sampled; Venda (VD_F) and Ovambo (OV_F) field populations (n = 72) were genotyped for 29 autosomal microsatellite markers. All microsatellites typed were found to be polymorphic. A total of 213 alleles were observed for all four populations. The mean number of alleles per population ranged from 3.52 ± 1.09 (VD_C) to 6.62 ± 3.38 (OV_F). Mean ...
Lancet, D; Licht, A; Schechter, I; and Pecht, I, Hapten-induced allosteric transition in the light chain dimer of an immunoglobulin. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 708 ...
Power is supplied by two G8-2-20 rotor tip jets that run on propane, consuming 12 U.S. gallons (45 L; 10.0 imp gal) per hour ... Controls consist only of cyclic, rudder and throttle. Data from Cliche, Vortech and KitPlanes General characteristics Crew: one ... 8.3 imp gal) of propane Powerplant: 2 × G8-2-20 rotor tip-mounted jet engines, 47 lb (21 kg) of thrust Main rotor diameter: 25 ...
Its two-bladed rotor has a diameter of 5.5 m (18.0 ft) and a chord of 17 cm (6.7 in). The cyclic control is routed via the ... 4.2 imp gal; 5.0 US gal) the payload for the pilot and baggage is 111 kg (245 lb). Reviewer Werner Pfaendler describes the ... 4.2 imp gal; 5.0 US gal) Powerplant: 1 × Zanzottera MZ 202 twin cylinder, air-cooled, two-stroke aircraft engine, 48 kW (64 hp ...
Integrated Master Plan (IMP) is an event-based, top level plan, consisting of a hierarchy of Program Events. ISO 10006 is a ... It starts with an initial planning and ends with deployment with the cyclic interaction in between Kickoff meeting is the first ... Iterative and Incremental development is a cyclic software development process developed in response to the weaknesses of the ...
The ring-mounted tail rotor has a 2.60 ft (0.8 m) diameter and a chord of 2 in (5.1 cm). The cyclic control is mounted from the ... 8.3 imp gal) the payload is 290 lb (132 kg). The manufacturer estimated the construction time from the supplied kit as 60 hours ... 8.3 imp gal) Powerplant: 1 × Hirth 2706 twin cylinder, air-cooled, four stroke aircraft engine, 65 hp (48 kW) Main rotor ...
IMP + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 5'-AMP and H2O, whereas its two products are 5'-IMP and NH3. This enzyme ... belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in cyclic ...
... cyclic cmp MeSH D13.695.462.275 - cyclic gmp MeSH D13.695.462.275.325 - dibutyryl cyclic gmp MeSH D13.695.462.300 - cyclic imp ... cyclic imp MeSH D13.695.667.616.400 - inosine diphosphate MeSH D13.695.667.616.500 - inosine monophosphate MeSH D13.695.667.616 ... cyclic imp MeSH D13.695.827.519.400 - inosine diphosphate MeSH D13.695.827.519.500 - inosine monophosphate MeSH D13.695.827.519 ... cyclic gmp MeSH D13.695.827.426.160.325 - dibutyryl cyclic gmp MeSH D13.695.827.426.340 - guanosine diphosphate MeSH D13.695. ...
The dual controls include cyclic controls mounted from the cockpit ceiling, but are otherwise conventional. The tail rotor is ... 13 imp gal) the payload for crew and baggage is 494 lb (224 kg). The manufacturer estimated the construction time from the ... 13 imp gal) Powerplant: 1 × Hirth F-30 three cylinder, horizontally opposed, air-cooled, four stroke aircraft engine, 95 hp (71 ...
JH (1985). "3',5'-Cyclic UMP, -cyclic IMP, -cyclic TMP and related enzymes in mammalian-tissues". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 13: 1134 ... cyclic CMP + diphosphate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, CTP, and two products, 3',5'-cyclic CMP and diphosphate. This ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is CTP diphosphate-lyase (cyclizing; 3',5'-cyclic-CMP-forming). Other names in common ... cyclic CMP) formation by homogenates of mouse liver". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 80 (1): 119-25. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(78) ...
... specifically in cyclic amidines. The systematic name of this enzyme class is IMP 1,2-hydrolase (decyclizing). Other names in ... In enzymology, an IMP cyclohydrolase (EC 3.5.4.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction IMP + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle ... A deep pocket was in fact found on the surface of IMP cyclohydrolase in a position equivalent to that of active sites of NTN- ... Graupner M, Xu H, White RH (March 2002). "New class of IMP cyclohydrolases in Methanococcus jannaschii". J. Bacteriol. 184 (5 ...
Some examples of nucleoside 3',5'-cyclic phosphate include: 3',5'-cyclic AMP 3',5'-cyclic dAMP 3',5'-cyclic IMP 3',5'-cyclic ... cyclic CMP), cyclic 3',5-nucleotide monophosphate phosphodiesterase, nucleoside 3',5'-cyclic phosphate diesterase, nucleoside-3 ... cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase, cyclic 3',5'-phosphodiesterase, 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase, 3':5'-cyclic ... The systematic for this enzyme is 3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide 5'-nucleotidohydrolase. Other names in use include cyclic 3',5'- ...
Imp. Akad. Nauk. St. Petersburg. 30: 1-59. Starke, Gerhard (July 1992). "Near-circularity for the rational Zolotarev problem in ... Penzl, Thilo (January 1999). "A Cyclic Low-Rank Smith Method for Large Sparse Lyapunov Equations". SIAM Journal on Scientific ... and cyclic methods, where the same small collection of shift parameters are reused until a convergence tolerance is met. When ...
Failure of the welded bracket caused the loss of input control authority from the cyclic control to the main rotor." Data from ... 27 imp gal) the aircraft has a payload for crew and baggage of 688 lb (312 kg). The cabin width is 58 in (147 cm). The Chief ... Examination of the helicopter revealed that a welded joint failed at a cyclic control cable bracket on the main rotor mast. ... 27 imp gal) Powerplant: 1 × Chevrolet V-8, liquid-cooled, four-stroke, Chevrolet automotive racing powerplant, 306 hp (228 kW) ...
Imp. Univ. Tokyo. Sect. I., 4: 171-199, MR 0005721 Kearnes, Keith; Kiss, Emil W. (2013). The Shape of Congruence Lattices. ... If additionally the lattice satisfies the ascending chain condition, then the group is cyclic. The groups whose lattice of ... and the other two non-identity elements both generate the same cyclic subgroup of order four. In addition, there are two ... a group is locally cyclic if and only if its lattice of subgroups is distributive. ...
The cyclic control is roof-mounted, hanging down into the cockpit, but is otherwise conventional. The 23 in (58.4 cm) diameter ... 4.2 imp gal) Powerplant: 1 × Hirth 2703 twin cylinder, air-cooled, two-stroke dual-ignition aircraft engine, 55 hp (41 kW) Main ...
IMP dehydrogenase catalyses the conversion of IMP to XMP and GMP synthetase catalyses the conversion of XMP to GMP. The operon ... "Downregulation of the Escherichia coli guaB promoter by upstream-bound cyclic AMP receptor protein". Journal of Bacteriology. ... IMP or inosinate). It consists of two structural genes guaB (encodes for IMP dehydrogenase or and guaA (encodes for GMP ... The branch point at IMP mentioned above is tightly controlled rigid node so as to have a balanced production of AMP and GMP. ...
This suggests that TAS1R1 and TAS1R2 are G protein-coupled receptors that inhibit adenylyl cyclases to decrease cyclic ... IMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP). These taste-enhancer molecules are unable to activate the receptor alone, but are ...
IMP dehydrogenase 2 is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo guanine nucleotide biosynthesis. It is thus involved in ... 2009). "IMPDH2 genetic polymorphism: a promoter single-nucleotide polymorphism disrupts a cyclic adenosine monophosphate ... "Entrez Gene: IMP (inosine monophosphate) dehydrogenase 2". Natsumeda Y, Ohno S, Kawasaki H, Konno Y, Weber G, Suzuki K (March ... Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2, also known as IMP dehydrogenase 2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ...
During 2009-2010 it used the power of a local IMP Desktop Grid (DG), but from December 2010 it has been using the power of ... In January 2011, further scientific results for experiments on cyclic constrained tension of aluminum foils under video ... [email protected] is based at the G. V. Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics (IMP) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine ( ... It is now operated by a group of scientists from IMP NASU in close cooperation with partners from IDGF and the 'Ukraine' ...
Imp. Univ. Tokyo. Sect. I., 4: 171-199, MR 0005721 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Iwasawa, Kenkichi (1943), "On the ... or G contains an abelian normal subgroup N such that the quotient group G/N is a cyclic group and if q denotes a generator of G ...
Imp. Acad. Tokyo 19 (1943), 269-271. Andrzej Granas, James Dugundji, p. 108. Luc Illusie, Contractibilité du groupe linéaire ... such as the cyclic group with two elements and the circle group. The unitary group U in Bott's sense has a classifying space BU ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.36: now with EC 3.1.4.43 EC 3.1.4.37: 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1 ... IMP cyclohydrolase EC 3.5.4.11: pterin deaminase EC 3.5.4.12: dCMP deaminase EC 3.5.4.13: dCTP deaminase EC 3.5.4.14: ... cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.17: 3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.18: now EC 3.1.16.1 EC ... cyclic-guanylate-specific phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.53: 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.54: N- ...
50 imp gal (227.3 l; 60.0 US gal) fuel, 7 imp gal (31.8 l; 8.4 US gal) oil Powerplant: 1 × Alvis Leonides 522/2 9-cyl. air- ... It had a two-blade rotor manually controlled with cyclic and collective pitch mechanisms that acted directly on each rotor ...
These cars included the BMW 1602/2002, NSU Prinz, Hillman Imp, Fiat 1300/1500, Volkswagen Type 34 Karmann Ghia and the Mazda ... to demonstrate the use of a new plastic for the structural parts of the automobile-Cyclic ABS. This lightweight (1,400 lb) ...
AMP can also exist as a cyclic structure known as cyclic AMP (or cAMP). Within certain cells the enzyme adenylate cyclase makes ... AMP can be converted into IMP by the enzyme myoadenylate deaminase, freeing an ammonia group. In a catabolic pathway, adenosine ...
... imp) and achieved an urban range of 26 to 33 mpg‑US (9.0-7.1 L/100 km; 31-40 mpg‑imp) with no change in vehicle gross weight. ... A Stirling engine is a heat engine operating by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas, the "working fluid", at ... A Stirling engine is a mechanical device which operates on a *closed* regenerative thermodynamic cycle, with cyclic compression ... imp). A 1980 4-door liftback VAM Lerma was also converted to United Stirling P-40 power to demonstrate the Stirling engine to ...
The HCN channels were such a proposal; as they are cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. The two ion channels now suggested to ... IMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP) molecules. TAS1R1+3 expressing cells are found mostly in the fungiform papillae at the ... This G protein subunit activates a taste phosphodiesterase and decreases cyclic nucleotide levels. Further steps in the ... cyclic-AMP, and nitric oxide signaling". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 293 (25): 9824-9840. doi:10.1074/jbc.RA117.001005. ...
... "imp", or dwarf people, and was named for its similar role to the original ARPANET Interface Message Processor (IMP) which was ... Additional basic functions performed by the TCU's and PCU's were generation of a cyclic-parity-check code vector and decoding ...
The control column alters cyclic pitch via a pair of swashplates and pedals make torque corrections and control yaw by changing ... 26.4 imp gal; 31.7 US gal) Powerplant: 1 × Potez 9E-00 fan cooled 9-cylinder radial, 180 kW (240 hp) Main rotor diameter: 2× ... one-piece tailplane which corrected the cyclic pitch via the control column to prevent once per revolution pitch oscillations. ...
A million grains of table salt or granulated sugar occupies about 64 mL (2.3 imp fl oz; 2.2 US fl oz), the volume of a cube one ... first cyclic number in base 6 5,555,555 - repdigit 5,702,887 - Fibonacci number 5,764,801 - 78 5,882,353 - 5882 + 23532 ...
... closure of the second ring structure is carried out by IMP synthase to form IMP, where IMP fate would lead to the formation of ... Ribonucleotides can be converted to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) to regulate hormones in organisms as well. In ... Other variations include adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). ... IMP). Essentially, IMP is converted into the purine nucleotides required for nucleic acid synthesis. The pathway begins with ...
3,5-cyclic IMP (CHEBI:27541) is a 3,5-cyclic purine nucleotide (CHEBI:19834) 3,5-cyclic IMP (CHEBI:27541) is a nucleoside ... 3,5-cyclic IMP (CHEBI:27541) has role Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite (CHEBI:75772) 3,5-cyclic IMP (CHEBI:27541) has ... 3,5-cyclic IMP (CHEBI:27541) is conjugate acid of 3,5-cyclic IMP(1−) (CHEBI:134197) ... 3,5-cyclic IMP(1−) (CHEBI:134197) is conjugate base of 3,5-cyclic IMP (CHEBI:27541). ...
cyclic IMP. DETA. diethylenetriamine. 8-Br-cGMP. 8-bromo-cGMP. eNOS. endothelial NO synthase. HA-1077. 1-(5- ... which produces cyclic IMP (cIMP) rather than its canonical product, cGMP, leading to a pronounced vasoconstriction (Chen et al ... and cyclic IMP (cIMP) caused similar restorations. By contrast, in ODQ-treated preparations, the cell-permeable cGMP analog did ... Cyclic nucleotides were separated using an ACQUITY UPLC system (Waters, Milford, MA) equipped with a binary pump, a degasser, ...
IMP Inferred from Mutant Phenotype. more info. PubMed enables metal ion binding IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation. more ... RTCB RNA 2,3-cyclic phosphate and 5-OH ligase [Homo sapiens] RTCB RNA 2,3-cyclic phosphate and 5-OH ligase [Homo sapiens] ... RNA 2,3-cyclic phosphate and 5-OH ligaseprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:26935 See related. Ensembl: ... involved_in tRNA exon ligation utilizing 2,3 cyclic phosphate of 5-exon as source of linkage phosphate IBA Inferred from ...
Cyclic Imp. Inosine cyclic 3,5-(hydrogen phosphate). An inosine nucleotide which acts as a mild inhibitor of the hydrolysis ... A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in ... Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP ... Cyclic Amp Receptor Protein. A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at ...
GO annotations related to this gene include 3,5-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and 3,5-cyclic-GMP ... Rod cGMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit beta Protein Accession:. P35913. Secondary Accessions: *B7Z9T9 ... Guanosine 3,5-cyclic phosphate + H(2)O = guanosine 5-phosphate. *PDE6B_HUMAN,P35913 ... Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of phosphohydrolyases that catalyze the hydrolysis of 3 cyclic phosphate bonds in ...
DR GO; GO:0000165; P:MAPK cascade; IMP:UniProtKB. DR GO; GO:0097527; P:necroptotic signaling pathway; IDA:UniProtKB. DR GO; GO: ... DR GO; GO:0071407; P:cellular response to organic cyclic compound; IDA:UniProtKB. DR GO; GO:0002439; P:chronic inflammatory ... DR GO; GO:0043491; P:protein kinase B signaling; IMP:UniProtKB. DR GO; GO:0032800; P:receptor biosynthetic process; IDA:BHF-UCL ... DR GO; GO:0045785; P:positive regulation of cell adhesion; IMP:UniProtKB. DR GO; GO:2000304; P:positive regulation of ceramide ...
3,5-cyclic IMP (CHEBI:27541) has functional parent inosine (CHEBI:17596). 5-S-methyl-5-thioinosine (CHEBI:48595) has ...
For both subgroups A. and B.: Maximum severity of cyclic breast pain after 3 months treatment under IMP. The severity of cyclic ... IMP). ]. Maximum severity of cyclic breast pain after 3 months treatment under Investigational Medicinal Product (IMP). The ... Maximum severity of cyclic breast pain after 1 and 2 months treatment, respectively. The severity of cyclic breast pain will be ... Efficacy and Safety of 20 mg (2 Tablets of 10mg)VAC BNO 1095 FCT on Cyclic Mastodynia and PMS. The safety and scientific ...
IBA,IMP. 16270630. GO:0010243. response to organonitrogen compound. IEA. --. GO:0014070. response to organic cyclic compound. ...
MnIIITD(M)E-2-ImP5+ (c, d) from refs. and ; MnIIITM,MOE-2-PyP5+ (e), and for MnIIITDMOE-2-ImP5+ (f ) from ref. (squares). Data ... Mn(III) porphyrins, Mn(II) cyclic polyamines, Mn(III) salen derivatives, nitroxides, and fullerenes were shown to possess SOD- ... and ; data for Mn(II) cyclic polyamine M40403 are from ref. . Data for SOD are from ref. . Data for MnIIICl1-4MnTE-2-PyP5+ (12- ... Mn(II) cyclic polyamines: the SOD-active M40403 (2S,21S nonmethylated analogue) and SOD inactive M40404 (2R,21R dimethyl ...
Cyclic meditation (CM) which combines yoga postures interspersed with supine rest improves the objective and subjective quality ... CONCLUSIONS: Practicing cyclic meditation twice a day appeared to improve the objective and subjective quality of sleep on the ... BACKGROUND: Cyclic meditation (CM) is a technique that combines yoga postures interspersed with supine rest. This combination ... Cyclic meditation (CM) which combines yoga postures interspersed with supine rest improves the objective and subjective quality ...
IMP, inosine 5-monophosphate. DHPPP, dihydropterin pyrophosphate. PABA p-aminobenzoic acid. SMX, sulfamethoxazole. TMP, ... We propose cyclic mutual potentiation of the two drugs results in amplified depletion of folate that produces a strong ... Why is the cyclic pathway structure essential for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole synergism? When two inhibitors act on ... Unrecognized cyclic structure in bacterial folate biosynthesis pathway plays a key role in trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators ... imp">GO evidence code guide,/a>,/p> Inferred from mutant phenotypei*19305400 ... calmodulin-dependent cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity Source: MGIInferred from sequence orthologyi*7568196 ... Nucleoside 3,5-cyclic phosphate + H2O = nucleoside 5-phosphate.. ,p>This subsection of the Function section provides ...
Subunit of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, nonselective cation channels, which play important roles in both visual and ... imp">GO evidence code guide,/a>,/p> Inferred from mutant phenotypei*15557452 ... intracellular cyclic nucleotide activated cation channel complex Source: Ensembl. *photoreceptor outer segment Source: Ensembl ... Subunit of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, nonselective cation channels, which play important roles in both visual and ...
cAMP, cyclic AMP; C3, component 3; CDCA, chenodeoxycholic acid; GABA, γ‐aminobutyric acid; HIAA, 5‐hydroxyindole‐3‐acetic acid ... IMP, inosine monophosphate; OH‐Kyn, 3‐hydroxy‐DL‐kynurenine; OH‐Trp, hydroxytryptophan; SDMA, symmetric dimethylarginine. See ...
3′, 5′-Cyclic UMP, -cyclic IMP, -cyclic TMP and related enzymes in mammalian tissues RUSSELL P. NEWTON, SAAD G. SALIH, NABIL A ... Multifunctional cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in lettuce cotyledons D. CHIATANTE, R. P. NEWTON, E. G. BROWN ... A role for protein kinase C in cyclic AMP metabolism LAWRENCE A. QUILLIAM, PAULINE R. M. DOBSON, BARRY L. BROWN ...
... of Isolated Arteries to Thymoquinone Require Biased Activity of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase with Subsequent Cyclic IMP Production ...
Also acts on 3,5-cyclic IMP and 3,5-cyclic GMP. EC 3.1.4.17. ... An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP to form ... The enzyme is widely distributed in animal tissue and controls the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. ...
IMP), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, is commonly prescribed for treatment of psychiatric patients suffering from different ... A detection limit of 0.03 μmol L−1 was obtained for the detection of IMP. The sensor was applied for IMP determination in ... Norouzi P, Ganjali MR, Akbari-Adergani B (2006) Sub-second FFT continuous tripping cyclic voltammetric technique as a novel ... Imipramine (IMP), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, is commonly prescribed for treatment of psychiatric patients suffering from ...
IMP unit. Detailed technical information available. Reference: Meehan et al., ,em,Biochemistry,/em,, ,strong,55,/strong,, 837 ... Hybrid cyclic dinucleotide containing both a 5-AMP and a 5- ... Special Task Cyclic Nucleotides * Modulators of CNG Ion ... Hybrid cyclic dinucleotide containing both a 5-AMP and a 5-IMP unit. Detailed technical information available. Reference: ... Cyclic (adenosine monophosphate- inosine monophosphate) ( c-(ApIp) / 3,3-cAIMP / c-AMP-IMP ), sodium salt. ...
Cyclic (adenosine monophosphate- inosine monophosphate) ( c-(ApIp) / 3,3-cAIMP / c-AMP-IMP ), sodium salt ... Cyclic (adenosine monophosphate- uridine monophosphate) ( c-(ApUp) / c[A(3,5)pU(3,5)p] / cUMP-AMP / cUA ), sodium salt ... Cyclic (cytidine monophosphate- uridine monophosphate) ( c-(CpUp) / c[C(3,5)pU(3,5)p] / cCMP-UMP ), sodium salt ... Cyclic (guanosine monophosphate- uridine monophosphate) ( c-(GpUp) / c[G(3,5)pU(3,5)p] / cGMP-UMP ), sodium salt ...
... specifically in cyclic amidines. The systematic name of this enzyme class is IMP 1,2-hydrolase (decyclizing). Other names in ... In enzymology, an IMP cyclohydrolase (EC 3.5.4.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction IMP + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle ... A deep pocket was in fact found on the surface of IMP cyclohydrolase in a position equivalent to that of active sites of NTN- ... Graupner M, Xu H, White RH (March 2002). "New class of IMP cyclohydrolases in Methanococcus jannaschii". J. Bacteriol. 184 (5 ...
Power is supplied by two G8-2-20 rotor tip jets that run on propane, consuming 12 U.S. gallons (45 L; 10.0 imp gal) per hour ... Controls consist only of cyclic, rudder and throttle. Data from Cliche, Vortech and KitPlanes General characteristics Crew: one ... 8.3 imp gal) of propane Powerplant: 2 × G8-2-20 rotor tip-mounted jet engines, 47 lb (21 kg) of thrust Main rotor diameter: 25 ...
Resistance to carbapenems mainly occurs via the production of carbapenemases, such as VIM, IMP, NDM, KPC and OXA, among others ... Discovery of Cyclic Boronic Acid QPX7728, an Ultrabroad-Spectrum Inhibitor of Serine and Metallo-β-lactamases. J. Med. Chem. ... Thus, e.g., taniborbactam can inhibit NDM and VIM but not IMP enzymes. On the other hand, small molecules able to bind and ... Studies on the inhibition of AmpC and other β-lactamases by cyclic boronates. Biochim. Biophys. Acta Gen. Subj. 2019, 1863, 742 ...
Consider the cyclic process depicted in Figure P20.30. If Q is negative for the process BC and Eint is negative.... Physics for ... How Are We Affecting the Earth? Section 1.2 What are the two key concepts for this section? How have humans imp.... ...
organic cyclic compound biosynthetic process. The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of organic cyclic ... The network for organic cyclic compound biosynthetic process in your query organism is displayed on the left, if ...
CNP cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. 17. 82. 2.500. 3.524. 17. Explore. 2.500. 3.524. 17. 16. 0. 0. 0. 17. 12. 0. 2. 3. 0. ... Rod cGMP-specific cyclic phosphodiesterase alpha & beta. 45. 572. 5.417. 3.540. 45. Explore. 5.417. 3.540. 45. 24. 0. 0. 0. 45 ...
2) Increase Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) which is a activating chemical mediator.. 3) Increase cortisol production ... which imp[rove the brain functioning.. Hope, I answered your query.. Please let me know if there are any other concerns.. ...
cyclic nucleotide biosynthetic process. GO:0009190. The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a cyclic ... Highlight genes with functional analogs involved in "cyclic nucleotide biosynthetic process" (in gray). Name. Description. ... Click on a genes description to view its network relationships with genes known to be involved in "cyclic nucleotide ...
The member of the cyclic di-nucleotide family bis-(3′, 5′)-cyclic dimeric inosine monophosphate exerts potent activity as ... The synthetic compound, the so-called c-di-IMP, might be more than just a potent vaccine enhancer. The scientists expect to ... While searching for new adjuvants, the vaccine researchers at the HZI have now found the molecule "c-di-IMP". ... Guzmán highlights, "c-di-IMP enhances also local mucosal immune responses, representing a strong candidate for the ...
  • GO annotations related to this gene include 3,5-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and 3,5-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Adenine nucleotides are components of the coenzymes NAD+, NADP+, FMN, FAD and Coenzyme A. IMP is synthesized from ribose 5-phosphate. (rapidlearningcenter.com)
  • This review will discuss how these two cyclic nucleotides regulate oocyte maturation by blocking or initiating meiotic processes, and to provide an insight in future research. (springer.com)
  • 2012. Coordinated regulation of accessory genetic elements produces cyclic di-nucleotides for V. cholerae virulence. (invivogen.com)
  • Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of phosphohydrolyases that catalyze the hydrolysis of 3' cyclic phosphate bonds in adenosine and/or guanine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP and/or cGMP). (genecards.org)
  • IMP, inosine 5'-monophosphate. (nature.com)
  • 2) Increase Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) which is a activating chemical mediator. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1, also known as IMPDH1 catalyzes the synthesis of xanthine monophosphate (XMP) from inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP). (arp1.com)
  • Original article: Libanova R, Ebensen T, Schulze K, Bruhn D, Norder M, Yevsa T, Morr M, Guzman CA. The member of the cyclic di-nucleotide family bis-(3′, 5′)-cyclic dimeric inosine monophosphate exerts potent activity as mucosal adjuvant. (healthcanal.com)
  • Extracellular cAMP and to a lesser extent guanosine cyclic S'.S'-monophosphate and inosine cyclic S', '-monophosphate stimulated membrane protein kinase in erythrocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • The natural ligand that binds to and activates STING (2′,3′)cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (2′,3′-cGAMP) and the enzyme responsible for its synthesis (cGAS, also known as C6orf150 or MB21D1) have been elucidated providing an opportunity to modulate this pathway. (justia.com)
  • 2][3][4] Derivatives of adenosine are widely found in nature and play an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer-as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). (theinfolist.com)
  • Researchers have utilized chemical proteomics in order to identify the novel target molecules of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), with the intention of obtaining a better understanding of the cGMP pathway. (wikibooks.org)
  • Many studies indicated that two cellular second messengers, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) play an essential role in maintaining oocyte meiotic arrest. (springer.com)
  • 2'3'-c-di-AMP is a synthetic analog of the bacterial second messenger 3'3'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) which differs only by one phosphodiester linkage. (invivogen.com)
  • The enzyme is widely distributed in animal tissue and controls the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. (termsciences.fr)
  • The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators of many important physiological processes. (uniprot.org)
  • Unrecognized cyclic structure in bacterial folate biosynthesis pathway plays a key role in trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole synergism. (nature.com)
  • We took a very careful look at the bacterial folate biosynthesis pathway and noticed that there is an unrecognized cyclic pathway structure connecting the downstream portion of the pathway to the upstream portion of the pathway via purine biosynthesis pathway (Figure). (nature.com)
  • Intriguingly, targets of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are both within this cyclic structure of the pathway. (nature.com)
  • To investigate if the cyclic structure of the pathway is essential for the synergy, we used another antimicrobial compound that targets a site within the folate biosynthesis pathway but located outside of the cyclic pathway structure. (nature.com)
  • Why is the cyclic pathway structure essential for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole synergism? (nature.com)
  • Our study revealed that the cyclic pathway structure allows trimethoprim to potentiate sulfamethoxazole by limiting the metabolic flux toward the folate precursor biosynthesis pathway. (nature.com)
  • Inhibitory regulator of the Ras-cyclic AMP pathway. (string-db.org)
  • Regulatory subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), an effector of the Ras/cAMP pathway. (string-db.org)
  • Hybrid cyclic dinucleotide containing both a 5'-AMP and a 5'-IMP unit. (biolog.de)
  • It is a cyclic dinucleotide with a unique 2′, 3′ linkage produced by cGAS in the presence of exogenous double-stranded DNA (e.g. that released by invading bacteria, viruses or protozoa) or of self-DNA in mammals (Wu et al. (justia.com)
  • 2013. The Innate Immune DNA Sensor cGAS Produces a Noncanonical Cyclic Dinucleotide that Activates Human STING. (invivogen.com)
  • The uptake of adenosine cyclic 3', 5'-inonophosphate (cAMP) and stimulation of membrane-associated protein kinase in mature human erythrocytes were investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • A 3',5'-cyclic purine nucleotide having hypoxanthine as the nucleobase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This enzyme catalyses the cyclisation of 5-formylamidoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide to IMP, a reaction which is important in de novo purine biosynthesis in archaeal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purine nucleotide synthesis is regulated by feedback inhibitor - AMP, GMP and IMP. (rapidlearningcenter.com)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. (termsciences.fr)
  • An inosine nucleotide which acts as a mild inhibitor of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP and as an inhibitor of cat heart cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. (bireme.br)
  • The cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase was separated from cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases by column chromatography on hydroxyapatite and Sephadex G-200. (meta.org)
  • 3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases" by people in this website by year, and whether "3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases" by people in Profiles. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Nucleoside 3',5'-cyclic phosphate + H 2 O = nucleoside 5'-phosphate. (uniprot.org)
  • As such, it plays an important role in cyclic nucleoside metabolism within photoreceptors. (arp1.com)
  • 2013. Cyclic GMP-AMP containing mixed phosphdiester linkages is an endogenous high-affinity ligand for STING. (invivogen.com)
  • A simple and fairly rapid procedure is described for separation of a mixture of five 3′, 5′-cyclic ribonucleotides. (naver.com)
  • Development of a Cyclic Peptide Inhibitor of the p6/UEV Protein-Protein Interaction. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We report the development of a cyclic peptide inhibitor of the p6/UEV interaction, from a non cell-permeable parent that was identified in a SICLOPPS screen. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cyclic dinucleotides trigger ULK1 (ATG1) phosphorylation of STING to prevent sustained innate immune signaling" Cell, 2013, vol. 155: 688-698). (justia.com)
  • Subunit of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, nonselective cation channels, which play important roles in both visual and olfactory signal transduction. (uniprot.org)
  • 2013. Cyclic [G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] is the metazoan second messenger produced by DNA-activated cyclic GMP-AMP synthase. (invivogen.com)
  • tabolici if youis part of a strategy of population indi-trossido stimulates the production of a second messenger, thearise anxiety andhealthy life-style puÃ2 prevent the development of problems en erectile dysfunction and silent myocardial ischemiarecommends a specific class of drugs for heart that ficativamente lâevolution towards full-blown diabetes. (hoerthoert.at)
  • Molecular characterization of the cyclic nucleotide-gated. (ubc.ca)
  • This work further demonstrates the relative simplicity with which the potency and activity of cyclic peptides identified from SICLOPPS libraries can be optimized. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Design of Cyclic Peptides as Protein Recognition Motifs. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The synthetic compound, the so-called c-di-IMP, might be more than just a potent vaccine enhancer. (healthcanal.com)
  • Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 2011. STING is a direct innate immune sensor of cyclic di-GMP. (invivogen.com)
  • Applications: Pine oil is a blend of terpene hydrocarbons and cyclic terpene alcohols which is used in a variety of household cleaners, disinfectants and solvents. (alibaba.com)
  • Cyclic AMP (cAMP), a very close structural relative of AMP, containing an additional ester linkage between the phosphate and ribose units, acts as a secondary messenger for several hormones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, 3'-5' cAMP indicates that a phosphate is in ester linkage to both the 3' and 5' hydroxyl groups of an adenosine molecule and forms a cyclic structure. (utah.edu)
  • The cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) cation channel of rod photoreceptors plays an important role in the perception of light. (ubc.ca)
  • Herein, we report an electrochemical sensor based on a composite of ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FCA), β-cyclodextrin (CD), and oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-CNT) modified glassy carbon electrode for detection of IMP at low potential. (springer.com)
  • The electrochemical behavior of the proposed sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. (springer.com)
  • Electron transport and recombination were investigated by cyclic voltammetric (CV) and electrochemical impedance measurements, and intensity-modulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS and IMVS) measurements. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Amino acids critical for the activity of the parent cyclic peptide were uncovered using alanine-scanning, and a series of non-natural analogues synthesized and assessed. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Mn(III) porphyrins, Mn(II) cyclic polyamines, Mn(III) salen derivatives, nitroxides, and fullerenes were shown to possess SOD-like activity. (nih.gov)
  • In enzymology, an IMP cyclohydrolase (EC 3.5.4.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction IMP + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 5-formamido-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are IMP and H2O, whereas its product is 5-formamido-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in cyclic amidines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is IMP 1,2-hydrolase (decyclizing). (wikipedia.org)
  • an interposed substituent or bridging radical, for example, The objects of this invention are accomplished by dis a l to 18 carbon-atom alkyl substituent, on the vinyl cyclic The objects of this invention are to provide thermo plastic resinous ?lm-forming compositions, as well as imp persing or dissolving thermoplastic organic ?lm-forming acetal rings. (docme.ru)
  • A deep pocket was in fact found on the surface of IMP cyclohydrolase in a position equivalent to that of active sites of NTN-hydrolases, but an N-terminal nucleophile could not be found. (wikipedia.org)
  • A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Metalloporphyrins, as well as Mn cyclic polyamines, Mn salen derivatives and nitroxides were all originally developed as SOD mimics. (nih.gov)
  • The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a cyclic nucleotide, a nucleotide in which the phosphate group is in diester linkage to two positions on the sugar residue. (princeton.edu)
  • The sensor was applied for IMP determination in psychotropic drugs and urine samples and the results show a recovery percentage between 99 and 101% for the analyte. (springer.com)
  • Guzmán highlights, "c-di-IMP enhances also local mucosal immune responses, representing a strong candidate for the implementation of such type of vaccines. (healthcanal.com)
  • Flies lacking importin α1 (IMPα1) display arrhythmic behavior and cytoplasmic expression of both PER and TIM at all times. (prolekare.cz)