Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP: N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Paramecium tetraurelia: A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Nucleotides, CycliceIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits: Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.PhosphoproteinsAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.PurinonesProtein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4: A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the TESTES and BRAIN. Variants of this subtype exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its mRNA.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

Atrial natriuretic peptide-stimulated Ca2+ reabsorption in rabbit kidney requires membrane-targeted, cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II. (1/31)

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and nitric oxide (NO) are key regulators of ion and water transport in the kidney. Here, we report that these cGMP-elevating hormones stimulate Ca2+ reabsorption via a novel mechanism specifically involving type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK II). ANP and the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), markedly increased Ca2+ uptake in freshly immunodissected rabbit connecting tubules (CNT) and cortical collecting ducts (CCD). Although readily increasing cGMP, ANP and SNP did not affect Ca2+ and Na+ reabsorption in primary cultures of these segments. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that cGK II, and not cGK I, was present in freshly isolated CNT and CCD but underwent a complete down-regulation during the primary cell culture. However, upon adenoviral reexpression of cGK II in primary cultures, ANP, SNP, and 8-Br-cGMP readily increased Ca2+ reabsorption. In contrast, no cGMP-dependent effect on electrogenic Na+ transport was observed. The membrane localization of cGK II proved to be crucial for its action, because a nonmyristoylated cGK II mutant that was shown to be localized in the cytosol failed to mediate ANP-stimulated Ca2+ transport. The Ca2+-regulatory function of cGK II appeared isotype-specific because no cGMP-mediated increase in Ca2+ transport was observed after expression of the cytosolic cGK Ibeta or a membrane-bound cGK II/Ibeta chimer. These results demonstrate that ANP- and NO-stimulated Ca2+ reabsorption requires membrane-targeted cGK II.  (+info)

Serine 19 of human 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase is phosphorylated by cGMP protein kinase II. (2/31)

6-Pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) participates in tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor biosynthesis. We previously identified in a PTPS-deficient patient an inactive PTPS allele with an Arg(16) to Cys codon mutation. Arg(16) is located in the protein surface exposed phosphorylation motif Arg(16)-Arg-Ile-Ser, with Ser(19) as the putative phosphorylation site for serine-threonine protein kinases. Purification of recombinant PTPS-S19A from bacterial cells resulted in an active enzyme (k(cat)/K(m) = 6.4 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), which was similar to wild-type PTPS (k(cat)/K(m) = 4.1 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). In assays with purified enzymes, wild-type but not PTPS-S19A was a specific substrate for the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) type I and II. Upon expression in COS-1 cells, PTPS-S19A was stable but not phosphorylated and had a reduced activity of approximately 33% in comparison to wild-type PTPS. Extracts from several human cell lines, including brain, contained a kinase that bound to and phosphorylated immobilized wild-type, but not mutant PTPS. Addition of cGMP stimulated phosphotransferase activity 2-fold. Extracts from transfected COS-1 cells overexpressing cGKII stimulated Ser(19) phosphorylation more than 100-fold, but only 4-fold from cGKI overexpressing cells. Moreover, fibroblast extracts from mice lacking cGKII exhibited significantly reduced phosphorylation of PTPS. These results suggest that Ser(19) of human PTPS may be a substrate for cGKII phosphorylation also in vivo, a modification that is essential for normal activity.  (+info)

Nitric oxide and cGMP regulate gene expression in neuronal and glial cells by activating type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase. (3/31)

Nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP have been implicated in many neuronal functions, including regulation of gene expression, but little is known about the downstream targets of NO/cGMP in the nervous system. We found that type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), which is widely expressed in the brain, mediated NO- and cGMP-induced activation of the fos promoter in cells of neuronal and glial origin; the enzyme was ineffective in regulating gene expression in fibroblast-like cells. The effect of G-kinase II on gene expression did not require calcium uptake but was synergistically enhanced by calcium. G-kinase II was membrane associated and did not translocate to the nucleus; however, a soluble G-kinase II mutant translocated to the nucleus and regulated gene expression in fibroblast-like cells. Soluble G-kinase I also regulates fos promoter activity, but membrane targeting of G-kinase I prevented the enzyme from translocating to the nucleus and regulating transcription in multiple cell types, including glioma cells; this suggests that cell type-specific factor(s) that mediate the transcriptional effects of extranuclear G-kinase II are not regulated by G-kinase I. Our results suggest that G-kinase I and II control gene expression by different mechanisms and that NO effects on neuronal plasticity may involve G-kinase II regulation of gene expression.-Gudi, T., Hong, G. K.-P., Vaandrager, A. B., Lohmann, S. M., Pilz, R. B. Nitric oxide and cGMP regulate gene expression in neuronal and glial cells by activating type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase.  (+info)

The amino-terminal cyclic nucleotide binding site of the type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase is essential for full cyclic nucleotide-dependent activation. (4/31)

For the type I cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKIalpha and cGKIbeta), a high affinity interaction exists between the C2 amino group of cGMP and the hydroxyl side chain of a threonine conserved in most cGMP binding sites. To examine the effect of this interaction on ligand binding and kinase activation in the type II isozyme of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKII), alanine was substituted for the conserved threonine or serine. cGKII was found to require the C2 amino group of cGMP and its cognate serine or threonine hydroxyl for efficient cGMP activation. Of the two binding sites, disruption of cGMP-specific binding in the NH(2)-terminal binding site had the greatest effect on cGMP-dependent kinase activation, like cGKI. However, ligand dissociation studies showed that the location of the rapid and slow dissociation sites of cGKII was reversed relative to cGKI. Another set of mutations that prevented cyclic nucleotide binding demonstrated the necessity of the NH(2)-terminal, rapid dissociation binding site for cyclic nucleotide-dependent activation of cGKII. These findings suggest distinct mechanisms of activation for cGKII and cGKI isoforms. Because cGKII mediates the effects of heat-stable enterotoxins via the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator Cl(-) channel, these findings define a structural target for drug design.  (+info)

Evidence for the presence of cGMP-dependent protein kinase-II in human distal colon and in T84, the colonic cell line. (5/31)

Heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) stimulates intestinal Cl(-) secretion by activating guanylate cyclase C (GCC) to increase intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP). In the colon, cGMP action could involve protein kinase (PK) G-II or PKA pathways, depending on the segment and species. In the human colon, both PKG and PKA pathways have been implicated, and, therefore, the present study examined the mechanism of cGMP-mediated Cl(-) transport in primary cultures of human distal colonocytes and in T84, the colonic cell line. Both cell preparations express mRNA for CFTR, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1), GCC and PKG-II as detected by RT-PCR. The effects of STa and the PKG-specific cGMP analogues, 8Br-cGMP and 8pCPT-cGMP, on Cl(-) transport were measured using a halide-sensitive probe. In primary human colonocytes and T84 cells, STa, the cGMP analogues and the cAMP-dependent secretagogue, prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)), enhanced Cl(-) transport. The effects of 8Br-cGMP and 8pCPT-cGMP suggested the involvement of PKG, and this was explored further in T84 cells. The effects of 8pCPT-cGMP were dose-dependent and sensitive to the PKG inhibitor, H8 (70 microM), but H8 had no effect on PGE(1)-induced Cl(-) secretion. In contrast, a PKA inhibitor, H7 (50 microM), blocked PGE(1)-mediated but not 8pCPT-cGMP-induced Cl(-) transport. 8pCPT-cGMP enhanced phosphorylation of the PKG-specific substrate, 2A3, by T84 membranes in vitro. This phosphorylation was inhibited by H8. These results strongly suggest that cGMP activates Cl(-) transport through a PKG-II pathway in primary cells and in the T84 cell line of the human colon.  (+info)

Autoinhibition and isoform-specific dominant negative inhibition of the type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase. (6/31)

In the absence of cyclic nucleotides, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) suppress phosphotransfer activity at the catalytic cleft by competitive inhibition of substrate binding with a pseudosubstrate sequence within the holoenzyme. The magnitude of inhibition can be diminished by autophosphorylation near this pseudosubstrate sequence. Activation of type I cGK (cGKI) and type II cGK (cGKII) are differentially regulated by their cyclic nucleotide-binding sites. To address the possibility that the distinct activation mechanisms of cGKII and cGKI result from differences in the autophosphorylation of the inhibitory domain, we investigated the effects of autophosphorylation on the kinetics of activation. Unlike the type I cGKs (cGKIalpha and Ibeta), cGKII autophosphorylation did not alter the basal activity, nor the sensitivity of the enzyme to cyclic nucleotide activation. To determine residues responsible for autoinhibition of cGKII, Ala was substituted for basic residues (Lys(122), Arg(118), and Arg(119)) or a hydrophobic residue (Val(125)) within the putative pseudosubstrate domain of cGKII. The integrity of these residues was essential for full cGKII autoinhibition. Furthermore, a cGKII truncation mutant containing this autoinhibitory region demonstrated a nanomolar IC(50) toward a constitutively active form of cGKII. Finally, we present evidence that the dominant negative properties of this truncation mutant are specific to cGKII when compared with cAMP-dependent protein kinase Calpha and cGKIbeta. These findings extend the known differences in the activation mechanisms among cGK isoforms and allow the design of an isoform-specific cGKII inhibitor.  (+info)

Apparent affinity of CFTR for ATP is increased by continuous kinase activity. (7/31)

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel which is activated by protein phosphorylation and nucleoside triphosphates. We demonstrate here that fusion of the soluble catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase to the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin yields a constitutively active protein kinase which activates CFTR effectively. As it is membrane-bound it is particularly useful for continuous perfusion of excised inside-out patches. We also tested the effect of a naturally membrane-bound protein kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase II, on CFTR. Both kinases, when continuously active, increase apparent affinity of CFTR to ATP about two-fold emphasizing the role of phosphorylation in modulating the interaction of ATP with the nucleotide binding domains.  (+info)

cGMP-dependent protein kinase II modulates mPer1 and mPer2 gene induction and influences phase shifts of the circadian clock. (8/31)

BACKGROUND: In mammals, the master circadian clock that drives many biochemical, physiological, and behavioral rhythms is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Generation and maintenance of circadian rhythmicity rely on complex interlocked transcriptional/translational feedback loops involving a set of clock genes. Among the molecular components driving the mammalian circadian clock are the Period 1 and 2 (mPer1 and mPer2) genes. Because the periodicity of the clock is not exactly 24 hr, it has to be adjusted periodically. The major stimulus for adjustment (resetting) of the clock is nocturnal light. It evokes activation of signaling pathways in the SCN that ultimately lead to expression of mPer1 and mPer2 genes conveying adjustment of the clock. RESULTS: We show that mice deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII, also known as PKGII), despite regular retinal function, are defective in resetting the circadian clock, as assessed by changes in the onset of wheel running activity after a light pulse. At the molecular level, light induction of mPer2 in the SCN is strongly reduced in the early period of the night, whereas mPer1 induction is elevated in cGKII-deficient mice. Additionally, we show that light induction of cfos and light-dependent phosphorylation of CREB at serine 133 are not affected in these animals. CONCLUSIONS: cGKII plays a role in the clock-resetting mechanism. In particular, the ability to delay clock phase is affected in cGKII-deficient mice. It seems that the signaling pathway involving cGKII influences in an opposite manner the light-induced induction of mPer1 and mPer2 genes and thereby influences the direction of a phase shift of the circadian clock.  (+info)

*PRKG1

"Localization of the human gene for the type I cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase to chromosome 10". Cytogenetics and Cell ... and characterization of the cGMP-dependent protein kinases I beta and II using the baculovirus system". FEBS Letters. 374 (3): ... of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha". ... 5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (12): 8701-7. PMID ...

*CGMP-dependent protein kinase

EC 2.7.11.12 Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases and the Cardiovascular System cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinases at the US ... Two PKG genes, coding for PKG type I (PKG-I) and type II (PKG-II), have been identified in mammals. The N-terminus of PKG-I is ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP ... "A crystal structure of the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I{beta} dimerization/docking domain reveals molecular details of ...

*ITPR1

5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (12): 8701-7. PMID ... Tanimura A, Tojyo Y, Turner RJ (Sep 2000). "Evidence that type I, II, and III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors can occur ... "Carbonic anhydrase-related protein is a novel binding protein for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1". The ... Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITPR1 gene. ITPR1 has been shown to ...

*Cyclic nucleotide

... where it stimulates a protein kinase called cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. By phosphorylating proteins, cyclic AMP- ... G proteins). The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) ... Cyclic nucleotides can be found in many different types of eukaryotic cells, including photo-receptor rods and cones, smooth ... Eckly-Michel A, Martin V, Lugnier C (September 1997). "Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in cyclic AMP ...

*Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel

CNG channel activity is controlled by the interaction between cGMP-dependent protein kinase and G1 protein because of cGMP's ... The steep concentration between CNG channels and ligand concentration shows that at least two or three cyclic nucleotides are ... "Induction by cyclic GMP of cationic conductance in plasma membrane of retinal rod outer segment". Nature. 313 (6000): 310-3. ... However, a receptor-type GC in mammalian sperm has yet to be identified. Mouse sperm express other channels such as CatSper1. ...

*Nicorandil

Vrolix, M; Raeymaekers, L; Wuytack, F; Hofmann, F; Casteels, R (Nov 1, 1988). "Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase stimulates ... L-type calcium channel expression increases in spastic vascular smooth muscle cells, which could result in excessive calcium ... "Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathway inhibits RhoA-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contraction in vascular ... Nicorandil stimulates guanylate cyclase to increase formation of cyclic GMP (cGMP). cGMP activates protein kinase G (PKG), ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.644)

... cyclic gmp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D12.644.360.200.575 --- protamine kinase MeSH D12.644.360.250 --- cyclin-dependent ... interferon type ii MeSH D12.644.276.174.440.893.510 --- interferon-gamma, recombinant MeSH D12.644.276.174.480 --- lymphokines ... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D12.644.360.200.125 --- cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D12.644. ... map kinase kinase kinase 3 MeSH D12.644.360.400.400 --- map kinase kinase kinase 4 MeSH D12.644.360.400.500 --- map kinase ...

*Haemodynamic response

... inducing a signaling cascade that results in the activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and an ultimate decrease in ... In addition to this, it has already been shown that NO stimulates increased cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels in the smooth muscle cells ... Two proteins are involved in this accumulation of amyloid beta: serum response factor or SRF and myocardin. Together, these 2 ... Various cell types play a role in HR, including astrocytes, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and ...

*Biological functions of hydrogen sulfide

"Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase regulates vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype". Journal of Vascular Research. 34 (4): 245 ... Hydrogen sulfide is also involved in the disease process of type 1 diabetes. The beta cells of the pancreas in type 1 diabetes ... demonstrating that the vasodilatatory effects of these two gases are mutually dependent. Additionally, H 2S reacts with ... Lincoln, T. M.; Cornwell, Taylor (March 1990). "cGMP-dependent protein kinase mediates the reduction of Ca2+ by cAMP in ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.150 --- cyclic gmp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D08.811. ... type ii MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.125 --- ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.125 --- cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases ... map kinase kinase kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.100 --- map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...

*Amrinone

... of high gain CICR which contributes to the contraction of myocytes by phosphorylation through cAMP dependent protein kinase A ( ... causes a decrease in the stimulation of guanylate cyclase and cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels fall in vascular smooth muscle. This ... this kinase improves the Ca2+ inward current through the L-type Ca2+ channels, which leads to calcium-induced calcium release ... a special type of smooth ER) and decreasing the calcium available for contraction. In myocytes, the increase of cAMP ...

*Nitric oxide

... which is a heterodimeric enzyme with subsequent formation of cyclic-GMP. Cyclic-GMP activates protein kinase G, which causes ... The most common bonding mode of nitric oxide is the terminal linear type (M−NO). The angle of the M−N−O group varies from 160° ... Two important biological reaction mechanisms of nitric oxide are S-nitrosation of thiols, and nitrosylation of transition metal ... In plants, nitric oxide can be produced by any of four routes: (i) L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase, (although the ...

*CGAS-STING cytosolic DNA sensing pathway

Upon binding DNA, the protein cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase (cGAS) triggers reaction of GTP and ATP to form cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). ... "STING regulates intracellular DNA-mediated, type I interferon-dependent innate immunity". Nature 461, 788-792 (8 October 2009 ... GMP) connected by two phosphodiester bonds. However, cGAMP differs from other CDNs in that it contains a unique phosphodiester ... STING is also thought to activate the NF-κB transcription factor through the activity of the IκB kinase (IKK), though the ...

*RNA splicing

Group I and II introns perform splicing similar to the spliceosome without requiring any protein. This similarity suggests that ... Yeast tRNA kinase then phosphorylates the 5'-hydroxyl group using adenosine triphosphate. Yeast tRNA cyclic phosphodiesterase ... Two types of spliceosomes have been identified (major and minor) which contain different snRNPs. The major spliceosome splices ... NAD-dependent 2'-phosphotransferase then removes the 2'-phosphate group. Splicing occurs in all the kingdoms or domains of life ...

*Netrin

"Cyclic AMP/GMP-dependent modulation of Ca2+ channels sets the polarity of nerve growth-cone turning". Nature. 423 (6943): 990-5 ... Overall, these studies show that regulating effects of netrin is dependent on the type of vascular tissue. Recently, netrin has ... DCC and UNC-5 proteins mediate netrin-1 responses. The UNC-5 protein is mainly involved in signaling repulsion. DCC, which is ... The two versions, netrins-G1 and netrins-G2, are found only in vertebrates. It is believed that they evolved independently of ...

*Tyrosine hydroxylase

"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Roskoski R, Roskoski LM (Jan 1987). "Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells by the cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP second ... Haycock JW, Ahn NG, Cobb MH, Krebs EG (Mar 1992). "ERK1 and ERK2, two microtubule-associated protein 2 kinases, mediate the ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is also an autoantigen in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome (APS) type I. A consistent abnormality in ...

*Gaseous signaling molecules

"Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase regulates vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype". Journal of Vascular Research. 34 (4): 245 ... The vasodilating effects of sulfur dioxide are mediated via ATP-dependent calcium channels and L-type ("dihydropyridine") ... demonstrating that the vasodilatatory effects of these two gases are mutually dependent. Additionally, H 2S reacts with ... which is a heterodimeric enzyme with subsequent formation of cyclic-GMP. Cyclic-GMP activates protein kinase G, which causes ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 3)

... type I site-specific deoxyribonuclease EC 3.1.21.4: type II site-specific deoxyribonuclease EC 3.1.21.5: type III site-specific ... ADP-dependent medium-chain-acyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.20: acyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.21: Dodecanoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.36: now with EC 3.1.4.43 EC 3.1.4.37: 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1 ... protein-tyrosine-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.49: (pyruvate kinase)-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.50: sorbitol-6-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.51: ...

*Thromboregulation

In vivo phosphorylation of thromboxane by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase" (PDF). Journal of the Salk Institute for ... phosphorylate messengers via protein kinase A (PKA). These signaling elements include thromboxane A2, receptor type α, ... ADP-dependent aggregation is mediated by two receptors: the purinergic P2Y1, coupled to Gαq, mediates the shape in the ... Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates cGMP production and therefore the activation cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G kinase). This kinase ...

*Sperm guidance

Cyclic GMP possibly opens cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) K+-selective channels, thereby causing hyperpolarization of the ... cAMP and protein kinase A as well as soluble guanylyl cyclase, cGMP, inositol trisphosphate receptor and store-operated Ca2+ ... This gradient-dependent sperm accumulation was observed over a wide temperature range (29-41°C). Since temperature affects ... In humans, there are at least two different origins of sperm chemoattractants. One is the cumulus cells that surround the ...

*Rod cell

This structural change causes an increased affinity for the regulatory protein called transducin (a type of G protein). Upon ... Second, it serves as an adaptor protein to aid the receptor to the clathrin-dependent endocytosis machinery (to induce receptor ... As rhodopsin is phosphorylated by rhodopsin kinase (a member of the GPCR kinases(GRKs)), it binds with high affinity to the ... The bound arrestin can contribute to the desensitization process in at least two ways. First, it prevents the interaction ...

*Mark Mattson

... excitability and protects neurons against excitotoxicity by a mechanism involving activation of receptors coupled to cyclic GMP ... Mattson lives with his wife, Joanne Mattson and is father to two children, Elliot and Emma. In his spare time, he pursues trail ... His work also revealed a physiological role for the secreted form of amyloid precursor protein generated by alpha-secretase ... It enhances pancreatic islet beta-cell proliferation and glucose-dependent insulin secretion, and lowers blood glucose and food ...

*Biochemical cascade

Therefore, there are four main transmembrane receptor types: G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), tyrosine kinase receptors ( ... "Cyclic GMP signaling is involved in the luteinizing hormone-dependent meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes". Biology of ... There are two main types of purinergic receptors, P1 binding to adenosine, and P2 binding to ATP or ADP, presenting different ... These proteins activate protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) that phosphorylates various proteins important for capacitation and ...

*Discovery and development of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors

Cyclic GMP binds to the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG1) which phosphorylates several proteins that results in decreased ... PDE5A3 is not as widespread as the other two isoforms, and is only found in smooth muscle tissues, it is found in the heart, ... Yu, J. Y.; Kang, K. K. & Yoo, M. (2006). "Erectile potentials of a new phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, DA-8159, in diet- ... cGMP binding proteins and protein kinase G (PKG). The effect on PKG reduces levels of calcium leading to relaxation of smooth ...

*Calcium in biology

... through a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism". Biochem J. 466 (2): 379-390. doi:10.1042/bj20140881. PMID 25422863. Milo, Ron ... Pugh Jr, E. N.; Lamb, T. D. (1990). "Cyclic GMP and calcium: The internal messengers of excitation and adaptation in vertebrate ... This type of dysfunction can be seen in cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes. Ca2+ ion flow regulate several ... Calcium coordination plays an important role in defining the structure and function of proteins. An example a protein with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of cGMP-Dependent protein kinase anchoring proteins (GKAPs). AU - Vo, Ngan. AU - Gettemy, Jessica M.. AU - Coghlan, Vincent M.. PY - 1998/5/29. Y1 - 1998/5/29. N2 - To promote both efficiency and selectivity, many protein kinases and phosphatases are maintained in specific subcellular microenvironments through their association with anchoring proteins. In this study, we describe a new class of proteins, called GKAPS, that specifically bind the Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). GKAPs were detected in rat aorta, brain, and intestine using a protein overlay technique. The PKG binding proteins were distinct from AKAPs, proteins known to bind the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Furthermore, a synthetic peptide that blocks association of PKA with AKAPs did not affect the PKG-GKAP interaction. Deletion mutagenesis was used to map the GKAP binding determinants within PKG to the N-terminal regulatory region. While most GKAPs were tissue-specific, a ...
RecName: Full=Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase type-2 gamma; EC=2.7.1.149;AltName: Full=Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase type II gamma; Short=PI(5)P 4-kinase type II gamma; Short=PIP4KII-gamma ...
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Fast delivery of PRKG2 knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
CaM-kinase II (CAMK2) is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long-term potentiation and neurotransmitter release. Member of the NMDAR signaling complex in excitatory synapses it may regulate NMDAR-dependent potentiation of the AMPAR and synaptic plasticity. Phosphorylates transcription factor FOXO3 on Ser-298 (By similarity). Activates FOXO3 transcriptional activity (PubMed:23805378).
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In addition to vasodilation, NO/NP/cGMP signaling is involved in the development of vasculoproliferative disorders, such as restenosis and atherosclerosis. The analysis of transgenic mice showed that NO can both promote58-64 and inhibit65-70 pathological vascular remodeling (see review5). This finding could explain why NO-generating drugs have not been reported to limit the progression of atherosclerosis in humans. The opposing actions of NO might depend on the magnitude and spatiotemporal profile of its production in a specific pathophysiological setting and are likely mediated through different cellular and molecular mechanisms. A key process in vascular remodeling is the phenotypic modulation of vascular SMCs from contractile to proliferating/dedifferentiated cells.71 It has been reported that NO and cGMP can both promote72,73 and inhibit74,75 the proliferation of cultured SMCs (see reviews12,76). The reason for these contradictory findings and their (patho)physiological significance is not ...
Our previous studies demonstrated that subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV) into the Zusanli (ST36) acupuncture point, namely BV acupuncture, dose-dependently prevents conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by repeated injection of methamphetamine (METH) in mice. To expand on our observations, the present study was designed to determine the suppressive mechanisms of BV acupuncture in the development of METH-induced CPP by evaluating the changes in expression of ΔFosB, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK), and phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (pCaMKII) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in mice. Pre-emptive treatment with BV at 30 min before repeated METH injection completely suppressed acquisition of CPP at the day 7 test session. METH-induced upregulation of ΔFosB and pERK in PFC and NAc was significantly reduced by BV pretreatment. Expression of pCaMKII was significantly elevated by METH in NAc and ...
The expression and phosphorylation state of VASP was investigated in neutrophils during cell adherence. Adhesion is an essential process for neutrophil migration from the peripheral blood to sites of inflammation. During the process of adhesion, neutrophils adhere and spread without any clear stopping point between these two processes. Therefore, it was important to determine whether VASP was phosphorylated in response to signals involved in adhesion and/or spreading. In this report, we demonstrate that VASP is a target for cGK regulation of neutrophil spreading. We showed that VASP was in its dephosphorylated form in retracted round neutrophils and was rapidly phosphorylated by cGK at the onset of cell spreading. Both adherence and the onset of cell spreading induced significant elevations of cGMP in neutrophils. When neutrophils were incubated with 8-Br-cGMP, a direct activator of cGK, cells became more polarized in suspension, and spread more rapidly during adhesion. Our observations that ...
cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKG) exhibit diverse physiological functions in the mammalian system e.g., in vascular and gastrointestinal smooth muscles, in platelets, in kidney, in bone growth, nociception and in the central nervous system. Furthermore, PKG were found in insects and in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Two different genes of PKG exist: a) the PKG-I gene that is expressed as cytosolic PKG-Iα or PKG-Iβ isoform, and b) the PKG-II gene, which expresses the membrane associated PKG-II protein. The enzyme kinetics, the localization and the substrates of these PKG enzymes differ utilizing different physiological functions. Various inhibitors of PKG were developed directed against diverse functional regions of the kinase. These inhibitors of PKG have been used to analyse the specific functions of these enzymes. The review article will summarize these different inhibitors regarding their specificity and their present applications in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, it will be
GF ID PRKG1_interact #=GF AC PF15898.5 #=GF DE cGMP-dependent protein kinase interacting domain #=GF AU Eberhardt R;0000-0001-6152-1369 #=GF SE Jackhmmer:A8JNT6 #=GF GA 32.40 32.40; #=GF TC 33.30 32.50; #=GF NC 32.30 32.30; #=GF BM hmmbuild HMM.ann SEED.ann #=GF SM hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq #=GF TP Family #=GF RN [1] #=GF RM 12873707 #=GF RT Dimerization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1alpha and the #=GF RT myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase: role of leucine #=GF RT zipper domains. #=GF RA Surks HK, Mendelsohn ME; #=GF RL Cell Signal. 2003;15:937-944. #=GF RN [2] #=GF RM 10567269 #=GF RT Regulation of myosin phosphatase by a specific interaction with #=GF RT cGMP- dependent protein kinase Ialpha. #=GF RA Surks HK, Mochizuki N, Kasai Y, Georgescu SP, Tang KM, Ito M, #=GF RA Lincoln TM, Mendelsohn ME; #=GF RL Science. 1999;286:1583-1587. #=GF DR INTERPRO; IPR031775; #=GF DR SO; 0100021; polypeptide_conserved_region; #=GF CC This domain is found at the C-terminus ...
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The report by Castro et al demonstrates that PKG activation in response to ANP activation of pGC elicits a strong feed-forward mechanism that further enhances cGMP production in the subsarcolemmal pool (Figure). The protein target of PKG that elicits this effect is unknown. Notably, this is the first feed-forward effect to be defined for cGMP signaling in any tissue. Surprisingly, it appears that there is little activation of PDE2 activity through cGMP binding to its allosteric sites, which should counter the effect, and the mechanism for terminating the feed-forward signal is not determined. Moreover, the mechanism whereby PDE2 is selectively localized to this cGMP pool is unknown.. In contrast, increased cGMP production by NO-GC elicits the opposite effect on cGMP levels by activating a negative-feedback regulation of cytosolic cGMP; this is mediated by activation of PKG, which phosphorylates and activates PDE5. The resulting increased cGMP breakdown blunts further elevation of cGMP and lowers ...
Families will be able to identify relatives with mutation, take steps to monitor and treat. A multi-institutional team led by Dianna Milewicz, M.D., Ph.D., of The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) has found a recurrent genetic mutation that has been linked to deadly thoracic aortic dissections in family members as young as 17 years of age.. The gene known as PRKG1 makes a protein called cGMP-dependent kinase, type I. The PRKG1 mutation alters the function of the protein and causes the muscle cells in the wall of the aorta to respond incorrectly to pulsatile blood flow from the heart, and the change in this one protein ultimately causes thoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic dissection. The mutation was identified in four families, including three in the United States. The majority of the affected family members suffered acute aortic dissections at young ages (17 to 51 years).. "What is unique about this finding is that we identified four unrelated families from ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is involved in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Two regulatory and two catalytic subunits form the PKA holoenzyme, disbands after cAMP binding. The holoenzyme is involved in many cellular events, including ion transport, metabolism, and transcription. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015 ...
Here I describe a study of comparative behavioral genetics of a complex behavioral phenotype that is affected by a gene encoding a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, foraging). I accomplish this by using a traditional ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic GMP - Dependent protein kinase. AU - Roskoski, R.. AU - Vulliet, Philip R. AU - Glass, D. B.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Tyrosine hydroxylase purified from rat pheochromycytoma was phosphorylated and activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. The extent of activation was correlated with the degree of phosphate incorporated into the enzyme. Comparable stoichiometric ratios (0.6 mol phosphate/mol tyrosine hydroxylase subunit) were obtained at maximal concentrations of either cyclic AMP-dependent or cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases. The enzymes appeared to mediate the phosphorylation of the same residue based on the observation that incorporation was not increased when both enzymes were present. The major tryptic phosphopeptide obtained from tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylated by each protein kinase exhibited an identical retention time following ...

Identification of cGMP-Dependent protein kinase anchoring proteins (GKAPs)<...Identification of cGMP-Dependent protein kinase anchoring proteins (GKAPs)<...

Proteins Protein Kinases Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II Carrier Proteins ... In this study, we describe a new class of proteins, called GKAPS, that specifically bind the Type II cGMP-dependent protein ... In this study, we describe a new class of proteins, called GKAPS, that specifically bind the Type II cGMP-dependent protein ... In this study, we describe a new class of proteins, called GKAPS, that specifically bind the Type II cGMP-dependent protein ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/identification-of-cgmp-dependent-protein-kinase-anchoring-protein-2

Role of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type II in the brain - UBC Library Open CollectionsRole of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type II in the brain - UBC Library Open Collections

PKG I cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type I PKG U cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type II pM pico Molar PMSF phenyl ... and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, protein kinase C , calmodulin-dependent protein kinase U and casein kinase LT. Eur J ... Role of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type II in the brain Viswanathan, Vijay 2004 pdf ... Molecular characterization of a type II cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase expressed in the rat brain. J Neurochem. 64:2814-7 ...
more infohttps://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0092443

Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of Mice Lacking cGMP-Dependent Kinases Is Normal and Susceptible to...Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of Mice Lacking cGMP-Dependent Kinases Is Normal and Susceptible to...

1995) Molecular characterization of type II cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase expressed in the rat brain. J Neurochem 64:2814 ... 1993) Cloning and expression of a novel cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase from mouse brain. J Biol Chem 268:13586-13591. ... 1994) Cloning, expression, and in situ localization of rat intestinal cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ... 1996) Intestinal secretory defects and dwarfism in mice lacking cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. Science 274:2082-2086. ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/19/1/48?ijkey=acca0432df0afad2a206dcbb2f100c0d91da0b8b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

SCOPe 2.06: Structural Classification of Proteins - extendedSCOPe 2.06: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended

... and ASTRAL compendium for protein structure and sequence analysis ... Cyclic GMP, Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II, ... Compound: cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId:9606]. Gene: PRKG1, PRKG1B, PRKGR1A, PRKGR1B. Database ... Compound: cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId:9606]. Gene: PRKG1, PRKG1B, PRKGR1A, PRKGR1B. Database ... Description: PKG Is Carboyl Terminal Cyclic Nucleotide Binding Domain (CNB-B) in a complex with 8-pCPT-cGMP. Class: protein ...
more infohttps://scop.berkeley.edu/pdb/code=5j48&ver=2.06

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibits G12/13 and Rho-Kinase Activated by the Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor |...Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibits G12/13 and Rho-Kinase Activated by the Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor |...

Hofmann F. The biology of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases. J Biol Chem. 2005; 280: 1-4. ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathway inhibits RhoA-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contraction in vascular ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits serum-response element-dependent transcription by inhibiting rho activation and ... 7-10 We have recently reported that eNOS gene transfer activates the NO/cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) cascade and ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/29/2/217.full

Computation and Informatics in Biology and Medicine - SeminarComputation and Informatics in Biology and Medicine - Seminar

Discovery and Characterization of a Causative Mutation for Bovine Dwarfism in Cyclic GMP-dependant, Type II, Protein Kinase ( ... Using Mathematical Tools to Gain Insight into Binding Specificity in Protein-Protein and Protein-DNA Interactions , Julie ... Proteins, The Unfolding Story , George Rose (Johns Hopkins University) , Biochemistry. Proteomics, Ovarian Cancer, and ... Mining the Protein Data Bank and TargetDB with a Structural Genomics Focus , Ryan Bannen , Biochemistry ...
more infohttp://www.cibm.wisc.edu/seminar/

8-CPT-cAMP | Abcam8-CPT-cAMP | Abcam

... cAMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA/PKG). Displays site selectivity for Site B of cAMP-dependent PKA type II. Potently ... 8-(4-Chlorophenyl)thio-cyclic AMP is a potent inhibitor of the cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE VA).. Biochem ... By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex ... By product type. Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA, Matched Antibody Pairs and Multiplex Immunoassays. Cell and ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/8-4-chlorophenylthioadenosine-35-cyclic-monophosphate-8-cpt-camp-ab120424.html

A nonsense mutation in cGMP-dependent type II protein kinase (PRKG2) causes dwarfism in American Angus cattle. - Koltes James EA nonsense mutation in cGMP-dependent type II protein kinase (PRKG2) causes dwarfism in American Angus cattle. - Koltes James E

Collagen Type II/genetics ; Collagen Type X/genetics ; Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/genetics ; Dwarfism/genetics/ ... Four candidate genes were sequenced, revealing a nonsense mutation in exon 15 of cGMP-dependant type II protein kinase (PRKG2 ... A nonsense mutation in cGMP-dependent type II protein kinase (PRKG2) causes dwarfism in American Angus cattle. ... Reference : A nonsense mutation in cGMP-dependent type II protein kinase (PRKG2) causes dwarfism .... ...
more infohttps://orbi.uliege.be/handle/2268/101965

cyclic gmp dependent protein kinasescyclic gmp dependent protein kinases

Research Grants about cyclic gmp dependent protein kinases ... GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type ... cyclic gmp dependent protein kinases. Summary. Summary: A group of enzymes that are dependent on cyclic GMP and catalyzes the ... cyclic nucleotide regulated protein kinases , cyclic gmp dependent protein kinases ... cyclic amp dependent protein kinases*enzyme inhibitors*phosphorylation*carbazoles*cyclic amp*thionucleotides*protein kinase ...
more infohttps://www.labome.org/topics/chemicals/and/peptides/intracellular/cyclic/cyclic-gmp-dependent-protein-kinases-13214.html

Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Serine 239 Phosphorylation as a Sensitive Monitor of Defective Nitric Oxide/cGMP...Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Serine 239 Phosphorylation as a Sensitive Monitor of Defective Nitric Oxide/cGMP...

1 Cyclic GMP in turn activates cGMP-dependent protein kinase types I and II (cGK-I and -II) of which cGK-I is highly expressed ... Endogenous expression of type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA and protein in rat intestine. Implications for cystic ... Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase in smooth muscle and neutrophils. Adv Second Messenger Phosphoprot Res. 1993;28:121-132. ... Functional analysis of cGMP-dependent protein kinases I and II as mediators of NO/cGMP effects. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/87/11/999

Myosin phosphatase: structure, regulation and function.Myosin phosphatase: structure, regulation and function.

The level of myosin II phosphorylation is determined by activities of myosin light chain kinase and myosin phosphatase (MP). MP ... Phosphorylation of myosin II plays an important role in many cell functions, including smooth muscle contraction. ... EC 2.7.11.12/Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 3.1.3.16/Phosphoprotein Phosphatases; EC 3.1.3.16/Protein Phosphatase 1; ... Muscle Proteins / genetics, metabolism. Muscle, Smooth / enzymology*. Myosin Type II / chemistry, genetics, metabolism*. Myosin ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Myosin-phosphatase-structure-regulation-function/15124925.html

AMPK Alpha 1-Induced RhoA Phosphorylation Mediates Vasoprotective Effect of Estradiol | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and...AMPK Alpha 1-Induced RhoA Phosphorylation Mediates Vasoprotective Effect of Estradiol | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and...

cAMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA and PKG) phosphorylate RhoA on Ser188.4,5 Both in vitro and in vivo ... Ste20-related kinase SLK phosphorylates Ser188 of RhoA to induce vasodilation in response to angiotensin II Type 2 receptor ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathway inhibits RhoA-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contraction in vascular ... a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase. Embo J. 1992;11:3985-3994. ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/31/11/2634

JCI -
Natriuretic peptides enhance the oxidative capacity of human skeletal muscleJCI - Natriuretic peptides enhance the oxidative capacity of human skeletal muscle

In human myotubes, NP induced PGC-1α and mitochondrial OXPHOS gene expression in a cyclic GMP-dependent manner. NP treatment ... Natriuretic peptides/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase cascades promote muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and prevent obesity. ... biological responses are largely mediated through cyclic GMP (cGMP) produced by the guanylyl cyclase domain of NP receptor type ... Two-way ANOVA were applied to determine the effect of training and ANP on gene expression, OXPHOS proteins, and cellular ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/64526

Protein Kinase, CGMP-Dependent, Type I (PRKG1) ELISA KitsProtein Kinase, CGMP-Dependent, Type I (PRKG1) ELISA Kits

Type I (PRKG1) ELISA Kits. Mammals have three different isoforms of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (Ialpha, Ibeta, and II ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1-like , cGMP dependent protein kinase type 1 , protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, regulatory, type ... Protein Kinase, CAMP-Dependent, Regulatory, Type II, beta ELISA Kits * Protein Kinase, CAMP-Dependent, Regulatory, Type II, ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1 , protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type I , cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1, beta isozyme , cGMP ...
more infohttp://www.antibodies-online.com/abstract/Protein+Kinase%2C+CGMP-Dependent%2C+Type+I+

Roles of calmodulin and CaMKII in mediating PKG stimula | Open-iRoles of calmodulin and CaMKII in mediating PKG stimula | Open-i

Cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is recognized as an important signaling component in diverse cell types. PKG ... and blockade of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), respectively. Exogenous H(2)O(2) also concentration- ... Cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is recognized as an important signaling component in diverse cell types. PKG ... and blockade of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), respectively. Exogenous H(2)O(2) also concentration- ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3066208_pone.0018191.g004&req=4

Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases and the Cardiovascular System | Circulation ResearchCyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases and the Cardiovascular System | Circulation Research

cAK indicates cAMP-dependent protein kinase; cGK(I/II), cGMP-dependent protein kinase (type I/II); cGMP, cyclic guanosine-3′,5 ... Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways by cyclic GMP and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in contractile ... Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases differ in their regulation of cyclic AMP response element-dependent gene ... Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases. Genes and Proteins. cGKs are serine/threonine kinases that are present in a variety of ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/93/10/907.full

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos - metabolism , Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II , beta Catenin - metabolism , beta ... Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases - metabolism , Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases - genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c ... cGMP-dependent Protein Kinase , beta-Catenin , Mechanotransduction , Focal Adhesion Kinase , Osteoblasts , Protein Kinase G ( ... MAP Kinase Signaling System - genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases - genetics , Mice , MAP Kinase Kinase 2 - genetics ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:Focal%20Adhesion%20Kinase%202%20-%20genetics

Modulation of Cl-/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells by nitric oxide.Modulation of Cl-/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells by nitric oxide.

... exchange activity in human Caco-2 cells. Our results demonstrate that NO inhi ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Cyclic GMP / physiology. Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases ... Type: Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... EC 2.7.11.11/Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.12/Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Modulation-Cl-exchange-activity-in/12181176.html

Biomolecules  | Free Full-Text | The TORC2‐Dependent Signaling Network in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae | HTMLBiomolecules | Free Full-Text | The TORC2‐Dependent Signaling Network in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae | HTML

... associated events by directly phosphorylating and thereby stimulating the activity of two types of effector protein kinases: ... In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a plasma membrane‐localized protein kinase complex, Target of Rapamicin (TOR) complex‐2 (TORC2) ( ... associated protein kinase Pkh1 (mammalian ortholog is PDK1) and a paralog (Pkh2). For cell survival under various stresses, ... Pkc1 is also regulated by Pkh1‐ and TORC2‐dependent phosphorylation, but, in addition, by interaction with Rho1‐GTP and lipids ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/7/3/66/htm

PRKG1 - WikipediaPRKG1 - Wikipedia

"Localization of the human gene for the type I cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase to chromosome 10". Cytogenetics and Cell ... and characterization of the cGMP-dependent protein kinases I beta and II using the baculovirus system". FEBS Letters. 374 (3): ... of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha". ... 5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (12): 8701-7. PMID ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PRKG1

Crosstalk between Cytoplasmic RIG-I and STING Sensing Pathways.  - PubMed - NCBICrosstalk between Cytoplasmic RIG-I and STING Sensing Pathways. - PubMed - NCBI

... mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) RNA sensing and the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)- stimulator of interferon ... Activated RIG-I and STING lead to type I IFN-dependent DC activation. 5pppRNA in combination with type I IFN induces DC ... TANK binding kinase 1; IKK, IκB kinase; IFI16, Interferon Gamma Inducible Protein 16; IRF3, interferon regulatory factor 3. ... Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support. Publication type. *Review. MeSH terms. *Adaptor Proteins, Signal ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=28073693

CGMP-dependent protein kinase - WikipediaCGMP-dependent protein kinase - Wikipedia

EC 2.7.11.12 Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases and the Cardiovascular System cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinases at the US ... Two PKG genes, coding for PKG type I (PKG-I) and type II (PKG-II), have been identified in mammals. The N-terminus of PKG-I is ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP ... "A crystal structure of the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I{beta} dimerization/docking domain reveals molecular details of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CGMP-dependent_protein_kinase

Nitric oxide switches on glycolysis through the AMP protein kinase and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase pathway.  - PubMed - NCBINitric oxide switches on glycolysis through the AMP protein kinase and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase pathway. - PubMed - NCBI

... cyclic GMP-independent increase in the activity of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK1), a master regulator of glycolysis, and an ... of glycolysis by nitric oxide is dependent on phosphorylation of the energy charge-sensitive AMP-activated protein kinase, ... Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication type. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Nitric oxide switches on glycolysis through the AMP protein kinase and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase pathway.. Almeida A1, Moncada S ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14688792?dopt=Abstract

A cyclic di-GMP-binding adaptor protein interacts with histidine kinase to regulate two-component signalingA cyclic di-GMP-binding adaptor protein interacts with histidine kinase to regulate two-component signaling

... that binding of HapZ to SagS inhibits the phosphotransfer between SagS and the downstream protein HptB in a c-di-GMP-dependent ... A cyclic di-GMP-binding adaptor protein interacts with histidine kinase to regulate two-component signaling. ... A Cyclic di GMP binding Adaptor Protein Interacts with Histidine Kinase to Regulate Two component Signaling.pdf (2.315Mb) ... The bacterial messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) binds to a diverse range of effectors to exert its biological effect. Despite ...
more infohttps://dr.ntu.edu.sg/handle/10220/46264

Cyclic GMP-AMP Is an Endogenous Second Messenger in Innate Immune Signaling by Cytosolic DNA | ScienceCyclic GMP-AMP Is an Endogenous Second Messenger in Innate Immune Signaling by Cytosolic DNA | Science

... possessed the STING-dependent, RNA polymerase III-independent, pathway to induce type I interferons (3). ... cAMP binds to and activates protein kinase A and other effector molecules. Similarly, cGAMP binds to and activates STING to ... Unless noted otherwise, all results in this and other figures were representative of at least two independent experiments. ... Cyclic di-GMP sensing via the innate immune signaling protein STING. Mol. Cell 46, 735 (2012). doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2012.05.029 ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/339/6121/826?ijkey=80791052f5e8beac7629676cad9b68aa0b34d77d&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  • abstract = "To promote both efficiency and selectivity, many protein kinases and phosphatases are maintained in specific subcellular microenvironments through their association with anchoring proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • We found marked inhibition of AngII-induced Rho/Rho-kinase activation and subsequent VSMC migration by eNOS gene transfer whereas G q -dependent transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by AngII remains intact. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion- The eNOS/NO cascade specifically targets the Rho/Rho-kinase system via inhibition of G 12/13 to prevent vascular migration induced by AngII, representing a novel signal cross-talk in cardiovascular protection by NO. (ahajournals.org)
  • PKG1-dependent repair functions will outweigh its signaling functions in spinal nociceptive LTP (show SCP2 ELISA Kits ), so that inhibition of PKG1 is no option for neuropathic pain. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Exogenous H(2)O(2) also concentration-dependently stimulated Kir6.2/SUR2A channels in intact cells, and its effect was prevented by inhibition of calmodulin or CaMKII. (nih.gov)
  • Ex vivo, ovariectomy leads to an increase in the amplitude of phenylephrine- or serotonine-induced contractions of aortic rings in wild-type mice but not in AMPKα1-knock-out mice or E2-supplemented animals. (ahajournals.org)
  • Another plasma cell malignancy, multiple myeloma (MM), arising spontaneously in the ageing C57BL/KaLwRij mice, was investigated in order to see whether the MM cells contain c-myc abnormalities of the MPC or RIC type. (tudelft.nl)
  • TAT-apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain protein transduction rescues mice from fulminant liver failure. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Cytosolic DNA induces type I interferons and other cytokines that are important for antimicrobial defense but can also result in autoimmunity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recent accumulating evidence suggests that induction of VSMC migration by the AT 1 receptor requires multiple sets of downstream tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. (ahajournals.org)
  • PKG are serine/threonine kinases that are present in a variety of eukaryotes ranging from the unicellular organism Paramecium to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most GKAPs were tissue-specific, a ubiquitous PKG-binding protein was detected and identified as myosin. (elsevier.com)
  • Analysis of myosin fragments revealed that PKG binds within Subfragment 2. (elsevier.com)
  • The N-terminus of PKG-I is encoded by two alternatively spliced exons that specify for the PKG-Iα and PKG-Iβ isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the vasculature, RhoA and its downstream effector Rho associated protein kinase (Rock) have been shown to regulate processes such as vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contraction, proliferation and differentiations, endothelial permeability, platelet activation, and leukocyte migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Oct. 2 Presentation by Brody Holohan, PhD, CIBM postdoctoral fellow (Center for Human Genetics, Marshfield Clinic Research Inst. (wisc.edu)
  • To test this model, we developed an in vitro complementation assay using the murine fibrosarcoma cell line L929, which is known to induce interferon-β (IFN-β) in a STING-dependent manner ( 5 ) ( Fig. 1A ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The critical role of RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling in various systems is discussed, in particular those vascular smooth muscle disorders involving hypercontractility. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conclusion- Our work thus defines AMPKα1 as (1) a new kinase for RhoA and (2) a new mediator of the vasoprotective effects of estrogen. (ahajournals.org)
  • Previous research has shown that PRKG2 regulates SRY (sex-determining region Y) box 9 (SOX9)-mediated transcription of collagen 2 (COL2). (uliege.be)
  • The bacterial messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) binds to a diverse range of effectors to exert its biological effect. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Many bacterial pathogens produce diffusible signal factor (DSF)-type quorum sensing (QS) signals in modulation of virulence and biofilm formation. (pnas.org)
  • Many bacteria produce, detect, and respond to diffusible QS signal molecules in a cell-density-dependent manner ( 1 , 4 ), highlighting the critical roles of QS signal and its receptor in bacterial cell-cell communications. (pnas.org)
  • Full length wt PKG II and wt regulatory PKG JJ proteins, when overexpressed in hippocampal neurons targeted to the synapse, however, a G2A PKG II mutant, which does not undergo myristoylation had a much more diffuse distribution in the entire cell and did not target to the synapse. (ubc.ca)