A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. They are synthesized as precursors that are threaded into the MEMBRANES of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the LTR.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)

A cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding transcriptional activator in Drosophila melanogaster, dCREB-A, is a member of the leucine zipper family. (1/16)

In this report, we describe the isolation and initial characterization of a Drosophila protein, dCREB-A, that can bind the somatostatin cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive element and is capable of activating transcription in cell culture. Sequence analysis demonstrates that this protein is a member of the leucine zipper family of transcription factors. dCREB-A is unusual in that it contains six hydrophobic residue iterations in the zipper domain rather than the four or five commonly found in this group of proteins. The DNA-binding domain is more closely related to mammalian CREB than to the AP-1 factors in both sequence homology and specificity of cAMP-responsive element binding. In embryos, dCREB-A is expressed in the developing salivary gland. A more complex pattern of expression is detected in the adult; transcripts are found in the brain and optic lobe cell bodies, salivary gland, and midgut epithelial cells of the cardia. In females, dCREB-A is expressed in the ovarian columnar follicle cells, and in males, dCREB-A RNA is seen in the seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, and ejaculatory bulb. These results suggest that the dCREB-A transcription factor may be involved in fertility and neurological functions.  (+info)

A Drosophila CREB/ATF transcriptional activator binds to both fat body- and liver-specific regulatory elements. (2/16)

We have identified a Drosophila transcription factor that binds to fat body-specific enhancers of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) and yolk protein genes. DNA sequence analysis of cDNA clones encoding this protein, box B-binding factor-2 (BBF-2), indicates that it is a member of the CREB/ATF family of transcriptional regulatory proteins. A number of observations suggest that BBF-2 is involved in fat body-specific expression: Mutations that disrupt BBF-2 binding to two different Adh fat body enhancers in vitro decrease the activity of these enhancers in transgenic flies. BBF-2 mRNA is present in all cell types examined, and the protein is present in cells that express ADH. Finally, BBF-2 is a transcriptional activator in Drosophila tissue culture cells. Remarkably, BBF-2 also binds specifically to regulatory elements required for liver-specific expression of the human Adh and rat tyrosine aminotransferase genes. Thus, BBF-2 and the DNA sequence to which it binds may be important components of a tissue-specific regulatory mechanism conserved between Drosophila and man.  (+info)

CrebA regulates secretory activity in the Drosophila salivary gland and epidermis. (3/16)

Understanding how organs acquire the capacity to perform their respective functions is important for both cell and developmental biology. Here, we have examined the role of early-expressed transcription factors in activating genes crucial for secretory function in the Drosophila salivary gland. We show that expression of genes encoding proteins required for ER targeting and translocation, and proteins that mediate transport between the ER and Golgi is very high in the early salivary gland. This high level expression requires two early salivary gland transcription factors; CrebA is required throughout embryogenesis and Fkh is required only during late embryonic stages. As Fkh is required to maintain late CrebA expression in the salivary gland, Fkh probably works through CrebA to affect secretory pathway gene expression. In support of these regulatory interactions, we show that CrebA is important for elevated secretion in the salivary gland. Additionally, CrebA is required for the expression of the secretory pathway genes in the embryonic epidermis, where CrebA had previously been shown to be essential for cuticle development. We show that zygotic mutations in several individual secretory pathway genes result in larval cuticle phenotypes nearly identical to those of CrebA mutants. Thus, CrebA activity is linked to secretory function in multiple tissues.  (+info)

Fork head and Sage maintain a uniform and patent salivary gland lumen through regulation of two downstream target genes, PH4alphaSG1 and PH4alphaSG2. (4/16)

(Fkh) is required to block salivary gland apoptosis, internalize salivary gland precursors, prevent expression of duct genes in secretory cells and maintain expression of CrebA, which is required for elevated secretory function. Here, we characterize two new Fkh-dependent genes: PH4alphaSG1 and PH4alphaSG2. We show through in vitro DNA-binding studies and in vivo expression assays that Fkh cooperates with the salivary gland-specific bHLH protein Sage to directly regulate expression of PH4alphaSG2, as well as sage itself, and to indirectly regulate expression of PH4alphaSG1. PH4alphaSG1 and PH4alphaSG2 encode alpha-subunits of resident ER enzymes that hydroxylate prolines in collagen and other secreted proteins. We demonstrate that salivary gland secretions are altered in embryos missing function of PH4alphaSG1 and PH4alphaSG2; secretory content is reduced and shows increased electron density by TEM. Interestingly, the altered secretory content results in regions of tube dilation and constriction, with intermittent tube closure. The regulation studies and phenotypic characterization of PH4alphaSG1 and PH4alphaSG2 link Fkh, which initiates tube formation, to the maintenance of an open and uniformly sized secretory tube.  (+info)

Structure, function, and regulation of the aldouronate utilization gene cluster from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2. (5/16)

Direct bacterial conversion of the hemicellulose fraction of hardwoods and crop residues to biobased products depends upon extracellular depolymerization of methylglucuronoxylan (MeGAX(n)), followed by assimilation and intracellular conversion of aldouronates and xylooligosaccharides to fermentable xylose. Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium, secretes a multimodular cell-associated GH10 endoxylanase (XynA1) that catalyzes depolymerization of MeGAX(n) and rapidly assimilates the principal products, beta-1,4-xylobiose, beta-1,4-xylotriose, and MeGAX(3), the aldotetrauronate 4-O-methylglucuronosyl-alpha-1,2-xylotriose. Genomic libraries derived from this bacterium have now allowed cloning and sequencing of a unique aldouronate utilization gene cluster comprised of genes encoding signal transduction regulatory proteins, ABC transporter proteins, and the enzymes AguA (GH67 alpha-glucuronidase), XynA2 (GH10 endoxylanase), and XynB (GH43 beta-xylosidase/alpha-arabinofuranosidase). Expression of these genes, as well as xynA1 encoding the secreted GH10 endoxylanase, is induced by growth on MeGAX(n) and repressed by glucose. Sequences in the yesN, lplA, and xynA2 genes within the cluster and in the distal xynA1 gene show significant similarity to catabolite responsive element (cre) defined in Bacillus subtilis for recognition of the catabolite control protein (CcpA) and consequential repression of catabolic regulons. The aldouronate utilization gene cluster in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 operates as a regulon, coregulated with the expression of xynA1, conferring the ability for efficient assimilation and catabolism of the aldouronate product generated by a multimodular cell surface-anchored GH10 endoxylanase. This cluster offers a desirable metabolic potential for bacterial conversion of hemicellulose fractions of hardwood and crop residues to biobased products.  (+info)

Identification and analysis of two splice variants of human G2A generated by alternative splicing. (6/16)

 (+info)

The role of ATF-2 family transcription factors in adipocyte differentiation: antiobesity effects of p38 inhibitors. (7/16)

 (+info)

The CrebA/Creb3-like transcription factors are major and direct regulators of secretory capacity. (8/16)

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CREB (Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in response to various cellular signals. CREB binds to the cAMP response element (CRE) sequence in the promoter region of target genes and regulates their transcription.

When activated, CREB undergoes phosphorylation at a specific serine residue (Ser-133), which leads to its binding to the coactivator protein CBP/p300 and recruitment of additional transcriptional machinery to the promoter region. This results in the activation of target gene transcription.

CREB is involved in various cellular processes, including metabolism, differentiation, survival, and memory formation. Dysregulation of CREB has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and mood disorders.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator (CREM) is a protein that functions as a transcription factor, which binds to specific DNA sequences called cis-acting elements in the promoter region of target genes and regulates their expression. The CREM protein is activated by cyclic AMP (cAMP), a second messenger molecule involved in various cellular signaling pathways.

The CREM protein contains several functional domains, including a DNA-binding domain that recognizes the cAMP response element (CRE) sequence, and a transactivation domain that interacts with other proteins to activate or repress gene transcription. The CREM protein can exist in multiple forms, including activated and repressed isoforms, which are generated by alternative splicing of its pre-mRNA.

The CREM protein plays important roles in various biological processes, such as neuronal development, circadian rhythm regulation, and immune response. Dysregulation of CREM has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic disorders.

CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a transcription coactivator that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression. It is called a "coactivator" because it works together with other proteins, such as transcription factors, to enhance the process of gene transcription. CBP is so named because it can bind to the cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein, which is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of various genes in response to different signals within cells.

CBP has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, which means it can add acetyl groups to histone proteins around which DNA is wound. This modification loosens the chromatin structure, making it more accessible for transcription factors and other proteins involved in gene expression. As a result, CBP acts as a global regulator of gene expression, influencing various cellular processes such as development, differentiation, and homeostasis.

Mutations in the CBP gene have been associated with several human diseases, including Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by growth retardation, mental deficiency, and distinct facial features. Additionally, CBP has been implicated in cancer, as its dysregulation can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation.

"Response elements" is a term used in molecular biology, particularly in the study of gene regulation. Response elements are specific DNA sequences that can bind to transcription factors, which are proteins that regulate gene expression. When a transcription factor binds to a response element, it can either activate or repress the transcription of the nearby gene.

Response elements are often found in the promoter region of genes and are typically short, conserved sequences that can be recognized by specific transcription factors. The binding of a transcription factor to a response element can lead to changes in chromatin structure, recruitment of co-activators or co-repressors, and ultimately, the regulation of gene expression.

Response elements are important for many biological processes, including development, differentiation, and response to environmental stimuli such as hormones, growth factors, and stress. The specificity of transcription factor binding to response elements allows for precise control of gene expression in response to changing conditions within the cell or organism.

Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 (SREBP-1) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, primarily cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. It binds to specific DNA sequences called sterol regulatory elements (SREs), which are present in the promoter regions of genes involved in lipid synthesis.

SREBP-1 exists in two isoforms, SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c, encoded by a single gene through alternative splicing. SREBP-1a is a stronger transcriptional activator than SREBP-1c and can activate both cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis genes. In contrast, SREBP-1c primarily regulates fatty acid synthesis genes.

Under normal conditions, SREBP-1 is found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane as an inactive precursor bound to another protein called SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP). When cells detect low levels of cholesterol or fatty acids, SCAP escorts SREBP-1 to the Golgi apparatus, where it undergoes proteolytic processing to release the active transcription factor. The active SREBP-1 then translocates to the nucleus and binds to SREs, promoting the expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis.

Overall, SREBP-1 is a critical regulator of lipid homeostasis, and its dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and atherosclerosis.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Activating Transcription Factor 2 (ATF-2) is a protein that belongs to the family of leucine zipper transcription factors. It plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in response to various cellular stress signals, such as inflammation, DNA damage, and oxidative stress. ATF-2 can bind to specific DNA sequences called cis-acting elements, located within the promoter regions of target genes, and activate their transcription.

ATF-2 forms homodimers or heterodimers with other proteins, such as c-Jun, to regulate gene expression. The activity of ATF-2 is tightly controlled through various post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, which can modulate its DNA binding and transactivation properties.

ATF-2 has been implicated in several biological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and its dysregulation has been associated with various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Activating Transcription Factor 1 (ATF-1) is a protein that belongs to the family of leucine zipper transcription factors. It plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as cAMP response elements (CREs), and activating the transcription of target genes.

ATF-1 forms homodimers or heterodimers with other members of the CREB/ATF family and binds to the CRE sites in the promoter regions of target genes. The activity of ATF-1 is regulated by various signaling pathways, including the cAMP-PKA pathway, which can modulate its transcriptional activity by phosphorylation.

ATF-1 has been implicated in several biological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and stress response. Dysregulation of ATF-1 has been associated with various diseases, including cancer, where it can act as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene depending on the context.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Activating transcription factors (ATFs) are a family of proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and promoting the initiation of transcription. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including development, differentiation, and stress response. ATFs can form homodimers or heterodimers with other transcription factors, such as cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and bind to the consensus sequence called the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the promoter region of target genes. The activation of ATFs can be regulated through various post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, which can alter their DNA-binding ability and transcriptional activity.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2 (SREBP-2) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the body. It is a member of the SREBP family, which also includes SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c, and is encoded by the SREBF2 gene.

SREBP-2 is primarily involved in the regulation of genes that are necessary for cholesterol synthesis and uptake. When cholesterol levels in the body are low, SREBP-2 gets activated and moves from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, where it undergoes proteolytic cleavage to release its active form. The active SREBP-2 then translocates to the nucleus and binds to sterol regulatory elements (SREs) in the promoter regions of target genes, thereby inducing their transcription.

The target genes of SREBP-2 include HMG-CoA reductase, which is a rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis, and LDL receptor, which is responsible for the uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or "bad" cholesterol from the bloodstream. By upregulating the expression of these genes, SREBP-2 helps to increase cholesterol levels in the body and maintain cholesterol homeostasis.

Dysregulation of SREBP-2 has been implicated in various diseases, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinases, also known as protein kinase A (PKA), are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are responsible for the regulation of various cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell growth and differentiation.

PKA is composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits. When cAMP binds to the regulatory subunits, it causes a conformational change that leads to the dissociation of the catalytic subunits. The freed catalytic subunits then phosphorylate specific serine and threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity.

The cAMP-dependent protein kinases are activated in response to a variety of extracellular signals, such as hormones and neurotransmitters, that bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). These signals lead to the activation of adenylyl cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. The resulting increase in intracellular cAMP levels triggers the activation of PKA and the downstream phosphorylation of target proteins.

Overall, cAMP-dependent protein kinases are essential regulators of many fundamental cellular processes and play a critical role in maintaining normal physiology and homeostasis. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Transcriptional activation is the process by which a cell increases the rate of transcription of specific genes from DNA to RNA. This process is tightly regulated and plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including development, differentiation, and response to environmental stimuli.

Transcriptional activation occurs when transcription factors (proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences) interact with the promoter region of a gene and recruit co-activator proteins. These co-activators help to remodel the chromatin structure around the gene, making it more accessible for the transcription machinery to bind and initiate transcription.

Transcriptional activation can be regulated at multiple levels, including the availability and activity of transcription factors, the modification of histone proteins, and the recruitment of co-activators or co-repressors. Dysregulation of transcriptional activation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Leucine Zippers" is not a medical term or concept. It is a term used in molecular biology to describe a specific structural motif found in some proteins. Leucine zippers are amino acid sequences that contain regularly spaced leucine residues and form coiled-coil structures, which play a role in protein-protein interactions, particularly in DNA binding transcription factors.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Regulatory sequences in nucleic acid refer to specific DNA or RNA segments that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes without encoding proteins. They are crucial for the proper functioning of cells as they regulate various cellular processes such as transcription, translation, mRNA stability, and localization. Regulatory sequences can be found in both coding and non-coding regions of DNA or RNA.

Some common types of regulatory sequences in nucleic acid include:

1. Promoters: DNA sequences typically located upstream of the gene that provide a binding site for RNA polymerase and transcription factors to initiate transcription.
2. Enhancers: DNA sequences, often located at a distance from the gene, that enhance transcription by binding to specific transcription factors and increasing the recruitment of RNA polymerase.
3. Silencers: DNA sequences that repress transcription by binding to specific proteins that inhibit the recruitment of RNA polymerase or promote chromatin compaction.
4. Intron splice sites: Specific nucleotide sequences within introns (non-coding regions) that mark the boundaries between exons (coding regions) and are essential for correct splicing of pre-mRNA.
5. 5' untranslated regions (UTRs): Regions located at the 5' end of an mRNA molecule that contain regulatory elements affecting translation efficiency, stability, and localization.
6. 3' untranslated regions (UTRs): Regions located at the 3' end of an mRNA molecule that contain regulatory elements influencing translation termination, stability, and localization.
7. miRNA target sites: Specific sequences in mRNAs that bind to microRNAs (miRNAs) leading to translational repression or degradation of the target mRNA.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs) are a family of transcription factors that play crucial roles in regulating the synthesis and uptake of cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, and other lipids in the body. They do so by controlling the expression of genes involved in these metabolic pathways.

SREBPs are activated in response to low cellular levels of cholesterol or fatty acids. When activated, they bind to specific DNA sequences called sterol regulatory elements (SREs) in the promoter regions of their target genes, promoting their transcription and leading to increased synthesis and uptake of lipids.

There are three main isoforms of SREBPs: SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c, and SREBP-2. SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c primarily regulate the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, while SREBP-2 mainly regulates cholesterol synthesis and uptake. Dysregulation of SREBP activity has been implicated in various metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis.

Proto-oncogene proteins, such as c-Fos, are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various biological processes including cell growth, differentiation, and survival. They can be activated or overexpressed due to genetic alterations, leading to the formation of cancerous cells. The c-Fos protein is a nuclear phosphoprotein involved in signal transduction pathways and forms a heterodimer with c-Jun to create the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex. This complex binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby regulating the expression of target genes that contribute to various cellular responses, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of c-Fos can result in uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation, contributing to tumor development and progression.

CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that play crucial roles in the regulation of various biological processes, including cell growth, development, and differentiation. They bind to specific DNA sequences called CCAAT boxes, which are found in the promoter or enhancer regions of many genes.

The C/EBP family consists of several members, including C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, C/EBPγ, C/EBPδ, and C/EBPε. These proteins share a highly conserved basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which is responsible for their DNA-binding and dimerization activities.

C/EBPs can form homodimers or heterodimers with other bZIP proteins, allowing them to regulate gene expression in a combinatorial manner. They are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as inflammation, immune response, metabolism, and cell cycle control. Dysregulation of C/EBP function has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders.

A gene product is the biochemical material, such as a protein or RNA, that is produced by the expression of a gene. Gene products are the result of the translation and transcription of genetic information encoded in DNA or RNA.

In the context of "tax," this term is not typically used in a medical definition of gene products. However, it may refer to the concept of taxing or regulating gene products in the context of genetic engineering or synthetic biology. This could involve imposing fees or restrictions on the production, use, or sale of certain gene products, particularly those that are genetically modified or engineered. The regulation of gene products is an important aspect of ensuring their safe and effective use in various applications, including medical treatments, agricultural production, and industrial processes.

Colforsin is a drug that belongs to a class of medications called phosphodiesterase inhibitors. It works by increasing the levels of a chemical called cyclic AMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) in the body, which helps to relax and widen blood vessels.

Colforsin is not approved for use in humans in many countries, including the United States. However, it has been used in research settings to study its potential effects on heart function and other physiological processes. In animals, colforsin has been shown to have positive inotropic (contractility-enhancing) and lusitropic (relaxation-enhancing) effects on the heart, making it a potential therapeutic option for heart failure and other cardiovascular conditions.

It is important to note that while colforsin has shown promise in preclinical studies, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy in humans. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional and in the context of a clinical trial or research study.

Gene expression regulation, enzymologic refers to the biochemical processes and mechanisms that control the transcription and translation of specific genes into functional proteins or enzymes. This regulation is achieved through various enzymatic activities that can either activate or repress gene expression at different levels, such as chromatin remodeling, transcription factor activation, mRNA processing, and protein degradation.

Enzymologic regulation of gene expression involves the action of specific enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions involved in these processes. For example, histone-modifying enzymes can alter the structure of chromatin to make genes more or less accessible for transcription, while RNA polymerase and its associated factors are responsible for transcribing DNA into mRNA. Additionally, various enzymes are involved in post-transcriptional modifications of mRNA, such as splicing, capping, and tailing, which can affect the stability and translation of the transcript.

Overall, the enzymologic regulation of gene expression is a complex and dynamic process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment and maintain proper physiological function.

A "reporter gene" is a type of gene that is linked to a gene of interest in order to make the expression or activity of that gene detectable. The reporter gene encodes for a protein that can be easily measured and serves as an indicator of the presence and activity of the gene of interest. Commonly used reporter genes include those that encode for fluorescent proteins, enzymes that catalyze colorimetric reactions, or proteins that bind to specific molecules.

In the context of genetics and genomics research, a reporter gene is often used in studies involving gene expression, regulation, and function. By introducing the reporter gene into an organism or cell, researchers can monitor the activity of the gene of interest in real-time or after various experimental treatments. The information obtained from these studies can help elucidate the role of specific genes in biological processes and diseases, providing valuable insights for basic research and therapeutic development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "G-Box Binding Factors" is not a widely recognized or established term in medical or molecular biology literature. The "G-box" is a specific sequence of DNA that can be found in the promoter regions of many genes and serves as a binding site for various transcription factors. Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and either promoting or inhibiting the initiation of transcription.

However, "G-Box Binding Factors" is too broad since multiple transcription factors can bind to the G-box sequence. Some examples of transcription factors known to bind to the G-box include proteins like GBF (G-box binding factor), HSF (heat shock transcription factor), and bZIP (basic region/leucine zipper) proteins, among others.

If you have a more specific context or reference related to "G-Box Binding Factors," I would be happy to help provide further information based on that context.

Genetic enhancer elements are DNA sequences that increase the transcription of specific genes. They work by binding to regulatory proteins called transcription factors, which in turn recruit RNA polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). This results in the activation of gene transcription and increased production of the protein encoded by that gene.

Enhancer elements can be located upstream, downstream, or even within introns of the genes they regulate, and they can act over long distances along the DNA molecule. They are an important mechanism for controlling gene expression in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, allowing for the precise regulation of gene activity during embryonic development and throughout adult life.

It's worth noting that genetic enhancer elements are often referred to simply as "enhancers," and they are distinct from other types of regulatory DNA sequences such as promoters, silencers, and insulators.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Transcription Factor AP-1 (Activator Protein 1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that belongs to the bZIP (basic region-leucine zipper) family. It is formed by the dimerization of Jun (c-Jun, JunB, JunD) and Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra1, Fra2) protein families, or alternatively by homodimers of Jun proteins. AP-1 plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Its activity is tightly controlled through various signaling pathways, including the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades, which lead to phosphorylation and activation of its components. Once activated, AP-1 binds to specific DNA sequences called TPA response elements (TREs) or AP-1 sites, thereby modulating the transcription of target genes involved in various cellular responses, such as inflammation, immune response, stress response, and oncogenic transformation.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Proto-oncogene proteins, such as c-Jun, are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). When proto-oncogenes undergo mutations or are overexpressed, they can become oncogenes, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and leading to cancer.

The c-Jun protein is a component of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, which regulates gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences. It is involved in various cellular responses such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Dysregulation of c-Jun has been implicated in several types of cancer, including lung, breast, and colon cancers.

Enzyme activation refers to the process by which an enzyme becomes biologically active and capable of carrying out its specific chemical or biological reaction. This is often achieved through various post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage, phosphorylation, or addition of cofactors or prosthetic groups to the enzyme molecule. These modifications can change the conformation or structure of the enzyme, exposing or creating a binding site for the substrate and allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

For example, in the case of proteolytic cleavage, an inactive precursor enzyme, known as a zymogen, is cleaved into its active form by a specific protease. This is seen in enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are initially produced in the pancreas as inactive precursors called trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen, respectively. Once they reach the small intestine, they are activated by enteropeptidase, a protease that cleaves a specific peptide bond, releasing the active enzyme.

Phosphorylation is another common mechanism of enzyme activation, where a phosphate group is added to a specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue on the enzyme by a protein kinase. This modification can alter the conformation of the enzyme and create a binding site for the substrate, allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

Enzyme activation is a crucial process in many biological pathways, as it allows for precise control over when and where specific reactions take place. It also provides a mechanism for regulating enzyme activity in response to various signals and stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or changes in the intracellular environment.

Chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase is an enzyme that is encoded by the cat gene in certain bacteria. This enzyme is responsible for adding acetyl groups to chloramphenicol, which is an antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. When chloramphenicol is acetylated by this enzyme, it becomes inactivated and can no longer bind to the ribosome and prevent bacterial protein synthesis.

Bacteria that are resistant to chloramphenicol often have a plasmid-borne cat gene, which encodes for the production of Chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase. This enzyme allows the bacteria to survive in the presence of chloramphenicol by rendering it ineffective. The transfer of this plasmid between bacteria can also confer resistance to other susceptible strains.

In summary, Chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase is an enzyme that inactivates chloramphenicol by adding acetyl groups to it, making it an essential factor in bacterial resistance to this antibiotic.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and apoptosis, in response to diverse stimuli such as mitogens, growth factors, hormones, cytokines, and environmental stresses. They are highly conserved across eukaryotes and consist of a three-tiered kinase module composed of MAPK kinase kinases (MAP3Ks), MAPK kinases (MKKs or MAP2Ks), and MAPKs.

Activation of MAPKs occurs through a sequential phosphorylation and activation cascade, where MAP3Ks phosphorylate and activate MKKs, which in turn phosphorylate and activate MAPKs at specific residues (Thr-X-Tyr or Ser-Pro motifs). Once activated, MAPKs can further phosphorylate and regulate various downstream targets, including transcription factors and other protein kinases.

There are four major groups of MAPKs in mammals: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 MAPKs (p38α/β/γ/δ), and ERK5/BMK1. Each group of MAPKs has distinct upstream activators, downstream targets, and cellular functions, allowing for a high degree of specificity in signal transduction and cellular responses. Dysregulation of MAPK signaling pathways has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Trans-activators are proteins that increase the transcriptional activity of a gene or a set of genes. They do this by binding to specific DNA sequences and interacting with the transcription machinery, thereby enhancing the recruitment and assembly of the complexes needed for transcription. In some cases, trans-activators can also modulate the chromatin structure to make the template more accessible to the transcription machinery.

In the context of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection, the term "trans-activator" is often used specifically to refer to the Tat protein. The Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication of HIV by activating the transcription of the viral genome. It does this by binding to a specific RNA structure called the Trans-Activation Response Element (TAR) located at the 5' end of all nascent HIV transcripts, and recruiting cellular cofactors that enhance the processivity and efficiency of RNA polymerase II, leading to increased viral gene expression.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

NF-κB (Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in regulating the immune response to infection and inflammation, as well as in cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation. It is composed of several subunits, including p50, p52, p65 (RelA), c-Rel, and RelB, which can form homodimers or heterodimers that bind to specific DNA sequences called κB sites in the promoter regions of target genes.

Under normal conditions, NF-κB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins known as IκBs (inhibitors of κB). However, upon stimulation by various signals such as cytokines, bacterial or viral products, and stress, IκBs are phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and degraded, leading to the release and activation of NF-κB. Activated NF-κB then translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to κB sites and regulates the expression of target genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and proliferation.

Dysregulation of NF-κB signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as cancer, chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, targeting NF-κB signaling has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases.

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a type of protein called a neurotrophin, which is involved in the growth and maintenance of neurons (nerve cells) in the brain. BDNFA is encoded by the BDNF gene and is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. It plays an essential role in supporting the survival of existing neurons, encouraging the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses, and contributing to neuroplasticity - the ability of the brain to change and adapt as a result of experience. Low levels of BDNF have been associated with several neurological disorders, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease.

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Meyer TE, Habener JF (Nov 1992). "Cyclic AMP response element binding protein CREB and modulator protein CREM are products of ... Pongubala JM, Atchison ML (Apr 1995). "Activating transcription factor 1 and cyclic AMP response element modulator can modulate ... "The cyclic AMP response element modulator family regulates the insulin gene transcription by interacting with transcription ... "Modulation of Tax and PKA-mediated expression of HTLV-I promoter via cAMP response element binding and modulator proteins CREB ...
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Parry GC, Mackman N (Dec 1997). "Role of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in cyclic AMP inhibition of NF-kappaB- ... "Modulation of DNA binding properties of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein epsilon by heterodimer formation and interactions with ... Gerritsen ME, Williams AJ, Neish AS, Moore S, Shi Y, Collins T (Apr 1997). "CREB-binding protein/p300 are transcriptional ... Aarnisalo P, Palvimo JJ, Jänne OA (Mar 1998). "CREB-binding protein in androgen receptor-mediated signaling". Proceedings of ...
The structure of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CBP) and E1A complex was determined by NMR. It reveals that CR1 ... Early proteins typically encode non-structural proteins that are necessary for replication, whereas late structural proteins ... "The structure of the site on adenovirus early region 1A responsible for binding to TATA-binding protein determined by NMR ... The fixed structure allows this domain to recognize TATA-binding protein (TBP) and activate transcription of certain genes. The ...
Kara CJ, Liou HC, Ivashkiv LB, Glimcher LH (April 1990). "A cDNA for a human cyclic AMP response element-binding protein which ... Kara CJ, Liou HC, Ivashkiv LB, Glimcher LH (1990). "A cDNA for a human cyclic AMP response element-binding protein which is ... "Leucine zipper structure of the protein CRE-BP1 binding to the cyclic AMP response element in brain". EMBO J. 8 (7): 2023-8. ... "Assignment of the gene for cyclic AMP-response element binding protein 2 (CREB2) to human chromosome 2q24.1-q32". Genomics. 11 ...
"ICAM-1-coupled signaling pathways in astrocytes converge to cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and TNF ... These three proteins are generally expressed on endothelial cells and leukocytes, and they bind to ICAM-1 to facilitate ... The presence of heavy glycosylation and other structural characteristics of ICAM-1 lend the protein binding sites for numerous ... ICAM-1 possesses binding sites for a number of immune-associated ligands. Notably, ICAM-1 binds to macrophage adhesion ligand-1 ...
GSK-3β inhibits the transcription factors β-catenin and cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB), by ... Lithium was found to increase the basal levels of cyclic AMP but impair receptor coupled stimulation of cyclic AMP production. ... It is hypothesized that the dual effects of lithium are due to the inhibition of G-proteins that mediate cyclic AMP production ... Over a long period of lithium treatment, cyclic AMP and adenylate cyclase levels are further changed by gene transcription ...
Kara CJ, Liou HC, Ivashkiv LB, Glimcher LH (April 1990). "A cDNA for a human cyclic AMP response element-binding protein which ... "Isolation and characterization of a novel member of the gene family encoding the cAMP response element-binding protein CRE-BP1 ... Venugopal R, Jaiswal AK (December 1998). "Nrf2 and Nrf1 in association with Jun proteins regulate antioxidant response element- ... forms the AP-1 early response transcription factor. It was first identified as the Fos-binding protein p39 and only later ...
Lee JA, Kim H, Lee YS, Kaang BK (2003). "Overexpression and RNA interference of Ap-cyclic AMP-response element binding protein- ... "AU-rich element-binding protein negatively regulates CCAAT enhancer-binding protein mRNA stability during long-term synaptic ... transcription requires the protein kinase-A-mediated phosphorylation of the cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB). ... he found that multiple pulses of serotonin stimulate gene expression that is mediated by the cAMP-response element (CRE). He ...
... act to phosphorylate the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor. Phosphorylated CREB ... Survival and PCD mechanisms are mediated through adaptor protein binding to the death domain of the p75NTR cytoplasmic tail. ... This pathway begins with the Trk receptor complex-recruitment of a second adaptor protein called growth factor-receptor bound ... The active Ras protein phosphorylates several proteins, along with the serine/threonine kinase, Raf. Raf in turn activates the ...
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Cyclic AMP-response Element Binding (protein) CREEP - (a) Committee for the Re-Election of the President, a pejorative nickname ... Cyclic Code Shift Keying CCT - (i) Current Commitments Team CCTT - (i) Close Combat Tactical Trainer cd - (s) Candela Cd - (s) ... Computer Emergency Response Team ces - (s) Czech language (ISO 639-2 code) CESS - (i) Centre for Earth Science Studies (India) ... from the chemical symbols of the two component elements) CUW - (s) Curaçao (ISO 3166 trigram) cv - (s) Chuvash language (ISO ...
DNA in the cell nucleus binds to phosphorylated proteins through the cyclic AMP response element (CRE), which results in the ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ... via adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP (cAMP).[citation needed] These protein kinases are present as tetramers with two ... Upon binding of cAMP to the regulatory units, the catalytic units are released and initiate the phosphorylation of proteins, ...
Chronic ethanol administration decreases phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in granule cells of rat ... exposure alters the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein and cyclic AMP responsive element binding ... Pandey, S.C. (2004). The gene transcription factor cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein: role in positive and negative ... cyclic monophosphate response element binding protein activity in an age- and brain region-specific manner. Alcohol Clin Exp ...
Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CREB5 gene. The product of this ... cAMP response element)-binding protein family. Members of this family contain zinc finger and bZIP DNA-binding domains. The ... "Isolation and characterization of a novel member of the gene family encoding the cAMP response element-binding protein CRE-BP1 ... "Entrez Gene: CREB5 cAMP responsive element binding protein 5". Cumulated Index Medicus. U.S. Department of Health and Human ...
7 kb upstream that contains binding sites for cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), myocyte enhancer factor 2 ( ... a serum response element (SRE; see serum response factor) at ~1.5 kb upstream of the initiation site. a second SRE at ~6.5 kb; ... The common factor for these signaling molecules involves activation of cyclic-AMP and its downstream target protein kinase A ( ... Additionally, the protein has binding sites for endophilin 3 and dynamin 2 at amino acids 89-100 and 195-214, respectively. ...
... protein kinase A (PKA) is activated and phosphorylates the transcription factor cAMP Response Element Binding (CREB) protein. ... This ligand binding causes the activation of adenylate cyclase, which causes the creation of cyclic AMP (cAMP). As the ... Somatostatin inhibits glucagon secretion through the activation of SSTR2, a membrane bound protein that when activated causes a ... This protein channel allows zinc to cross the plasma membrane into the cell. When ZnT8 is under-expressed, there is a marked ...
... and progesterone response element. Expression of the promoter is shown to be induce by phorbol esters and cyclic-AMP-dependent ... N-terminal structure that secures the binding of fructose-6-phosphate to the active site via interaction with the protein's '2- ... The promoter of PFKFB3 contains binding sites, called hypoxia response elements (HREs), that recruit the binding of hypoxia- ... The PFKFB3 promoter is predicted to contain multiple binding sites, including Sp-1 and AP-2 binding sites. It also contains ...
Specifically, estrogen increased cAMP activity and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in neuroblastoma cells ... modulated by estrogen in both human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell cultures as well as in mice through interactions with cyclic AMP ... Additionally, neurotensin gene transcription was blocked in knock-out mice lacking the RIIβ subunit of the protein kinase A ... Neurotensin is synthesized as part of a 169 or 170 amino acid precursor protein that also contains the related neuropeptide ...
Pandey SC (Oct 2004). "The gene transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein: role in positive and ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CREB1 gene. This protein binds the cAMP response element, a DNA nucleotide ... "Synergism between calcium and cyclic GMP in cyclic AMP response element-dependent transcriptional regulation requires ... Hoeffler JP, Meyer TE, Yun Y, Jameson JL, Habener JF (Dec 1988). "Cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein: structure based on ...
"Synergism between calcium and cyclic GMP in cyclic AMP response element-dependent transcriptional regulation requires ... CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPB gene. The protein encoded by this ... In addition, the encoded protein can bind the promoter and upstream element and stimulate the expression of the collagen type I ... Hanlon M, Sealy L (May 1999). "Ras regulates the association of serum response factor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta ...
... cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein) in this process. Certain synapses on recruited neurons are more likely to ... The transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a well-studied mechanism of neuronal memory allocation ... Nguyen, P. V., & Woo, N. H. (2003). Regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. ... For example, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways appear to participate in neuronal ...
Sun P, Lou L, Maurer RA (1996). "Regulation of activating transcription factor-1 and the cAMP response element-binding protein ... Pongubala JM, Atchison ML (1995). "Activating transcription factor 1 and cyclic AMP response element modulator can modulate the ... "The cAMP-regulated enhancer-binding protein ATF-1 activates transcription in response to cAMP-dependent protein kinase A." J. ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF1 gene. This gene encodes an ...
Lastly, several "cyclic AMP response elements" with sequence TGACGTCA that binds CREB. In humans, a "Z-element" resides 243-292 ... each of which serve as binding sites for distinct regulatory proteins. First, multiple A/T-rich sequences, called "A elements ... These regions are primarily bound by PDX-1, but also Cdx2 and Isl-1. Second, two so-called "C elements" - C1 located 107-118 ... C2 (also called the "pancreatic islet cell enhancer sequence" or "PISCES") is bound by PAX6. Third, an "E element" (two in ...
Inada A, Someya Y, Yamada Y, Ihara Y, Kubota A, Ban N, Watanabe R, Tsuda K, Seino Y (1999). "The cyclic AMP response element ... CBX5m TATA binding protein, and Transcription initiation protein SPT3 homolog. Yeast TFIID comprises the TATA binding protein ... and binds to other proteins containing glutamine-rich regions. Aberrant binding to this subunit by proteins with expanded ... TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated ...
Their response elements are DNA sequences (promoters) that are bound by the complex of the steroid bound to its receptor. The ... These receptors generally function via intracellular second messengers, including cyclic AMP (cAMP), cyclic GMP (cGMP), ... The features of G proteins include GDP/GTP binding, GTP hydrolysis and guanosine nucleotide exchange. When a ligand binds to a ... Hormone receptor proteins bind to a hormone as a result of an accumulation of weak interactions. Because of the relatively ...
... and cyclic AMP response element binding with acquired resistance to Faslodex (ICI 182,780)". Cancer Research. 62 (12): 3428- ... He was among the pioneers to implicate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in acquired endocrine resistance and in regulating ... the Unfolded Protein Response, Autophagy, and the Integrated Regulation of Breast Cancer Cell Fate". Cancer Research. 72 (6): ... "Autophagy and unfolded protein response (UPR) regulate mammary gland involution by restraining apoptosis-driven irreversible ...
Creb1 protein, mouse * Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein * Neuroprotective Agents * Plant Extracts ... and cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB). Treatment with glutamate alone led to activation of extracellular regulated ... When we evaluated calpain I and striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), active form of calpain I was ... To elucidate possible pathways of neuroprotection by EEPM, we explored the activation of mitogen activated protein kinases ( ...
January 2012). "Antidepressant-like effect of sildenafil through oxytocin-dependent cyclic AMP response element-binding protein ... This precursor protein also includes the oxytocin carrier protein neurophysin I. The inactive precursor protein is ... Oxytocin modulates fear responses by enhancing the maintenance of social memories. Rats who are genetically modified to have a ... In the pituitary gland, oxytocin is packaged in large, dense-core vesicles, where it is bound to neurophysin I as shown in the ...
Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), phosphorylated (p)-CREB (Ser133), tyrosinase, microphthalamia-associated ... cyclic AMP response element-binding protein; MITF: microphthalmia-associated transcription factor; TRP-1: tyrosinase related ... including cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), tyrosinase, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF ... tyrosinase related protein-2; MEK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; ERK: extracellular-signal-regulated kinase; AKT: protein ...
"ICAM-1-coupled signaling pathways in astrocytes converge to cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and TNF ... These three proteins are generally expressed on endothelial cells and leukocytes, and they bind to ICAM-1 to facilitate ... The presence of heavy glycosylation and other structural characteristics of ICAM-1 lend the protein binding sites for numerous ... ICAM-1 possesses binding sites for a number of immune-associated ligands. Notably, ICAM-1 binds to macrophage adhesion ligand-1 ...
... the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and autophagy [80]. A prodrug of DNP was ... These include, for example, amyloid-β and tau, α-synuclein, and superoxide dismutase 1 and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) ... The promoieties for drug conjugation are selected for grafting based on hydrophobicity, pH, and protein binding [9]. The graft ... Most of the initiatives in ART prodrugs have been designed to inhibit proteins such as reverse transcriptase (the key protein ...
... hypersensitivity but also downregulated the NR2B level and the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein. ... Mutations in FHF proteins have been associated with multiple neurological disorders. FHF proteins bind to the C-terminus of ... Studies suggest that the scaffolding protein, postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), is involved in multiple neurological ... a response-time hazard perception test and a verbal-response hazard prediction test for drivers, and (iii) a driving diary in ...
The -800G/A SNP is located in a consensus cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) half site and may cause reduced ... 1999]. The -509C/T is located within a YY1 consensus binding site and -509T allele has been associated with increased TGF-β1 ... 2001]. It has been recently shown that c-Jun binds to a highly conserved noncoding sequences (CNS-3) in the IL10 locus, ... β1 and the development of autoimmunity [Aoki et al., 2005]. TGF-β1 belongs to a large family of multifunctional proteins, ...
Mechanistically, MTX treatment led to cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)Ser133 phosphorylation, while AMPK ... Mechanistically, MTX treatment led to cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)Ser133 phosphorylation, while AMPK ... Mechanistically, MTX treatment led to cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)Ser133 phosphorylation, while AMPK ... Mechanistically, MTX treatment led to cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)Ser133 phosphorylation, while AMPK ...
Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein 71% * Neurons 69% * Alzheimer Disease 65% ...
Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; Exercise Test; Exercise Tolerance; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; ...
Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein 84% * response elements 81% * parasitic wasps 78% ... Terrestrial ecosystem responses to species gains and losses. Wardle, D. A., Bardgett, R. D., Callaway, R. M. & Van der Putten, ... Herbivore-induced plant responses in Brassica oleracea prevail over effects of constitutive resistance and result in enhanced ... Temporal dynamics of herbivore-induced responses in Brassica juncea and their effect on generalist and specialist herbivores. ...
Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein A; CrebA. $50.00 Even-skipped. Segmentation protein even-skipped ...
DNA-Binding Protein, Cyclic AMP-Responsive. Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein. ... Proto-Oncogene Protein c-met. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met. Proto-Oncogene Protein p21(ras). Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) ... Proto-Oncogene Protein pp60(c-src). Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src). ... Proto-Oncogene Protein c-kit. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit. ... Heat-Shock Proteins 90. HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins. I-kappa B. I ...
DNA-Binding Protein, Cyclic AMP-Responsive. Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein. ... Proto-Oncogene Protein c-met. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met. Proto-Oncogene Protein p21(ras). Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) ... Proto-Oncogene Protein pp60(c-src). Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src). ... Proto-Oncogene Protein c-kit. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit. ... Heat-Shock Proteins 90. HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins. I-kappa B. I ...
Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein Medicine & Life Sciences 53% * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ... which triggers cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-dependent Wnt2 transcription. RyRs regulate the spatiotemporal ... which triggers cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-dependent Wnt2 transcription. RyRs regulate the spatiotemporal ... which triggers cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-dependent Wnt2 transcription. RyRs regulate the spatiotemporal ...
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... cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) has been suggested to be related to the inhibition of the proliferation of non- ... siCREB did not alter PKA protein levels or its phosphorylation, suggesting that PKA is an upstream regulator of CREB activity. ... Growth suppression of lung cancer cells by targeting cyclic AMP response element-binding protein. Cancer Res. 2008;68:981-8. ... The protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) has been suggested to be related to the inhibition of ...
... serum response factor (SRF) at Ser103, and Cyclic AMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) at Ser133.86,87 Although RSK1 was ... One such signaling protein is Growth Factor Receptor Bound Protein 2 (GRB2). GRB2, a cytosolic adaptor, contains a central SH2 ... Ras is a notable member of the large family of GTPases, proteins that bind and hydrolyze GTP. First discovered as transforming ... The effector domain of Ras binds Raf at two locations in the MAP3Ks N-terminus, the Ras-binding domain (RBD) and the cysteine- ...
Antidepressants induced cyclic AMP response element binding protein phosphorylation and this response was prevented by LPA1 ... CCL5 may bind to a G-protein-coupled receptor 75 (GPR75), which encodes for a 540 amino-acid orphan receptor of the Gqα family ... Similar pathologies were observed in mice overexpressing the HIV protein gp120, suggesting that this viral protein may be ... as well as the human immunodeficiency virus viral proteins gp120 and Tat. Because CCL5 binds to CCR5, CCR3 and/or CCR1 ...
A selective increase in phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in hippocampal CA1 region of male, but ...
CREB-H는 간세포에서 특정한 유전자를 활성화시키는 전사 인자로 cyclic AMP response element binding protein transcription factor (CREB/ATF) family에 속한다. ... cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3 (CREB-H) activates transcription by binding to cAMP responsive element, box B ... cAMP Response Element Binding Protein 3-like 3 (CREB-H)가 간세포의 포도당 신생합성에 미치는 영향. ... 200706). cAMP Response Element Binding Protein 3-like 3 (CREB-H)가 간세포의 포도당 신생합성에 미치는 영향. Type. Thesis URI. https://kumel.medlib ...
Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein. *Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1. *Cyclin D1 ... GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits. *GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11 ... Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1. *Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 ... Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5. *Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cAMP-activated protein kinases, and activation of cyclic AMP response element-binding ... tropomyosin kinase B receptor and cleaves its intracellular pathway by phosphorylating cAMP response element-binding protein; ... produced by skeletal muscle cells in response to contraction and enhances fat oxidation via activation of AMP-activated protein ... and gene transcription proteins and reduce MGMT, and eventually metabolic proteins involved in ATP synthesis in AD (19, 20). ...
... cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins ... Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin- ... Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAC subfamily.. Contains 1 AGSLCkinase ... leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at Thr-24, Ser- ...
... it was shown that amino acid response element and cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein act as important transcription ... For example, investigators can use progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement, in which the number of responses (e.g., lever ... are characterised by two emotion-based forms of urgency-positive and negative-which involve acting rashly in response to ...
Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was shown to be phosphorylated by AKT at Ser133, which increases its binding ... genes and proteins involved in energy metabolism and the Rabbit polyclonal to ZNF625 AKT/cAMP response element-binding protein ... Coronavirus spike proteins mediated virus entrance via its receptor-binding domains (RBD) (Dai and Gao, 2021; TM6089 Wang et?al ... thus indicating their up-modulated cell binding ability to FN matrix protein. Open in a separate window Physique 3. A bar graph ...
... the transcription factor cAMP response-element binding protein, as well as its phosphorylated form, in the arcuate nucleus of ... Adrenalectomy, Animals, Appetite Regulation, Castration, Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein, Dwarfism, Pituitary, ... the transcription factor cAMP response-element binding protein, as well as its phosphorylated form, in the arcuate nucleus of ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Male, Neurons, Neuropeptide Y, Neuropeptides, Orexins, Pituitary Gland, Rats, ...
After the last treatment, levels of cAMP and phosphorylated (p) cyclicAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were up‐ ... also prevented the motor stimulant response to peripheral injection of cocaine or amphetamine , but was ineffective in blocking ... a gamma-aminobutyric acidB agonist, could inhibit the motor-stimulant response to cocaine and amphetamine." ...
... and the transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) response element-binding protein in the hippocampus and ... The hormetic dose-response, challenges long-standing beliefs about the nature of the dose-response in a low dose zone, having ... The hormetic dose-response, challenges long-standing beliefs about the nature of the dose-response in a lowdose zone, having ... However, the identification of the longevity protein silent regulator 2 (Sir2), the founding member of the sirtuin protein ...
cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein. Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1-like, pKID. ... cAMP responsive element binding protein 1a Symbol creb1a Nomenclature History Previous Names *creb1 ... protein_coding_gene Location Chr: 1 Mapping Details/Browsers Description Predicted to have DNA binding activity and DNA-binding ... Orthologous to human CREB1 (cAMP responsive element binding protein 1). Genome Resources *Alliance (1) ...
  • To elucidate possible pathways of neuroprotection by EEPM, we explored the activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB). (nih.gov)
  • AYC-P-E inhibited melanogenesis in α-MSH-treated B16F10 cells, accompanied by decreased mRNA and protein expression of melanin biosynthesis inducers, including cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), tyrosinase, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2. (medsci.org)
  • Mechanistically, MTX treatment led to cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)Ser133 phosphorylation, while AMPK depletion attenuated this response and the induction of MnSOD and HO-1. (bath.ac.uk)
  • CREB siRNA inhibited upregulation of both cytoprotective genes by MTX, while chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated CREB binding to the MnSOD promoter in MTX-treated EC. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Activity-dependent dendritic growth, which is a critical determinant of neuronal connectivity in the developing brain, is mediated by calcium ion (Ca 2+ +)-dependent activation of Ca 2+ +/calmodulin kinase-I (CaMKI), which triggers cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-dependent Wnt2 transcription. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Conclusions: RyR activity contributes to dynamic remodeling of dendritic architecture in response to NDL PCBs via CaMKI-CREB-Wnt2 signaling in rats. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) has been suggested to be related to the inhibition of the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • siCREB did not alter PKA protein levels or its phosphorylation, suggesting that PKA is an upstream regulator of CREB activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This potentiation was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of CREB and S6 ribosomal protein, two molecular targets of activated ERK1/2. (bvsalud.org)
  • CREB-H는 간세포에서 특정한 유전자를 활성화시키는 전사 인자로 cyclic AMP response element binding protein transcription factor (CREB/ATF) family에 속한다. (dsmc.or.kr)
  • 간에 특이적으로 발현하는 CREB-H 유전자는 소포체에 존재하며 소포체 스트레스나 염증유발성 사이토카인에 의해 골지로 이동 후 분리되어 cAMP responsive element, box B, 그리고 ATF6-결합 부위에 결합하여 전사를 활성화시킨다. (dsmc.or.kr)
  • cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3 (CREB-H) activates transcription by binding to cAMP responsive element, box B, and ATF6-binding element. (dsmc.or.kr)
  • Insulin decreased the expression of CREB-H and PEPCK but cyclic AMP increased their expression in H4IIE rat hepatoma cel line. (dsmc.or.kr)
  • Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR gamma Coactivator 1 (PGC-1α), which mediates hepatic gluconeogenesis in response to glucagon and insulin, increased the expression CREB-H and PEPCK in H4IIE cells. (dsmc.or.kr)
  • 200706). cAMP Response Element Binding Protein 3-like 3 (CREB-H)가 간세포의 포도당 신생합성에 미치는 영향. (dsmc.or.kr)
  • This anti-melanogenic effect was mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) / extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation. (medsci.org)
  • 1 One of four Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, the ERK phosphorylation cascade's importance in intracellular signaling has been compared to the role of the Krebs cycle in energy metabolism. (bio-techne.com)
  • During growth factor stimulation, the ERK phosphorylation cascade is linked to cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and other upstream signaling proteins with known oncogenic potential (Figure 1). (bio-techne.com)
  • The cytoplasmic domain contains a conserved protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) core and regulatory regions that are subjected to autophosphorylation and phosphorylation by other kinases. (bio-techne.com)
  • LPA effectively stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in HEK-LPA1, -LPA2, and -LPA3 cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • The antidepressants also potentiated LPA-induced Gq/11-mediated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in HEK-LPA1 and -LPA3 cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the hypothalamic lysates of ABA rats, we found a reduction in ALK receptor expression, a downregulation of Akt phosphorylation, and no change in the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. (bvsalud.org)
  • A selective increase in phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in hippocampal CA1 region of male, but not female, rats following contextual fear and passive avoidance conditioning. (bvsalud.org)
  • Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. (sunlongmedical.com)
  • AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. (sunlongmedical.com)
  • AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. (sunlongmedical.com)
  • Treatment with glutamate alone led to activation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 during the late phase after glutamate exposure, but pretreatment with EEPM resulted in significantly attenuated activation of these proteins. (nih.gov)
  • MTX increases intracellular accumulation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and 5-aminoimidazole-4- carboxamide ribonucleotide which activates AMPactivated protein kinase (AMPK). (bath.ac.uk)
  • PKA, also known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, is not known to be an oncogene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several protein kinase inhibitors have been developed to terminate PKA signaling by dephosphorylating PKA substrates [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Membrane spanning cell surface receptors of the RTK family are endowed with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, catalyzing the transfer of the gamma-phosphate of ATP to the hydroxyl groups of tyrosine residues on target proteins. (bio-techne.com)
  • Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor is a protein-tyrosine kinase mainly known as a key oncogenic driver. (bvsalud.org)
  • The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the AKT1 gene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary and immortalized fibroblasts. (sunlongmedical.com)
  • AKT1 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. (sunlongmedical.com)
  • AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). (sunlongmedical.com)
  • 이러한 에너지 항상성의 유지는 공복 시와 식이 섭취 시에 활성화되는 cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate)와 인슐린 신호전달 체계에 의해 유지된다. (dsmc.or.kr)
  • Hepatic gluconeogenesis is regulated by opposing stimulatory (cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic AMP) and inhibitory (insulin) signaling pathways. (dsmc.or.kr)
  • The locus of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is located on band 16p13.3, which includes a gene encoding a binding protein for cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element binding protein (CBP) ( CREBBP or CBP gene) that is responsible for the phenotype of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Growth factors, through receptor tyrosine kinases, recruit a large network of signaling proteins to execute their cellular programs. (bio-techne.com)
  • ICAM-1 is a transmembrane protein possessing an amino-terminus extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, and a carboxy-terminus cytoplasmic domain. (wikidoc.org)
  • The structure of ICAM-1 is characterized by heavy glycosylation , and the protein's extracellular domain is composed of multiple loops created by disulfide bridges within the protein. (wikidoc.org)
  • All RTKs contain a frequently glycosylated extracellular ligand binding domain, connected through a single transmembrane helix to the cytoplasmic domain. (bio-techne.com)
  • These chemical PKA inhibitors, including cAMP analogs, have been shown to inhibit PKA activity by binding to the ATP-binding pocket of the PKA catalytic subunit [ 18 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2020). Predicated on this plan, we developed proteins subunit vaccine, ZF2001, against coronavirus illnesses 2019 (COVID-19) (Yang et?al. (foodexpowest.com)
  • The activated membrane-spanning epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF R) becomes a platform for the assembly of a signaling complex that includes the cytoplasmic growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2) and son of sevenless (SOS), which activates the membrane-bound GTPase, Ras. (bio-techne.com)
  • Of note, loss of the OX-A effect on feeding was associated with a blunted OX-A-induced increase in the expression of either neuropeptide Y or its putative regulator, the transcription factor cAMP response-element binding protein, as well as its phosphorylated form, in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of hypophysectomized and dwarf rats. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the pathogenesis of this disease, complex factors such as environmental factors, biological factors, and mutations in some genes (amyloid β (Aβ), amyloid precursor protein (APP), persinilin 1 and 2 (PS1/2)) are involved ( 1 , 2 ). (brieflands.com)
  • Diagnostic analysis of the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: five cosmids should be used for microdeletion detection and low number of protein truncating mutations. (medscape.com)
  • Given the importance of cytokines in immune system regulation, these molecules are of high interest not only in the "effector phase" of autoimmune disease in which self-tolerance has already been broken, but also in the "initiation phase" of autoimmunity, in which a lasting immune response against self antigens is first generated. (intechopen.com)
  • It binds to integrins of type CD11a / CD18 , or CD11b / CD18 and is also exploited by rhinovirus as a receptor for entry into respiratory epithelium . (wikidoc.org)
  • As the first RTK to be discovered, 5 the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGF R), also known as v- erb -B Transforming Protein of an Avian Retrovirus 1 (ErbB1), has helped establish many of the principles of RTK function. (bio-techne.com)
  • One such signaling protein is Growth Factor Receptor Bound Protein 2 (GRB2). (bio-techne.com)
  • We previously reported that in different cell types antidepressant drugs activate lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) LPA1 receptor to induce proliferative and prosurvival responses. (bvsalud.org)
  • The oxytocin peptide is synthesized as an inactive precursor protein from the OXT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICAM-1 ( Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1) also known as CD54 ( C luster of D ifferentiation 54) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ICAM1 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a type of intercellular adhesion molecule continuously present in low concentrations in the membranes of leukocytes and endothelial cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) is an immediate early gene that modulates several forms of synaptic plasticity and has been linked to neuropsychiatric illness. (bvsalud.org)
  • 4 Therefore, activated RTKs become a platform for the recognition and recruitment of a specific complement of signaling proteins. (bio-techne.com)
  • When we evaluated calpain I and striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), active form of calpain I was significantly increased after glutamate exposure, and, along with this, active form of STEP showed a decrease. (nih.gov)
  • These three proteins are generally expressed on endothelial cells and leukocytes, and they bind to ICAM-1 to facilitate transmigration of leukocytes across vascular endothelia in processes such as extravasation and the inflammatory response. (wikidoc.org)
  • In particular, the production of Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β1 ( TGF -β1), the two main Treg cytokines that suppress the inflammatory response, has been found to be deeply deregulated in SLE patients, so they have been considered essential elements in the etiopathology of the disease. (intechopen.com)
  • [9] Because of these associations with immune responses, it has been hypothesized that ICAM-1 could function in signal transduction. (wikidoc.org)
  • Exercise seems to activate some of the DNA splicing enzymes, such as 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1), and reduces DNA damage in muscle and brain by activating the respiratory nucleus proteins 1 and 2 (NRF1/2) and sirtoin 1 and sometimes modulating cellular redox ( 7 ). (brieflands.com)
  • A report in the journal CELL noted that the use of a derivative of vitamin B3/niacin called nicotinamide stimulates the production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a key protein in cellular metabolism (use of sugar for cellular energy) and cellular respiration (use of oxygen for cellular energy) in the mitochondria of cells. (resveratrolnews.com)
  • The dominant secondary structure of the protein is the beta sheet , leading researchers to hypothesize the presence of dimerization domains within ICAM-1. (wikidoc.org)
  • This precursor protein also includes the oxytocin carrier protein neurophysin I. The inactive precursor protein is progressively hydrolyzed into smaller fragments (one of which is neurophysin I) via a series of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxytocin is released into the bloodstream as a hormone in response to sexual activity and during labour. (wikipedia.org)
  • This booklet includes the panelists' pre-meeting responses to the charge questions. (cdc.gov)
  • 8 , 9 Tyr autophosphorylation sites on EGF R and other RTKs provide a mechanism for the recognition and assembly of signaling complexes, functioning as binding sites for Src Homology 2 (SH2) and phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains of a variety of signaling proteins. (bio-techne.com)
  • [6] LFA-1 has also been found in a soluble form, [7] which seems to bind and block ICAM-1. (wikidoc.org)
  • Increased amyloid plaques and hyperphosphorylation of tao protein increase neuroinflammation. (brieflands.com)
  • Researchers began to question the role of ICAM-1 as a simple adhesion molecule upon discovering that ICAM-1 serves as the binding site for entry of the major group of human rhinovirus ( HRV ) into various cell types. (wikidoc.org)
  • 10 Phosphotyrosine 1068 of the activated EGF R is a binding site for the SH2 domain of GRB2, either directly or through the assistance of another SH2 adaptor, Src Homology 2 Domain Containing Transforming Protein (Shc). (bio-techne.com)
  • [5] When activated, leukocytes bind to endothelial cells via ICAM-1/ LFA-1 and then transmigrate into tissues. (wikidoc.org)
  • ICAM-1 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily , the superfamily of proteins including antibodies and T-cell receptors . (wikidoc.org)
  • As a result of these binding characteristics, ICAM-1 has classically been assigned the function of intercellular adhesion . (wikidoc.org)

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