A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the TESTES and BRAIN. Variants of this subtype exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its mRNA.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

Atrial natriuretic peptide-stimulated Ca2+ reabsorption in rabbit kidney requires membrane-targeted, cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II. (1/31)

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and nitric oxide (NO) are key regulators of ion and water transport in the kidney. Here, we report that these cGMP-elevating hormones stimulate Ca2+ reabsorption via a novel mechanism specifically involving type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK II). ANP and the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), markedly increased Ca2+ uptake in freshly immunodissected rabbit connecting tubules (CNT) and cortical collecting ducts (CCD). Although readily increasing cGMP, ANP and SNP did not affect Ca2+ and Na+ reabsorption in primary cultures of these segments. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that cGK II, and not cGK I, was present in freshly isolated CNT and CCD but underwent a complete down-regulation during the primary cell culture. However, upon adenoviral reexpression of cGK II in primary cultures, ANP, SNP, and 8-Br-cGMP readily increased Ca2+ reabsorption. In contrast, no cGMP-dependent effect on electrogenic Na+ transport was observed. The membrane localization of cGK II proved to be crucial for its action, because a nonmyristoylated cGK II mutant that was shown to be localized in the cytosol failed to mediate ANP-stimulated Ca2+ transport. The Ca2+-regulatory function of cGK II appeared isotype-specific because no cGMP-mediated increase in Ca2+ transport was observed after expression of the cytosolic cGK Ibeta or a membrane-bound cGK II/Ibeta chimer. These results demonstrate that ANP- and NO-stimulated Ca2+ reabsorption requires membrane-targeted cGK II.  (+info)

Serine 19 of human 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase is phosphorylated by cGMP protein kinase II. (2/31)

6-Pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) participates in tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor biosynthesis. We previously identified in a PTPS-deficient patient an inactive PTPS allele with an Arg(16) to Cys codon mutation. Arg(16) is located in the protein surface exposed phosphorylation motif Arg(16)-Arg-Ile-Ser, with Ser(19) as the putative phosphorylation site for serine-threonine protein kinases. Purification of recombinant PTPS-S19A from bacterial cells resulted in an active enzyme (k(cat)/K(m) = 6.4 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), which was similar to wild-type PTPS (k(cat)/K(m) = 4.1 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). In assays with purified enzymes, wild-type but not PTPS-S19A was a specific substrate for the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) type I and II. Upon expression in COS-1 cells, PTPS-S19A was stable but not phosphorylated and had a reduced activity of approximately 33% in comparison to wild-type PTPS. Extracts from several human cell lines, including brain, contained a kinase that bound to and phosphorylated immobilized wild-type, but not mutant PTPS. Addition of cGMP stimulated phosphotransferase activity 2-fold. Extracts from transfected COS-1 cells overexpressing cGKII stimulated Ser(19) phosphorylation more than 100-fold, but only 4-fold from cGKI overexpressing cells. Moreover, fibroblast extracts from mice lacking cGKII exhibited significantly reduced phosphorylation of PTPS. These results suggest that Ser(19) of human PTPS may be a substrate for cGKII phosphorylation also in vivo, a modification that is essential for normal activity.  (+info)

Nitric oxide and cGMP regulate gene expression in neuronal and glial cells by activating type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase. (3/31)

Nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP have been implicated in many neuronal functions, including regulation of gene expression, but little is known about the downstream targets of NO/cGMP in the nervous system. We found that type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), which is widely expressed in the brain, mediated NO- and cGMP-induced activation of the fos promoter in cells of neuronal and glial origin; the enzyme was ineffective in regulating gene expression in fibroblast-like cells. The effect of G-kinase II on gene expression did not require calcium uptake but was synergistically enhanced by calcium. G-kinase II was membrane associated and did not translocate to the nucleus; however, a soluble G-kinase II mutant translocated to the nucleus and regulated gene expression in fibroblast-like cells. Soluble G-kinase I also regulates fos promoter activity, but membrane targeting of G-kinase I prevented the enzyme from translocating to the nucleus and regulating transcription in multiple cell types, including glioma cells; this suggests that cell type-specific factor(s) that mediate the transcriptional effects of extranuclear G-kinase II are not regulated by G-kinase I. Our results suggest that G-kinase I and II control gene expression by different mechanisms and that NO effects on neuronal plasticity may involve G-kinase II regulation of gene expression.-Gudi, T., Hong, G. K.-P., Vaandrager, A. B., Lohmann, S. M., Pilz, R. B. Nitric oxide and cGMP regulate gene expression in neuronal and glial cells by activating type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase.  (+info)

The amino-terminal cyclic nucleotide binding site of the type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase is essential for full cyclic nucleotide-dependent activation. (4/31)

For the type I cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKIalpha and cGKIbeta), a high affinity interaction exists between the C2 amino group of cGMP and the hydroxyl side chain of a threonine conserved in most cGMP binding sites. To examine the effect of this interaction on ligand binding and kinase activation in the type II isozyme of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKII), alanine was substituted for the conserved threonine or serine. cGKII was found to require the C2 amino group of cGMP and its cognate serine or threonine hydroxyl for efficient cGMP activation. Of the two binding sites, disruption of cGMP-specific binding in the NH(2)-terminal binding site had the greatest effect on cGMP-dependent kinase activation, like cGKI. However, ligand dissociation studies showed that the location of the rapid and slow dissociation sites of cGKII was reversed relative to cGKI. Another set of mutations that prevented cyclic nucleotide binding demonstrated the necessity of the NH(2)-terminal, rapid dissociation binding site for cyclic nucleotide-dependent activation of cGKII. These findings suggest distinct mechanisms of activation for cGKII and cGKI isoforms. Because cGKII mediates the effects of heat-stable enterotoxins via the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator Cl(-) channel, these findings define a structural target for drug design.  (+info)

Evidence for the presence of cGMP-dependent protein kinase-II in human distal colon and in T84, the colonic cell line. (5/31)

Heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) stimulates intestinal Cl(-) secretion by activating guanylate cyclase C (GCC) to increase intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP). In the colon, cGMP action could involve protein kinase (PK) G-II or PKA pathways, depending on the segment and species. In the human colon, both PKG and PKA pathways have been implicated, and, therefore, the present study examined the mechanism of cGMP-mediated Cl(-) transport in primary cultures of human distal colonocytes and in T84, the colonic cell line. Both cell preparations express mRNA for CFTR, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1), GCC and PKG-II as detected by RT-PCR. The effects of STa and the PKG-specific cGMP analogues, 8Br-cGMP and 8pCPT-cGMP, on Cl(-) transport were measured using a halide-sensitive probe. In primary human colonocytes and T84 cells, STa, the cGMP analogues and the cAMP-dependent secretagogue, prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)), enhanced Cl(-) transport. The effects of 8Br-cGMP and 8pCPT-cGMP suggested the involvement of PKG, and this was explored further in T84 cells. The effects of 8pCPT-cGMP were dose-dependent and sensitive to the PKG inhibitor, H8 (70 microM), but H8 had no effect on PGE(1)-induced Cl(-) secretion. In contrast, a PKA inhibitor, H7 (50 microM), blocked PGE(1)-mediated but not 8pCPT-cGMP-induced Cl(-) transport. 8pCPT-cGMP enhanced phosphorylation of the PKG-specific substrate, 2A3, by T84 membranes in vitro. This phosphorylation was inhibited by H8. These results strongly suggest that cGMP activates Cl(-) transport through a PKG-II pathway in primary cells and in the T84 cell line of the human colon.  (+info)

Autoinhibition and isoform-specific dominant negative inhibition of the type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase. (6/31)

In the absence of cyclic nucleotides, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) suppress phosphotransfer activity at the catalytic cleft by competitive inhibition of substrate binding with a pseudosubstrate sequence within the holoenzyme. The magnitude of inhibition can be diminished by autophosphorylation near this pseudosubstrate sequence. Activation of type I cGK (cGKI) and type II cGK (cGKII) are differentially regulated by their cyclic nucleotide-binding sites. To address the possibility that the distinct activation mechanisms of cGKII and cGKI result from differences in the autophosphorylation of the inhibitory domain, we investigated the effects of autophosphorylation on the kinetics of activation. Unlike the type I cGKs (cGKIalpha and Ibeta), cGKII autophosphorylation did not alter the basal activity, nor the sensitivity of the enzyme to cyclic nucleotide activation. To determine residues responsible for autoinhibition of cGKII, Ala was substituted for basic residues (Lys(122), Arg(118), and Arg(119)) or a hydrophobic residue (Val(125)) within the putative pseudosubstrate domain of cGKII. The integrity of these residues was essential for full cGKII autoinhibition. Furthermore, a cGKII truncation mutant containing this autoinhibitory region demonstrated a nanomolar IC(50) toward a constitutively active form of cGKII. Finally, we present evidence that the dominant negative properties of this truncation mutant are specific to cGKII when compared with cAMP-dependent protein kinase Calpha and cGKIbeta. These findings extend the known differences in the activation mechanisms among cGK isoforms and allow the design of an isoform-specific cGKII inhibitor.  (+info)

Apparent affinity of CFTR for ATP is increased by continuous kinase activity. (7/31)

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel which is activated by protein phosphorylation and nucleoside triphosphates. We demonstrate here that fusion of the soluble catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase to the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin yields a constitutively active protein kinase which activates CFTR effectively. As it is membrane-bound it is particularly useful for continuous perfusion of excised inside-out patches. We also tested the effect of a naturally membrane-bound protein kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase II, on CFTR. Both kinases, when continuously active, increase apparent affinity of CFTR to ATP about two-fold emphasizing the role of phosphorylation in modulating the interaction of ATP with the nucleotide binding domains.  (+info)

cGMP-dependent protein kinase II modulates mPer1 and mPer2 gene induction and influences phase shifts of the circadian clock. (8/31)

BACKGROUND: In mammals, the master circadian clock that drives many biochemical, physiological, and behavioral rhythms is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Generation and maintenance of circadian rhythmicity rely on complex interlocked transcriptional/translational feedback loops involving a set of clock genes. Among the molecular components driving the mammalian circadian clock are the Period 1 and 2 (mPer1 and mPer2) genes. Because the periodicity of the clock is not exactly 24 hr, it has to be adjusted periodically. The major stimulus for adjustment (resetting) of the clock is nocturnal light. It evokes activation of signaling pathways in the SCN that ultimately lead to expression of mPer1 and mPer2 genes conveying adjustment of the clock. RESULTS: We show that mice deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII, also known as PKGII), despite regular retinal function, are defective in resetting the circadian clock, as assessed by changes in the onset of wheel running activity after a light pulse. At the molecular level, light induction of mPer2 in the SCN is strongly reduced in the early period of the night, whereas mPer1 induction is elevated in cGKII-deficient mice. Additionally, we show that light induction of cfos and light-dependent phosphorylation of CREB at serine 133 are not affected in these animals. CONCLUSIONS: cGKII plays a role in the clock-resetting mechanism. In particular, the ability to delay clock phase is affected in cGKII-deficient mice. It seems that the signaling pathway involving cGKII influences in an opposite manner the light-induced induction of mPer1 and mPer2 genes and thereby influences the direction of a phase shift of the circadian clock.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of cGMP-Dependent protein kinase anchoring proteins (GKAPs). AU - Vo, Ngan. AU - Gettemy, Jessica M.. AU - Coghlan, Vincent M.. PY - 1998/5/29. Y1 - 1998/5/29. N2 - To promote both efficiency and selectivity, many protein kinases and phosphatases are maintained in specific subcellular microenvironments through their association with anchoring proteins. In this study, we describe a new class of proteins, called GKAPS, that specifically bind the Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). GKAPs were detected in rat aorta, brain, and intestine using a protein overlay technique. The PKG binding proteins were distinct from AKAPs, proteins known to bind the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Furthermore, a synthetic peptide that blocks association of PKA with AKAPs did not affect the PKG-GKAP interaction. Deletion mutagenesis was used to map the GKAP binding determinants within PKG to the N-terminal regulatory region. While most GKAPs were tissue-specific, a ...
RecName: Full=Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase type-2 gamma; EC=;AltName: Full=Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase type II gamma; Short=PI(5)P 4-kinase type II gamma; Short=PIP4KII-gamma ...
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Complete information for PRKG2 gene (Protein Coding), Protein Kinase CGMP-Dependent 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Fast delivery of PRKG2 knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
Mutation in the PRKG1 Gene Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Aortic Dissection. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
CaM-kinase II (CAMK2) is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long-term potentiation and neurotransmitter release. Member of the NMDAR signaling complex in excitatory synapses it may regulate NMDAR-dependent potentiation of the AMPAR and synaptic plasticity. Phosphorylates transcription factor FOXO3 on Ser-298 (By similarity). Activates FOXO3 transcriptional activity (PubMed:23805378).
We show that parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) can be used for exact quantification of phosphorylation ratios of proteins using stable-isotope-labeled peptides. We have compared two different PRM approaches on a digest of a U87 cell culture, namely, direct-PRM (tryptic digest measured by PRM without any further sample preparation) and TiO2-PRM (tryptic digest enriched with TiO2 cartridges, followed by PRM measurement); these approaches are compared for the following phosphorylation sites: neuroblast differentiation-associated protein (AHNAK S5480-p), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta (CAMK2D T337-p), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR S1166-p). A reproducible percentage of phosphorylation could be determined (CV 6-13%) using direct-PRM or TiO2-PRM. In addition, we tested the approaches in a cell culture experiment in which U87 cells were deprived of serum. As a gold standard we included immune precipitation of EGFR followed by PRM (IP-PRM). For EGFR ...
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In addition to vasodilation, NO/NP/cGMP signaling is involved in the development of vasculoproliferative disorders, such as restenosis and atherosclerosis. The analysis of transgenic mice showed that NO can both promote58-64 and inhibit65-70 pathological vascular remodeling (see review5). This finding could explain why NO-generating drugs have not been reported to limit the progression of atherosclerosis in humans. The opposing actions of NO might depend on the magnitude and spatiotemporal profile of its production in a specific pathophysiological setting and are likely mediated through different cellular and molecular mechanisms. A key process in vascular remodeling is the phenotypic modulation of vascular SMCs from contractile to proliferating/dedifferentiated cells.71 It has been reported that NO and cGMP can both promote72,73 and inhibit74,75 the proliferation of cultured SMCs (see reviews12,76). The reason for these contradictory findings and their (patho)physiological significance is not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An anti-tumor role for cGMP-dependent protein kinase. AU - Hou, Yali. AU - Gupta, Naren. AU - Schoenlein, Patricia. AU - Wong, Elsie. AU - Martindale, Robert. AU - Ganapathy, Vadivel. AU - Browning, Darren. PY - 2006/8/18. Y1 - 2006/8/18. N2 - This study compared Type-1 cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) expression in normal and tumor tissues and examined PKG function in tumor growth. Studies with a cDNA array revealed that PKG expression was reduced in many tumors compared to respective normal tissue. This decrease in PKG expression was confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting of matched colon specimens from normal epithelium and tumor tissue, and also in colon derived cell lines where luciferase reporter analysis revealed that the decreased expression occurred at the transcriptional level. Using SW620 colon carcinoma cells engineered for inducible expression of PKG1β, it was found that exogenous PKG1β lead to decreased tumor growth and invasiveness in nude ...
Our previous studies demonstrated that subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV) into the Zusanli (ST36) acupuncture point, namely BV acupuncture, dose-dependently prevents conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by repeated injection of methamphetamine (METH) in mice. To expand on our observations, the present study was designed to determine the suppressive mechanisms of BV acupuncture in the development of METH-induced CPP by evaluating the changes in expression of ΔFosB, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK), and phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (pCaMKII) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in mice. Pre-emptive treatment with BV at 30 min before repeated METH injection completely suppressed acquisition of CPP at the day 7 test session. METH-induced upregulation of ΔFosB and pERK in PFC and NAc was significantly reduced by BV pretreatment. Expression of pCaMKII was significantly elevated by METH in NAc and ...
The expression and phosphorylation state of VASP was investigated in neutrophils during cell adherence. Adhesion is an essential process for neutrophil migration from the peripheral blood to sites of inflammation. During the process of adhesion, neutrophils adhere and spread without any clear stopping point between these two processes. Therefore, it was important to determine whether VASP was phosphorylated in response to signals involved in adhesion and/or spreading. In this report, we demonstrate that VASP is a target for cGK regulation of neutrophil spreading. We showed that VASP was in its dephosphorylated form in retracted round neutrophils and was rapidly phosphorylated by cGK at the onset of cell spreading. Both adherence and the onset of cell spreading induced significant elevations of cGMP in neutrophils. When neutrophils were incubated with 8-Br-cGMP, a direct activator of cGK, cells became more polarized in suspension, and spread more rapidly during adhesion. Our observations that ...
cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKG) exhibit diverse physiological functions in the mammalian system e.g., in vascular and gastrointestinal smooth muscles, in platelets, in kidney, in bone growth, nociception and in the central nervous system. Furthermore, PKG were found in insects and in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Two different genes of PKG exist: a) the PKG-I gene that is expressed as cytosolic PKG-Iα or PKG-Iβ isoform, and b) the PKG-II gene, which expresses the membrane associated PKG-II protein. The enzyme kinetics, the localization and the substrates of these PKG enzymes differ utilizing different physiological functions. Various inhibitors of PKG were developed directed against diverse functional regions of the kinase. These inhibitors of PKG have been used to analyse the specific functions of these enzymes. The review article will summarize these different inhibitors regarding their specificity and their present applications in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, it will be
GF ID PRKG1_interact #=GF AC PF15898.5 #=GF DE cGMP-dependent protein kinase interacting domain #=GF AU Eberhardt R;0000-0001-6152-1369 #=GF SE Jackhmmer:A8JNT6 #=GF GA 32.40 32.40; #=GF TC 33.30 32.50; #=GF NC 32.30 32.30; #=GF BM hmmbuild HMM.ann SEED.ann #=GF SM hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq #=GF TP Family #=GF RN [1] #=GF RM 12873707 #=GF RT Dimerization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1alpha and the #=GF RT myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase: role of leucine #=GF RT zipper domains. #=GF RA Surks HK, Mendelsohn ME; #=GF RL Cell Signal. 2003;15:937-944. #=GF RN [2] #=GF RM 10567269 #=GF RT Regulation of myosin phosphatase by a specific interaction with #=GF RT cGMP- dependent protein kinase Ialpha. #=GF RA Surks HK, Mochizuki N, Kasai Y, Georgescu SP, Tang KM, Ito M, #=GF RA Lincoln TM, Mendelsohn ME; #=GF RL Science. 1999;286:1583-1587. #=GF DR INTERPRO; IPR031775; #=GF DR SO; 0100021; polypeptide_conserved_region; #=GF CC This domain is found at the C-terminus ...
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The Association Study of PRKG1 Gene Polymorphism and Salt-Sensitive Hypertension among the Essential Hypertension in Beijing Abstract.
The report by Castro et al demonstrates that PKG activation in response to ANP activation of pGC elicits a strong feed-forward mechanism that further enhances cGMP production in the subsarcolemmal pool (Figure). The protein target of PKG that elicits this effect is unknown. Notably, this is the first feed-forward effect to be defined for cGMP signaling in any tissue. Surprisingly, it appears that there is little activation of PDE2 activity through cGMP binding to its allosteric sites, which should counter the effect, and the mechanism for terminating the feed-forward signal is not determined. Moreover, the mechanism whereby PDE2 is selectively localized to this cGMP pool is unknown.. In contrast, increased cGMP production by NO-GC elicits the opposite effect on cGMP levels by activating a negative-feedback regulation of cytosolic cGMP; this is mediated by activation of PKG, which phosphorylates and activates PDE5. The resulting increased cGMP breakdown blunts further elevation of cGMP and lowers ...
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Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK or PKG) subfamily, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The cGK subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Mammals have two cGK isoforms from different genes, cGKI and cGKII. cGKI exists as two splice variants, cGKI-alpha and cGKI-beta. cGK consists of an N-terminal regulatory domain containing a dimerization and an autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate region, two cGMP-binding domains, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Binding of cGMP to both binding sites releases the inhibition of the catalytic center by the pseudosubstrate region, allowing autophosphorylation and ...
Families will be able to identify relatives with mutation, take steps to monitor and treat. A multi-institutional team led by Dianna Milewicz, M.D., Ph.D., of The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) has found a recurrent genetic mutation that has been linked to deadly thoracic aortic dissections in family members as young as 17 years of age.. The gene known as PRKG1 makes a protein called cGMP-dependent kinase, type I. The PRKG1 mutation alters the function of the protein and causes the muscle cells in the wall of the aorta to respond incorrectly to pulsatile blood flow from the heart, and the change in this one protein ultimately causes thoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic dissection. The mutation was identified in four families, including three in the United States. The majority of the affected family members suffered acute aortic dissections at young ages (17 to 51 years).. What is unique about this finding is that we identified four unrelated families from ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is involved in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Two regulatory and two catalytic subunits form the PKA holoenzyme, disbands after cAMP binding. The holoenzyme is involved in many cellular events, including ion transport, metabolism, and transcription. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015 ...
Craige B, Salazar G, Faundez V. Phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha contains an AP-3-sorting motif and a kinase domain that are both required for endosome traffic. Mol Biol Cell. 2008 Apr; 19(4):1415-26 ...
Here I describe a study of comparative behavioral genetics of a complex behavioral phenotype that is affected by a gene encoding a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, foraging). I accomplish this by using a traditional ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic GMP - Dependent protein kinase. AU - Roskoski, R.. AU - Vulliet, Philip R. AU - Glass, D. B.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Tyrosine hydroxylase purified from rat pheochromycytoma was phosphorylated and activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. The extent of activation was correlated with the degree of phosphate incorporated into the enzyme. Comparable stoichiometric ratios (0.6 mol phosphate/mol tyrosine hydroxylase subunit) were obtained at maximal concentrations of either cyclic AMP-dependent or cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases. The enzymes appeared to mediate the phosphorylation of the same residue based on the observation that incorporation was not increased when both enzymes were present. The major tryptic phosphopeptide obtained from tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylated by each protein kinase exhibited an identical retention time following ...
"Localization of the human gene for the type I cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase to chromosome 10". Cytogenetics and Cell ... and characterization of the cGMP-dependent protein kinases I beta and II using the baculovirus system". FEBS Letters. 374 (3): ... of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha". ... 5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (12): 8701-7. PMID ...
5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (12): 8701-7. PMID ... Tanimura A, Tojyo Y, Turner RJ (Sep 2000). "Evidence that type I, II, and III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors can occur ... "Carbonic anhydrase-related protein is a novel binding protein for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1". The ... Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITPR1 gene. ITPR1 has been shown to ...
EC Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases and the Cardiovascular System cGMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US ... Two PKG genes, coding for PKG type I (PKG-I) and type II (PKG-II), have been identified in mammals. The N-terminus of PKG-I is ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase or protein kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP ... "A crystal structure of the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I{beta} dimerization/docking domain reveals molecular details of ...
The molecular mechanism of smooth muscle relaxation involves the enzyme CGMP-dependent protein kinase, also known as PKG. This ... June 1996). "Sildenafil: an orally active type 5 cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor for the treatment of penile ... In 2017, it was the 217th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than two million prescriptions. ... Francis SH, Busch JL, Corbin JD, Sibley D (September 2010). "cGMP-dependent protein kinases and cGMP phosphodiesterases in ...
... where it stimulates a protein kinase called cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. By phosphorylating proteins, cyclic AMP- ... G proteins). The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) ... Cyclic nucleotides can be found in many different types of eukaryotic cells, including photo-receptor rods and cones, smooth ... Eckly-Michel A, Martin V, Lugnier C (September 1997). "Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in cyclic AMP ...
CNG channel activity is controlled by the interaction between cGMP-dependent protein kinase and G1 protein because of cGMP's ... The steep concentration between CNG channels and ligand concentration shows that at least two or three cyclic nucleotides are ... "Induction by cyclic GMP of cationic conductance in plasma membrane of retinal rod outer segment". Nature. 313 (6000): 310-3. ... However, a receptor-type GC in mammalian sperm has yet to be identified. Mouse sperm express other channels such as CatSper1. ...
Vrolix, M; Raeymaekers, L; Wuytack, F; Hofmann, F; Casteels, R (Nov 1, 1988). "Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase stimulates ... L-type calcium channel expression increases in spastic vascular smooth muscle cells, which could result in excessive calcium ... "Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathway inhibits RhoA-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contraction in vascular ... Nicorandil stimulates guanylate cyclase to increase formation of cyclic GMP (cGMP). cGMP activates protein kinase G (PKG), ...
... inducing a signaling cascade that results in the activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and an ultimate decrease in ... In addition to this, it has already been shown that NO stimulates increased cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels in the smooth muscle cells ... Two proteins are involved in this accumulation of amyloid beta: serum response factor or SRF and myocardin. Together, these 2 ... Various cell types play a role in HR, including astrocytes, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and ...
... cyclic gmp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D12.644.360.200.575 - protamine kinase MeSH D12.644.360.250 - cyclin-dependent ... interferon type ii MeSH D12.644.276.174.440.893.510 - interferon-gamma, recombinant MeSH D12.644.276.174.480 - lymphokines MeSH ... map kinase kinase kinase 3 MeSH D12.644.360.400.400 - map kinase kinase kinase 4 MeSH D12.644.360.400.500 - map kinase kinase ... map kinase kinase kinases MeSH D12.644.360.400.100 - map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D12.644.360.400.200 - map kinase kinase ...
"Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase regulates vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype". Journal of Vascular Research. 34 (4): 245 ... Hydrogen sulfide is also involved in the disease process of type 1 diabetes. The beta cells of the pancreas in type 1 diabetes ... demonstrating that the vasodilatatory effects of these two gases are mutually dependent. Additionally, H 2S reacts with ... Lincoln, T. M.; Cornwell, Taylor (March 1990). "cGMP-dependent protein kinase mediates the reduction of Ca2+ by cAMP in ...
... through cyclic GMP-dependent mechanisms. NO prolongs the ability of human dendritic cells to internalize antigens at sites of ... The alveolar macrophage is the third cell type in the alveolus, the others are the type I and type II pneumocytes. Alveolar ... protein kinase A (PKA) and the exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac-1 and -2). Epac-1 and PKA are both important ... The lungs are especially sensitive and prone to damage, thus to avoid collateral damage to type 1 and type II pneumocytes, ...
... of high gain CICR which contributes to the contraction of myocytes by phosphorylation through cAMP dependent protein kinase A ( ... causes a decrease in the stimulation of guanylate cyclase and cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels fall in vascular smooth muscle. This ... this kinase improves the Ca2+ inward current through the L-type Ca2+ channels, which leads to calcium-induced calcium release ... a special type of smooth ER) and decreasing the calcium available for contraction. In myocytes, the increase of cAMP ...
... bone morphogenetic protein receptors, type ii MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.125 - ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase ... beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.150 - cyclic gmp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D08.811. ... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.125 - cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases ... map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.200 - map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
In vivo phosphorylation of thromboxane by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... phosphorylate messengers via protein kinase A (PKA). These signaling elements include thromboxane A2, receptor type α, ... ADP-dependent aggregation is mediated by two receptors: the purinergic P2Y1, coupled to Gαq, mediates the shape in the ... Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates cGMP production and therefore the activation cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G kinase). This kinase ...
Upon binding DNA, the protein cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase (cGAS) triggers reaction of GTP and ATP to form cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). ... Ishikawa H, Ma Z, Barber GN (October 2009). "STING regulates intracellular DNA-mediated, type I interferon-dependent innate ... GMP) connected by two phosphodiester bonds. However, cGAMP differs from other CDNs in that it contains a unique phosphodiester ... STING is also thought to activate the NF-κB transcription factor through the activity of the IκB kinase (IKK), though the ...
This in turn leads to increased cAMP-dependent protein kinase or PKA (protein kinase A) activity, ultimately promoting ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP in cell signaling and drug development". The New England Journal of Medicine. 355 (19): 2003-11. ... Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), which is abundant in the pulmonary tissue, hydrolyzes the cyclic bond of cGMP. Consequently, ... Pathogenesis in pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (WHO Group II) is completely different in that constriction or ...
Group I and II introns perform splicing similar to the spliceosome without requiring any protein. This similarity suggests that ... Yeast tRNA kinase then phosphorylates the 5'-hydroxyl group using adenosine triphosphate. Yeast tRNA cyclic phosphodiesterase ... Two types of spliceosomes have been identified (major and minor) which contain different snRNPs. The major spliceosome splices ... NAD-dependent 2'-phosphotransferase then removes the 2'-phosphate group. Splicing occurs in all the kingdoms or domains of life ...
... the two cellular systems used to degrade faulty or superfluous proteins, complexes and organelles. Additional foci of CEF ... or for the manipulation of cyclic GMP . Several CEF groups joined forces not only to unravel the photocycle of ChR2 at ... CEF scientists showed that GABARAP proteins are not only involved in autophagy but also in the ubiquitin-dependent degradation ... "The leukemogenic AF4-MLL fusion protein causes P-TEFb kinase activation and altered epigenetic signatures". Leukemia. 25 (1): ...
Group I and II introns perform splicing similar to the spliceosome without requiring any protein. This similarity suggests that ... Yeast tRNA kinase then phosphorylates the 5'-hydroxyl group using adenosine triphosphate. Yeast tRNA cyclic phosphodiesterase ... Two types of spliceosomes have been identified (major and minor) which contain different snRNPs. ... 3'OH of a free guanine nucleoside (or one located in the intron) or a nucleotide cofactor (GMP, GDP, GTP) attacks phosphate at ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Roskoski R, Roskoski LM (Jan 1987). "Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells by the cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP second ... Haycock JW, Ahn NG, Cobb MH, Krebs EG (Mar 1992). "ERK1 and ERK2, two microtubule-associated protein 2 kinases, mediate the ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is also an autoantigen in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome (APS) type I. A consistent abnormality in ...
Cyclic GMP binds to the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG1) which phosphorylates several proteins that results in decreased ... "Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor use in type 2 diabetes is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality". Heart. 102 ( ... PDE5A3 is not as widespread as the other two isoforms, and is only found in smooth muscle tissues, it is found in the heart, ... cGMP binding proteins and protein kinase G (PKG). The effect on PKG reduces levels of calcium leading to relaxation of smooth ...
"Cyclic AMP/GMP-dependent modulation of Ca2+ channels sets the polarity of nerve growth-cone turning". Nature. 423 (6943): 990-5 ... Overall, these studies show that regulating effects of netrin is dependent on the type of vascular tissue. Recently, netrin has ... DCC and UNC-5 proteins mediate netrin-1 responses. The UNC-5 protein is mainly involved in signaling repulsion. DCC, which is ... The two versions, netrin-G1 and netrin-G2, are found only in vertebrates. It is believed that they evolved independently of ...
Boerth NJ, Dey NB, Cornwell TL, Lincoln TM (1997). "Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase regulates vascular smooth muscle cell ... The vasodilating effects of sulfur dioxide are mediated via ATP-dependent calcium channels and L-type ("dihydropyridine") ... demonstrating that the vasodilatatory effects of these two gases are mutually dependent. Additionally, H 2S reacts with ... which is a heterodimeric enzyme with subsequent formation of cyclic-GMP. Cyclic-GMP activates protein kinase G, which causes ...
... type I site-specific deoxyribonuclease EC type II site-specific deoxyribonuclease EC type III site-specific ... ADP-dependent medium-chain-acyl-CoA hydrolase EC acyl-CoA hydrolase EC Dodecanoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase EC now with EC EC 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1 ... protein-tyrosine-phosphatase EC (pyruvate kinase)-phosphatase EC sorbitol-6-phosphatase EC ...
... that activates the cGMP-dependent protein kinase to phosphorylate proteins regulating muscle contraction, among other targets. ... Murad, Ferid (1994). "The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signal transduction system for intracellular and intercellular communication ... "S-nitrosylation of tissue-type plasminogen activator confers vasodilatory and antiplatelet properties on the enzyme". Proc Natl ... G proteins, protein kinases, ion channels and micro RNA processing machinery. That is, NO in the form of an SNO is a cellular ...
Cyclic GMP possibly opens cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) K+-selective channels, thereby causing hyperpolarization of the ... cAMP and protein kinase A as well as soluble guanylyl cyclase, cGMP, inositol trisphosphate receptor and store-operated Ca2+ ... This gradient-dependent sperm accumulation was observed over a wide temperature range (29-41 °C). Since temperature affects ... In humans, there are at least two different origins of sperm chemoattractants. One is the cumulus cells that surround the ...
This structural change causes an increased affinity for the regulatory protein called transducin (a type of G protein). Upon ... Second, it serves as an adaptor protein to aid the receptor to the clathrin-dependent endocytosis machinery (to induce receptor ... As rhodopsin is phosphorylated by rhodopsin kinase (a member of the GPCR kinases(GRKs)), it binds with high affinity to the ... The bound arrestin can contribute to the desensitization process in at least two ways. First, it prevents the interaction ...
Then, it converts adenosine triphosphate into cyclic AMP, which activates Protein kinase A. PKA leads to protein tyrosine ... "Cyclic GMP signaling is involved in the luteinizing hormone-dependent meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes". Biology of ... There are two main types of purinergic receptors, P1 binding to adenosine, and P2 binding to ATP or ADP, presenting different ... These proteins activate protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) that phosphorylates various proteins important for capacitation and ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Roskoski R, Roskoski LM (Jan 1987). "Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells by the cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP second ... Phosphorylation at Ser19 causes a two-fold increase of activity, through a mechanism that requires the 14-3-3 proteins.[31] ... embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis. • social organism behavior. • cellular response to manganese ion. • response to ether ...
3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... type 1 angiotensin receptor binding. • protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase ... Buhl AM, Osawa S, Johnson GL (1995). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation requires two signal inputs from the human ... "Direct binding of G-protein betagamma complex to voltage-dependent calcium channels". Nature. 385 (6615): 446-50. doi:10.1038/ ...
Types of G protein signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... 3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... Heterotrimeric G proteins[edit]. Main article: Heterotrimeric G proteins. Different types of heterotrimeric G proteins share a ...
3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... Types[edit]. There are membrane-bound (type 1, guanylate cyclase-coupled receptor) and soluble (type 2, soluble guanylate ... Indirect/downstream NO modulators: ACE inhibitors/AT-II receptor antagonists (e.g., captopril, losartan) ... see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ...
... cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases discovered. It has four sub-units two catalytic and two regulatory ... 3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... which vary based on the type of cell. ... Main article: function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In ... an enzyme called protein kinase A (PKA).[12]. The PKA enzyme is also known as cAMP-dependent enzyme because it gets activated ...
3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... Cyclins, when bound with the dependent kinases, such as the p34/cdc2/cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor. MPFs ... There are two main groups of cyclins: *G1/S cyclins - essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G1/S transition, * ... Types[edit]. There are several different cyclins that are active in different parts of the cell cycle and that cause the Cdk to ...
protein domain specific binding. • receptor serine/threonine kinase binding. • peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ... The murine double minute (mdm2) oncogene, which codes for the Mdm2 protein, was originally cloned, along with two other genes ( ... Fang S, Jensen JP, Ludwig RL, Vousden KH, Weissman AM (March 2000). "Mdm2 is a RING finger-dependent ubiquitin protein ligase ... cellular response to organic cyclic compound. • viral process. • response to iron ion. • regulation of gene expression. • ...
... through a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism". Biochem J. 466 (2): 379-390. doi:10.1042/bj20140881. PMID 25422863.. ... Pugh Jr, E. N.; Lamb, T. D. (1990). "Cyclic GMP and calcium: The internal messengers of excitation and adaptation in vertebrate ... This type of dysfunction can be seen in cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes.[9] ... Activation of protein kinase C. Further reading: Function of protein kinase C. ...
1975). "Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic ... As different PDE types may affect different cAMP pools, the different PDEs may regulate different processes in the cell.[9]. ... When cGMP binds to the allosteric GAF-B domain of the PDE, it causes conformational change in the protein structure leading to ... "Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-dependent expression of phosphodiesterase 2: role in endothelial hyperpermeability". Blood. 105 (9 ...
Damuni Z, Reed LJ (1988). "Purification and properties of a protamine kinase and a type II casein kinase from bovine kidney ... Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases or CaM kinases. are primarily regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin complex. ... 3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... Types[edit]. Types include those acting directly as receptors (Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase) and Intracellular ...
3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Types. *EC1 Oxidoreductases (list). *EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list) ... Ser/Thr-specific protein phosphatases are regulated partly by their location within the cell and by specific inhibitor proteins ...
... through a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism". Biochem J. 466 (2): 379-390. doi:10.1042/bj20140881. PMID 25422863. Milo, Ron ... Pugh Jr, E. N.; Lamb, T. D. (1990). "Cyclic GMP and calcium: The internal messengers of excitation and adaptation in vertebrate ... This type of dysfunction can be seen in cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes. Calcium coordination plays an ... An example a protein with calcium coordination is von Willebrand factor (vWF) which has an essential role in blood clot ...
IkB kinase EC cAMP-dependent protein kinase EC cGMP-dependent protein kinase EC protein kinase ... cyclic GMP-AMP synthase EC diacylglycerol ethanolaminephosphotransferase EC diacylglycerol ... protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I EC protein geranylgeranyltransferase type II EC ... mitogen-activated protein kinase EC mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase EC tau-protein kinase ...
PKG I cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type I PKG U cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type II pM pico Molar PMSF phenyl ... and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, protein kinase C , calmodulin-dependent protein kinase U and casein kinase LT. Eur J ... Role of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type II in the brain Viswanathan, Vijay 2004 pdf ... Molecular characterization of a type II cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase expressed in the rat brain. J Neurochem. 64:2814-7 ...
Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. ...
Type II regulatory chains mediate membrane association by binding to anchoring proteins, including the MAP2 kinase (By ... Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells. ... 3,5-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p>A type of ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. P00515. cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-alpha regulatory ...
cAK indicates cAMP-dependent protein kinase; cGK(I/II), cGMP-dependent protein kinase (type I/II); cGMP, cyclic guanosine-3′,5 ... Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways by cyclic GMP and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in contractile ... Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases differ in their regulation of cyclic AMP response element-dependent gene ... Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases. Genes and Proteins. cGKs are serine/threonine kinases that are present in a variety of ...
Hofmann F. The biology of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases. J Biol Chem. 2005; 280: 1-4. ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathway inhibits RhoA-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contraction in vascular ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits serum-response element-dependent transcription by inhibiting rho activation and ... 7-10 We have recently reported that eNOS gene transfer activates the NO/cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) cascade and ...
1995) Molecular characterization of type II cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase expressed in the rat brain. J Neurochem 64:2814 ... 1993) Cloning and expression of a novel cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase from mouse brain. J Biol Chem 268:13586-13591. ... 1994) Cloning, expression, and in situ localization of rat intestinal cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ... 1996) Intestinal secretory defects and dwarfism in mice lacking cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. Science 274:2082-2086. ...
Research Grants about cyclic gmp dependent protein kinases ... GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type ... cyclic gmp dependent protein kinases. Summary. Summary: A group of enzymes that are dependent on cyclic GMP and catalyzes the ... cyclic nucleotide regulated protein kinases , cyclic gmp dependent protein kinases ... cyclic amp dependent protein kinases*enzyme inhibitors*phosphorylation*carbazoles*cyclic amp*thionucleotides*protein kinase ...
The level of myosin II phosphorylation is determined by activities of myosin light chain kinase and myosin phosphatase (MP). MP ... Phosphorylation of myosin II plays an important role in many cell functions, including smooth muscle contraction. ... EC GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC Phosphatases; EC Phosphatase 1; ... Muscle Proteins / genetics, metabolism. Muscle, Smooth / enzymology*. Myosin Type II / chemistry, genetics, metabolism*. Myosin ...
The α subunit is subject to direct phosphorylation by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and dephosphorylation by ... This type of K+ channel is composed of two subunits, the pore-forming α subunit (hslo) and the regulatory β subunit. ... These channels, important for neuronal firing and vascular tone, share many features with voltage-dependent Na+, Ca2+;, and K+ ... Among these are the S4 region, a motif with a repeated triple sequence of one positively charged amino acid and two hydrophobic ...
... and ASTRAL compendium for protein structure and sequence analysis ... Cyclic GMP, Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II, ... Compound: cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId:9606]. Gene: PRKG1, PRKG1B, PRKGR1A, PRKGR1B. Database ... Compound: cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId:9606]. Gene: PRKG1, PRKG1B, PRKGR1A, PRKGR1B. Database ... Description: PKG Is Carboyl Terminal Cyclic Nucleotide Binding Domain (CNB-B) in a complex with 8-pCPT-cGMP. Class: protein ...
... cAMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA/PKG). Displays site selectivity for Site B of cAMP-dependent PKA type II. Potently ... 8-(4-Chlorophenyl)thio-cyclic AMP is a potent inhibitor of the cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE VA).. Biochem ... By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex ... By product type. Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA, Matched Antibody Pairs and Multiplex Immunoassays. Cell and ...
cAMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA and PKG) phosphorylate RhoA on Ser188.4,5 Both in vitro and in vivo ... Ste20-related kinase SLK phosphorylates Ser188 of RhoA to induce vasodilation in response to angiotensin II Type 2 receptor ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathway inhibits RhoA-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contraction in vascular ... a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase. Embo J. 1992;11:3985-3994. ...
Type I (PRKG1) ELISA Kits. Mammals have three different isoforms of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (Ialpha, Ibeta, and II ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1-like , cGMP dependent protein kinase type 1 , protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, regulatory, type ... Protein Kinase, CAMP-Dependent, Regulatory, Type II, beta ELISA Kits * Protein Kinase, CAMP-Dependent, Regulatory, Type II, ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1 , protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type I , cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1, beta isozyme , cGMP ...
In human myotubes, NP induced PGC-1α and mitochondrial OXPHOS gene expression in a cyclic GMP-dependent manner. NP treatment ... Natriuretic peptides/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase cascades promote muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and prevent obesity. ... biological responses are largely mediated through cyclic GMP (cGMP) produced by the guanylyl cyclase domain of NP receptor type ... Two-way ANOVA were applied to determine the effect of training and ANP on gene expression, OXPHOS proteins, and cellular ...
Synergistic activation of insect cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (type II) by cyclicAMP and cyclicGMP. FEBS Letters 576:216-220 ... Bicker, G., O. Schmachtenberg and J. De Vente (1996) The nitric oxide/cyclic GMP messenger system in olfactory pathways of the ... Müller, U. (1997) Neuronal cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II is concentrated in mushroom bodies of Drosophila melanogaster ... Altfelder, K. and U. Müller (1991) Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in the neural tissue of the honeybee, Apis ...
Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA. ... A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of ... Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I. Known as: cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase I, cGMP Dependent Protein Kinase I, Cyclic ... GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I [Chemical/Ingredient] Expand. A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is ...
1 Cyclic GMP in turn activates cGMP-dependent protein kinase types I and II (cGK-I and -II) of which cGK-I is highly expressed ... Endogenous expression of type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA and protein in rat intestine. Implications for cystic ... Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase in smooth muscle and neutrophils. Adv Second Messenger Phosphoprot Res. 1993;28:121-132. ... Functional analysis of cGMP-dependent protein kinases I and II as mediators of NO/cGMP effects. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch ...
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II * 2010 Alterations in the proteome of the NHERF1 knockout mouse jejunal brush ... PDZ domain-dependent regulation of NHE3 protein by both internal Class II and C-terminal Class i PDZ-binding motifs. Cha, B., ... Calmodulin kinase II constitutively binds, phosphorylates, and inhibits brush border Na +/H + exchanger 3 (NHE3) by a NHERF2 ... Epac1 mediates protein kinase A-independent mechanism of forskolinactivated intestinal chloride secretion. Hoque, K. M., ...
Proteins Protein Kinases Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II Carrier Proteins ... In this study, we describe a new class of proteins, called GKAPS, that specifically bind the Type II cGMP-dependent protein ... In this study, we describe a new class of proteins, called GKAPS, that specifically bind the Type II cGMP-dependent protein ... In this study, we describe a new class of proteins, called GKAPS, that specifically bind the Type II cGMP-dependent protein ...
Triphosphate Binding Site of Type II Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase". *5. Erneux C., Couchie D., Dumont J. E., Baraniak J ... J. Biochem., 115, 503 - 510 (1981), "Specificity of cyclic GMP Activation of a Multi-substrate Cyclic Nucleotide ... 3. Erneux C.Miot F., Methods Enzymol., 159, 520 - 530 (1988), "Cyclic Nucleotide Analogs Used to Study Phosphodiesterase ... 2. Ortoleva-Donnelly L., Kronman M.Strobel S. A., Biochemistry, 37, 12933 - 12942 (1998), "Identifying RNA Minor Groove ...
... exchange activity in human Caco-2 cells. Our results demonstrate that NO inhi ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Cyclic GMP / physiology. Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases ... Type: Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... EC AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases ...
Both the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase and the type II regulatory subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase were ... Antibodies to cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, and the type I regulatory and catalytic subunits of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein ... fluorescently labeled antibodies directed against cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, and the cyclic nucleotide-dpendent protein kinases ... Cyclic nucleotides and cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of cell motility and ...
Collagen Type II/genetics ; Collagen Type X/genetics ; Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/genetics ; Dwarfism/genetics/ ... Four candidate genes were sequenced, revealing a nonsense mutation in exon 15 of cGMP-dependant type II protein kinase (PRKG2 ... A nonsense mutation in cGMP-dependent type II protein kinase (PRKG2) causes dwarfism in American Angus cattle. ... Reference : A nonsense mutation in cGMP-dependent type II protein kinase (PRKG2) causes dwarfism .... ...
Cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is recognized as an important signaling component in diverse cell types. PKG ... and blockade of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), respectively. Exogenous H(2)O(2) also concentration- ... Cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is recognized as an important signaling component in diverse cell types. PKG ... and blockade of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), respectively. Exogenous H(2)O(2) also concentration- ...
Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. ... Bone morphogenetic protein-3b (BMP-3b) is expressed in adipocytes and inhibits adipogenesis as a unique complex. Hino, J., ... Dwarfism and early death in mice lacking C-type natriuretic peptide. Chusho, H., Tamura, N., Ogawa, Y., Yasoda, A., Suda, M., ... Significance of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in endochondral ossification: Analysis of CNP knockout mice. Komatsu, Y., ...
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II 100% * Colon 43% * Mucous Membrane 42% ... Two-step protocol for isolation and culture of cardiospheres. Chen, L., Pan, Y., Zhang, L., Wang, Y., Weintraub, N. & Tang, Y. ... Type IV Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection. St Louis, J. D., Turk, E. M., Jacobs, J. P. & OBrien, J. E., Mar 1 2017, ... Tumor protein p63/nuclear factor κB feedback loop in regulation of cell death. Sen, T., Sen, N., Huang, Y., Sinha, D., Luo, Z. ...
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases Medicine & Life Sciences * Circadian Clocks Medicine & Life Sciences ... Protein kinase G type II is required for night-to-day progression of the mammalian circadian clock. Neuron. 2004 Aug 19;43(4): ... Tischkau, S. A., Mitchell, J. W., Pace, L. A., Barnes, J. W., Barnes, J. A., & Gillette, M. U. (2004). Protein kinase G type II ... Protein kinase G type II is required for night-to-day progression of the mammalian circadian clock. / Tischkau, Shelley A.; ...
A 002). Potent competitive inhibitor of protein kinase A type I and II (c ... "Co-Regulation of Antigen-Specific T Lymphocyte Responses by Type I and Type II Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases (CAK)" ... Opening of BKCa Channels by Cyclic AMP-Induced Stimulation of the Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase" ... 12th Protein Kinase Symp. NO/cGMP and Protein Kinase Signaling Bad Brückenau/Germany, 0, 0 - 0 (2000), "Protein Kinase A Type I ...
"Localization of the human gene for the type I cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase to chromosome 10". Cytogenetics and Cell ... and characterization of the cGMP-dependent protein kinases I beta and II using the baculovirus system". FEBS Letters. 374 (3): ... of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha". ... 5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (12): 8701-7. PMID ...
... associated events by directly phosphorylating and thereby stimulating the activity of two types of effector protein kinases: ... In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a plasma membrane‐localized protein kinase complex, Target of Rapamicin (TOR) complex‐2 (TORC2) ( ... associated protein kinase Pkh1 (mammalian ortholog is PDK1) and a paralog (Pkh2). For cell survival under various stresses, ... Pkc1 is also regulated by Pkh1‐ and TORC2‐dependent phosphorylation, but, in addition, by interaction with Rho1‐GTP and lipids ...
  • A group of enzymes that are dependent on cyclic GMP and catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues of proteins. (labome.org)
  • Phosphorylation of myosin II plays an important role in many cell functions, including smooth muscle contraction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The level of myosin II phosphorylation is determined by activities of myosin light chain kinase and myosin phosphatase (MP). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Two mechanisms are cited frequently: (1) Phosphorylation of an inhibitory site on MYPT1, Thr696 (human isoform) and resulting inhibition of PP1c activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Maxi-K is subject to complex metabolic control control that also involves G proteins and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation reactions. (fishersci.com)
  • The α subunit is subject to direct phosphorylation by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A. (fishersci.com)
  • Using pharmacological, transfection, and in vitro phosphorylation experiments, we demonstrate that AMP-activated protein kinase subunit alpha 1 (AMPKα1) is activated by estrogen receptor stimulation and catalyzes RhoA phosphorylation induced by E2. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 In addition to this regulation and independently of GDP-GTP cycling, recent reports have proposed that phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle also controls Rho protein activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5 Recently, we showed that stimulation of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT 2 R) in VSMC induces RhoA phosphorylation by the Ste20-related kinase SLK, which contributes to the vasodilatory effect of AT 2 R. 8 In fact, functional consequences of RhoA phosphorylation mimics RhoA-Rock inhibition that reverses or delays vascular pathology development. (ahajournals.org)
  • 10 RhoA phosphorylation thus appears as a simple physiological mechanism that could be used to control the dynamics of RhoA protein actions and to permit specific limitation or termination of RhoA protein signals. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 3 4 cGK-I has mediated NO/cGMP-caused vasorelaxation, which involves phosphorylation of proteins that affect myosin light chains and intracellular Ca 2+ levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • The association between specific components of the cyclic neucleotide system and the mitotic spindle suggests that cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of spindle proteins, such as those of microtubules, may play a fundamental role in the regulation of spindle assembly and chromosome motion. (rupress.org)
  • The present study provides novel evidence that PKG exerts dual regulation of cardiac K(ATP) channels, including marked stimulation resulting from intracellular signaling mediated by ROS (H(2)O(2) in particular), calmodulin and CaMKII, alongside of moderate channel suppression likely mediated by direct PKG phosphorylation of the channel or some closely associated proteins. (nih.gov)
  • To determine whether circadian clocks, like the cell cycle, exhibit regulation by key phosphorylation events, we examined endogenous kinase regulation of timekeeping in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). (illinois.edu)
  • Ypk1 is a central regulator of pathways and processes required for plasma membrane lipid and protein homeostasis, and requires phosphorylation on its T-loop by eisosome-associated protein kinase Pkh1 (mammalian ortholog is PDK1) and a paralog (Pkh2). (mdpi.com)
  • Pkc1 is also regulated by Pkh1- and TORC2-dependent phosphorylation, but, in addition, by interaction with Rho1-GTP and lipids phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and diacylglycerol (DAG). (mdpi.com)
  • Site-directed mutagenesis of the phosphorylation sites, or activation/inhibition of select kinase pathways, did not alter the receptor sensitivity or maximal GABA-activated current of the ρ1 GABA receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggesting phosphorylation of ρ1 does not directly alter receptor properties. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Both STING and MAVS stimulate downstream signaling cascades that involve multiple kinases and finally lead to IRF3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, using the small interfering RNA (siRNA) strategy, we demonstrated that the rapid activation of glycolysis by nitric oxide is dependent on phosphorylation of the energy charge-sensitive AMP-activated protein kinase, resulting in activation of PFK2 and protection of cells from apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclic AMP-induced phosphorylation of 27.5 kDa protein(s) in larval brains of normal and memory-mutant Drosophila melanogaster . (springer.com)
  • We also find that little phosphorylation occurs unless at least two different PDEs are concurrently inhibited in these cells. (pnas.org)
  • The data strongly suggest that the phosphorylation of many different substrates contributes to cAMP-dependent regulation of these cells. (pnas.org)
  • Exposure of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) to clinically relevant concentrations of metformin (50-500 μmol/l) dose-dependently increased serine-1179 (Ser1179) phosphorylation (equal to human Ser1179) of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) as well as its association with heat shock protein (hsp)-90, resulting in increased activation of eNOS and NO bioactivity (cyclic GMP). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, administration of metformin as well as 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, an AMPK agonist, significantly increased eNOS Ser1179 phosphorylation, NO bioactivity, and coimmunoprecipitation of eNOS with hsp90 in wild-type C57BL6 mice but not in AMPK-α1 knockout mice, suggesting that AMPK is required for metformin-enhanced eNOS activation in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It has been reported that regulation of eNOS activity is regulated by reversible phosphorylation ( 8 , 9 ) and its interaction with other proteins, such as heat shock protein (hsp)-90 ( 10 , 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Binding of cGMP to the regulatory domain induces a conformational change which stops the inhibition of the catalytic core by the N-terminus and allows the phosphorylation of substrate proteins. (wikidoc.org)
  • The increased rd1 phosducin phosphorylation coincided with increased activation of calcium/calmodulin-activated protein kinase II, which is known to utilize phosducin as a substrate. (mcponline.org)
  • Phosphorylation-dependent activation of the Ras-GRF/CDC25Mm exchange factor by muscarinic receptors and G-protein beta gamma subunits. (wikipathways.org)
  • CD45 negatively regulates monocytic cell differentiation by inhibiting phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-dependent activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of protein kinase Cdelta. (wikipathways.org)
  • Phosphorylation of hippocampal Erk-1/2, Elk-1, and p90-Rsk-1 during contextual fear conditioning: interactions between Erk-1/2 and Elk-1. (wikipathways.org)
  • Time-dependent phosphorylation of Smad, mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt in human fetal osteoblasts was investigated under loading and/or BMP2 stimulation conditions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The phosphorylation of the Fujinami sarcoma virus transforming protein (FSV P140gag-fps) is complex, reversible and affects its tyrosine specific protein kinase activity and transforming function. (ubc.ca)
  • The sites of phosphorylation within FSV P140gag-fps have been localized to various regions of the protein using partial proteolysis. (ubc.ca)
  • To determine whether tyrosine phosphorylation affects protein function and to evaluate the substrate specificity of the protein kinase intrinsic to FSV P130gag-fps oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to change tyrosine-1073, the major site of P130gag-fps phosphorylation. (ubc.ca)
  • These data indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation stimulates the biochemical and biological activities of FSV P130gag-fps and suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation modulates protein function. (ubc.ca)
  • Phosphorylation of secondary tyrosine residues within a mutant protein devoid of intrinsic tyrosine protein kinase activity suggests that the FSV P130gag-fps may be a target for phosphorylation by cellular tyrosine specific protein kinases. (ubc.ca)
  • Accumulation of β-catenin protein is thought to occur via mutation of the β-catenin binding site of APC ( 6 ), or by mutation of the GSK-3β phosphorylation site of β-catenin ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has been hypothesized that sulindac sulfone and related compounds induce phosphorylation of β-catenin by inhibiting cyclic GMP phosphodiesterases (cGPDEs), increasing cGMP levels, and activating protein kinase G (PKG) ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, this increase in cGMP degradation is paralleled by the phosphorylation of phosphodiesterase type 5 at Ser-92. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, our data suggest that NO-induced desensitization of the cGMP response is caused by the phosphorylation and subsequent activity increase of phosphodiesterase type 5. (rupress.org)
  • The increase in cGMP concentrations is known to activate different signaling mediators, such as cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, cGMP-regulated ion channels, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs). (elsevier.com)
  • 2,3 Cyclic GMP is degraded by cGMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Resistant against mammalian cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphodiesterases. (biolog.de)
  • NO induces cGMP production, which is a second-messenger molecule that exerts its effects through ion channels, protein kinases, and phosphodiesterases. (jneurosci.org)
  • Drosophila cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. (springer.com)
  • A partial characterization of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases of Drosophila melanogaster. (springer.com)
  • Specific functions for different cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) have not yet been identified in most cell types. (pnas.org)
  • Cyclic GMP binds to cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs), cGMP-gated ion channels (CGCs), and cyclic nucleotide-regulated phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which modulate several downstream cellular and physiological responses. (aksumuniversity.org)
  • PKG), cGMP-regulated phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels 4 . (ersjournals.com)
  • We found that mammalian cytosolic extracts synthesized cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP-AMP, or cGAMP) in vitro from adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate in the presence of DNA but not RNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we show that in Burkholderia cenocepacia the DSF-family signal cis -2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) negatively controls the intracellular cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) level through a receptor protein RpfR, which contains Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS)-GGDEF-EAL domains. (pnas.org)
  • In this review, the role of soluble (nitric oxide (NO)-activated) and membrane-bound, natriuretic peptide (NP)-activated guanylate cyclases that generate the secondary signaling molecule cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the regulation of IOP and in the pathophysiology of POAG will be discussed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conversely, the application of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast fully restored LTD to normal conditions via the stimulation of a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-protein kinase G-dependent intracellular signaling pathway. (uniroma5.it)
  • Among the most important for pulmonary vascular homeostasis are factors that utilise cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) as an intracellular second messenger. (ersjournals.com)
  • Schematic diagram of the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP) signalling pathway. (ersjournals.com)
  • Bioactivatable, membrane-permeant analogs of cyclic nucleotides as biological tools for growth control of C6 glioma cells. (abcam.com)
  • Cyclic nucleotides and cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of cell motility and division, processes that depend on the cell cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
  • To determine whether cyclic nucleotides or their kinases are physically associated with the cytoskeleton during cell division, fluorescently labeled antibodies directed against cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, and the cyclic nucleotide-dpendent protein kinases were used to localize these molecules in mitotic PtK1 cells. (rupress.org)
  • The P2Y 2 receptor is the predominant transducer of chloride transport responses to nucleotides in the airways, but the P2 receptors that control ion transport in gastrointestinal epithelia have not been identified. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Three members of the P2Y receptor subfamily, the P2Y 2 , P2Y 4 , and P2Y 6 receptors, are potently stimulated by uridine nucleotides. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The authors review what is known about the deleterious effects of sickling on the genitourinary tract and how the role of cyclic nucleotides signaling and protein kinases may help understand the pathophysiology underlying these manifestations and develop novel therapies in the setting of urogenital disorders in sickle cell disease. (hindawi.com)
  • This paper focuses on how previous, sometimes poorly explained, clinical observations of urogenital disorders in patients with SCD relate to more recent discoveries on the role of cyclic nucleotides and protein kinases in the pathophysiology of sickle vaso-occlusion. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to these feedback mechanisms, there is the potential for gene regulation, as the promoter region of human PDE5 contains sites responsive to cyclic nucleotides 11 , 12 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Cyclic nucleotides are ubiquitous intracellular messengers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Until recently, the roles of cyclic nucleotides in plant cells have proven difficult to uncover. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With an understanding of the protein domains which can bind cyclic nucleotides (CNB and GAF domains) we scanned the completed genomes of the higher plants Arabidopsis thaliana (mustard weed) and Oryza sativa (rice) for the effectors of these signalling molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ubiquitous presence of cyclic nucleotides may be due to several characteristics which make it an ideal second messenger. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclic nucleotides are derived in a energetically favourable reaction from common metabolites (ATP and GTP), and can be broken down into non-toxic products (inorganic phosphate and AMP/GMP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In plants, cyclic nucleotides have endured a checkered research history fraught with complications and setbacks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclic nucleotides are able to bind to two distinct protein domains, CNB domains and GAF domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, GAF and CNB domains have evolved independently to bind cyclic nucleotides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to further explore the roles of cyclic nucleotides in plants, we performed a bioinformatics based analysis of the completed Arabidopsis thaliana and Orzya sativa genomes [ 21 - 23 ] in order to elucidate the potential targets of cyclic nucleotides in plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, LTP was not affected by the sGC inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]-quiloxalin-1-one. (jneurosci.org)
  • and (2) Inhibition of MP by the protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17). (biomedsearch.com)
  • 8-(4-Chlorophenyl)thio-cyclic AMP is a potent inhibitor of the cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE VA). (abcam.com)
  • 2 Several regulatory proteins thus cooperate to provide a tight control of RhoA activity including RhoA exchange factors and RhoA GTPase activating proteins that control the GDP/GTP cycle, and Rho guanine dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI) that sequesters RhoA in the cytosol. (ahajournals.org)
  • We found that Kir6.2/SUR2A (the cardiac-type K(ATP)) channels were activated by cGMP-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast in a concentration-dependent manner in cell-attached patches obtained from HEK293 cells, an effect mimicked by the membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP whereas abolished by selective PKG inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Potent competitive inhibitor of protein kinase A type I and II (cyclic AMP antagonist). (biolog.de)
  • When it was found that the antibiotic rapamycin was a potent inhibitor of the proliferation of virtually every eukaryotic cell type examined (e.g., fungi, T cells, and tumor cells) [ 1 , 2 , 3 ], it became clear that the molecular target of rapamycin must be highly conserved and its function critical for cell survival. (mdpi.com)
  • The findings further suggest that the approach of using selective, inhibitor-dependent phosphoproteome analysis can provide a generalized methodology for understanding the roles of different PDEs in the regulation of cyclic nucleotide signaling. (pnas.org)
  • PD 098059 is a specific inhibitor of the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase in vitro and in vivo. (wikipathways.org)
  • A PKC inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinolinyl-sulfonyl)-2-methyl piperazine (H-7), blocked the PMA-dependent attenuation of ANF-dependent cyclic GMP formation. (springer.com)
  • The supernatant from insulin-stimulated human platelets induced complete relaxation, which was prevented by preincubation of platelets with a NOS inhibitor, the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, NS 2028, or the G kinase inhibitor, KT 5823, and was abolished by an adenosine A 2A receptor antagonist. (rupress.org)
  • 1B, tandem mass spectrometry), whereas the Rho-kinase inhibitor had no effect on the level of the PIP 2 precursor PI, PIP or the downstream product PIP 3 (Fig 1C). (oist.jp)
  • Likewise, application of the Rho-kinase inhibitor (Y27632) into the calyx of Held presynaptic terminal slowed vesicle endocytosis (Fig 2A, red trace) to the same degree as did application of the PKG inhibitor (RpcGMPs) (Fig 2C, Fig 4A, red). (oist.jp)
  • Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells. (uniprot.org)
  • This type of K + channel is composed of two subunits, the pore-forming α subunit (hslo) and the regulatory β subunit. (fishersci.com)
  • Both the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase and the type II regulatory subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase were localized on the mitotic spindle. (rupress.org)
  • The NO receptor nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NOsGC) is present in the brain in two functional subunit compositions: α 1 β 1 and α 2 β 1 . (jneurosci.org)
  • The two functionally relevant subunit compositions in the hippocampus are α 1 β 1 and α 2 β 1 . (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, of the six kinases examined, only CKII phosphorylated the human ρ2 subunit. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Increases in the ratio of AMP to ATP activate AMPK by a number of mechanisms, including direct allosteric activation and covalent modification due to activation by an AMPK kinase ( 1 - 3 ), which phosphorylates the α-subunit on threonine-172 (Thr172) ( 4 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • All SLTs that have been investigated are A-B subunit protein toxins, whose A subunits possess N-glycosidase activity against 28S rRNA and cause inhibition of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • LT is an A-B subunit protein toxin, closely related to cholera toxin. (nih.gov)
  • The enzymatically active A subunit transfers ADP-ribose from NAD to a GTP-dependent adenylate cyclase regulatory protein, thereby elevating intracellular levels of adenylate cyclase. (nih.gov)
  • To aid in their elucidation, several animal models for photoreceptor degeneration exist, including the retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) 1 mouse, which carries a non-sense mutation in the gene coding for the β subunit of the rod photoreceptor-specific cGMP phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6-β) ( 1 , 2 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Mechanistically, the haeme-dependent sGC stimulator BAY 41-8543 enhances lipid uptake into BAT and increases whole-body energy expenditure, whereas ablation of the haeme-containing β 1 -subunit of sGC severely impairs BAT function. (nature.com)
  • The ligand-binding domains of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels show sequence homology to corresponding region(s) of the Escherichia coli catabolite gene-activator protein (CAP) and to the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent or cGMP-dependent protein kinases. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The structure of CAP and that of a cAMP-dependent protein kinases regulatory subunit have been solved, prompting efforts to generate structural models for the binding domains in CNG channel. (aspetjournals.org)
  • For every cloned CNG channel subunit, the deduced amino acid sequence contains a "core" channel domain, followed by a carboxyl-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The proportion of synapses lacking AMPAR subunit labelling was the same in the two genotypes. (uio.no)
  • Riociguat cell signaling The best characterized heterodimer in humans consisting of an 1 and a 1 subunit is expressed in most cell types and tissues. (aksumuniversity.org)
  • Activation of PKG results in the regulation of several downstream targets, including myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT), myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), regulator of G-protein signalling (RGS)2, RhoA, Rho kinase (ROCK), inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor-associated PKG substrate (IRAG), phospholamban (PLB) and calcium-sensitive potassium channels (BK Ca ). PGC: particulate guanylyl cyclases. (ersjournals.com)
  • CNB domains were first identified in the regulatory subunit of mammalian cAMP-dependent protein kinase (RI and RII). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found marked inhibition of AngII-induced Rho/Rho-kinase activation and subsequent VSMC migration by eNOS gene transfer whereas G q -dependent transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by AngII remains intact. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion- The eNOS/NO cascade specifically targets the Rho/Rho-kinase system via inhibition of G 12/13 to prevent vascular migration induced by AngII, representing a novel signal cross-talk in cardiovascular protection by NO. (ahajournals.org)
  • As evidence accumulates regarding the role of RhoA in vascular pathophysiology and the benefit of RhoA-Rho associated protein kinase (Rock) pathway inhibition, we analyzed if E2 could inhibit it in VSMC. (ahajournals.org)
  • PKG1-dependent repair functions will outweigh its signaling functions in spinal nociceptive LTP (show SCP2 ELISA Kits ), so that inhibition of PKG1 is no option for neuropathic pain. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Calcium-dependent and calcium-independent inhibition of contraction by cGMP/cGKI in intestinal smooth muscle. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Exogenous H(2)O(2) also concentration-dependently stimulated Kir6.2/SUR2A channels in intact cells, and its effect was prevented by inhibition of calmodulin or CaMKII. (nih.gov)
  • Short-term inhibition of PKG-II but not PKG-Iβ using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides delayed rhythms of electrical activity and Bmal1 mRNA. (illinois.edu)
  • inhibition of PKG-II forced repetition of the last 3.5 hr of the cycle. (illinois.edu)
  • Chronic inhibition of PKG-II disrupted electrical activity rhythms and tonically increased Bmal1 mRNA. (illinois.edu)
  • Biochemical characterization of the inhibition of the two major phosphodiesterase isoenzymes in Drosophila by theophylline predicts only a slight inhibition of these enzymes in vivo , in accordance with the unchanged level of cAMP in wild-type fly heads during drug feeding. (springer.com)
  • cGMP catabolism by PDE5A increases in pressure-loaded hearts, leading to activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase with inhibition of PDE5A. (nih.gov)
  • PDE5A inhibition deactivates multiple hypertrophy signaling pathways triggered by pressure load (the calcineurin/NFAT, phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways). (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesized that viral RNA synthesis could be blocked by the specific inhibition of viral polymerase complex formation by using small peptides which bind to the protein-protein interaction domains responsible for hetero-oligomerization between the individual subunits. (asm.org)
  • In the search for therapeutic strategies that engage the cGMP signalling pathway for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), inhibition of cGMP metabolism by phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5)-targeted compounds has proven most successful to date. (ersjournals.com)
  • Treatment of human colon cancer cell lines with apoptotic concentrations of sulindac metabolites (sulindac sulfide, sulindac sulfone) induced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of β-catenin protein expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of proteasome activity with MG-132 partially blocked the ability of sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone to inhibit β-catenin protein expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • InsP3R-associated cGMP kinase substrate (IRAG) is essential for nitric oxide-induced inhibition of calcium signaling in human colonic smooth muscle. (springer.com)
  • Background- Although, endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) is believed to antagonize vascular remodeling induced by the angiotensin II (AngII) type-1 receptor, the exact signaling mechanism remains unclear. (ahajournals.org)
  • The retrograde messenger nitric oxide (NO) is thought to induce LTP in the CA1 region of the hippocampus via activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and, ultimately, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK). (jneurosci.org)
  • Modulation of Cl-/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells by nitric oxide. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The present studies were undertaken to determine the direct effects of nitric oxide (NO) released from an exogenous donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl pencillamine (SNAP) on Cl-/OH- exchange activity in human Caco-2 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Nitric oxide switches on glycolysis through the AMP protein kinase and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase pathway. (nih.gov)
  • In neurons, nitric oxide failed to alter F2,6P(2) concentration or PFK1 activity. (nih.gov)
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. (uchicago.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III" by people in this website by year, and whether "Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uchicago.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III" by people in Profiles. (uchicago.edu)
  • Neuroprotection Mediated by Upregulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Rho-Associated, Coiled-Coil-Containing Kinase 2 Deficient Mice. (uchicago.edu)
  • AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase 2. (uchicago.edu)
  • Once activated, AMPK phosphorylates multiple targets both in vivo and in vitro ( 1 - 3 ), including several biosynthetic enzymes such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, glycogen synthase, and both neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) ( 2 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These include nitric oxide and the natriuretic peptide family (atrial, brain and C-type natriuretic peptides). (ersjournals.com)
  • G protein-mediated inhibitory effect of a nitric oxide donor on the L-type Ca 2+ current in rat ventricular myocytes. (springer.com)
  • Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for insulin-induced vasodilatation, including an interaction with the sympathetic nervous system at the vascular level ( 1 ), the activation of ion channels ( 2 ), in particular adenosine trisphosphate (ATP)-dependent K + channels ( 3 ), the release of adenosine ( 4 , 5 ), and an increase in the generation of nitric oxide (NO) by the vascular endothelium ( 6 , 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • Incubation of cells with the nitric oxide donors, S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (10-1000 μM) produced a concentration-dependent increase in cell injury and an increase in cellular cGMP formation as determined by immunoassay. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These PRKG isoforms act as key mediators of the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway and are important components of many signal transduction processes in diverse cell types. (creativebiomart.net)
  • 1999 ). IRAG forms a complex with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP 3 R) and cGMP kinase I-β (cGKIβ) and is involved in nitric oxide (NO), cGMP, and cGKIβ signaling pathways. (springer.com)
  • 2,20,21 Interestingly, downstream effectors of eNOS, cGMP, and PKG seem to inhibit the Rho/ROCK pathway at multiple distinct points that have not been fully characterized. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methods and Results- We show that in VSMC, E2 inhibits the RhoA-Rock pathway in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hence, SO2 exerted its vasodilatory effects at least partly by promoting disulfide-dependent dimerization of sGC (show SGCB ELISA Kits ) and PKG , resulting in an activated sGC (show SGCB ELISA Kits )/cGMP/ PKG pathway in blood vessels. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Abstract -Studies with cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGK-I)-deficient human cells and mice demonstrated that cGK-I ablation completely disrupts the NO/cGMP pathway in vascular tissue, which indicates a key role of this protein kinase as a mediator of the NO/cGMP action. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 3 4 5 Studies with cGK-I-deficient mice demonstrated a complete disruption of the NO/cGMP signaling pathway in the vascular smooth muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • This DNA signaling pathway requires the adaptor protein STING and the transcription factor IRF3, but the mechanism of DNA sensing is unclear. (sciencemag.org)
  • DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III has been shown to be a sensor that detects and transcribes AT-rich DNAs such as poly(deoxyadenosine-deoxythymidine) [poly(dA:dT)] into an RNA ligand capable of stimulating the RIG-I pathway to induce interferons ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Instead, cytosolic DNA activates the STING-dependent pathway in a sequence-independent manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because type I IFNs are important immune effectors, modulating this pathway may improve disease outcomes. (hindawi.com)
  • But first, it is critical to understand the context-dependent effects of the type I IFN pathway in intracellular bacterial infections. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study, to clarify the factor characterizing Stx1a gene expression via the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway inducing the Stx1a mRNA, we investigated whether the epigenetic process is involved in the Stx1a gene transcription induced by PKA signaling. (medworm.com)
  • Arachidonic acid activates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase 2 and mediates adhesion of a human breast carcinoma cell line to collagen type IV through a p38 MAP kinase-dependent pathway. (wikipathways.org)
  • Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with PRKG1 were listed below. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Theophylline and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, two cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors, when fed to wild-type Drosophila adults, cause the rapid decay of learning index after training in a shock-odor learning paradigm. (springer.com)
  • These data suggest that phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors may have effects that distinguish them from other treatments for pulmonary hypertension and merit further study. (ersjournals.com)
  • Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, which developed toward the end of the 1990s, are oral agents causig peripheral vasodilatation in the penis. (biz.tr)
  • These affinity and activation measurements show that beta-phenyl-1,N2-ethenoguanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (PET-cGMP) is most selective for PKG I, whereas 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-pCPT-cGMP) is most selective for PKG II. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Genetically engineered hyperstimulation of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) synthesis counters this response. (nih.gov)
  • 8-Nitro-cGMP (8-nitroguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate) is a nitrated derivative of cGMP, which can function as a unique electrophilic second messenger involved in regulation of an antioxidant adaptive response in cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Launch Cyclic guanosine-3,5-monophosphate (cGMP or cyclic GMP) can be an essential intracellular signaling molecule that regulates many (patho)physiological procedures in multiple cell types. (aksumuniversity.org)
  • In our study we have examined the importance of cyclic guanylate monophosphate (cGMP) in NO-mediated intestinal cellular damage. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, we show that cyclic guanosine 3′,5′‐monophosphate (cGMP)‐dependent kinase I (cGKI) modulates BMP receptors and Smads, providing a novel mechanism enhancing BMP signalling. (embopress.org)
  • The type II cGK (cGKII)-deficient mice (Prkg2 -/- mice) develop dwarfism as a result of impaired endochondral ossification, suggesting that cGKII is important for the CNP-mediated endochondral ossification. (elsevier.com)
  • Ex vivo, ovariectomy leads to an increase in the amplitude of phenylephrine- or serotonine-induced contractions of aortic rings in wild-type mice but not in AMPKα1-knock-out mice or E2-supplemented animals. (ahajournals.org)
  • Abnormal neocortical development in mice lacking cGMP-dependent protein kinase I. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Functional characteristics of urinary tract smooth muscles in mice lacking cGMP protein kinase type I. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In addition, we revealed that NOsGC α 1 β 1 is located only in interneurons, whereas α 2 -containing complexes are detectable only in pyramidal cells in mice and rats. (jneurosci.org)
  • Type II IFN consists of only IFN- γ while there are four types of type III IFNs in humans and two in mice [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Another plasma cell malignancy, multiple myeloma (MM), arising spontaneously in the ageing C57BL/KaLwRij mice, was investigated in order to see whether the MM cells contain c-myc abnormalities of the MPC or RIC type. (tudelft.nl)
  • TAT-apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain protein transduction rescues mice from fulminant liver failure. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Thbs2 −/− mice, which lack normal TSP2 mRNA and protein, were produced with the expected Mendelian frequency, were normal in appearance, and reproduced normally. (rupress.org)
  • Endfoot cross‐sectional area was assessed by two‐photon microscopy of mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in astrocytes and related to the degree of arteriolar constriction. (uio.no)
  • Studies in knockout mice indicate that eNOS-derived NO is the principle mediator of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation, but both eNOS and iNOS play a role in chronic modulation of basal tone 1 . (ersjournals.com)
  • By genetic mapping and complementation experiments, we found that Gt mice harbor a single nucleotide variant (T596A) of Sting that functions as a null allele and fails to produce detectable protein. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of macrophages isolated from Gt mice revealed that Sting is absolutely required for the type I interferon response to both c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP. (asm.org)
  • section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. (uniprot.org)
  • Analysis of myosin fragments revealed that PKG binds within Subfragment 2. (elsevier.com)
  • The bacterial messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) binds to a diverse range of effectors to exert its biological effect. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • We show that PA2799 (named as HapZ: histidine kinase associated PilZ) binds directly to the phosphoreceiver (REC) domain of SagS, and that the SagS-HapZ interaction is further enhanced at elevated c-di-GMP concentration. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • SAP97 (synapse-associated protein 97) is a multifunctional scaffold protein that binds directly to the C-terminus of β 1 AR and organizes a receptor signalosome. (elsevier.com)
  • The encoded protein binds to and inhibits the activation of several receptor tyrosine kinases. (genecards.org)
  • Definition: a protein that binds a ligand with high affinity and low capacity. (slideserve.com)
  • The GGDEF domain binds the second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-dimeric-GMP (c-di-GMP) and functions as a c-di-GMP receptor to spatially sequester SgmT. (unibas.ch)
  • To confirm that this region indeed binds PA, we fused this sequence to the N terminus of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), transiently expressed the fusion protein (PB1 1-25 -GFP) together with hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged PA (PA-HA) in HEK293T cells, and immunoprecipitated PA-HA from cell extracts by using anti-HA antibodies. (asm.org)
  • Two subtypes of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR), NPR-A and NPR-B, are transmembrane guanylyl cyclases (particulate guanylyl cyclases), where the extracellular domain binds atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or C-type natriuretic peptide and the intracellular domain hydrolyses guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cGMP. (ersjournals.com)
  • Normally, β-catenin serves as a component of the cytoskeleton in differentiated epithelial cells, participating in a multi-protein complex at the plasma membrane where it binds E-cadherin to the actin cytoskeleton ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cytosolic DNA induces type I interferons and other cytokines that are important for antimicrobial defense but can also result in autoimmunity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we show that a small molecule stimulator (BAY 41-8543) of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP), protects against diet-induced weight gain, induces weight loss in established obesity, and also improves the diabetic phenotype. (nature.com)
  • Regarding this question, we have discovered in this FY that activity-dependent neurotrophin-TrkB signaling induces developmental switch of presynaptic Ca 2+ channel subtypes mediating neurotransmitter release. (oist.jp)
  • Antibodies to cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, and the type I regulatory and catalytic subunits of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase did not label the mitotic apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • however, pyramidal cells are labeled only for β 1 and α 2 subunits. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that NOsGC, composed of α 1 β 1 subunits, is selectively expressed in different types of interneurons and is present in their presynaptic GABAergic terminals, in which it may serve as a receptor for NO produced postsynaptically by nNOS in the very same synapse. (jneurosci.org)
  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a phylogenetically conserved heterotrimer protein consisting of three subunits, α, β, and γ, each of which has at least two isoforms ( 1 - 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The PKG-I and PKG-II are homodimers of two identical subunits (~75 kDa and ~85 kDa, respectively) and share common structural features. (wikidoc.org)
  • We show that peptides which specifically bind to the protein-protein interaction domains in the subunits responsible for complex formation interfere with polymerase complex assembly and inhibit viral replication. (asm.org)
  • The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase consisting of three subunits, PA, PB1, and PB2 (the P proteins), is a potential target for the development of new anti-influenza drugs. (asm.org)
  • PB1 is the central protein, containing two different domains interacting with the PB2 and the PA subunits ( 1 , 7 , 13 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • The binding domain is homologous to the cyclic nucleotide-binding sequences conserved from the Escherichia coli catabolite gene-activator protein (CAP), an E. coli transcription regulator, to the regulatory subunits of protein kinase A (PKA) or protein kinase G ( Shabb and Corbin, 1992 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • abstract = "To promote both efficiency and selectivity, many protein kinases and phosphatases are maintained in specific subcellular microenvironments through their association with anchoring proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Circadian clocks comprise a cyclic series of dynamic cellular states, characterized by the changing availability of substrates that alter clock time when activated. (illinois.edu)
  • Whole-genome expression profiling experiments in combination with the identified DigR binding site allowed the identification of the DigR regulon and suggests that SgmT/DigR regulates the expression of genes for secreted proteins and enzymes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis. (unibas.ch)
  • This indicates that PKG II is most likely to play a role in neuronal development and regulation of synaptogenesis. (ubc.ca)
  • Our work presents a unique and widely conserved DSF-family signal receptor that directly links the signal perception to c-di-GMP turnover in regulation of bacterial physiology. (pnas.org)
  • Transcription regulation mechanism of the syntaxin 1A gene via protein kinase A Syntaxin 1A (Stx1a) is primarily involved in the docking of synaptic vesicles at active zones in neurons. (medworm.com)
  • cAMP coordinates the regulation of these cellular responses by activating cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKAs) ( 4 ), specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (EPACs) ( 5 ), and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, the nucleotide selectivity of the receptor involved in regulation of ion transport responses in the airways suggests a major role for the P2Y 2 receptor with lesser involvement of the P2Y 6 receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Functions of cyclic GMP include the regulation of cation channels and PDEs and activation of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). (ersjournals.com)
  • Localization of cardiac L-type Ca 2+ channels to a caveolar macromolecular signaling complex is required for beta(2)-adrenergic regulation. (springer.com)
  • Different subcellular populations of L-type Ca 2+ channels exhibit unique regulation and functional roles in cardiomyocytes. (springer.com)
  • These factors are functionally conserved among beta- and gamma- herpesviruses, suggesting a unique transcriptional regulation shared by viruses of these two subfamilies. (prolekare.cz)
  • The goal of this study was to determine the mechanism of β-catenin protein down-regulation by sulindac metabolites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The mechanisms for this effect are not completely understood but may involve down-regulation of β-catenin protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 6 Like NO, cGMP can affect multiple signaling pathways ( Figure 1 A). 1,5,6 To date, three classes of cGMP receptor proteins have been identified: cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) cation channels, cGMP-regulated PDEs, which hydrolyze cAMP and/or cGMP, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Activation of RhoA-dependent pathways is involved in excessive contraction, and thereby increases blood pressure, but also in excessive cell growth and migration that participate in pathological cardiovascular remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that NO inhibits Cl-/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells via cGMP-dependent protein kinases G (PKG) and C (PKC) signal-transduction pathways. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Sweet Taste Signaling and Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins. . (genecards.org)
  • This review highlights the importance of the crosstalk between retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) RNA sensing and the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)- stimulator of interferon genes (STING) DNA sensing pathways in potentiating efficient antiviral responses. (nih.gov)
  • The primary consequence of these virus sensing pathways is the induction of type I IFN and IFN stimulated genes. (nih.gov)
  • The transduction mechanism at ORNs is mediated by cAMP and/or inositol,1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3)-signaling pathways in an odorant-dependent manner. (sdbonline.org)
  • Type I IFN signaling during bacterial infections is dependent on many factors including whether the infecting bacterium is intracellular or extracellular, as different signaling pathways are activated. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite disparate survival strategies, intracellular and extracellular bacteria are both capable of inducing type I IFNs with some overlap in induction pathways. (hindawi.com)
  • Predictive algorithms were used to identify likely upstream regulatory kinases, metabolic pathways, and biological processes that can be regulated by different PDEs. (pnas.org)
  • First described as an apoptosis-inducing agent in transformed cells, it is now also well established to rapidly evoke cellular stress pathways in epithelial cells, finally leading to caspase-dependent or -independent cell death. (frontiersin.org)
  • Accordingly, type I and III IFNs are key signaling molecules in viral control, and lack of both signaling pathways results in increased viral loads and disease severity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemical analyses demonstrated that peroxynitrite-dependent oxidation and myeloperoxidase-dependent oxidation of nitrite in the presence of H 2 O 2 were two major pathways for guanine nucleotide nitration. (biochemj.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted proteins that trigger Smad and non-Smad pathways and thereby influence transcriptional and non-transcriptional differentiation cues. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that, in addition to the dopaminergic alterations reported in this genetic model of PD, other signal transduction pathways linked to striatal synaptic plasticity are altered in an age-dependent manner. (uniroma5.it)
  • In addition to their role in induction of an antiviral state ( 6 ), type I IFNs have many systemic effects, including stimulation of antigen presentation pathways ( 15 ) and NK and CD8 + T cell cytotoxicity ( 13 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • The identification and analysis of the repertoire of TCS proteins in the genomes of P. syringae pathovars constitute a basis for future functional genomic studies of the signal transduction pathways in this important bacterial phytopathogen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A quantitative model for the kinetics of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (type II) activity. (springer.com)
  • Vitamin D-inducible calcium transport and gene expression in three Caco-2 cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moreover, PKG stimulation of Kir6.2/SUR2A channels in intact cells was abrogated by ROS/H(2)O(2) scavenging, antagonism of calmodulin, and blockade of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), respectively. (nih.gov)
  • IP3R-dependent calcium transients in the glutamatergic neurons convey this signal to downstream medial neurosecretory cells (mNSCs). (sdbonline.org)
  • Given the increased rod calcium levels present in the rd1 mutation, calcium-evoked overactivation of this kinase may be an early and long sought for step in events leading to photoreceptor degeneration in the rd1 mouse. (mcponline.org)
  • Indeed, acute effects of insulin on vascular tone have also been attributed to endothelium-independent actions related to alterations in smooth muscle calcium ( 11 ) and/or the activation of potassium channels ( 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • Recent accumulating evidence suggests that induction of VSMC migration by the AT 1 receptor requires multiple sets of downstream tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. (ahajournals.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family of proteins. (genecards.org)
  • Protein Kinase G (PKG) is a cyclic GMP-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates a variety of biological targets. (genecards.org)
  • cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP . (wikidoc.org)
  • PKG are serine/threonine kinases that are present in a variety of eukaryotes ranging from the unicellular organism Paramecium to humans. (wikidoc.org)
  • In normal cells, free cytosolic β-catenin is rapidly phosphorylated at multiple serine and threonine sites near the NH 2 -terminal region of the protein by a multi-protein complex including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK-3β), and axin/conductin ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • BMPs signal through two specific transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors, type I (BMPRI) and type II (BMPRII). (embopress.org)
  • One relatively understudied yet promising candidate for second messenger-based therapies is the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)-cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling cascade. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • In vascular smooth muscle cells, NO interacts with soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) to convert guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic GMP, which is hydrolysed and inactivated by phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). (ersjournals.com)
  • 3 Among these kinases, we and others have demonstrated that extracelluar-signal regulated kinase (ERK) activated through "trans"-activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Rho-kinase (ROCK), an effecter of a small G protein, Rho, are critical for VSMC migration induced by AngII. (ahajournals.org)
  • 18 However, there might be cross-talk of these signals 17,19 and their activation might be, at least in part, G protein-independent in other cell systems. (ahajournals.org)
  • Activation occurs in response to elevated cyclic nucleotide levels and various mechanisms are presented. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the vasculature, RhoA and its downstream effector Rho associated protein kinase (Rock) have been shown to regulate processes such as vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contraction, proliferation and differentiations, endothelial permeability, platelet activation, and leukocyte migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase stimulates cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels via a ROS/calmodulin/CaMKII signaling cascade. (nih.gov)
  • PKG-II activation may define a critical control point for temporal progression into the daytime domain by acting on the positive arm of the transcriptional/translational feedback loop. (illinois.edu)
  • Loss of SAP97 promotes PKA (protein kinase A)-dependent association of β 1 AR with arrestin2 and CaMKII and turns on an Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP)-dependent activation of CaMKII, which drives detrimental functional and structural remodeling in myocardium. (elsevier.com)
  • Protection is mediated through guanylate cyclase activation, generation of cyclic GMP (cGMP), and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinases. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We found that exogenous CO protects the murine insulinoma cell line βTC3 and murine islets of Langerhans from apoptosis via cyclic GMP (cGMP) and involves activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Taken together, our results indicate that metformin might improve vascular endothelial functions in diabetes by increasing AMPK-dependent, hsp90-mediated eNOS activation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We suggest that SgmT/DigR regulates extracellular matrix composition and that SgmT activity is regulated by two sensor domains with ligand binding to the GAF domain resulting in SgmT activation and c-di-GMP binding to the GGDEF domain resulting in spatial sequestration of SgmT. (unibas.ch)
  • Cold exposure results in the release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves in BAT and subsequent activation of β-adrenergic receptors that couple via G s protein to adenylate cylcase, thereby stimulating cAMP production. (nature.com)
  • Insulin-induced ATP release from human platelets correlated with the association of syntaxin 2 with the vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 but was not associated with the activation of α IIb β 3 integrin. (rupress.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that the activation of both beta- and gamma-herpesvirus late gene promoters is dependent on the origin of viral DNA synthesis (OriLyt) in cis [23] - [25] . (prolekare.cz)
  • These results indicate that loss of β-catenin protein induced by sulindac metabolites is COX independent and at least partially due to reactivation of β-catenin proteasome degradation and partially a result of caspase activation during the process of apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The observations that accumulation of β-catenin protein is a nearly ubiquitous event during CRC development ( 5 ), and that the Tcf/Lef transcriptional activation that results from β-catenin accumulation may drive cells toward cancer development, make prevention of β-catenin accumulation an attractive target for chemopreventive agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The observations suggest a previously unknown mechanism whereby c-di-GMP mediates two-component signaling through a PilZ adaptor protein. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1, alpha isozyme is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKG1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In meta-analysis, the top associations in European ancestry were protein kinase, cyclic GMP-dependent, type I (PRKG1) rs7897633 (PMeta = 2.75 × 10-8) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) rs1049564 (PMeta = 1.24 × 10-7). (ovid.com)
  • The PRKG1 proteins play a central role in regulating cardiovascular and neuronal functions in addition to relaxing smooth muscle tone, preventing platelet aggregation, and modulating cell growth. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Some of the functions are cooperated with other proteins, some of the functions could acted by PRKG1 itself. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We selected most functions PRKG1 had, and list some proteins which have the same functions with PRKG1. (creativebiomart.net)
  • 7-10 We have recently reported that eNOS gene transfer activates the NO/cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) cascade and inhibits VSMC hypertrophy induced by AngII. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 Cyclic GMP in turn activates cGMP-dependent protein kinase types I and II (cGK-I and -II) of which cGK-I is highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • STING recruits and activates the cytosolic kinases IKK and TBK1, which activate the transcription factors NF-κB and IRF3, respectively. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results demonstrate that the 180 kDa mGC-coupled ANF and ET-1 signaling systems coexist in endothelial cells and that the ET-1 signal negates the ANF-dependent guanylate cyclase activity and cyclic GMP formation. (springer.com)
  • Here we report that the free-standing PilZ protein PA2799 from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa interacts directly with the hybrid histidine kinase SagS. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • We identify the orphan hybrid histidine kinase SgmT as the partner kinase of DigR. (unibas.ch)
  • A mechanism commonly found in bacteria for signal transduction is the two-component system (TCS), which typically consists of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • TCS genes are typically located within the same operon encoding two signalling proteins: a transmembrane sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR), which may sometimes be carried by a single polypeptide to form the hybrid HKs [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Acts as regulator of gene expression and activator of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2 in mechanically stimulated osteoblasts. (genecards.org)
  • Not surprisingly, type I IFNs can have opposing effects during both intracellular and extracellular bacterial infections as well. (hindawi.com)
  • Whereas intracellular bacteria can activate intracellular sensors from within the phagolysosome or cytoplasm, extracellular bacteria introduce type I IFN-stimulating ligands into the cytosol via pore-forming proteins or other means [ 16 - 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In Myxococcus xanthus the extracellular matrix is essential for type IV pili-dependent motility and starvation-induced fruiting body formation. (unibas.ch)
  • Proteins of two-component systems including the orphan DNA binding response regulator DigR are essential in regulating the composition of the extracellular matrix. (unibas.ch)
  • Thrombospondin (TSP) 2, and its close relative TSP1, are extracellular proteins whose functions are complex, poorly understood, and controversial. (rupress.org)
  • Using wild type (wt) and non-myristoylated mutant PKG II proteins it was demonstrated that N-myristoylation (N-myr) is important for targeting of PKG II to membranes and distal ends of filopodia like structures in COS-1 and HEK-293 cells. (ubc.ca)
  • Overexpression of the dominant negative regulatory domain of PKG II in hippocampal neurons caused a 2.5-fold increase in filopodia in young neurons and a 2-fold increase in spine like structures in older neurons compared to GFP overexpressing cells. (ubc.ca)
  • The non-myristoylated forms of PKG II overexpressing cells did not show an increase in filopodia/spine like structures, indicating that proper targeting of PKG II through myristoylation is important for the regulatory domain to have a dominant negative effect. (ubc.ca)
  • In this regard, AngII stimulates hypertrophy, proliferation, and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), the AngII type-1 receptor (AT 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • Immunofluorescent localization of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases on the mitotic apparatus of cultured cells. (rupress.org)
  • 7) SO/OH- exchange in Caco-2 cells was unaffected by SNAP. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To grow, eukaryotic cells must expand by inserting glycerolipids, sphingolipids, sterols, and proteins into their plasma membrane, and maintain the proper levels and bilayer distribution. (mdpi.com)
  • As first demonstrated in yeast [ 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ], TOR is found in all eukaryotic cells in two distinct macromolecular complexes, TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). (mdpi.com)
  • In mammalian cells, cytosolic DNA triggers the production of type I interferons and other cytokines through the endoplasmic reticulum protein STING (also known as MITA, MPYS, or ERIS) ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Most, if not all, cells can respond to and produce type I IFNs, but plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are some of the most robust producers. (hindawi.com)
  • Cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) can potentiate the toxic effect of VT by inducing a protein-synthesis dependent increase in VT receptors on endothelial cells. (tudelft.nl)
  • To investigate which proteins were involved in this induction, endothelial cells were incubated with and without TNFα in the presence of 14C-galactose or 14C-glucose. (tudelft.nl)
  • In all these cases, apoptosis of β-cells contributes to the failure of the transplanted islets ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We and others ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ) have hypothesized that the expression of antiapoptotic genes in islets may ameliorate the above problems, a hypothesis supported by the observation that A20, an antiapoptotic gene, protects β-cells from apoptosis ( 3 ), and ex vivo gene transfer of bcl-2, another antiapoptotic gene, was cytoprotective for transplanted islets ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • βTC3 cell lines were seeded at 2 × 10 5 cells, washed once with 500 μl PBS, and stained with 200 μl 0.05% crystal violet in 20% ethanol for 10 min at room temperature. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The nucleotide selectivities observed with the recombinant (m)P2Y 4 and (m)P2Y 6 receptors resemble those for nucleotide-promoted chloride transport in murine P2Y 2 (−/−) jejuna and gallbladder epithelial cells, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A prominent regulator of disease outcome, especially in-but not limited to-respiratory viral infection, is the IFN-dependent mediator TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) produced by several cell types including immune cells such as macrophages or T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Whereas first identified as factor produced by immune cells in non-respiratory infection ( 8 , 9 ), TRAIL is now especially well studied in influenza A virus (IAV) infection, where it is released in high amounts from bone marrow-derived macrophages upon pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognition and type I IFN production ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunocytochemical and tandem mass spectrometric analyses revealed that formation of 8-nitro-cGMP in rat C6 glioma cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide plus pro-inflammatory cytokines depended on production of both superoxide and H 2 O 2 . (biochemj.org)
  • PKG-I has been detected at high concentrations (above 0.1 µmol/L) in all types of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) including vascular SMCs and in platelets . (wikidoc.org)
  • The enzyme is also expressed in fibroblasts , certain types of renal cells and leukocytes , and in specific regions of the nervous system , for example in the hippocampus , in cerebellar Purkinje cells , and in dorsal root ganglia . (wikidoc.org)
  • PKG-II has been detected in renal cells, zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex , club cells in distal airways , intestinal mucosa , pancreatic ducts , parotid and submandibular glands , chondrocytes , and several brain nuclei, but not in cardiac and vascular myocytes . (wikidoc.org)
  • the ANF-dependent rise of cyclic GMP in the intact cells was dose-dependent. (springer.com)
  • Leitman DC, Murad F: Comparison of binding and cyclic GMP accumulation by atrial natriuretic peptides in endothelial cells. (springer.com)
  • It is unknown if NO-mediated injury to intestinal epithelial cells is similarly dependant, to some extent, on cGMP formation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This gene is most strongly expressed in all types of smooth muscle, platelets, cerebellar Purkinje cells, hippocampal neurons, and the lateral amygdala. (creativebiomart.net)
  • These effects occurred in cells with bi-allelic APC mutation (SW480), with wild-type APC but mono-allelic β-catenin mutation (HCT116) and in cells that lack expression of either COX-1 or -2 (HCT15). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Signaling via multiple Toll-like receptors (TLRs) leads to type I IFN production, particularly in specialized cell types such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • example: testosterone stimulates growth of prostate gland of immature or castrate rat in a dose-dependent manner. (slideserve.com)
  • In addition, a recent study demonstrated that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes stimulates a type I IFN response due to cytosolic detection of bacterially secreted c-di-AMP. (asm.org)
  • Full length wt PKG II and wt regulatory PKG JJ proteins, when overexpressed in hippocampal neurons targeted to the synapse, however, a G2A PKG II mutant, which does not undergo myristoylation had a much more diffuse distribution in the entire cell and did not target to the synapse. (ubc.ca)
  • Type II regulatory chains mediate membrane association by binding to anchoring proteins, including the MAP2 kinase (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • This chapter provides an overview of the role of voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels in cardiac cellular electrophysiology and summarizes their molecular composition, biophysical properties, and regulatory mechanisms, with a special focus on L-type Ca 2+ channels. (springer.com)
  • Type I IFNs are induced upon cytosolic detection of microbial nucleic acids, including DNA, RNA, and the bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP). (asm.org)
  • Mammals have three different isoforms of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (Ialpha, Ibeta, and II). (antibodies-online.com)
  • isoforms of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI). (semanticscholar.org)
  • cGMP-dependent protein kinase I and smooth muscle relaxation: a tale of two isoforms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • There are two subtypes of PKG: PKG1 and PKG2 and, due to alternative exon splicing, two isoforms of PKG1 - PKG1alpha and PKG1beta. (genecards.org)
  • The N-terminus of PKG-I is encoded by two alternatively spliced exons that specify for the PKG-Iα and PKG-Iβ isoforms . (wikidoc.org)
  • Isoforms Ialpha and Ibeta have identical cGMP-binding and catalytic domains but differ in their leucine/isoleucine zipper and autoinhibitory sequences and therefore differ in their dimerization substrates and kinase enzyme activity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Two genes code for the isozymes cGKI and cGKII in vertebrates. (jneurosci.org)
  • Four candidate genes were sequenced, revealing a nonsense mutation in exon 15 of cGMP-dependant type II protein kinase (PRKG2). (uliege.be)
  • Two PKG genes , coding for PKG type I (PKG-I) and type II (PKG-II), have been identified in mammals . (wikidoc.org)
  • Quorum sensing is a cell density-dependent signaling phenomenon used by bacteria for coordination of population-wide phenotypes, such as expression of virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. (mdpi.com)
  • However, during late times of infection, pUL79 helps RNAP II efficiently elongate along the viral DNA template to transcribe HCMV genes. (prolekare.cz)
  • Many early genes encode proteins required for viral DNA synthesis [19] - [21] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Following viral DNA replication, late viral genes, which mainly encode structural proteins, start to transcribe and ultimately lead to the assembly and release of infectious particles. (prolekare.cz)
  • Accumulation of β-catenin protein is nearly ubiquitous in colon adenomas and cancers, presumably due to mutations in the APC or β-catenin genes that inhibit proteasome-dependent degradation of β-catenin protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The genomes of Psy B728a, Pto DC3000 and Pph 1448A were found to contain a large number of genes encoding TCS proteins, and a core of complete TCS proteins were shared between these genomes: 30 putative TCS clusters, 11 orphan HKs, 33 orphan RRs, and 16 hybrid HKs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A close analysis of the distribution of genes encoding TCS proteins revealed important differences in TCS proteins among the three P. syringae pathovars. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for bryostatin 1-induced differentiation of the human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Reh. (wikipathways.org)
  • Potently inhibits cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE Va), PDE III and PDE IV (IC 50 values are 0.9, 24 and 25 μM, respectively). (abcam.com)
  • We demonstrate that binding of HapZ to SagS inhibits the phosphotransfer between SagS and the downstream protein HptB in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • cGMP-dependent protein kinase GI (PKGI) is the major downstream mediator of cGMP actions and has been shown to be indispensible for BAT thermogenesis and crucially involved in browning of WAT 20 , 23 . (nature.com)
  • Another is the expression of phosphodiesterase type 5 in the hypertrophied right ventricle. (ersjournals.com)
  • However, when intact platelets were incubated with NO and then lysed, enhanced activity of phosphodiesterase type 5 was detected in the cytosol. (rupress.org)
  • Rationale: Cardiotoxic β 1 adrenergic receptor (β 1 AR)-CaMKII (calmodulin-dependent kinase II) signaling is a major and critical feature associated with development of heart failure. (elsevier.com)
  • C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a third member of the natriuretic peptide family, occurs at the growth plate and acts locally as a positive regulator of endochondral ossification through the intracellular accumulation of cyclic GMP (cGMP). (elsevier.com)
  • p>A type of phylogenetic evidence whereby an aspect of a descendent is inferred through the characterization of an aspect of a ancestral gene. (uniprot.org)
  • PRKG2 (Protein Kinase CGMP-Dependent 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and protein kinase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITPR1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another antiapoptotic gene is heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) ( 7 ), the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of heme to yield equimolar amounts of carbon monoxide (CO), free iron, and biliverdin, the latter two leading to expression of ferritin and bilirubin, respectively ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • UTP and UDP promote chloride secretion in mouse jejuna and gallbladder epithelia, respectively, and these responses were unaffected by P2Y 2 receptor gene disruption. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It has also been shown that rd1 photoreceptors degenerate irrespective of the expression of p53, a tumor suppressor gene involved in several types of apoptosis ( 21 ), or c-Fos ( 22 ), which by contrast is entirely essential for light-induced photoreceptor degeneration ( 23 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Despite being caused by a single point mutation in the HBB gene, multiple pleiotropic effects of the abnormal hemoglobin S production range from vaso-occlusive crisis, stroke, and pulmonary hypertension to osteonecrosis and leg ulcers [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We also found evidence for cross-ancestral background associations with the ankyrin repeat domain 44 (ANKRD44) and pleckstrin homology domain containing, family F member 2 gene (PLEKHF2) loci. (ovid.com)
  • Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), such as the cytoplasmic retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), and the viral RNA sensor protein kinase R (PKR), are known to initiate a proinflammatory response upon recognition of viral genomes. (asm.org)
  • Here we show that HCMV pUL79, one of these factors, interacts with RNAP II as well as other viral factors involved in late gene expression. (prolekare.cz)
  • A separate gene on human chromosome 4, PRKG2, encodes the membrane-bound PRKG isoform II. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5) are part of the RIG-I-like helicase (RLH) family of sensors that recognize RNA in the cytoplasm and signal through the adaptor protein mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) (IPS1) to induce type I IFNs ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • By contrast PKG II has a much wider expression in the brain, indicating that it is most likely to be the mediator of cGMP actions. (ubc.ca)
  • We evaluated the ability of wild-type (WT) or R678X PRKG2 to regulate COL2 expression in cell culture. (uliege.be)
  • In addition, the BDSF − mutant phenotypes could be rescued by in trans expression of RpfR, or its EAL domain that functions as a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. (pnas.org)
  • HO-1 expression is antiapoptotic and cytoprotective against oxidative stress in a variety of cell types in vitro ( 7 , 9 - 12 ) and in vivo ( 7 , 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • [email protected]#The positive expression rate of MTDH, HIF-1α and TKTL1 in the 30 cases of laryngeal carcinoma was 56.67%, 60.00% and 63.33%, respectively, which was 20.00%,10.00% and 15.00% respectively in the para-carcinoma tissue, the difference of the positive expression rate of the tested objects between these two groups was statistically significant (P 0.05). (bvsalud.org)
  • The difference in one such protein, phosducin, related to an altered modification pattern in the rd1 retina rather than to changed expression levels. (mcponline.org)
  • As a consequence of the rd1 mutation, PDE6-β expression in rods yields a nonfunctional protein leading to cGMP accumulation in the cytoplasm of rod outer segments ( 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) receptor-associated cyclic GMP (cGMP) kinase substrate (IRAG) is a 125-kD type 2 integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein. (springer.com)
  • Ammendola A, Geiselhöringer A, Hofmann F, Schlossmann J. Molecular determinants of the interaction between the inositol 1, 4,5-trisphosphate receptor associated cGMP kinase substrate (IRAG) and cGMP kinase Ibeta. (springer.com)
  • InsP3R-associated cGMP kinase substrate determines inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor susceptibility to phosphoregulation by cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases. (springer.com)
  • cAMP is a partial agonist for PKG , and we elucidate the mechanism for cAMP partial agonism through the comparative NMR analysis of the apo (show C9orf3 ELISA Kits ), cGMP-, and cAMP-bound forms of the PKG cyclic nucleotide-binding domain B. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Recent in vitro and in vivo evidence identifies cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) as major mediators of cGMP signaling in the cardiovascular system. (ahajournals.org)
  • This Review discusses the cell types and molecular mediators, both host and parasite, that facilitate persistent T. gondii infection. (jci.org)
  • PKG is the most important of these intracellular mediators, whereas the cGMP-regulated PDE type 5 (PDE5) is mainly responsible for modulating intracellular cGMP levels and PKG-dependent signalling produced by NO and natriuretic peptides 5 - 7 . (ersjournals.com)
  • cGKI, a key mediator of vasodilation and hypertension diseases, interacts with and phosphorylates the BMP type II receptor (BMPRII). (embopress.org)
  • In response to BMP‐2, cGKI then dissociates from the receptors, associates with activated Smads, and undergoes nuclear translocation. (embopress.org)
  • Accordingly, cGKI has a dual function in BMP signalling: (1) it modulates BMP receptor/Smad activity at the plasma membrane and (2) after redistribution to the nucleus, it further regulates transcription as a nuclear co‐factor for Smads. (embopress.org)
  • While most GKAPs were tissue-specific, a ubiquitous PKG-binding protein was detected and identified as myosin. (elsevier.com)
  • Cytosolic cGMP controls the activity of diverse receptor proteins, including the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK). (jneurosci.org)
  • Cardiac-specific deletion of SAP97 yields an aging-dependent cardiomyopathy and exacerbates cardiac dysfunction induced by chronic adrenergic stimulation and pressure overload, which are associated with elevated CaMKII activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Originally discovered for their antiviral activity, type I interferons (IFNs) are now known to also impact a variety of infectious and inflammatory disease states that are not exclusive to the antiviral response [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Impaired modulation of the cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel activity by ahnak-1 after myocardial infarction. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Conventional approaches to study PDE function typically rely on measurements of global cAMP, general increases in cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), or the activity of exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC). (pnas.org)
  • Since insulin can enhance platelet endothelial NOS activity, we determined whether insulin-induced vasodilatation can be attributed to a NO-dependent, platelet-mediated process. (rupress.org)
  • Mutations within the putative ATP-binding site of P130gag-fps at lysine-950 destroy both its kinase and transforming activities, supporting the idea that the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to P130gag-fps is essential for its transforming function. (ubc.ca)
  • Therefore, our study discovers a previously uncharacterized mechanism where RNAP II activity is modulated by viral factor pUL79, and potentially other viral factors as well, for coordinated viral transcription. (prolekare.cz)
  • 3.1 Rho-kinase accelerates synaptic vesicle endocytosis by linking cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase activity to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate synthesis. (oist.jp)
  • cGMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring by IRAG regulates its nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. (springer.com)
  • BMP ligands signal by binding to heteromeric complexes of two types of Ser/Thr kinase receptors (BMP type I and type II receptors). (beds.ac.uk)
  • The natriuretic peptides interact with specific cell membrane receptors 2 . (ersjournals.com)
  • this is mediated by quorum molecules and receptors in a density-dependent manner [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The receptors and signaling cascades leading to induction of type I IFNs are almost as diverse as their activities. (asm.org)
  • In addition, several cytosol-localized receptors recognize nucleic acids and induce type I IFNs. (asm.org)
  • Molecular cloning and predicted full-length amino acid sequence of the type I beta isozyme of cGMP-dependent protein kinase from human placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal convergence on protein kinase A as a molecular correlate of learning. (springer.com)
  • This paper provides a molecular framework for the discussion of cyclic nucleotide function in plants, and resolves a longstanding debate about the presence of a cyclic nucleotide dependent kinase in plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the fact that free-standing PilZ proteins are by far the most prevalent c-di-GMP effectors known to date, their physiological function and mechanism of action remain largely unknown. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The mechanism of dense granule secretion involves the G kinase-dependent association of syntaxin 2 with vesicle-associated membrane protein 3. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we report a novel mechanism used by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to regulate the elongation rate of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) to facilitate viral transcription during late stages of infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • Regarding this issue, in FY 2013, we have clarified that a retrograde exo-endocytic balancing mechanism is mediated by Rho-kinase. (oist.jp)
  • A mechanism commonly found in bacteria for signal transduction is the two-component system (TCS). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The mechanism of signal transduction by TCS proteins is based on phosphotransfer reactions between histidine (H) and aspartate (D) residues in highly conserved signalling domains of the HKs and their cognate RRs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • HKs are typically organized as homodimers with two functionally and structurally distinct domains: a highly variable N-terminal extracytoplasmic sensory domain, and a more conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic transmitter domain, also known as the dimerization/phosphoacceptor domain [ 2 , 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • cGMP-dependent protein kinase I beta physically and functionally interacts with the transcriptional regulator TFII-I". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The membrane-bound protein is a regulator of intestinal secretion, bone growth and renin secretion. (genecards.org)
  • results in Ca 2+ -stimulated chloride secretion that is independent of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the cyclic AMP-regulated epithelial chloride channel that is defective in cystic fibrosis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The cGAS receptor in contrast recognizes dsDNA and the RNA:DNA hybrids generated during retroviral replication, and catalyzes the synthesis of cGAMP, which is the paramount agonist of the adaptor protein STING. (nih.gov)