A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the TESTES and BRAIN. Variants of this subtype exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its mRNA.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.
A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.

Nitric oxide regulation of gene transcription via soluble guanylate cyclase and type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase. (1/136)

Nitric oxide (NO) regulates the expression of multiple genes but in most cases its precise mechanism of action is unclear. We used baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which have very low soluble guanylate cyclase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase) activity, and CS-54 arterial smooth muscle cells, which express these two enzymes, to study NO regulation of the human fos promoter. The NO-releasing agent Deta-NONOate (ethanamine-2,2'-(hydroxynitrosohydrazone)bis-) had no effect on a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene under control of the fos promoter in BHK cells transfected with an empty vector or in cells transfected with a G-kinase Ibeta expression vector. In BHK cells transfected with expression vectors for guanylate cyclase, Deta-NONOate markedly increased the intracellular cGMP concentration and caused a small (2-fold) increase in CAT activity; the increased CAT activity appeared to be from cGMP activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In BHK cells co-transfected with guanylate cyclase and G-kinase expression vectors, CAT activity was increased 5-fold in the absence of Deta-NONOate and 7-fold in the presence of Deta-NONOate. Stimulation of CAT activity in the absence of Deta-NONOate appeared to be largely from endogenous NO since we found that: (i) BHK cells produced high amounts of NO; (ii) CAT activity was partially inhibited by a NO synthase inhibitor; and (iii) the inhibition by the NO synthase inhibitor was reversed by exogenous NO. In CS-54 cells, we found that NO increased fos promoter activity and that the increase was prevented by a guanylate cyclase inhibitor. In summary, we found that NO activates the fos promoter by a guanylate cyclase- and G-kinase-dependent mechanism.  (+info)

Regulation of myosin phosphatase by a specific interaction with cGMP- dependent protein kinase Ialpha. (2/136)

Contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle are regulated by myosin light-chain kinase and myosin phosphatase through phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of myosin light chains. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase Ialpha (cGKIalpha) mediates physiologic relaxation of vascular smooth muscle in response to nitric oxide and cGMP. It is shown here that cGKIalpha is targeted to the smooth muscle cell contractile apparatus by a leucine zipper interaction with the myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase. Uncoupling of the cGKIalpha-MBS interaction prevents cGMP-dependent dephosphorylation of myosin light chain, demonstrating that this interaction is essential to the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell tone.  (+info)

Nitric oxide and cGMP regulate gene expression in neuronal and glial cells by activating type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase. (3/136)

Nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP have been implicated in many neuronal functions, including regulation of gene expression, but little is known about the downstream targets of NO/cGMP in the nervous system. We found that type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), which is widely expressed in the brain, mediated NO- and cGMP-induced activation of the fos promoter in cells of neuronal and glial origin; the enzyme was ineffective in regulating gene expression in fibroblast-like cells. The effect of G-kinase II on gene expression did not require calcium uptake but was synergistically enhanced by calcium. G-kinase II was membrane associated and did not translocate to the nucleus; however, a soluble G-kinase II mutant translocated to the nucleus and regulated gene expression in fibroblast-like cells. Soluble G-kinase I also regulates fos promoter activity, but membrane targeting of G-kinase I prevented the enzyme from translocating to the nucleus and regulating transcription in multiple cell types, including glioma cells; this suggests that cell type-specific factor(s) that mediate the transcriptional effects of extranuclear G-kinase II are not regulated by G-kinase I. Our results suggest that G-kinase I and II control gene expression by different mechanisms and that NO effects on neuronal plasticity may involve G-kinase II regulation of gene expression.-Gudi, T., Hong, G. K.-P., Vaandrager, A. B., Lohmann, S. M., Pilz, R. B. Nitric oxide and cGMP regulate gene expression in neuronal and glial cells by activating type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase.  (+info)

Identification of a conserved residue responsible for the autoinhibition of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha and beta. (4/136)

We isolated a constitutively active form of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha (cGK Ialpha) by PCR-driven random mutagenesis. The replacement of Ile-63 by Thr in the autoinhibitory domain results in the enhancement of autophosphorylation and the basal kinase activity in the absence of cGMP. The hydrophobicity at position 63 is essential for the inactive state of cGK Ialpha, and Ile-78 of cGK Ibeta is also required for the autoinhibitory property. Furthermore, cGK Ialpha (Ile-63-Thr) is constitutively active in vivo. These findings suggest that a conserved residue in the autoinhibitory domain was involved in the autoinhibition of both cGK Is.  (+info)

Binding and phosphorylation of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha. (5/136)

cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) is a major cellular receptor of cGMP and plays important roles in cGMP-dependent signal transduction pathways. To isolate the components of the cGMP/cGK signaling pathway such as substrates and regulatory proteins of cGK, we employed the yeast two-hybrid system using cGK-Ialpha as a bait and isolated a novel male germ cell-specific 42-kDa protein, GKAP42 (42-kDa cGMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring protein). Although the N-terminal region (amino acids 1-66) of cGK-Ialpha is sufficient for the association with GKAP42, GKAP42 could not interact with cGK-Ibeta, cGK-II, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase. GKAP42 mRNA is specifically expressed in testis, where it is restricted to the spermatocytes and early round spermatids. Endogenous cGK-I is co-immunoprecipitated with anti-GKAP42 antibody from mouse testis tissue, suggesting that cGK-I physiologically interacts with GKAP42. Immunocytochemical observations revealed that GKAP42 is localized to the Golgi complex and that cGK-Ialpha is co-localized to the Golgi complex when coexpressed with GKAP42. Although both cGK-Ialpha and -Ibeta, but not cAMP-dependent protein kinase, phosphorylated GKAP42 in vitro, GKAP42 was a good substrate only for cGK-Ialpha in intact cells, suggesting that the association with kinase protein is required for the phosphorylation in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated that the kinase-deficient mutant of cGK-Ialpha stably associates with GKAP42 and that binding of cGMP to cGK-Ialpha facilitates their release from GKAP42. These findings suggest that GKAP42 functions as an anchoring protein for cGK-Ialpha and that cGK-Ialpha may participate in germ cell development through phosphorylation of Golgi-associated proteins such as GKAP42.  (+info)

Cysteine-rich protein 2, a novel substrate for cGMP kinase I in enteric neurons and intestinal smooth muscle. (6/136)

Nitric oxide/cGMP/cGMP kinase I (cGKI) signaling causes relaxation of intestinal smooth muscle. In the gastrointestinal tract substrates of cGKI have not been identified yet. In the present study a protein interacting with cGKIbeta has been isolated from a rat intestinal cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid system. The protein was identified as cysteine-rich protein 2 (CRP2), recently cloned from rat brain (Okano, I., Yamamoto, T., Kaji, A., Kimura, T., Mizuno, K., and Nakamura, T. (1993) FEBS Lett. 333, 51-55). Recombinant CRP2 is specifically phosphorylated by cGKs but not by cAMP kinase in vitro. Co-transfection of CRP2 and cGKIbeta into COS cells confirmed the phosphorylation of CRP2 in vivo. Cyclic GMP kinase I phosphorylated CRP2 at Ser-104, because the mutation to Ala completely prevented the in vivo phosphorylation. Immunohistochemical analysis using confocal laser scan microscopy showed a co-localization of CRP2 and cGKI in the inner part of the circular muscle layer, in the muscularis mucosae, and in specific neurons of the myenteric and submucosal plexus. The co-localization together with the specific phosphorylation of CRP2 by cGKI in vitro and in vivo suggests that CRP2 is a novel substrate of cGKI in neurons and smooth muscle of the small intestine.  (+info)

Activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ibeta inhibits interleukin 2 release and proliferation of T cell receptor-stimulated human peripheral T cells. (7/136)

Several major functions of type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK I) have been established in smooth muscle cells, platelets, endothelial cells, and cardiac myocytes. Here we demonstrate that cGK Ibeta is endogenously expressed in freshly purified human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and inhibits their proliferation and interleukin 2 release. Incubation of human T cells with the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, or the membrane-permeant cGMP analogs PET-cGMP and 8-pCPT-cGMP, activated cGK I and produced (i) a distinct pattern of phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, (ii) stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and p38 kinase, and, upon anti-CD3 stimulation, (iii) inhibition of interleukin 2 release and (iv) inhibition of cell proliferation. cGK I was lost during in vitro culturing of primary T cells and was not detectable in transformed T cell lines. The proliferation of these cGK I-deficient cells was not inhibited by even high cGMP concentrations indicating that cGK I, but not cGMP-regulated phosphodiesterases or channels, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, or other potential cGMP mediators, was responsible for inhibition of T cell proliferation. Consistent with this, overexpression of cGK Ibeta, but not an inactive cGK Ibeta mutant, restored cGMP-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation of Jurkat cells. Thus, the NO/cGMP/cGK signaling system is a negative regulator of T cell activation and proliferation and of potential significance for counteracting inflammatory or lymphoproliferative processes.  (+info)

Gene transfer of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I enhances the antihypertrophic effects of nitric oxide in cardiomyocytes. (8/136)

NO acting through soluble guanylyl cyclase and cGMP formation is a negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Downstream targets mediating the inhibitory effects of NO/cGMP on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy have not been elucidated. In addition to its antihypertrophic effects, NO promotes apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, presumably through cGMP-independent pathways. We investigated the role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in the antihypertrophic and proapoptotic effects of NO. Incubation of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) (250 micromol/L) or the PKG-selective cGMP analog 8-pCPT-cGMP (500 micromol/L) activated endogenous PKG type I, as shown by the site-specific phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, a well-characterized PKG substrate. SNAP (250 micromol/L) and 8-pCPT-cGMP (500 micromol/L) modestly attenuated the hypertrophic response to alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation with phenylephrine. Although a high concentration of SNAP (1000 micromol/L) promoted apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, as evidenced by the formation of histone-associated DNA fragments, antihypertrophic concentrations of SNAP (250 micromol/L) and 8-pCPT-cGMP (500 micromol/L) did not promote cell death. Because chronic activation downregulated endogenous PKG I, we explored whether gene transfer of PKG I would enhance the sensitivity of cardiomyocytes to the antihypertrophic effects of NO/cGMP. Indeed, after adenoviral overexpression of PKG Ibeta, SNAP (250 micromol/L) and 8-pCPT-cGMP (500 micromol/L) completely suppressed the hypertrophic response to alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation. As observed in noninfected cells, SNAP (250 micromol/L) and 8-pCPT-cGMP (500 micromol/L) did not promote apoptosis in cardiomyocytes overexpressing PKG Ibeta. Moreover, overexpression of PKG Ibeta did not enhance the proapoptotic effects of 1000 micromol/L SNAP, implying PKG-independent effects of NO on apoptosis. Endogenous PKG I mediates antihypertrophic but not proapoptotic effects of NO in a cell culture model of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Adenoviral gene transfer of PKG I selectively enhances the antihypertrophic effects of NO without increasing the susceptibility to apoptosis.  (+info)

GF ID PRKG1_interact #=GF AC PF15898.5 #=GF DE cGMP-dependent protein kinase interacting domain #=GF AU Eberhardt R;0000-0001-6152-1369 #=GF SE Jackhmmer:A8JNT6 #=GF GA 32.40 32.40; #=GF TC 33.30 32.50; #=GF NC 32.30 32.30; #=GF BM hmmbuild HMM.ann SEED.ann #=GF SM hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq #=GF TP Family #=GF RN [1] #=GF RM 12873707 #=GF RT Dimerization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1alpha and the #=GF RT myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase: role of leucine #=GF RT zipper domains. #=GF RA Surks HK, Mendelsohn ME; #=GF RL Cell Signal. 2003;15:937-944. #=GF RN [2] #=GF RM 10567269 #=GF RT Regulation of myosin phosphatase by a specific interaction with #=GF RT cGMP- dependent protein kinase Ialpha. #=GF RA Surks HK, Mochizuki N, Kasai Y, Georgescu SP, Tang KM, Ito M, #=GF RA Lincoln TM, Mendelsohn ME; #=GF RL Science. 1999;286:1583-1587. #=GF DR INTERPRO; IPR031775; #=GF DR SO; 0100021; polypeptide_conserved_region; #=GF CC This domain is found at the C-terminus ...
cGKI兔多克隆抗体(ab69532)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人, 猪样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Casein Kinase Ialpha: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the CELL CYCLE, membrane trafficking, and RNA processing. In DROSOPHILA casein kinase Ialpha has been in regulation of Hedghog and Wingless signaling pathways. Multiple isoforms of casein kinase Ialpha exist and are due ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Background-The endocrine balance between atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is critical for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure and volume homeostasis. This study investigated whether a cardiac imbalance between ANP and aldosterone, towards increased mineralcorticoid receptor (MR) signaling, contributes to adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in response to pressure overload. Methods and Results-We used the MR-selective antagonist eplerenone to test the role of MRs in mediating pressure overload-induced dilatative cardiomyopathy of mice with abolished local, cardiac ANP activity. In response to 21-days of transverse aortic constriction (TAC), mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted inactivation (KO) of the ANP receptor (guanylyl cyclase (GC)-A) or the downstream cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) developed enhanced LV hypertrophy and fibrosis together with contractile dysfunction. Treatment with eplerenone (100 mg/kg/day) attenuated LV ...
The expression and phosphorylation state of VASP was investigated in neutrophils during cell adherence. Adhesion is an essential process for neutrophil migration from the peripheral blood to sites of inflammation. During the process of adhesion, neutrophils adhere and spread without any clear stopping point between these two processes. Therefore, it was important to determine whether VASP was phosphorylated in response to signals involved in adhesion and/or spreading. In this report, we demonstrate that VASP is a target for cGK regulation of neutrophil spreading. We showed that VASP was in its dephosphorylated form in retracted round neutrophils and was rapidly phosphorylated by cGK at the onset of cell spreading. Both adherence and the onset of cell spreading induced significant elevations of cGMP in neutrophils. When neutrophils were incubated with 8-Br-cGMP, a direct activator of cGK, cells became more polarized in suspension, and spread more rapidly during adhesion. Our observations that ...
In addition to vasodilation, NO/NP/cGMP signaling is involved in the development of vasculoproliferative disorders, such as restenosis and atherosclerosis. The analysis of transgenic mice showed that NO can both promote58-64 and inhibit65-70 pathological vascular remodeling (see review5). This finding could explain why NO-generating drugs have not been reported to limit the progression of atherosclerosis in humans. The opposing actions of NO might depend on the magnitude and spatiotemporal profile of its production in a specific pathophysiological setting and are likely mediated through different cellular and molecular mechanisms. A key process in vascular remodeling is the phenotypic modulation of vascular SMCs from contractile to proliferating/dedifferentiated cells.71 It has been reported that NO and cGMP can both promote72,73 and inhibit74,75 the proliferation of cultured SMCs (see reviews12,76). The reason for these contradictory findings and their (patho)physiological significance is not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An anti-tumor role for cGMP-dependent protein kinase. AU - Hou, Yali. AU - Gupta, Naren. AU - Schoenlein, Patricia. AU - Wong, Elsie. AU - Martindale, Robert. AU - Ganapathy, Vadivel. AU - Browning, Darren. PY - 2006/8/18. Y1 - 2006/8/18. N2 - This study compared Type-1 cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) expression in normal and tumor tissues and examined PKG function in tumor growth. Studies with a cDNA array revealed that PKG expression was reduced in many tumors compared to respective normal tissue. This decrease in PKG expression was confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting of matched colon specimens from normal epithelium and tumor tissue, and also in colon derived cell lines where luciferase reporter analysis revealed that the decreased expression occurred at the transcriptional level. Using SW620 colon carcinoma cells engineered for inducible expression of PKG1β, it was found that exogenous PKG1β lead to decreased tumor growth and invasiveness in nude ...
cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKG) exhibit diverse physiological functions in the mammalian system e.g., in vascular and gastrointestinal smooth muscles, in platelets, in kidney, in bone growth, nociception and in the central nervous system. Furthermore, PKG were found in insects and in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Two different genes of PKG exist: a) the PKG-I gene that is expressed as cytosolic PKG-Iα or PKG-Iβ isoform, and b) the PKG-II gene, which expresses the membrane associated PKG-II protein. The enzyme kinetics, the localization and the substrates of these PKG enzymes differ utilizing different physiological functions. Various inhibitors of PKG were developed directed against diverse functional regions of the kinase. These inhibitors of PKG have been used to analyse the specific functions of these enzymes. The review article will summarize these different inhibitors regarding their specificity and their present applications in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, it will be
enerated within this study cGKI-deficient mice. None of our antisera detected certain phospho-cGKI signals in the freshly isolated tissues (information not
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of cGMP-Dependent protein kinase anchoring proteins (GKAPs). AU - Vo, Ngan. AU - Gettemy, Jessica M.. AU - Coghlan, Vincent M.. PY - 1998/5/29. Y1 - 1998/5/29. N2 - To promote both efficiency and selectivity, many protein kinases and phosphatases are maintained in specific subcellular microenvironments through their association with anchoring proteins. In this study, we describe a new class of proteins, called GKAPS, that specifically bind the Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). GKAPs were detected in rat aorta, brain, and intestine using a protein overlay technique. The PKG binding proteins were distinct from AKAPs, proteins known to bind the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Furthermore, a synthetic peptide that blocks association of PKA with AKAPs did not affect the PKG-GKAP interaction. Deletion mutagenesis was used to map the GKAP binding determinants within PKG to the N-terminal regulatory region. While most GKAPs were tissue-specific, a ...
Cyclic GMP (cGMP) kinase is intimately involved in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone. Its tissue concentration was determined in normotensive and hypertensive rats by use of monospecific anti-cGMP kinase antibodies. Hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats and renovascular (Goldblatt II) hypertensive rats contained half the concentration of cGMP kinase than those of the respective normotensive animals. The increase in blood pressure and the resulting left ventricular hypertrophy were correlated inversely with the left ventricular cGMP kinase concentration. This decrease was specific for the left ventricle and was not observed in other tissues. In addition, the cardiac concentration of cGMP kinase was unchanged in hyperthyroid animals that had comparable left ventricular hypertrophy and mild hypertension. This suggested that in severe renovascular hypertension the decrease in cardiac cGMP kinase concentration is caused by a relative lack of cardiac vessel growth during the ...
Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK or PKG) subfamily, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The cGK subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Mammals have two cGK isoforms from different genes, cGKI and cGKII. cGKI exists as two splice variants, cGKI-alpha and cGKI-beta. cGK consists of an N-terminal regulatory domain containing a dimerization and an autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate region, two cGMP-binding domains, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Binding of cGMP to both binding sites releases the inhibition of the catalytic center by the pseudosubstrate region, allowing autophosphorylation and ...
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Complete information for PRKG2 gene (Protein Coding), Protein Kinase CGMP-Dependent 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Mutation in the PRKG1 Gene Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Aortic Dissection. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic GMP - Dependent protein kinase. AU - Roskoski, R.. AU - Vulliet, Philip R. AU - Glass, D. B.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Tyrosine hydroxylase purified from rat pheochromycytoma was phosphorylated and activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. The extent of activation was correlated with the degree of phosphate incorporated into the enzyme. Comparable stoichiometric ratios (0.6 mol phosphate/mol tyrosine hydroxylase subunit) were obtained at maximal concentrations of either cyclic AMP-dependent or cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases. The enzymes appeared to mediate the phosphorylation of the same residue based on the observation that incorporation was not increased when both enzymes were present. The major tryptic phosphopeptide obtained from tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylated by each protein kinase exhibited an identical retention time following ...
The mesothelioma cells in this study express both PKG-Iα and PKG-Iβ, and the inhibition of their expression or kinase activity results in dramatic suppression of the phosphorylation of c-Src at serine-17 and the endogenous activation of c-Src as well as the cell survival, proliferation and attachment of these cells. Because the kinase inhibitors and shRNA constructs are (at present) not able to discriminate between the two PKG-I isoforms, it is not yet possible to identify which PKG-I isoform is mediating the c-Src phosphorylation and the pro-survival, pro-growth and pro-attachment effects of PKG-I in mesothelioma cells. In the NCI-H23 lung cancer cells, which express only the PKG-Iα isoform, the PKG-Iα was identified as a key protein kinase mediating the enhanced phosphorylation and activation of c-Src and the downstream enhancement of cell survival (contributing to chemoresistance), proliferation and attachment of these lung cancer cells. This builds upon our previous observation that ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is involved in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Two regulatory and two catalytic subunits form the PKA holoenzyme, disbands after cAMP binding. The holoenzyme is involved in many cellular events, including ion transport, metabolism, and transcription. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015 ...
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There is growing evidence for the antitumor effects of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in colon cancer cells. We reported recently that ectopically expressed PKG resulted in defective angiogenesis in xenografts, and was associated with reduced levels of vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In order to better understand the therapeutic potential of this enzyme, the present work has examined the mechanism of VEGF regulation by PKG. In contrast to the SW620 xenografts, PKG had no effect on VEGF expression in SW620 cells grown under standard tissue culture conditions in vitro. However, the increase in VEGF expression observed when the cells were subjected to hypoxic stress was significantly attenuated by PKG at both the mRNA and protein levels. Using luciferase reporter assays, PKG was shown to inhibit hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) transcriptional activity in several colon cancer cell lines, including SW620, HCT116, and HT29. The attenuation of HIF by PKG reflected a more fundamental ...
cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cAPK and cGPK). Both types of kinases contains two tandem copies of the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain. The cAPKs are composed of two different subunits: a catalytic chain and a regulatory chain which contains both copies of the domain. The cGPKs are single chain enzymes that include the two copies of the domain in their N- terminal section. The nucleotide specificity of cAPK and cGPK is due to an amino acid in the conserved region of β-barrel 7: a threonine that is invariant in cGPK is an alanine in most cAPK ...
Well ever since, DH gave me the ok to test the day of beta, I took that a little more generally. Since there have been people on here with BFPs on 5dp5dt, I …
Genofix Lz in Telugu - యొక్క ఉపయోగాలు, మోతాదు, దుష్ప్రభావాలు, ప్రయోజనాలు, పరస్పర చర్యలు మరియు హెచ్చరికను కనుగొనండి - Genofix Lz yokka upayogaalu, mothaadu, dushprabhaavaalu, prayojanaalu, praspara charyalu mariyu hechcharika
Protein kinase G (PKG) is activated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced cGMP binding or alternatively by oxidant-induced interprotein disulfide formation. We found preactivation with cGMP attenuated PKG oxidation. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) blockade of cGMP production increased disulfide PKG to 13±2% and 29±4% of total in aorta and mesenteries, respectively. This was potentially anomalous, because we observed 2.7-fold higher NO levels in aorta than mesenteries; consequently, we had anticipated that ODQ would induce more disulfide in the conduit vessel. ODQ also constricted aorta, whereas it had no effect on mesenteries. Thus, mesenteries, but not aorta, can compensate for loss of NO-cGMP by recruiting disulfide activation of PKG. Mechanistically, this is explained by loss of cGMP allowing disulfide formation in response to basal oxidant production. Why aorta treated with ODQ generated less PKG disulfide that is insufficient to induce vasoconstriction was unclear. One potential ...
Here I describe a study of comparative behavioral genetics of a complex behavioral phenotype that is affected by a gene encoding a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, foraging). I accomplish this by using a traditional ...
Fast delivery of PRKG2 knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
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8 x 10 in. (20 x 25cm) Pkg. of 2 Bio-speed Intensifying screen [SQZ-0578] - 8 x 10 in. (20 x 25cm) Pkg. of 2 Bio-speed Intensifying screen
Dynamic regulation of arterial tone influences blood pressure and flow, and ultimately plays a critical role in cardiovascular health and disease. My research focuses primarily on cellular signaling pathways that impair excitation-contraction coupling in vascular smooth muscle (VSM), thereby reducing contractility and promoting vasodilation. In particular, I am interested in mechanisms that provide constant or tonic modulation of vascular tone by controlling membrane potential, intracellular Ca2+ and the sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to Ca2+. My projects have investigated mechanisms of cyclic nucleotide vasorelaxation, including the pivotal roles of phosphodiesterases and cyclic nucleotide dependent protein kinases. Recent studies using a novel class of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors suggest a critical vasoregulatory role for constitutively active PKG in VSM.. The vascular endothelium (a single layer of cells lining the lumen of the entire vasculature) constantly ...
The homology-based models of binding domains in CNG channel depend heavily on the template structure of CAP and are sensitive to 1) the uncertainties inherent in defining energy terms and 2) the assumptions regarding the intricate and extensive couplings between neighboring side chains. It is therefore important to test these models, particularly the explicit predictions of prominent interactions. In one such experimental test, Thr560 in Brcng was investigated through site-directed mutagenesis and expression (Altenhofen et al., 1991). It was found that Thr560 determined the selectivity of cGMP over cAMP, a finding consistent with the interpretation of an earlier structure model of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (Weber et al., 1989). In another study, Tibbs et al. found that the highly conserved Arg559, one residue upstream of Thr560, formed a favorable ionic bond with cGMP (Tibbs et al., 1998), again agreeing with previous models. The largest shifts caused by amino acid substitutions amounted to ...
For the parsing of the commands and files, some limitations on package names are required. This will limit what pkg commands can do. For example, if a package name is allowed to use a hyphen, then commands such as pkg load image-2.0.0 can no longer be used to load a specific package version. Something such as pkg load image::2.0.0 would have to be used. Using this alternative syntax means that package names cannot have colons. This is not only limited to package versions. As pkg is to be expanded to load pkg databases from other files (packages in a not always mounted directory for example), it becomes a possibility to have more than one package with the same version available to pkg load. This means that it becomes necessary to specify which package to load. Something like pkg load image-lab-2.0.0 can be used. A nice thing would also be pkg load image-2.0.0 from lab but that would add one of following 2 limitations: either no package can be named from; or pkg load becomes limited to ...
Affiliation (based on the past Project Information):新潟大学,医学部,教授, Research Field:General pharmacology,薬理学一般,Circulatory organs internal medicine, Keywords:cGMP,Calmodulin,Heparin,IP_3受容体,Concanavalin A,血管平滑筋,cyclic GMP,G-kinase,ブタ大動脈平滑筋,IP_4, # of Research Projects:9, # of Research Products:0
This manuscript provides novel genetic evidence for the presence of cGKIα in murine islets. We have shown that cGKIα has significant functional effects by the following main findings: 1) cGKIα is expressed in glucagon secreting α-cells and in some SST-positive δ-cells of the Langerhans islet; 2) active cGKI decreased glucagon secretion from islets at 1 mmol/l glucose; 3) active cGKI suppressed calcium oscillation in α-cells at 0.5 mmol/l glucose; and 4) serum glucose and glucagon levels were higher in the absence of islet cGKI than in CTR mice after 12-h fasting. In addition to cGKIα, we and others detected several components of the NO/cGMP and NP/cGMP pathways in mouse islets, including sGC, pGC, and PDE-5 (20,31). These findings establish cGKIα as an important signaling molecule that affects glucose metabolism in the mouse.. It has been shown that ANP inhibited glucagon and insulin release in isolated rat islets (39,40). Variable results for NO-donors and NOS inhibitors have been ...
BioAssay record AID 630202 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of retinal rod CNGA1/CNGB1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes assessed as blockade of cGMP-induced current at +50 mV holding potential by patch-clamp electrophysiology.
VOL. XXXVHI. COLUMBUS, TUESDAY, JULY 10, 1877. NO. 165. .1 SIEBERT &. L1LLEY, BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURERS. Printrs,BlnIer, Stationers and Legal Blank Publisher. BOOK BINDING ., . Of every Description, by the Edition or ; Single Veiwnt. Opera House Building :(Up Stairs), tpl COLUMBUS. GEO. T. D WALL, MERCHANT TAILOR. 157 SOUTH HIGH ST., angl7 lylp . MOODIE, HUBBARD &. CO. BANKERS, 61 SOUTH jj9tllp HIGH STREET. tatAitral OIKlv: High, Pearl mid ttaapd fit. J. M. COMI.T. W. TBANCIKO. COMLY & FRANCISCO, FUBl.I6Iir.RB AND rROPlUKTOHS. JAMES M. COJIXY. .... Editor. OFFICIAL PAPER OF THE CITY Indication jar Tennessee and the Ohio Valley Stationary or higher pressure, winds moitly from the northwest , stationary or lower temperature, partly cloudy weather, and occasional showers. - Gold closed in New York yesterday at 105. High street still presents splendid opportunities for topographical engineering. The station house question might be avoided, after all. Let each policeman be required, upon ...
Cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase G [PKG]) is essential for microneme secretion, motility, invasion, and egress in apicomplexan parasites, However, the separate roles of two isoforms of the kinase that are expressed by some apicomplexans remain uncertain. Despite having identical regulatory and catalytic domains, PKGI is plasma membrane associated whereas PKGII is cytosolic in Toxoplasma gondii. To determine whether these isoforms are functionally distinct or redundant, we developed an auxin-inducible degron (AID) tagging system for conditional protein depletion in T. gondii. By combining AID regulation with genome editing strategies, we determined that PKGI is necessary and fully sufficient for PKG-dependent cellular processes. Conversely, PKGII is functionally insufficient and dispensable in the presence of PKGI. The difference in functionality mapped to the first 15 residues of PKGI, containing a myristoylated Gly residue at position 2 that is critical for membrane ...
Contraction of smooth muscle cells, such as those that line blood vessels, is regulated through phosphorylation of the myosin light chain. Phosphorylation by myosin light-chain kinase (and consequent increased contraction) is opposed by dephosphorylation (and consequent relaxation) catalyzed by the myosin light-chain phosphatase (PP1M). Some agents that control blood pressure act by modulating this regulatory system. Nitric oxide, a vasodilator, causes increased intracellular production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which in turn activates cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKIα). Surks et al. provide evidence that cGKIα localizes as part of a multienzyme complex at the contractile apparatus through direct interaction with the myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of PP1M. This association was required for cGMP-dependent activation of PP1M and dephosphorylation of myosin light chain. The CGKIα enzyme adds yet another component to the cluster of regulatory components bound to the MBS, which ...
The graphic displays domains and Protease cut sites on the protein sequence. Drag your mouse right/left over the graphic. Use the selection boxes on the right to select which annotations to view simultaneously. Combine annotation with multiple checkmarks.. ...
In the present study, we have shown that YC-1 induced an antiproliferative effect in HCC cells in a concentration-dependent manner. YC-1 also inhibited DNA synthesis in HA22T cells and blocked the G1-S transition of the cell cycle. It is well known that elevation of the cGMP levels can be achieved by YC-1 through direct activation of sGC (Wu et al., 1995) and by inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity (Galle et al., 1999). Nevertheless, YC-1-mediated responses through a cGMP-independent pathway have also been described before (Ferrero and Torres, 2001; Hwang et al., 2003). In our study, 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (a selective sGC inhibitor) and KT-5823 (a selective inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase) did not prevent the YC-1-induced antiproliferative effect, nor did YC-1 increase cGMP formation in HA22T cells. These results suggest that YC-1-induced inhibition of HA22T proliferation occurs through a cGMP-independent signaling pathway. Soluble guanylyl cyclase is a ...
Two disparate mechanisms have evolved for activating PKG1α; one relies on binding of the second messenger cGMP, the other involves thiol oxidation inducing a disulfide homodimer. In this study, we found that these 2 mechanisms of activating PKG1α are intricately linked with the binding of cGMP preventing oxidation to the disulfide state. The N-terminus of PKG1α, which contains the redox-sensitive cysteine from each monomer of the dimer, have been mapped using NMR.14 This structural information shows that the redox cysteines in PKG1α are in close proximity and orientated to allow the formation of a disulfide bond when oxidants are present. Our observations are consistent with cGMP binding to PKG1α causing an allosteric structural change that reorientates the redox cysteines. This reorientation presumably moves the thiols too far apart or changes their molecular environment such that their pKa is increased to lower their reactivity with oxidants, either of which would attenuate disulfide ...
We report two interesting cases of CS in a pair of adolescent age-group brothers, due to ACTH-independent PPNAD, as a part of the CC. PPNAD is the most common cause of CS in the adolescent age group, with > 50% of the cases having CC, characterised by a mutation in PRKAR1A (protein kinase type 1-alpha regulatory subunit) [2]. Although genetic testing could not be done, both the patients fulfilled the clinical criteria for CC; the two major criteria which were satisfied were - the presence of spotty skin pigmentation, and PPNAD, while the presence of positive family history in a first-degree relative fulfilled the supplemental criteria [3]. Both the cases exhibited certain peculiarities typical of PPNAD, while few features were atypical. Both of them had a florid clinical presentation with severe stunting and various features of protein catabolism, whereas PPNAD is usually associated with a milder presentation. This could probably be attributed to the long duration of the cortisol burden in both ...
Removed from the synonymy of Sphenophryne by Zweifel, 2000, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 253: 9, where it had been placed by Nieden, 1926, Das Tierreich, 49: 50. Revision in Zweifel, 2000, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 253: 1-130. Hoskin, 2004, Aust. J. Zool., 52: 240, provided a molecular tree of the Australian species. Köhler and Günther, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 47: 353-365, suggested that Austrochaperina is not monophyletic, with each of two monophyletic units of Austrochaperina most closely related to pieces of an equally nonmonophyletic Copiula. Hoskin, 2008, Mem. Queensland Mus., 52: 233-237, provided a key to the species of Australia. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences did not refute this result due to decreased taxon sampling.. ...
This study shows that in vitro exposure to high glucose (i.e., 25 mmol/L) of platelets from healthy subjects reduces the antiaggregating action of aspirin, an effect blunted by the antioxidant agent amifostine. It also shows that high glucose does not affect the ability of aspirin to inhibit thromboxane synthesis but impairs the ability of aspirin to activate the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway. Furthermore, it demonstrates that high glucose per se does not influence platelet aggregation in response to agonists, thromboxane synthesis, and the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway.. Thus, high glucose reduces the antiaggregating properties of aspirin only at very high concentrations; the extent of inhibition, although significant, is modest. In our experimental conditions, we did not observe the dramatic dose-dependent inhibition of platelet sensitivity to aspirin described by other authors (17,19).. Is it possible to translate results obtained in vitro to in vivo conditions? It is interesting to observe that the lack of ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase complex, cytoplasm, nucleus, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, mitochondrion organization, protein kinase A signaling, protein phosphorylation, Ras protein signal transduction
The heart initially compensates for hypertension-mediated pressure overload by enhancing its contractile force and developing hypertrophy without dilation. Gq protein-coupled receptor pathways become activated and can depress function, leading to cardiac failure. Initial adaptation mechanisms to reduce cardiac damage during such stimulation remain largely unknown. Here we have shown that this initial adaptation requires regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2). Mice lacking RGS2 had a normal basal cardiac phenotype, yet responded rapidly to pressure overload, with increased myocardial Gq signaling, marked cardiac hypertrophy and failure, and early mortality. Swimming exercise, which is not accompanied by Gq activation, induced a normal cardiac response, while Rgs2 deletion in Gαq-overexpressing hearts exacerbated hypertrophy and dilation. In vascular smooth muscle, RGS2 is activated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), suppressing Gq-stimulated vascular contraction. In normal mice, but not ...
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"Localization of the human gene for the type I cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase to chromosome 10". Cytogenetics and Cell ... of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha". ... 5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (12): 8701-7. PMID ... "Characterization of the human gene encoding the type I alpha and type I beta cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKG1)". Genomics. ...
5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (12): 8701-7. PMID ... "Carbonic anhydrase-related protein is a novel binding protein for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1". The ... Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITPR1 gene. ITPR1 has been shown to ... Joseph SK, Lin C, Pierson S, Thomas AP, Maranto AR (Oct 1995). "Heteroligomers of type-I and type-III inositol trisphosphate ...
EC 2.7.11.12 Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases and the Cardiovascular System cGMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US ... Two PKG genes, coding for PKG type I (PKG-I) and type II (PKG-II), have been identified in mammals. The N-terminus of PKG-I is ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase or protein kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP ... "A crystal structure of the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I{beta} dimerization/docking domain reveals molecular details of ...
Vrolix, M; Raeymaekers, L; Wuytack, F; Hofmann, F; Casteels, R (Nov 1, 1988). "Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase stimulates ... L-type calcium channel expression increases in spastic vascular smooth muscle cells, which could result in excessive calcium ... "Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathway inhibits RhoA-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contraction in vascular ... Nicorandil stimulates guanylate cyclase to increase formation of cyclic GMP (cGMP). cGMP activates protein kinase G (PKG), ...
... inducing a signaling cascade that results in the activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and an ultimate decrease in ... In addition to this, it has already been shown that NO stimulates increased cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels in the smooth muscle cells ... Various cell types play a role in HR, including astrocytes, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and ... When these proteins are active, they turn on SREBP2 which inhibits LRP-1. LRP-1 helps the brain remove amyloid beta. Therefore ...
... where it stimulates a protein kinase called cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. By phosphorylating proteins, cyclic AMP- ... G proteins). The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) ... Cyclic nucleotides can be found in many different types of eukaryotic cells, including photo-receptor rods and cones, smooth ... Eckly-Michel A, Martin V, Lugnier C (September 1997). "Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in cyclic AMP ...
The molecular mechanism of smooth muscle relaxation involves the enzyme CGMP-dependent protein kinase, also known as PKG. This ... June 1996). "Sildenafil: an orally active type 5 cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor for the treatment of penile ... Francis SH, Busch JL, Corbin JD, Sibley D (September 2010). "cGMP-dependent protein kinases and cGMP phosphodiesterases in ... Sildenafil protects cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) from degradation by cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) in ...
In vivo phosphorylation of thromboxane by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... phosphorylate messengers via protein kinase A (PKA). These signaling elements include thromboxane A2, receptor type α, ... Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates cGMP production and therefore the activation cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G kinase). This kinase ... Siess, Wolfgang; Eduardo, Lapetina (1990). "Functional relationship between cyclic AMP-dependent protein phosphorylation and ...
"Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase regulates vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype". Journal of Vascular Research. 34 (4): 245 ... Hydrogen sulfide is also involved in the disease process of type 1 diabetes. The beta cells of the pancreas in type 1 diabetes ... Lincoln, T. M.; Cornwell, Taylor (March 1990). "cGMP-dependent protein kinase mediates the reduction of Ca2+ by cAMP in ... increased cGMP triggers an increase in protein kinase G (PKG) activity. PKG reduces intracellular Ca2+ in vascular smooth ...
CNG channel activity is controlled by the interaction between cGMP-dependent protein kinase and G1 protein because of cGMP's ... "Induction by cyclic GMP of cationic conductance in plasma membrane of retinal rod outer segment". Nature. 313 (6000): 310-3. ... However, a receptor-type GC in mammalian sperm has yet to be identified. Mouse sperm express other channels such as CatSper1. ... Cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha-subunits include Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel ...
... of high gain CICR which contributes to the contraction of myocytes by phosphorylation through cAMP dependent protein kinase A ( ... causes a decrease in the stimulation of guanylate cyclase and cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels fall in vascular smooth muscle. This ... this kinase improves the Ca2+ inward current through the L-type Ca2+ channels, which leads to calcium-induced calcium release ... a special type of smooth ER) and decreasing the calcium available for contraction. In myocytes, the increase of cAMP ...
Cyclic GMP binds to the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG1) which phosphorylates several proteins that results in decreased ... "Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor use in type 2 diabetes is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality". Heart. 102 ( ... cGMP binding proteins and protein kinase G (PKG). The effect on PKG reduces levels of calcium leading to relaxation of smooth ... Their function is to degrade intracellular second messengers such as cyclic adenine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine ...
Boerth NJ, Dey NB, Cornwell TL, Lincoln TM (1997). "Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase regulates vascular smooth muscle cell ... The vasodilating effects of sulfur dioxide are mediated via ATP-dependent calcium channels and L-type ("dihydropyridine") ... which is a heterodimeric enzyme with subsequent formation of cyclic-GMP. Cyclic-GMP activates protein kinase G, which causes ... Lincoln, T. M.; Cornwell, Taylor (March 1990). "cGMP-dependent protein kinase mediates the reduction of Ca2+ by cAMP in ...
... cyclic gmp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D12.644.360.200.575 - protamine kinase MeSH D12.644.360.250 - cyclin-dependent ... c-type MeSH D12.644.548.587 - pancreatic polypeptide MeSH D12.644.548.588 - parathyroid hormone-related protein MeSH D12.644. ... map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D12.644.360.400.200 - map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D12.644.360.400.300 - map kinase kinase ... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D12.644.360.200.125 - cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D12.644. ...
This in turn leads to increased cAMP-dependent protein kinase or PKA (protein kinase A) activity, ultimately promoting ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP in cell signaling and drug development". The New England Journal of Medicine. 355 (19): 2003-11. ... these include bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4 ... The cGMP then activates cGMP-dependent kinase or PKG (protein kinase G). Activated PKG promotes vasorelaxation (via a reduction ...
... that activates the cGMP-dependent protein kinase to phosphorylate proteins regulating muscle contraction, among other targets. ... Murad, Ferid (1994). "The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signal transduction system for intracellular and intercellular communication ... "S-nitrosylation of tissue-type plasminogen activator confers vasodilatory and antiplatelet properties on the enzyme". Proc Natl ... G proteins, protein kinases, ion channels and micro RNA processing machinery. That is, NO in the form of an SNO is a cellular ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Roskoski R, Roskoski LM (Jan 1987). "Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells by the cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP second ... embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis. • social organism behavior. • cellular response to manganese ion. • response to ether ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases.[12][25] Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.[ ...
... through cyclic GMP-dependent mechanisms. NO prolongs the ability of human dendritic cells to internalize antigens at sites of ... protein kinase A (PKA) and the exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac-1 and -2). Epac-1 and PKA are both important ... The alveolar macrophage is the third cell type in the alveolus, the others are the type I and type II pneumocytes. Alveolar ... The lungs are especially sensitive and prone to damage, thus to avoid collateral damage to type 1 and type II pneumocytes, ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Roskoski R, Roskoski LM (Jan 1987). "Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells by the cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP second ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is also an autoantigen in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome (APS) type I. A consistent abnormality in ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ser19 ( ...
... beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.150 - cyclic gmp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D08.811. ... bone morphogenetic protein receptors, type ii MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.125 - ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase ... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.125 - cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases ... map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.200 - map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
... through a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism". Biochem J. 466 (2): 379-390. doi:10.1042/bj20140881. PMID 25422863.. ... Pugh Jr, E. N.; Lamb, T. D. (1990). "Cyclic GMP and calcium: The internal messengers of excitation and adaptation in vertebrate ... This type of dysfunction can be seen in cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes.[9] ... Activation of protein kinase C. Further reading: Function of protein kinase C. ...
... or for the manipulation of cyclic GMP . Several CEF groups joined forces not only to unravel the photocycle of ChR2 at ... CEF scientists showed that GABARAP proteins are not only involved in autophagy but also in the ubiquitin-dependent degradation ... "The leukemogenic AF4-MLL fusion protein causes P-TEFb kinase activation and altered epigenetic signatures". Leukemia. 25 (1): ... CEF scientists also revealed the molecular mechanism of a novel type of phosphoribosyl-linked serine ubiquitination by the ...
Upon binding DNA, the protein cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase (cGAS) triggers reaction of GTP and ATP to form cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). ... Ishikawa H, Ma Z, Barber GN (October 2009). "STING regulates intracellular DNA-mediated, type I interferon-dependent innate ... STING is also thought to activate the NF-κB transcription factor through the activity of the IκB kinase (IKK), though the ... Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) is a cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) and the first to be found in metazoans. Other CDNs (c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP ...
Yeast tRNA kinase then phosphorylates the 5'-hydroxyl group using adenosine triphosphate. Yeast tRNA cyclic phosphodiesterase ... Protein splicing[edit]. Main article: Protein splicing. In addition to RNA, proteins can undergo splicing. Although the ... This type of splicing is termed canonical splicing or termed the lariat pathway, which accounts for more than 99% of splicing. ... 3'OH of a free guanine nucleoside (or one located in the intron) or a nucleotide cofactor (GMP, GDP, GTP) attacks phosphate at ...
Yeast tRNA kinase then phosphorylates the 5'-hydroxyl group using adenosine triphosphate. Yeast tRNA cyclic phosphodiesterase ... can manifest as a deletion or truncation in the final protein. Splicing is catalyzed by the spliceosome, a large RNA-protein ... This type of splicing is termed canonical splicing or termed the lariat pathway, which accounts for more than 99% of splicing. ... NAD-dependent 2'-phosphotransferase then removes the 2'-phosphate group. Splicing occurs in all the kingdoms or domains of life ...
Cyclic-GMP activates protein kinase G, which causes reuptake of Ca2+ and the opening of calcium-activated potassium channels. ... The neuronal enzyme (NOS-1) and the endothelial isoform (NOS-3) are calcium-dependent and produce low levels of this gas as a ... "Threshold Effects of Nitric Oxide-Induced Toxicity and Cellular Responses in Wild-Type and p53-Null Human Lymphoblastoid Cells ... Hemoglobin is a prominent example of a heme protein that may be modified by NO by both direct attack by NO and, independently, ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.36: now with EC 3.1.4.43 EC 3.1.4.37: 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1 ... ADP-dependent medium-chain-acyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.20: acyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.21: Dodecanoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) ... type I site-specific deoxyribonuclease EC 3.1.21.4: type II site-specific deoxyribonuclease EC 3.1.21.5: type III site-specific ... protein-tyrosine-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.49: (pyruvate kinase)-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.50: sorbitol-6-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.51: ...
"Cyclic AMP/GMP-dependent modulation of Ca2+ channels sets the polarity of nerve growth-cone turning". Nature. 423 (6943): 990-5 ... Overall, these studies show that regulating effects of netrin is dependent on the type of vascular tissue. Recently, netrin has ... DCC and UNC-5 proteins mediate netrin-1 responses. The UNC-5 protein is mainly involved in signaling repulsion. DCC, which is ... In the first pathway, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is bound to DCC and both undergo tyrosine phosphorylation upon netrin-1 ...
3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... which vary based on the type of cell. ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases ... Main article: function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, ... an enzyme called protein kinase A (PKA).[12]. The PKA enzyme is also known as cAMP-dependent enzyme because it gets activated ...
3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... type 1 angiotensin receptor binding. • protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase ... "Direct binding of G-protein betagamma complex to voltage-dependent calcium channels". Nature. 385 (6615): 446-50. doi:10.1038/ ... phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • retina development in camera-type eye. • Ras protein ...
3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... Types of G protein signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... Heterotrimeric G proteins[edit]. Main article: Heterotrimeric G proteins. Different types of heterotrimeric G proteins share a ...
3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... Types[edit]. There are membrane-bound (type 1, guanylate cyclase-coupled receptor) and soluble (type 2, soluble guanylate ... see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Depending on cell type, it can drive adaptive/developmental changes requiring protein synthesis. In smooth muscle, cGMP is the ...
3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... Cyclins, when bound with the dependent kinases, such as the p34/cdc2/cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor. MPFs ... Types[edit]. There are several different cyclins that are active in different parts of the cell cycle and that cause the Cdk to ... is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK ...
protein domain specific binding. • receptor serine/threonine kinase binding. • peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ... Fang S, Jensen JP, Ludwig RL, Vousden KH, Weissman AM (March 2000). "Mdm2 is a RING finger-dependent ubiquitin protein ligase ... cellular response to organic cyclic compound. • viral process. • response to iron ion. • regulation of gene expression. • ... Further supporting the role of mdm2 as an oncogene, several human tumor types have been shown to have increased levels of Mdm2 ...
1975). "Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic ... As different PDE types may affect different cAMP pools, the different PDEs may regulate different processes in the cell.[9]. ... Protein phosphatase *PP2A. *OCRL. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase. *Fructose 6-P,2-kinase:fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase ... "Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-dependent expression of phosphodiesterase 2: role in endothelial hyperpermeability". Blood. 105 (9 ...
Types[edit]. Types include those acting directly as receptors (Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase) and Intracellular ... Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases or CaM kinases. are primarily regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin complex. ... 3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... Protein kinase C ('PKC'). is actually a family of protein kinases consisting of ~10 isozymes. They are divided into three ...
3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Types. *EC1 Oxidoreductases (list). *EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list) ... Ser/Thr-specific protein phosphatases are regulated partly by their location within the cell and by specific inhibitor proteins ...
Then, it converts adenosine triphosphate into cyclic AMP, which activates Protein kinase A. PKA leads to protein tyrosine ... "Cyclic GMP signaling is involved in the luteinizing hormone-dependent meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes". Biology of ... Therefore, there are four main transmembrane receptor types: G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), tyrosine kinase receptors ( ... These proteins activate protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) that phosphorylates various proteins important for capacitation and ...
... through a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism". Biochem J. 466 (2): 379-390. doi:10.1042/bj20140881. PMID 25422863. Milo, Ron ... Pugh Jr, E. N.; Lamb, T. D. (1990). "Cyclic GMP and calcium: The internal messengers of excitation and adaptation in vertebrate ... This type of dysfunction can be seen in cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes. Calcium coordination plays an ... An example a protein with calcium coordination is von Willebrand factor (vWF) which has an essential role in blood clot ...
IkB kinase EC 2.7.11.11: cAMP-dependent protein kinase EC 2.7.11.12: cGMP-dependent protein kinase EC 2.7.11.13: protein kinase ... cyclic GMP-AMP synthase EC 2.7.8.1: diacylglycerol ethanolaminephosphotransferase EC 2.7.8.2: diacylglycerol ... protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I EC 2.5.1.60: protein geranylgeranyltransferase type II EC 2.5.1.61: ... mitogen-activated protein kinase EC 2.7.11.25: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase EC 2.7.11.26: tau-protein kinase ...
This structural change causes an increased affinity for the regulatory protein called transducin (a type of G protein). Upon ... Second, it serves as an adaptor protein to aid the receptor to the clathrin-dependent endocytosis machinery (to induce receptor ... As rhodopsin is phosphorylated by rhodopsin kinase (a member of the GPCR kinases(GRKs)), it binds with high affinity to the ... GMP. Reduction in cGMP allows the ion channels to close, preventing the influx of positive ions, hyperpolarizing the cell, and ...
Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA. ... A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of ... Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I. Known as: cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase I, cGMP Dependent Protein Kinase I, Cyclic ... GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I [Chemical/Ingredient] Expand. A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is ...
PKG I cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type I PKG U cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type II pM pico Molar PMSF phenyl ... and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, protein kinase C , calmodulin-dependent protein kinase U and casein kinase LT. Eur J ... Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 18:6983-94. Surks ... the residues on cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase that are autophosphorylated in the presence of cyclic A M P and cyclic GMP ...
type. Contribution to journal publication status. published. subject. *Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine ... Expression and distribution of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-1 isoforms in human penile erectile tissue. Waldkirch, ... cavernosum, corpus, cavernous arteries, cyclic gmp, erectile dysfunction, nitric oxide, protein kinase G. in Journal of Sexual ... cyclic gmp,erectile dysfunction,nitric oxide,protein kinase G}, language = {eng}, number = {3}, pages = {536--543}, publisher ...
Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. ...
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I / metabolism* * Enzyme Activation / drug effects ... RhoGEF17, a Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor activated by phosphorylation via cyclic GMP-dependent kinase Iα ... the Rho dependent kinases (ROCK) and serum response factor-induced gene transcription. Activation of protein kinase A did not ... Furthermore, we obtained evidence for a ROCK-driven positive feedback mechanism involving serine/threonine protein phosphatases ...
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I * Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / deficiency ... Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I * Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases ... Although cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) is a principal effector of NO, the molecular pathway of vascular NO ... Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / genetics * Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism* ...
Neutrophils were adhered to 60-mm petri dishes in the presence of 10% human type AB serum for 10 min at 37°C. The plates were ... cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase; cGK, cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase; FAK, focal adhesion kinase; GBSS, Geys balanced ... VASP is a prominent substrate for both cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Evidence ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase is required for thrombospondin and tenascin mediated focal adhesion disassembly. J. Cell ...
Research Grants about cyclic gmp dependent protein kinases ... Distribution of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I and its ... cyclic gmp dependent protein kinases. Summary. Summary: A group of enzymes that are dependent on cyclic GMP and catalyzes the ... cyclic nucleotide regulated protein kinases , cyclic gmp dependent protein kinases ... cyclic amp dependent protein kinases*enzyme inhibitors*phosphorylation*carbazoles*cyclic amp*thionucleotides*protein kinase ...
Type II regulatory chains mediate membrane association by binding to anchoring proteins, including the MAP2 kinase (By ... Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells. ... 3,5-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p>A type of ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. P00515. cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-alpha regulatory ...
2004) Activation of type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase isoforms by the Rho GTPases, RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42. J Biol ... 2012) Direct binding and regulation of RhoA protein by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase Iα. J Biol Chem 287:41342-41351, doi ... Rho-Kinase Accelerates Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis by Linking Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Activity to ... Rho-Kinase Accelerates Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis by Linking Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Activity to ...
GMP by cyclic GMP phosphodiesterases. Some of the targets of cGMP are analogous to those of cAMP: cGMP-dependent protein kinase ... list the types of rock that usually make g. Author(s): The Open University. ... 3.4.3 Cyclic GMP. Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is a second messenger with many similarities to cAMP. It is synthesized from GTP by ... This feature of proteins is crucial for a variety of biological processes from protein degradation to protein sorting for ...
Hofmann F. The biology of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases. J Biol Chem. 2005; 280: 1-4. ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathway inhibits RhoA-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contraction in vascular ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits serum-response element-dependent transcription by inhibiting rho activation and ... 7-10 We have recently reported that eNOS gene transfer activates the NO/cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) cascade and ...
1995) Molecular characterization of type II cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase expressed in the rat brain. J Neurochem 64:2814 ... 1993) Cloning and expression of a novel cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase from mouse brain. J Biol Chem 268:13586-13591. ... 6,bottom). The possibility that another, unidentified cGMP-dependent protein kinase could support NO-dependent LTP can also be ... The protein kinase A inhibitor peptide PKI(6-22) (4 μm) was added to suppress cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation. ...
... cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G; GMP, guanosine triphosphate; cGMP, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate). ... Publication types, Grant support. Publication types. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G; GMP, guanosine triphosphate; cGMP, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate). ... cyclic monophosphate. Cells treated with between 3µM and 30µm 8-bromoguanosine 3′, 5′-cyclic monophosphate show reduced calcium ...
... inhibitory role mediated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase.. F Rodriguez-Pascual, M T Miras-Portugal and M Torres ... inhibitory role mediated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase.. F Rodriguez-Pascual, M T Miras-Portugal and M Torres ... inhibitory role mediated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase.. F Rodriguez-Pascual, M T Miras-Portugal and M Torres ... inhibitory role mediated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
... cyclic GMP). The cyclic GMP, in turn, stimulates a cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) that leads to the anxiolytic drug ... resembles that of benzodiazepines and may be initiated at selected subunits of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) ... which stimulates the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase producing the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate ( ...
The level of myosin II phosphorylation is determined by activities of myosin light chain kinase and myosin phosphatase (MP). MP ... EC 2.7.11.12/Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 3.1.3.16/Phosphoprotein Phosphatases; EC 3.1.3.16/Protein Phosphatase 1; ... Muscle Proteins / genetics, metabolism. Muscle, Smooth / enzymology*. Myosin Type II / chemistry, genetics, metabolism*. Myosin ... Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / genetics, metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Humans. Membrane ...
8-Br-cGMP, 5′-cyclic-monophosphate-cyclic GMP; cGK, cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase; CHX, cycloheximide; cGMP, cyclic ... Shibahara S, Yoshizawa M, Suzuki H, Takeda K, Meguro K, Endo K: Functional analysis of cDNAs for two types of human heme ... generation of cyclic GMP (cGMP), and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinases. This antiapoptotic effect is still observed ... and involves activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs). Brief exposure of purified mouse islets to CO before ...
"Localization of the human gene for the type I cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase to chromosome 10". Cytogenetics and Cell ... of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha". ... 5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (12): 8701-7. PMID ... "Characterization of the human gene encoding the type I alpha and type I beta cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKG1)". Genomics. ...
5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (12): 8701-7. PMID ... "Carbonic anhydrase-related protein is a novel binding protein for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1". The ... Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITPR1 gene. ITPR1 has been shown to ... Joseph SK, Lin C, Pierson S, Thomas AP, Maranto AR (Oct 1995). "Heteroligomers of type-I and type-III inositol trisphosphate ...
The α subunit is subject to direct phosphorylation by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and dephosphorylation by ... This type of K+ channel is composed of two subunits, the pore-forming α subunit (hslo) and the regulatory β subunit. ... These channels, important for neuronal firing and vascular tone, share many features with voltage-dependent Na+, Ca2+;, and K+ ... What type of issue did you experience with the content on the page?*. ...
The PRKG1 proteins play a central role in regulating cardiovascular and neuronal functions in addition to relaxing smooth ... This gene is most strongly expressed in all types of smooth muscle, platelets, cerebellar Purkinje cells, hippocampal neurons, ... nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway and are important components of many signal transduction processes in diverse cell types. ... Mammals have three different isoforms of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (Ialpha, Ibeta, and II). These PRKG isoforms act ...
Stimulation of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase leads to phosphorylation of type I inositol trisphosphate-receptor in rat ... The isolated IP3 receptor protein was phosphorylated by both cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases on two distinct sites as ... 175, 192-198). Phosphopeptide maps show that cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) labeled both sites with the same time course ... whereas cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) phosphorylated Ser-1756 with a higher velocity and a higher stoichiometry than Ser- ...
... two cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors, when fed to wild-typeDrosophila adults, cause the rapid d ... 1989). Ca2+-dependent proteolytic modification of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase in Drosophila wild type and dunce memory ... Radioimmunoassay of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP.Adv. Cyclic Nucl. Res. 10:2-33. ... Buxbaum, J. D., and Dudai, Y. (1989). A quantitative model for the kinetics of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (type II) activity ...
... Mammals have three different isoforms of cyclic GMP-dependent ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1-like , cGMP dependent protein kinase type 1 , protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, regulatory, type ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1 , protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type I , cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1, beta isozyme , cGMP ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase I , cGK 1 , PKG1 alpha , cGMP-dependent protein kinase type 1 alpha , cGMP-dependent protein ...
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I Response Elements ... our estrogen proposal of the signaling pathway of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in mediating estrogen-induced ... our estrogen proposal of the signaling pathway of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in mediating estrogen-induced ... our estrogen proposal of the signaling pathway of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in mediating estrogen-induced ...
... activated guanylate cyclases that generate the secondary signaling molecule cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the ... activated guanylate cyclases that generate the secondary signaling molecule cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the ... Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the ... Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the ...
... and ASTRAL compendium for protein structure and sequence analysis ... Cyclic GMP, Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II, ... Compound: cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId:9606]. Gene: PRKG1, PRKG1B, PRKGR1A, PRKGR1B. Database ... Compound: cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId:9606]. Gene: PRKG1, PRKG1B, PRKGR1A, PRKGR1B. Database ... Description: PKG Is Carboyl Terminal Cyclic Nucleotide Binding Domain (CNB-B) in a complex with 8-pCPT-cGMP. Class: protein ...
... of cyclic GMP include the regulation of cation channels and PDEs and activation of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). ... Inhibition of cyclic GMP-binding cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase (Type 5) by sildenafil and related compounds. Mol ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase (or protein kinase-G; PKG), cGMP-regulated phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and cyclic nucleotide-gated ... Phosphorylation of phosphodiesterase-5 by cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase alters its catalytic and allosteric cGMP- ...
... cAMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA/PKG). Displays site selectivity for Site B of cAMP-dependent PKA type II. Potently ... 8-(4-Chlorophenyl)thio-cyclic AMP is a potent inhibitor of the cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE VA).. Biochem ... By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex ... By product type. Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA, Matched Antibody Pairs and Multiplex Immunoassays. Cell and ...
  • We found that in the presence of stable cGMP analogs RhoGEF17 associates with and is phosphorylated by co-expressed cGKIα at distinct phosphorylation sites leading to a cooperative activation of RhoA, the Rho dependent kinases (ROCK) and serum response factor-induced gene transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of protein kinase A did not induce phosphorylation of RhoGEF17 nor altered its activity. (nih.gov)
  • The expression and phosphorylation state of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), a membrane-associated focal adhesion protein, was investigated in human neutrophils. (jimmunol.org)
  • The phosphorylation of VASP was dependent on cell spreading, as VASP was expressed as a dephosphorylated protein in round adherent cells and was phosphorylated at the onset of changes in cell shape from round to spread cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Evidence suggested that cGK regulated neutrophil spreading, as both VASP phosphorylation and neutrophil spreading were inhibited by Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS (cGK inhibitor), but not KT5720 (cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor). (jimmunol.org)
  • Evidence suggests that type I cGK (cGK-1) phosphorylates VASP and regulates adhesion in platelets, as platelets of knockout mice for cGK-1 lack VASP phosphorylation and have a defect in cGMP-mediated aggregation ( 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A group of enzymes that are dependent on cyclic GMP and catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues of proteins. (labome.org)
  • The level of myosin II phosphorylation is determined by activities of myosin light chain kinase and myosin phosphatase (MP). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Maxi-K is subject to complex metabolic control control that also involves G proteins and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation reactions. (fishersci.com)
  • The α subunit is subject to direct phosphorylation by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A. (fishersci.com)
  • Cyclic AMP-induced phosphorylation of 27.5 kDa protein(s) in larval brains of normal and memory-mutant Drosophila melanogaster . (springer.com)
  • Using pharmacological, transfection, and in vitro phosphorylation experiments, we demonstrate that AMP-activated protein kinase subunit alpha 1 (AMPKα1) is activated by estrogen receptor stimulation and catalyzes RhoA phosphorylation induced by E2. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 In addition to this regulation and independently of GDP-GTP cycling, recent reports have proposed that phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle also controls Rho protein activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5 Recently, we showed that stimulation of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT 2 R) in VSMC induces RhoA phosphorylation by the Ste20-related kinase SLK, which contributes to the vasodilatory effect of AT 2 R. 8 In fact, functional consequences of RhoA phosphorylation mimics RhoA-Rock inhibition that reverses or delays vascular pathology development. (ahajournals.org)
  • 10 RhoA phosphorylation thus appears as a simple physiological mechanism that could be used to control the dynamics of RhoA protein actions and to permit specific limitation or termination of RhoA protein signals. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 3 4 cGK-I has mediated NO/cGMP-caused vasorelaxation, which involves phosphorylation of proteins that affect myosin light chains and intracellular Ca 2+ levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Phosphorylation of NF-kappaB proteins by cyclic GMP-dependent kinase. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The association between specific components of the cyclic neucleotide system and the mitotic spindle suggests that cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of spindle proteins, such as those of microtubules, may play a fundamental role in the regulation of spindle assembly and chromosome motion. (rupress.org)
  • One of the major effectors for cGMP is the serine/threonine protein kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of a variety of proteins including ion channels. (unh.edu)
  • Interestingly, mutating the putative phosphorylation sites to residues resistant to phosphorylation showed that the relevant PKG sites for CaV1.3 L-type channel regulation centers on two amino acid residues, Ser793 and Ser860, located in the intracellular loop connecting the II and III repeats of the CaVα1 pore-forming subunit of the channel. (unh.edu)
  • 9 , 10 Activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG)I and phosphorylation of target proteins is involved in each of these processes, although the precise mechanisms that bring about these effects are not fully understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 , 5 , 6 PKG-mediated phosphorylation of an unknown protein increases opening of mitochondrial K + /ATP channels, thereby diminishing damages resulting from ischemia/reperfusion or myocardial infarction. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11 , 12 Moreover, cGMP elevation suppresses β-adrenergic signaling in the heart and is associated with activation of PKG phosphorylation of troponin (Tn)I. 8 , 13 , 14 PKG activation increases the GTPase activity of RGS2 (regulator of G protein-coupled signaling 2) and thereby interferes with Gαq/11-coupled signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present study provides novel evidence that PKG exerts dual regulation of cardiac K(ATP) channels, including marked stimulation resulting from intracellular signaling mediated by ROS (H(2)O(2) in particular), calmodulin and CaMKII, alongside of moderate channel suppression likely mediated by direct PKG phosphorylation of the channel or some closely associated proteins. (nih.gov)
  • To determine whether circadian clocks, like the cell cycle, exhibit regulation by key phosphorylation events, we examined endogenous kinase regulation of timekeeping in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). (illinois.edu)
  • Ypk1 is a central regulator of pathways and processes required for plasma membrane lipid and protein homeostasis, and requires phosphorylation on its T-loop by eisosome-associated protein kinase Pkh1 (mammalian ortholog is PDK1) and a paralog (Pkh2). (mdpi.com)
  • Pkc1 is also regulated by Pkh1- and TORC2-dependent phosphorylation, but, in addition, by interaction with Rho1-GTP and lipids phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and diacylglycerol (DAG). (mdpi.com)
  • Hesperidin also inhibited strain-induced increases in the formation of reactive oxygen species and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, hesperidin modulated strain-induced ET-1 release and suppressed ERK phosphorylation in part via the NO/protein kinase G pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • Site-directed mutagenesis of the phosphorylation sites, or activation/inhibition of select kinase pathways, did not alter the receptor sensitivity or maximal GABA-activated current of the ρ1 GABA receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggesting phosphorylation of ρ1 does not directly alter receptor properties. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Downstream, cGMP stimulates protein kinase G (PKG), and we found contractile modulation by SIL required PKG activation and enhanced TnI phosphorylation at S23, S24. (springer.com)
  • These data support a cascade involving β3-AR stimulation, and subsequent PKG-dependent TnI S23, S24 phosphorylation as primary factors underlying the capacity of acute PDE5A inhibition to blunt myocardial β-adrenergic stimulation. (springer.com)
  • NOS converts the amino acid L-arginine (L-Arg) to L-citrulline (L-Cit) and NO, which stimulates the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase producing the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP). (nih.gov)
  • We investigated the effect of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp isomer, on inhibition by SNP or CNP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp isomer totally reversed both the SNP and CNP inhibitory effects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These affinity and activation measurements show that beta-phenyl-1,N2-ethenoguanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (PET-cGMP) is most selective for PKG I, whereas 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-pCPT-cGMP) is most selective for PKG II. (antibodies-online.com)
  • ERα) and upregulate a cyclic guanosine 5′-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent thioredoxin (Trx) and MnSOD expression following the induction of NOS1 in human brain-derived SH-SY5Y cells. (elsevier.com)
  • In this review, the role of soluble (nitric oxide (NO)-activated) and membrane-bound, natriuretic peptide (NP)-activated guanylate cyclases that generate the secondary signaling molecule cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the regulation of IOP and in the pathophysiology of POAG will be discussed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Among the most important for pulmonary vascular homeostasis are factors that utilise cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) as an intracellular second messenger. (ersjournals.com)
  • Schematic diagram of the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP) signalling pathway. (ersjournals.com)
  • In vascular smooth muscle cells, NO interacts with soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) to convert guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic GMP, which is hydrolysed and inactivated by phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). (ersjournals.com)
  • Two subtypes of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR), NPR-A and NPR-B, are transmembrane guanylyl cyclases (particulate guanylyl cyclases), where the extracellular domain binds atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or C-type natriuretic peptide and the intracellular domain hydrolyses guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cGMP. (ersjournals.com)
  • Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a unique second messenger molecule formed in different cell types and tissues. (springer.com)
  • Recent works highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent pathways in the context of brain ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). (elsevier.com)
  • By increasing the intracellular concentrations of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors such as sildenafil (Viagra), vardenafil (Levitra), and tadalafil (Cialis) have been used therapeutically to treat erectile dysfunction ( 12 ), pulmonary hypertension ( 13 ), and cardiac hypertrophy ( 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • We found that mammalian cytosolic extracts synthesized cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP-AMP, or cGAMP) in vitro from adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate in the presence of DNA but not RNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • Interestingly, rosiglitazone did not change the level of nitric oxide (NO) or cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which are upstream of PKG, suggesting that rosiglitazone influences PKG itself. (bvsalud.org)
  • enzymes catalyze the degradation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) to the corresponding AMP or GMP. (viterittiarredamenti.com)
  • Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (viterittiarredamenti.com)
  • It is cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate) that is responsible for determining the amount of blood that flows in and out of the penis. (viterittiarredamenti.com)
  • We have shown that DNA binding to cGAS robustly induced the formation of … The newest cellular communication process recognized to have such broad and basic importance is the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) signaling pathway. (viterittiarredamenti.com)
  • Nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling plays a critical role in physiological homeostatic processes, such as smooth muscle tone in … DNA binding to cGAS induces a conformational change, leading to the formation of a nucleotide binding pocket and reorganization of the catalytic site (Civril et al. (viterittiarredamenti.com)
  • 2014). Cyclic guanosine monophosphate or cGMP helps arteries relax, which could increase blood flow to the penis. (viterittiarredamenti.com)
  • Diethylamine nonoate (DETA-NONOate), ( R )- p -8-(4-chlorophenylthio)cGMP, guanosine-3′,5′ cyclic monophosphorothioate, Sp isomer (Sp-cGMPS), and all other drugs were from Sigma-Aldrich. (rupress.org)
  • Launch Cyclic guanosine-3,5-monophosphate (cGMP or cyclic GMP) can be an essential intracellular signaling molecule that regulates many (patho)physiological procedures in multiple cell types. (aksumuniversity.org)
  • Here we show that in Burkholderia cenocepacia the DSF-family signal cis -2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) negatively controls the intracellular cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) level through a receptor protein RpfR, which contains Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS)-GGDEF-EAL domains. (pnas.org)
  • We found that application of a Rho-kinase inhibitor, a PKG inhibitor or both, reduced the PIP 2 content in Wistar rat brainstem synaptosomes to a similar extent. (jneurosci.org)
  • Likewise, application of the Rho-kinase inhibitor into the calyx of Held presynaptic terminal slowed vesicle endocytosis to the same degree as did application of the PKG inhibitor. (jneurosci.org)
  • This endocytic slowing effect of the Rho-kinase inhibitor was canceled by coapplication of PIP 2 into the terminal. (jneurosci.org)
  • and (2) Inhibition of MP by the protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17). (biomedsearch.com)
  • 8-(4-Chlorophenyl)thio-cyclic AMP is a potent inhibitor of the cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE VA). (abcam.com)
  • 2 Several regulatory proteins thus cooperate to provide a tight control of RhoA activity including RhoA exchange factors and RhoA GTPase activating proteins that control the GDP/GTP cycle, and Rho guanine dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI) that sequesters RhoA in the cytosol. (ahajournals.org)
  • Potent selective inhibitor of protein kinase G I a, I ß and especially of type II. (biolog.de)
  • We found that Kir6.2/SUR2A (the cardiac-type K(ATP)) channels were activated by cGMP-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast in a concentration-dependent manner in cell-attached patches obtained from HEK293 cells, an effect mimicked by the membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP whereas abolished by selective PKG inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of cyclic nucleotides to suppress PKG-Iα promoter activity were attenuated by a specific cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor. (elsevier.com)
  • When it was found that the antibiotic rapamycin was a potent inhibitor of the proliferation of virtually every eukaryotic cell type examined (e.g., fungi, T cells, and tumor cells) [ 1 , 2 , 3 ], it became clear that the molecular target of rapamycin must be highly conserved and its function critical for cell survival. (mdpi.com)
  • We show here that both mGluR1 and mGluR5 interact with the calcineurin inhibitor protein (CAIN). (researchwithnj.com)
  • This was shown using SKF94836 (PDE3 inhibitor) which maximally inhibited membrane-bound cyclic AMP PDE activity by approximately 25-30% and by RT-PCR. (strath.ac.uk)
  • We report here that the PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin, prevented the IGF-1-dependent stimulation of PDE3B activity. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Pretreatment with Triton X-100, a detergent that damages the endocardial endothelium (EE), or with 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo-(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a specific inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, or with the cGMP-activated protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor KT5328, abolished ANG II-mediated inotropism. (biologists.org)
  • Chinkers and selleck kinase inhibitor Garbers 1991) or the membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase GC-B primarily by the C-type natriuretic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical peptide (CNP) (Potter et al. (aurorakinaseb.com)
  • Butein, at a concentration of 1 microg mL(-1), reduced DNA synthesis without affecting cell viability, and downregulated smooth muscle alpha-actin and type-I collagen expression, and alpha1(I) collagen and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 mRNA expression, while treatment with butein induced metalloproteinase-13 mRNA expression. (termsreign.cf)
  • The supernatant from insulin-stimulated human platelets induced complete relaxation, which was prevented by preincubation of platelets with a NOS inhibitor, the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, NS 2028, or the G kinase inhibitor, KT 5823, and was abolished by an adenosine A 2A receptor antagonist. (rupress.org)
  • Although cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) is a principal effector of NO, the molecular pathway of vascular NO signaling in restenosis is unclear. (nih.gov)
  • These PRKG isoforms act as key mediators of the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway and are important components of many signal transduction processes in diverse cell types. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with PRKG1 were listed below. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Hence, SO2 exerted its vasodilatory effects at least partly by promoting disulfide-dependent dimerization of sGC (show SGCB ELISA Kits ) and PKG , resulting in an activated sGC (show SGCB ELISA Kits )/cGMP/ PKG pathway in blood vessels. (antibodies-online.com)
  • For managing progressive neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer dementia, our estrogen proposal of the signaling pathway of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in mediating estrogen-induced cytoprotective genes thus fosters research and development of the new estrogen ligands devoid of female hormonal side effects such as carcinogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • In the search for therapeutic strategies that engage the cGMP signalling pathway for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), inhibition of cGMP metabolism by phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5)-targeted compounds has proven most successful to date. (ersjournals.com)
  • As evidence accumulates regarding the role of RhoA in vascular pathophysiology and the benefit of RhoA-Rho associated protein kinase (Rock) pathway inhibition, we analyzed if E2 could inhibit it in VSMC. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methods and Results- We show that in VSMC, E2 inhibits the RhoA-Rock pathway in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. (ahajournals.org)
  • Abstract -Studies with cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGK-I)-deficient human cells and mice demonstrated that cGK-I ablation completely disrupts the NO/cGMP pathway in vascular tissue, which indicates a key role of this protein kinase as a mediator of the NO/cGMP action. (ahajournals.org)
  • Regulation of L-type CaV1.3 channel activity and insulin secretion by the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway. (unh.edu)
  • less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe present study aimed to investigate by means of immunohistochemistry in the human prostate the expression and distribution of key mediators of the NO pathway, namely cyclic GMP, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and cyclic GMP-binding protein kinases type I (cGKI alpha, cGKI), in relation to PDE5, protein kinase A (cAK), and the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). (diva-portal.org)
  • The main signaling pathway responsible for the vascular relaxation induced by NO involves the activation of soluble guanylyl-cyclase, with subsequent accumulation of cGMP and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase . (bvsalud.org)
  • We propose that the deregulation of the PI3K/PDE3B pathway might result in increased intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation, which promotes apoptosis. (strath.ac.uk)
  • This DNA signaling pathway requires the adaptor protein STING and the transcription factor IRF3, but the mechanism of DNA sensing is unclear. (sciencemag.org)
  • DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III has been shown to be a sensor that detects and transcribes AT-rich DNAs such as poly(deoxyadenosine-deoxythymidine) [poly(dA:dT)] into an RNA ligand capable of stimulating the RIG-I pathway to induce interferons ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Instead, cytosolic DNA activates the STING-dependent pathway in a sequence-independent manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because type I IFNs are important immune effectors, modulating this pathway may improve disease outcomes. (hindawi.com)
  • But first, it is critical to understand the context-dependent effects of the type I IFN pathway in intracellular bacterial infections. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study, to clarify the factor characterizing Stx1a gene expression via the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway inducing the Stx1a mRNA, we investigated whether the epigenetic process is involved in the Stx1a gene transcription induced by PKA signaling. (medworm.com)
  • Theophylline and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, two cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors, when fed to wild-type Drosophila adults, cause the rapid decay of learning index after training in a shock-odor learning paradigm. (springer.com)
  • These data suggest that phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors may have effects that distinguish them from other treatments for pulmonary hypertension and merit further study. (ersjournals.com)
  • Experimental studies have provided the basis for the evaluation of inhibitors of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptomatology (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). (diva-portal.org)
  • In light of the recent data that enzymes mediating MDSC-dependent immunosuppression in mice are active also in humans, these findings demonstrate a potentially novel use of PDE5 inhibitors as adjuncts to tumor-specific immune therapy. (rupress.org)
  • Poor understanding of the topography of cyclic nucleotide (CN) phosphodiesterase (PDE) catalytic sites compromises development of potent, selective inhibitors for therapeutic use. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Phosphodiesterase type 5A (PDE5A) inhibitors acutely suppress beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation in left ventricular myocytes and hearts. (springer.com)
  • Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, which developed toward the end of the 1990s, are oral agents causig peripheral vasodilatation in the penis. (biz.tr)
  • The increase in cGMP concentrations is known to activate different signaling mediators, such as cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, cGMP-regulated ion channels, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs). (elsevier.com)
  • Drosophila cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. (springer.com)
  • A partial characterization of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases of Drosophila melanogaster. (springer.com)
  • PKG), cGMP-regulated phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels 4 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Absolutely resistant against mammalian cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphodiesterases, no metabolic side effects. (biolog.de)
  • cGMP-driven activation of protein kinases, ion channels, or phosphodiesterases (PDEs) causes a broad variety of physiological responses whereas dysregulation can result in severe pathologies. (springer.com)
  • Cyclic GMP affects the activity of effector molecules, specifically cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKG), cGMP-regulated phosphodiesterases (PDEs), and cGMP-regulated cation channels. (viterittiarredamenti.com)
  • Cyclic GMP binds to cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs), cGMP-gated ion channels (CGCs), and cyclic nucleotide-regulated phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which modulate several downstream cellular and physiological responses. (aksumuniversity.org)
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III" by people in this website by year, and whether "Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uchicago.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III" by people in Profiles. (uchicago.edu)
  • Furthermore, we obtained evidence for a ROCK-driven positive feedback mechanism involving serine/threonine protein phosphatases, which further enhanced cGMP/cGKIα-induced RhoGEF17 activation. (nih.gov)
  • Rho-kinase is a coiled-coil-forming serine / threonine protein kinase and a major effector of the small GTPase RhoA. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recent accumulating evidence suggests that induction of VSMC migration by the AT 1 receptor requires multiple sets of downstream tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. (ahajournals.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family of proteins. (genecards.org)
  • Protein Kinase G (PKG) is a cyclic GMP-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates a variety of biological targets. (genecards.org)
  • Bioactivatable, membrane-permeant analogs of cyclic nucleotides as biological tools for growth control of C6 glioma cells. (abcam.com)
  • In addition to these feedback mechanisms, there is the potential for gene regulation, as the promoter region of human PDE5 contains sites responsive to cyclic nucleotides 11 , 12 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Cyclic nucleotides and cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of cell motility and division, processes that depend on the cell cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
  • To determine whether cyclic nucleotides or their kinases are physically associated with the cytoskeleton during cell division, fluorescently labeled antibodies directed against cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, and the cyclic nucleotide-dpendent protein kinases were used to localize these molecules in mitotic PtK1 cells. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, Sp1 binding activity on the PKG-Iα promoter was detected in A7r5 cells, and this binding was inhibited by NO and cyclic nucleotides. (elsevier.com)
  • cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1, alpha isozyme is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKG1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PRKG1 proteins play a central role in regulating cardiovascular and neuronal functions in addition to relaxing smooth muscle tone, preventing platelet aggregation, and modulating cell growth. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Some of the functions are cooperated with other proteins, some of the functions could acted by PRKG1 itself. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We selected most functions PRKG1 had, and list some proteins which have the same functions with PRKG1. (creativebiomart.net)
  • In meta-analysis, the top associations in European ancestry were protein kinase, cyclic GMP-dependent, type I (PRKG1) rs7897633 (PMeta = 2.75 × 10-8) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) rs1049564 (PMeta = 1.24 × 10-7). (ovid.com)
  • Calcium-dependent and calcium-independent inhibition of contraction by cGMP/cGKI in intestinal smooth muscle. (semanticscholar.org)
  • isoforms of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI). (semanticscholar.org)
  • In animal studies, a downregulation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase-1 (cGKI) alpha isoform has been linked to erectile dysfunction and diabetes mellitus. (lu.se)
  • Tissue-specific mouse mutants were generated in which the cGKI protein was ablated in SMCs. (nih.gov)
  • It was suggested that cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) mediates this protective effect, although the role in vivo is under debate. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Although cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) has emerged as a key mediator of the protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP, the mechanisms by which cGKI attenuates IRI remain poorly understood. (elsevier.com)
  • less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanIn the smooth muscle portion of the transition zone, immunosignals specific for the PDE5 were found co-localized with cyclic GMP, cGKI alpha, and cGKI, as well as with the cyclic cAMP-binding protein kinase A. Smooth muscle bundles were seen innervated by slender varicose nerves characterized by the expression of nNOS. (diva-portal.org)
  • abstract = "To promote both efficiency and selectivity, many protein kinases and phosphatases are maintained in specific subcellular microenvironments through their association with anchoring proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Circadian clocks comprise a cyclic series of dynamic cellular states, characterized by the changing availability of substrates that alter clock time when activated. (illinois.edu)
  • Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells. (uniprot.org)
  • This type of K + channel is composed of two subunits, the pore-forming α subunit (hslo) and the regulatory β subunit. (fishersci.com)
  • Activation of PKG results in the regulation of several downstream targets, including myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT), myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), regulator of G-protein signalling (RGS)2, RhoA, Rho kinase (ROCK), inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor-associated PKG substrate (IRAG), phospholamban (PLB) and calcium-sensitive potassium channels (BK Ca ). PGC: particulate guanylyl cyclases. (ersjournals.com)
  • Both the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase and the type II regulatory subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase were localized on the mitotic spindle. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, of the six kinases examined, only CKII phosphorylated the human ρ2 subunit. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Riociguat cell signaling The best characterized heterodimer in humans consisting of an 1 and a 1 subunit is expressed in most cell types and tissues. (aksumuniversity.org)
  • The encoded protein binds to and inhibits the activation of several receptor tyrosine kinases. (genecards.org)
  • VASP is believed to play an important role in controlling the cytoskeletal organization because it binds filamentous actin (F-actin) and profilin, a protein that forms complexes with G-actin and regulates actin dynamics ( 2 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. (uniprot.org)
  • Definition: a protein that binds a ligand with high affinity and low capacity. (slideserve.com)
  • The bacterial messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) binds to a diverse range of effectors to exert its biological effect. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • We show that PA2799 (named as HapZ: histidine kinase associated PilZ) binds directly to the phosphoreceiver (REC) domain of SagS, and that the SagS-HapZ interaction is further enhanced at elevated c-di-GMP concentration. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • SAP97 (synapse-associated protein 97) is a multifunctional scaffold protein that binds directly to the C-terminus of β 1 AR and organizes a receptor signalosome. (elsevier.com)
  • When cGMP is elevated in these cells, it is not only broken down at the catalytic site of PDE5, but it also binds to cGMP-selective sites on several types of proteins, including cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), cGMP-gated cation channels, and allosteric sites on PDE5. (viterittiarredamenti.com)
  • Besides the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), downstream guanine monophosphate (cGMP) effector proteins are also considered to play a significant role in penile vascular disease. (lu.se)
  • In the vasculature, RhoA and its downstream effector Rho associated protein kinase (Rock) have been shown to regulate processes such as vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contraction, proliferation and differentiations, endothelial permeability, platelet activation, and leukocyte migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • IP3R-dependent calcium transients in the glutamatergic neurons convey this signal to downstream medial neurosecretory cells (mNSCs). (sdbonline.org)
  • These kinases phosphorylate downstream target proteins which mediate cGMP effects, e.g., by decreasing the intracellular calcium concentration. (springer.com)
  • We demonstrate that binding of HapZ to SagS inhibits the phosphotransfer between SagS and the downstream protein HptB in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • This modulation requires cyclic GMP synthesis via nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-NO stimulation, but upstream and downstream mechanisms remain un-defined. (springer.com)
  • We found marked inhibition of AngII-induced Rho/Rho-kinase activation and subsequent VSMC migration by eNOS gene transfer whereas G q -dependent transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by AngII remains intact. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion- The eNOS/NO cascade specifically targets the Rho/Rho-kinase system via inhibition of G 12/13 to prevent vascular migration induced by AngII, representing a novel signal cross-talk in cardiovascular protection by NO. (ahajournals.org)
  • Biochemical characterization of the inhibition of the two major phosphodiesterase isoenzymes in Drosophila by theophylline predicts only a slight inhibition of these enzymes in vivo , in accordance with the unchanged level of cAMP in wild-type fly heads during drug feeding. (springer.com)
  • PKG1-dependent repair functions will outweigh its signaling functions in spinal nociceptive LTP (show SCP2 ELISA Kits ), so that inhibition of PKG1 is no option for neuropathic pain. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Elevation of myocyte cyclic GMP levels by local actions of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) or by pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 was shown to counter-regulate pathological hypertrophy. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Activation of RhoA-dependent pathways is involved in excessive contraction, and thereby increases blood pressure, but also in excessive cell growth and migration that participate in pathological cardiovascular remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • The transduction mechanism at ORNs is mediated by cAMP and/or inositol,1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3)-signaling pathways in an odorant-dependent manner. (sdbonline.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Sweet Taste Signaling and Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins. . (genecards.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that NO inhibits Cl-/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells via cGMP-dependent protein kinases G (PKG) and C (PKC) signal-transduction pathways. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moreover, new pharmacological approaches are being developed which target sGC- and pGC-dependent pathways for the treatment of various diseases. (springer.com)
  • We therefore evaluated the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/p44 MAPK) pathways in regulating this enzyme. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Type I IFN signaling during bacterial infections is dependent on many factors including whether the infecting bacterium is intracellular or extracellular, as different signaling pathways are activated. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite disparate survival strategies, intracellular and extracellular bacteria are both capable of inducing type I IFNs with some overlap in induction pathways. (hindawi.com)
  • NO stimulates signal transduction pathways through protein kinases, cytosolic Ca 2+ mobilization and protein modification (i.e. nitrosylation and nitration). (wiley.com)
  • DYNs traverse the synaptic cleft and activate postsynaptic opioid receptors, which belong to the 7-transmembrane-spanning, G protein-coupled superfamily of receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) can potentiate the toxic effect of VT by inducing a protein-synthesis dependent increase in VT receptors on endothelial cells. (tudelft.nl)
  • Estrogen binding to estrogen receptors (ER) in caveolae also activates eNOS, and this occurs through G protein and kinase activation. (elsevier.com)
  • AT 1 receptors belong to the superfamily of seven-transmembrane-spanning-domain receptors and are coupled to a classical second messenger system via G-protein. (biologists.org)
  • In this regard, AngII stimulates hypertrophy, proliferation, and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), the AngII type-1 receptor (AT 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • The cyclic GMP, in turn, stimulates a cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) that leads to the anxiolytic drug effect. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro, synthetic ANP, via GC-A, stimulates glucose-dependent insulin release from cultured pancreatic islets and β-cell proliferation. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Hence, ANP, via its guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor and intracellular cyclic GMP as second messenger, stimulates endothelial albumin permeability. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase stimulates cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels via a ROS/calmodulin/CaMKII signaling cascade. (nih.gov)
  • example: testosterone stimulates growth of prostate gland of immature or castrate rat in a dose-dependent manner. (slideserve.com)
  • Functions of cyclic GMP include the regulation of cation channels and PDEs and activation of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). (ersjournals.com)
  • Thus, it may reduce oxidised proteins (e.g., disulfides) back to a thiol state, thereby changing enzyme activity to achieve regulation. (bl.uk)
  • Therefore, IGF-1-dependent regulation of PDE3B may be linked to cell survival through PI3K and not p42/p44 MAPK. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Our work presents a unique and widely conserved DSF-family signal receptor that directly links the signal perception to c-di-GMP turnover in regulation of bacterial physiology. (pnas.org)
  • Transcription regulation mechanism of the syntaxin 1A gene via protein kinase A Syntaxin 1A (Stx1a) is primarily involved in the docking of synaptic vesicles at active zones in neurons. (medworm.com)
  • Abnormal neocortical development in mice lacking cGMP-dependent protein kinase I. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Functional characteristics of urinary tract smooth muscles in mice lacking cGMP protein kinase type I. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The type II cGK (cGKII)-deficient mice (Prkg2 -/- mice) develop dwarfism as a result of impaired endochondral ossification, suggesting that cGKII is important for the CNP-mediated endochondral ossification. (elsevier.com)
  • Knockout mice for VASP have a defect in cyclic nucleotide-mediated platelet disaggregation and integrin αΙΙbβ3 activation ( 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Endfoot cross‐sectional area was assessed by two‐photon microscopy of mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in astrocytes and related to the degree of arteriolar constriction. (uio.no)
  • Studies in knockout mice indicate that eNOS-derived NO is the principle mediator of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation, but both eNOS and iNOS play a role in chronic modulation of basal tone 1 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Ex vivo, ovariectomy leads to an increase in the amplitude of phenylephrine- or serotonine-induced contractions of aortic rings in wild-type mice but not in AMPKα1-knock-out mice or E2-supplemented animals. (ahajournals.org)
  • Another plasma cell malignancy, multiple myeloma (MM), arising spontaneously in the ageing C57BL/KaLwRij mice, was investigated in order to see whether the MM cells contain c-myc abnormalities of the MPC or RIC type. (tudelft.nl)
  • Tissue excised from KI mice showed impaired relaxation to H2S compared with that from their wild-type littermates. (bl.uk)
  • These KI mice express a 'trapping mutant' form of Trx that becomes covalently linked to proteins with oxidised thiol after H2O2 or H2S treatment. (bl.uk)
  • The hyperpermeability effect was prevented in mice with conditional, endothelial deletion of GC-A (EC GC-A KO) or with deleted caveolin-1 (cav-1), the caveolae scaffold protein. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • In contrast, a fraction of wild type (37.5%), TNF deficient (12.5%), and TNFR2 deficient mice (22.2%) were able to fully reject the tumor within two weeks. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Neuroprotection Mediated by Upregulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Rho-Associated, Coiled-Coil-Containing Kinase 2 Deficient Mice. (uchicago.edu)
  • Type II IFN consists of only IFN- γ while there are four types of type III IFNs in humans and two in mice [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Four candidate genes were sequenced, revealing a nonsense mutation in exon 15 of cGMP-dependant type II protein kinase (PRKG2). (uliege.be)
  • 7-10 We have recently reported that eNOS gene transfer activates the NO/cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) cascade and inhibits VSMC hypertrophy induced by AngII. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 Cyclic GMP in turn activates cGMP-dependent protein kinase types I and II (cGK-I and -II) of which cGK-I is highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Activates retinal cGMP channels and thus discriminates between kinase and channel effects. (biolog.de)
  • STING recruits and activates the cytosolic kinases IKK and TBK1, which activate the transcription factors NF-κB and IRF3, respectively. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the dual signaling mechanism of PST receptor, mostly PST activates Gαq /11 protein leads to the activation of phospholipase C β3-isoform, therefore increasing cytoplasmic free calcium and stimulating protein kinase C. PST inhibits the cell growth in rat HTC hepatoma cells, mediated by nitric oxide and cyclic GMP production. (physiology.org)
  • retrograde activation of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) by nitric oxide (NO) released from postsynaptic cells accelerates vesicle endocytosis by elevating the level of PIP 2 in the presynaptic terminal. (jneurosci.org)
  • 3 Among these kinases, we and others have demonstrated that extracelluar-signal regulated kinase (ERK) activated through "trans"-activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Rho-kinase (ROCK), an effecter of a small G protein, Rho, are critical for VSMC migration induced by AngII. (ahajournals.org)
  • 18 However, there might be cross-talk of these signals 17,19 and their activation might be, at least in part, G protein-independent in other cell systems. (ahajournals.org)
  • The retrograde messenger nitric oxide (NO) is thought to induce LTP in the CA1 region of the hippocampus via activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and, ultimately, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK). (jneurosci.org)
  • Activation occurs in response to elevated cyclic nucleotide levels and various mechanisms are presented. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Protection is mediated through guanylate cyclase activation, generation of cyclic GMP (cGMP), and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinases. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We found that exogenous CO protects the murine insulinoma cell line βTC3 and murine islets of Langerhans from apoptosis via cyclic GMP (cGMP) and involves activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The physiological significance of the ability of H2S to oxidise PKG was investigated using a Cys42Ser PKG knock-in (KI) mouse line that expresses only a mutant form of kinase that cannot undergo disulfide activation. (bl.uk)
  • In this study, we explored the possible involvement of mechanosensitive Yes-associated protein (YAP) and its paralog, transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding domain (TAZ), transcriptional activation in extracellular matrix (ECM) production by LPA-induced contractile activity in human TM cells (HTM). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In particular, high density lipoprotein (HDL) maintains the lipid environment in caveolae, thereby promoting the retention and function of eNOS in the domain, and it also causes direct activation of eNOS via scavenger receptor type BI (SR-BI)-induced kinase signaling. (elsevier.com)
  • Structures of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase in malaria parasites reveal a unique structural relay mechanism for activation Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 116 , nº 28. (inrs.ca)
  • Loss of SAP97 promotes PKA (protein kinase A)-dependent association of β 1 AR with arrestin2 and CaMKII and turns on an Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP)-dependent activation of CaMKII, which drives detrimental functional and structural remodeling in myocardium. (elsevier.com)
  • Cyclic GMP effects are predominantly mediated by the activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs). (aurorakinaseb.com)
  • PST actions on hepatocytes and adipocytes were mediated by protein kinase C (PKC) activation ( 24 , 57 ). (physiology.org)
  • Its most likely mechanism of action is activation of intracellular protein kinases in response to the binding of membrane-impermeable peptide hormones to the external cell surface. (viterittiarredamenti.com)
  • Insulin-induced ATP release from human platelets correlated with the association of syntaxin 2 with the vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 but was not associated with the activation of α IIb β 3 integrin. (rupress.org)
  • Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for insulin-induced vasodilatation, including an interaction with the sympathetic nervous system at the vascular level ( 1 ), the activation of ion channels ( 2 ), in particular adenosine trisphosphate (ATP)-dependent K + channels ( 3 ), the release of adenosine ( 4 , 5 ), and an increase in the generation of nitric oxide (NO) by the vascular endothelium ( 6 , 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • The observations suggest a previously unknown mechanism whereby c-di-GMP mediates two-component signaling through a PilZ adaptor protein. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Macroenzymes are complexes of serum enzymes with a plasmatic protein. (saladgaffe.ml)
  • Three NOS enzymes have been characterised: type I (ncNOS), type II (iNOS), and type III (ecNOS). (bmj.com)
  • ncNOS and ecNOS are calcium dependent and low output enzymes associated with NO production in the picomolar range, whereas iNOS is a calcium independent and high output enzyme associated with NO production in the nanomolar (nmol) range. (bmj.com)
  • The critical role of RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling in various systems is discussed, in particular those vascular smooth muscle disorders involving hypercontractility. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conclusion- Our work thus defines AMPKα1 as (1) a new kinase for RhoA and (2) a new mediator of the vasoprotective effects of estrogen. (ahajournals.org)
  • cAMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA and PKG) phosphorylate RhoA on Ser188. (ahajournals.org)
  • AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase 2. (uchicago.edu)
  • These proteins are localized to the actin cytoskeleton and are in vitro and in vivo ligands for the focal adhesion-associated proteins zyxin and vinculin and the actin-binding protein profilin ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Whereas intracellular bacteria can activate intracellular sensors from within the phagolysosome or cytoplasm, extracellular bacteria introduce type I IFN-stimulating ligands into the cytosol via pore-forming proteins or other means [ 16 - 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) expression is highly variable and decreases in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), exposure of cells to nitric oxide (NO), or in response to balloon catheter injury in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • The anxiolytic effect of N(2)O, on the other hand, resembles that of benzodiazepines and may be initiated at selected subunits of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Polysulfides, including those formed from H2S, were shown to induce oxidation of glutathione and oxidant-sensitive kinases, such as cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) Iα or cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulatory RIα subunits. (bl.uk)
  • Antibodies to cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, and the type I regulatory and catalytic subunits of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase did not label the mitotic apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, PKG stimulation of Kir6.2/SUR2A channels in intact cells was abrogated by ROS/H(2)O(2) scavenging, antagonism of calmodulin, and blockade of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), respectively. (nih.gov)
  • A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. (uchicago.edu)
  • p>A type of phylogenetic evidence whereby an aspect of a descendent is inferred through the characterization of an aspect of a ancestral gene. (uniprot.org)
  • Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITPR1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is most strongly expressed in all types of smooth muscle, platelets, cerebellar Purkinje cells, hippocampal neurons, and the lateral amygdala. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We thus proposed that the estrogen-mediated gene induction of Trx plays a pivotal role in the promotion of neuroprotection because Trx is a multifunctional antioxidative and antiapoptotic protein. (elsevier.com)
  • PRKG2 (Protein Kinase CGMP-Dependent 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and protein kinase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Acts as regulator of gene expression and activator of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2 in mechanically stimulated osteoblasts. (genecards.org)
  • In this study, the mechanisms of human type I PKG-α (PKG-Iα) gene expression were examined. (elsevier.com)
  • The hCHGA gene is located on chromosome 14q32.12, which spans 12,192 bp and gives rise to a transcript of 2,041 bp that encodes a 439-amino acid (aa) mature protein ( 85 ). (physiology.org)
  • Potently inhibits cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE Va), PDE III and PDE IV (IC 50 values are 0.9, 24 and 25 μM, respectively). (abcam.com)
  • PKG is the most important of these intracellular mediators, whereas the cGMP-regulated PDE type 5 (PDE5) is mainly responsible for modulating intracellular cGMP levels and PKG-dependent signalling produced by NO and natriuretic peptides 5 - 7 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Bir süre sonra cgmp fosfodiesteraz tip 5 (PDE5) enzimi tarafından yıkılarak inaktif form olan 5 -GMP ye çevrilir. (biz.tr)
  • PDE5 is a cGMP-specific PDE that inhibits the degradation of cGMP to 5-GMP. (aksumuniversity.org)
  • Background: The cardiac hormones atrial (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP) moderate arterial blood pressure and improve energy metabolism as well as insulin sensitivity via their shared cGMP-producing guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Since skeletal muscle is the major site for disposal of ingested glucose, impaired glucose metabolism causes imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation which adversely affects physical mobility. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • PST regulates glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism in liver and adipose tissues. (physiology.org)
  • Cyclic GMP appears to be involved in the metabolism or function of normal rod-dominant retinas. (viterittiarredamenti.com)
  • Cytosolic DNA induces type I interferons and other cytokines that are important for antimicrobial defense but can also result in autoimmunity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Rationale: Cardiotoxic β 1 adrenergic receptor (β 1 AR)-CaMKII (calmodulin-dependent kinase II) signaling is a major and critical feature associated with development of heart failure. (elsevier.com)
  • During neuronal development, Rho-kinase is involved in neuronal migration, and in neurite outgrowth and retraction. (jneurosci.org)
  • cGMP-dependent protein kinase I and smooth muscle relaxation: a tale of two isoforms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mammals have three different isoforms of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (Ialpha, Ibeta, and II). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Isoforms Ialpha and Ibeta have identical cGMP-binding and catalytic domains but differ in their leucine/isoleucine zipper and autoinhibitory sequences and therefore differ in their dimerization substrates and kinase enzyme activity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • MYPT1 isoforms that contain or lack a C-terminal leucine zipper are generated in birds and mammals by cassette-type alternative splicing of a 31-nucleotide exon. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunofluorescent localization of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases on the mitotic apparatus of cultured cells. (rupress.org)
  • 8-Phenyltheophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist in mammals, slightly retards memory decay in the wild-type. (springer.com)
  • Insulin induced the release of adenosine trisphosphate (ATP), adenosine, and serotonin from platelet-dense granules in a NO-dependent manner. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, insulin elicits the release of vasoactive concentrations of ATP and adenosine from human platelets via a NO-G kinase-dependent signaling cascade. (rupress.org)
  • Ca2+ current is regulated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in mammalian cardiac myocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In mammalian cells, cytosolic DNA triggers the production of type I interferons and other cytokines through the endoplasmic reticulum protein STING (also known as MITA, MPYS, or ERIS) ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The mystery of nonclassical protein secretion. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • This current allegedly flow through voltage-gated CaV1.3L-type Ca2+ channels, and is important for controlling vestibular hair cell sensory function and catecholamine secretion, respectively. (unh.edu)
  • The membrane-bound protein is a regulator of intestinal secretion, bone growth and renin secretion. (genecards.org)
  • Plays a key role in intestinal secretion by regulating cGMP-dependent translocation of CFTR in jejunum (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • It also regulates the secretion of leptin and expression of leptin and uncoupling protein 2 in adipose tissue. (physiology.org)
  • The mechanism of dense granule secretion involves the G kinase-dependent association of syntaxin 2 with vesicle-associated membrane protein 3. (rupress.org)
  • Pancreatic islets transplanted to treat autoimmune type 1 diabetes often fail to function (primary nonfunction), likely because of islet β-cell apoptosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, IGF-1-dependent stimulation of p42/p44 MAPK and PDE3B was abolished in serum-deprived cells and this was associated with apoptosis. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Another is the expression of phosphodiesterase type 5 in the hypertrophied right ventricle. (ersjournals.com)
  • We report here that the cyclic GMP-inhibited cyclic AMP specific phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) is expressed as a membrane-bound protein in clonal insulin-secreting BRIN-BD11 cells. (strath.ac.uk)
  • These include nitric oxide and the natriuretic peptide family (atrial, brain and C-type natriuretic peptides). (ersjournals.com)
  • While most GKAPs were tissue-specific, a ubiquitous PKG-binding protein was detected and identified as myosin. (elsevier.com)
  • cGMP signaling is abrogated by cGMP hydrolysis via PDEs and cGMP export via multidrug resistance proteins (also referred to as ABC transporters). (springer.com)
  • X-ray cocrystal structures of certain PDEs and catalytic products (5′-GMP or 5′-AMP) contain these bonds (in PDE11A4, Gln-869 would be the contact amino acid), but cocrystal structure of a PDE with a CN has not been determined. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Using wild type (wt) and non-myristoylated mutant PKG II proteins it was demonstrated that N-myristoylation (N-myr) is important for targeting of PKG II to membranes and distal ends of filopodia like structures in COS-1 and HEK-293 cells. (ubc.ca)
  • Both sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) generator, and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) have been found to raise cGMP levels in bovine chromaffin cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To investigate which proteins were involved in this induction, endothelial cells were incubated with and without TNFα in the presence of 14C-galactose or 14C-glucose. (tudelft.nl)
  • Here, we show that native L-type channels in the insulin-secreting RIN-m5F cell line, and recombinant CaV1.3 channels heterologously expressed in HEK-293 cells, are regulatory targets of the cGMP-PKG signaling cascade. (unh.edu)
  • To grow, eukaryotic cells must expand by inserting glycerolipids, sphingolipids, sterols, and proteins into their plasma membrane, and maintain the proper levels and bilayer distribution. (mdpi.com)
  • chromogranin a (chga) is a uniquely acidic, heat-stable and soluble protein that is ubiquitous in secretory cells of the nervous, endocrine, and immune system ( 31 , 90 ). (physiology.org)
  • Most, if not all, cells can respond to and produce type I IFNs, but plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are some of the most robust producers. (hindawi.com)
  • The fact that light reduces the levels of cyclic AMP in dark-adapted cone-dominant retinas suggests an analogy between the function of cyclic GMP in rod photoreceptors and of cyclic AMP in cone visual cells. (viterittiarredamenti.com)
  • HO-1 expression is antiapoptotic and cytoprotective against oxidative stress in a variety of cell types in vitro ( 7 , 9 - 12 ) and in vivo ( 7 , 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition to the induction of NOS1, estrogen increases the expression of antiapoptotic protein such as bcl-2. (elsevier.com)
  • This study for the first time describes elevated levels of alpha synuclein in pancreatic adenocarcinoma as well as highlights the potential of evaluating NP protein expression. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • B) Co-transfection of PKG1β and HIV-1 infectious molecular clone, pNL4-3, resulted in dose dependent increase in viral protein expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of FLAG-tagged transfected PKG1β (top panel) and HIV-1 viral proteins are shown by Western blotting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using HIV-specific hyper-immune sera in Western blots, we observed that PKG1β increased pNL 4-3 expression in a dose dependent manner (Figure 1B , lanes 2 - 6). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We evaluated the ability of wild-type (WT) or R678X PRKG2 to regulate COL2 expression in cell culture. (uliege.be)
  • Importantly, both PDE5A protein expression and activity were similar in β3-AR knockout (β3-AR −/− ) myocytes as in controls. (springer.com)
  • In addition, the BDSF − mutant phenotypes could be rescued by in trans expression of RpfR, or its EAL domain that functions as a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. (pnas.org)