A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the uptake and catabolism of L-ARABINOSE.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.

Catabolic repression of secB expression is positively controlled by cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-cAMP complexes at the transcriptional level. (1/488)

SecB, a protein export-specific chaperone, enhances the export of a subset of proteins across cytoplasmic membranes of Escherichia coli. Previous studies showed that the synthesis of SecB is repressed by the presence of glucose in the medium. The derepression of SecB requires the products of both the cya and crp genes, indicating that secB expression is under the control of catabolic repression. In this study, two secB-specific promoters were identified. In addition, 5' transcription initiation sites from these two promoters were determined by means of secB-lacZ fusions and primer extension. The distal P1 promoter appeared to be independent of carbon sources, whereas the proximal P2 promoter was shown to be subject to control by the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP)-cAMP complexes. Gel-mobility shift studies showed that this regulation results from direct interaction between the secB P2 promoter region and the CRP-cAMP complex. Moreover, the CRP binding site on the secB gene was determined by DNase I footprinting and further substantiated by mutational analysis. The identified secB CRP binding region is centered at the -61.5 region of the secB gene and differed from the putative binding sites predicted by computer analysis.  (+info)

The cyclic AMP receptor protein is dependent on GcvA for regulation of the gcv operon. (2/488)

The Escherichia coli gcv operon is transcriptionally regulated by the GcvA, GcvR, Lrp, and PurR proteins. In this study, the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) is shown to be involved in positive regulation of the gcv operon. A crp deletion reduced expression of a gcvT-lacZ fusion almost fourfold in glucose minimal (GM) medium. The phenotype was complemented by both the wild-type crp gene and four crp alleles that encode proteins with amino acid substitutions in known activating regions of CRP. A cyaA deletion also resulted in a fourfold decrease in gcvT-lacZ expression, and wild-type expression was restored by the addition of cAMP to the growth medium. A cyaA crp double deletion resulted in levels of gcvT-lacZ expression identical to those observed with either single mutation, showing that CRP and cAMP regulate through the same mechanism. Growth in GM medium plus cAMP or glycerol minimal medium did not result in a significant increase in gcvT-lacZ expression. Thus, the level of cAMP present in GM medium appears to be sufficient for regulation by CRP. DNase I footprint analysis showed that CRP binds and protects two sites centered at bp -313 (site 1) and bp -140 (site 2) relative to the transcription initiation site, but a mutational analysis demonstrated that only site 1 is required for CRP-mediated regulation of gcvT-lacZ expression. Expression of the gcvT-lacZ fusion in a crp gcvA double mutant suggested that CRP's role is dependent on the GcvA protein.  (+info)

Role of ArgR in activation of the ast operon, encoding enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase pathway in Salmonella typhimurium. (3/488)

The ast operon, encoding enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase (AST) pathway, was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium, and the nucleotide sequence for the upstream flanking region was determined. The control region contains several regulatory consensus sequences, including binding sites for NtrC, cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), and ArgR. The results of DNase I footprintings and gel retardation experiments confirm binding of these regulatory proteins to the identified sites. Exogenous arginine induced AST under nitrogen-limiting conditions, and this induction was abolished in an argR derivative. AST was also induced under carbon starvation conditions; this induction required functional CRP as well as functional ArgR. The combined data are consistent with the hypothesis that binding of one or more ArgR molecules to a region between the upstream binding sites for NtrC and CRP and two putative promoters plays a pivotal role in modulating expression of the ast operon in response to nitrogen or carbon limitation.  (+info)

Mapping cyclic nucleotide-induced conformational changes in cyclicAMP receptor protein by a protein footprinting technique using different chemical proteases. (4/488)

CyclicAMP receptor protein (CRP) regulates transcription of numerous genes in Escherichia coli. Both cAMP and cGMP bind CRP, but only cAMP induces conformational changes that dramatically increase the specific DNA binding activity of the protein. We have shown previously that our protein footprinting technique is sensitive enough to detect conformational changes in CRP by cAMP [Baichoo N, Heyduk T. 1997. Biochemistry 36:10830-10836]. In this work, conformational changes in CRP induced by cAMP and cGMP binding were mapped and quantitatively analyzed by protein footprinting using iron complexed to diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ([Fe-DTPA]2-), iron complexed to ethylenediaminediacetic acid ([Fe-EDDA]), iron complexed to desferrioxamine mesylate ([Fe-HDFO]+), and copper complexed to o-phenanthroline ([(OP)2Cu]+) as proteases. These chemical proteases differ in size, charge, and hydrophobicity. Binding of cAMP to CRP resulted in changes in susceptibility to cleavage by all four proteases. Cleavage by [Fe-EDDA] and [Fe-DTPA]2- of CRP-cAMP detected hypersensitivities in the DNA-binding F alpha-helix, the interdomain hinge, and the ends of the C alpha-helix, which is involved in intersubunit interactions. [Fe-EDDA] and [Fe-DTPA]2- also detected reductions in cleavage in the D and E alpha-helices, which are involved in DNA recognition. Cleavage by [Fe-HDFO]+ of CRP-cAMP detected hypersensitivities in beta-strand 8, the B alpha-helix, as well as in parts of the F and C alpha-helices. [Fe-HDFO]+ also detected protections from cleavage in beta-strands 4 to 5 and their intervening loop, beta-strand 7, which is part of the nucleotide binding pocket, as well as in the D and E alpha-helices. Cleavage by [(OP)2Cu]+ of CRP-cAMP detected hypersensitivities in beta-strands 9 and 11 as well as in the D and E alpha-helices. [(OP)2Cu]+ also detected protections in the C alpha-helix , the interdomain hinge, and beta-strands 2-7. Binding of cGMP to CRP resulted in changes in susceptibility to cleavage only by [(OP)2Cu]+, which detected minor protections in beta-strands 3-7, the interdomain hinge, and the C alpha-helix. These results show that binding of cAMP causes structural changes in CRP in the nucleotide binding domain, the interdomain hinge, the DNA binding domain, and regions involved in intersubunit interaction. Structural changes induced by binding of cGMP appear to be very minor and confined to the nucleotide binding domain, the interdomain hinge, and regions involved in intersubunit interaction. Use of different cleaving agents in protein footprinting seems to give a more detailed picture of structural changes than the use of a single protease alone.  (+info)

The medium-/long-chain fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (fadF) gene of Salmonella typhimurium is a phase 1 starvation-stress response (SSR) locus. (5/488)

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is an enteric pathogen that causes significant morbidity in humans and other mammals. During their life cycle, salmonellae must survive frequent exposures to a variety of environmental stresses, e.g. carbon-source (C) starvation. The starvation-stress response (SSR) of S. typhimurium encompasses the genetic and physiological realignments that occur when an essential nutrient becomes limiting for bacterial growth. The function of the SSR is to produce a cell capable of surviving long-term starvation. This paper reports that three C-starvation-inducible lac fusions from an S. typhimurium C-starvation-inducible lac fusion library are all within a gene identified as fadF, which encodes an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACDH) specific for medium-/long-chain fatty acids. This identification is supported by several findings: (a) significant homology at the amino acid sequence level with the ACDH enzymes from other bacteria and eukaryotes, (b) undetectable beta-oxidation levels in fadF insertion mutants, (c) inability of fad insertion mutants to grow on oleate or decanoate as a sole C-source, and (d) inducibility of fadF::lac fusions by the long-chain fatty acid oleate. In addition, the results indicate that the C-starvation-induction of fadF is under negative control by the FadR global regulator and positive control by the cAMP:cAMP receptor protein complex and ppGpp. It is also shown that the fadF locus is important for C-starvation-survival in S. typhimurium. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that fadF is induced within cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells, suggesting that signals for its induction (C-starvation and/or long-chain fatty acids) may be present in the intracellular environment encountered by S. typhimurium. However, fadF insertion mutations did not have an overt effect on mouse virulence.  (+info)

The molecular basis of the instability of a crp- mutation in Escherichia coli. (6/488)

We have described a rapid spontaneous conversion in the stationary phase of Escherichia coli strain DOO (crp-) cells as a whole population to crp+ state (Sugino and Morita, 1994). In this paper we have tried to elucidate the molecular basis of this unidirectional conversion by cloning and sequencing of the crp gene in their crp+ and crp- states. We have found that in the original crp- strain, an IS2 element has been inserted between its original promoter and the coding region of the crp gene in the so-called orientation II (Ahmed et al., 1981), accompanied by an 11 bp deletion. Unexpectedly, the crp+ "revertants" derived from the crp- mutant had no difference in sequence from the crp-, either in the coding or the regulatory region. This suggests that a change at another locus, such that this change somehow activates the expression of the crp gene to the level of a normal crp+, is responsible for the apparent reversion from crp- to crp+.  (+info)

Role of multiple CytR binding sites on cooperativity, competition, and induction at the Escherichia coli udp promoter. (7/488)

The CytR repressor fulfills dual roles as both a repressor of transcription from promoters of the Escherichia coli CytR regulon and a co-activator in some circumstances. Transcription is repressed by a three-protein complex (cAMP receptor protein (CRP)-CytR-CRP) that is stabilized by cooperative interactions between CRP and CytR. However, cooperativity also means that CytR can recruit CRP and, by doing so, can act as a co-activator. The central role of cooperativity in regulation is highlighted by the fact that binding of the inducer, cytidine, to CytR is coupled to CytR-CRP cooperativity; this underlies the mechanism for induction. Similar interactions at the different promoters of the CytR regulon coordinate expression of the transport proteins and enzymes required for nucleoside catabolism but also provide differential expression of these genes. A fundamental question in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene regulation is how combinatorial mechanisms of this sort regulate differential expression. Recently, we showed that CytR binds specifically to multiple sites in the E. coli deoP promoter, thereby providing competition for CRP binding to CRP operator site 1 (CRP1) and CRP2 as well as cooperativity. The effect of the competition at this promoter is to negate the role of CytR in recruiting CRP. Here, we have used quantitative footprint and mobility shift analysis to investigate CRP and CytR binding to the E. coli udp promoter. Here too, we find that CytR both cooperates and competes for CRP binding. However, consistent with both the distribution of CytR recognition motifs in the sequence of the promoter and the regulation of the promoter, the competition is limited to CRP2. When cytidine binds to CytR, the effect on cooperativity is very different at the udp promoter than at the deoP2 promoter. Cooperativity with CRP at CRP1 is nearly eliminated, but the effect on CytR-CRP2 cooperativity is negligible. These results are discussed in relation to the current structural model of CytR in which the core, inducer-binding domain is tethered to the helix-turn-helix, DNA-binding domain via flexible peptide linkers.  (+info)

Control of acid resistance in Escherichia coli. (8/488)

Acid resistance (AR) in Escherichia coli is defined as the ability to withstand an acid challenge of pH 2.5 or less and is a trait generally restricted to stationary-phase cells. Earlier reports described three AR systems in E. coli. In the present study, the genetics and control of these three systems have been more clearly defined. Expression of the first AR system (designated the oxidative or glucose-repressed AR system) was previously shown to require the alternative sigma factor RpoS. Consistent with glucose repression, this system also proved to be dependent in many situations on the cyclic AMP receptor protein. The second AR system required the addition of arginine during pH 2.5 acid challenge, the structural gene for arginine decarboxylase (adiA), and the regulator cysB, confirming earlier reports. The third AR system required glutamate for protection at pH 2.5, one of two genes encoding glutamate decarboxylase (gadA or gadB), and the gene encoding the putative glutamate:gamma-aminobutyric acid antiporter (gadC). Only one of the two glutamate decarboxylases was needed for protection at pH 2.5. However, survival at pH 2 required both glutamate decarboxylase isozymes. Stationary phase and acid pH regulation of the gad genes proved separable. Stationary-phase induction of gadA and gadB required the alternative sigma factor sigmaS encoded by rpoS. However, acid induction of these enzymes, which was demonstrated to occur in exponential- and stationary-phase cells, proved to be sigmaS independent. Neither gad gene required the presence of volatile fatty acids for induction. The data also indicate that AR via the amino acid decarboxylase systems requires more than an inducible decarboxylase and antiporter. Another surprising finding was that the sigmaS-dependent oxidative system, originally thought to be acid induced, actually proved to be induced following entry into stationary phase regardless of the pH. However, an inhibitor produced at pH 8 somehow interferes with the activity of this system, giving the illusion of acid induction. The results also revealed that the AR system affording the most effective protection at pH 2 in complex medium (either Luria-Bertani broth or brain heart infusion broth plus 0.4% glucose) is the glutamate-dependent GAD system. Thus, E. coli possesses three overlapping acid survival systems whose various levels of control and differing requirements for activity ensure that at least one system will be available to protect the stationary-phase cell under naturally occurring acidic environments.  (+info)

Transcription activation at two semi-synthetic Escherichia coli promoters, CC(-41.5) and CC(-72.5), is dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) that binds to sites centred 41.5 and 72.5 bp upstream from the respective transcription startpoints. An UP-element that can bind the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) alpha-subunit was cloned upstream of the DNA site for CRP at CC(-41.5) and downstream of the DNA site for CRP at CC(-72.5). In both cases CRP-dependent promoter activity was increased by the UP-element, but CRP-independent activity was not increased. DNase I footprinting was exploited to investigate the juxtaposition of bound CRP and RNAP alpha-subunits. In both cases, CRP and RNAP alpha-subunits occupy their cognate binding sites in ternary CRP-RNAP promoter complexes. RNAP alpha-subunits can occupy the UP-element in the absence of CRP, but this is not sufficient for open complex formation. The positive effects of binding RNAP alpha-subunits upstream of the DNA site ...
The regulatory subunits of protein kinase A, or cyclic AMP-binding proteins, were measured in a series of 107 human ovarian tumors (89 malignant, 7 borderline, and 11 benign tumors) and related to tumor clinicopathological features and patient survival. Total cyclic AMP-binding protein levels were not significantly different between malignant tumors and either borderline or benign tumors. However, serous tumors showed significantly higher levels of total cyclic AMP-binding proteins than other malignant tumors (P = 0.007). Poorly differentiated tumors also possessed significantly higher levels of binding proteins as compared with well/moderately differentiated tumors (P , 0.01). Retrospective analysis of follow-up data also revealed a significant trend for patients with high tumor cyclic AMP-binding proteins to have poorer survival (P = 0.03). Individual binding proteins were identified by photoaffinity labeling, and the RI (Mr 48,000) protein was expressed as a percentage of total cyclic ...
The Escherichia coli catabolite activator protein (CAP) activates transcription at P|SUB|lac|/SUB|, P|SUB|gal|/SUB|, and other promoters through interactions with the RNA polymerase α subunit carboxyl-terminal domain (αCTD). We determined the crystal structure of the CAP-αCTD-DNA complex at a resolution of 3.1 angstroms. CAP makes direct protein-protein interactions with αCTD, and αCTD makes direct protein-DNA interactions with the DNA segment adjacent to the DNA site for CAP. There are no large-scale conformational changes in CAP and αCTD, and the interface between CAP and αCTD is small. These findings are consistent with the proposal that activation involves a simple ``recruitment mechanism.
In bacteria, the level of cAMP varies depending on the medium used for growth. In particular, cAMP is low when glucose is the carbon source. This occurs through inhibition of the cAMP-producing enzyme, adenylate cyclase, as a side effect of glucose transport into the cell. The transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP) also called: CAP (Catabolite gene Activator Protein) forms a complex with cAMP and thereby is activated to bind to DNA. CRP-cAMP increases expression of a large number of genes, including some encoding enzymes that can supply energy independent of glucose. An example of cAMPs function is the positive regulation of the lac operon. In an environment of a low glucose concentration, cAMP accumulates and binds to the allosteric site on CRP (cAMP receptor protein), a transcription activator protein. The protein assumes its active shape and binds to a specific site beside the lac promoter, making it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to the adjacent promoter to start transcription ...
In bacteria, the level of cAMP varies depending on the medium used for growth. In particular, cAMP is low when glucose is the carbon source. This occurs through inhibition of the cAMP-producing enzyme, adenylyl cyclase, as a side-effect of glucose transport into the cell. The transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP) also called CAP (catabolite gene activator protein) forms a complex with cAMP and thereby is activated to bind to DNA. CRP-cAMP increases expression of a large number of genes, including some encoding enzymes that can supply energy independent of glucose. cAMP, for example, is involved in the positive regulation of the lac operon. In an environment of a low glucose concentration, cAMP accumulates and binds to the allosteric site on CRP (cAMP receptor protein), a transcription activator protein. The protein assumes its active shape and binds to a specific site upstream of the lac promoter, making it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to the adjacent promoter to start ...
In bacteria, the level of cAMP varies depending on the medium used for growth. In particular, cAMP is low when glucose is the carbon source. This occurs through inhibition of the cAMP-producing enzyme, adenylyl cyclase, as a side-effect of glucose transport into the cell. The transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP) also called CAP (catabolite gene activator protein) forms a complex with cAMP and thereby is activated to bind to DNA. CRP-cAMP increases expression of a large number of genes, including some encoding enzymes that can supply energy independent of glucose. cAMP, for example, is involved in the positive regulation of the lac operon. In an environment of a low glucose concentration, cAMP accumulates and binds to the allosteric site on CRP (cAMP receptor protein), a transcription activator protein. The protein assumes its active shape and binds to a specific site upstream of the lac promoter, making it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to the adjacent promoter to start ...
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SoxS is the direct transcriptional activator of the member genes of the Escherichia coli superoxide regulon. At class I SoxS-dependent promoters, e.g. zwf and fpr, whose SoxS binding sites (soxbox) lie upstream of the -35 region of the promoter, activation requires the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase alpha-subunit, while at class II SoxS-dependent promoters, e.g. fumC and micF, whose binding sites overlap the -35 region, activation is independent of the alpha-CTD. To determine whether SoxS activation of its class I promoters shows the same helical phase-dependent spacing requirement as class I promoters activated by catabolite gene activator protein, we increased the 7 bp distance between the 20 bp zwf soxbox and the zwf -35 promoter hexamer by 5 bp and 11 bp, and we decreased the 15 bp distance between the 20 bp fpr soxbox and the fpr -35 promoter hexamer by the same amounts. In both cases, displacement of the binding site by a half or full turn of the DNA helix prevented ...
Putative membrane protein YchH; YchH; transcription activated by CRP (cyclic AMP receptor protein), a global transcription factor involved in regulation of metabolism in enteric bacteria; ychH presents a class II promoter to bind CRP; unknown function; Derived by automated computational analysis using gene prediction method- Protein Homology (91 aa ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1o3t.1. PROTEIN-DNA RECOGNITION AND DNA DEFORMATION REVEALED IN CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF CAP-DNA COMPLEXES
Assignment #3: Favorite Chime Structure: The cAMP Receptor Protein Assignment #4: Review Paper: Analysis of the eye developmental pathway in Drosophila using DNA microarrays Send Questions, Comments & Suggestions To Maureen. ...
Phytohormones mediate most diverse processes in plants, ranging from organ development to immune responses. Receptor protein complexes perceive changes in…
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A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. . ...
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Aiba H.. The regulatory region of the Escherichia coli cya gene was analyzed by using S1 nuclease mapping and in vitro transcription experiments. The cya gene was transcribed, both in vivo and in vitro, from one major promoter (P2) and two weak promoters (P1 and P1) that are located about 200 base pairs upstream of P2. The transcription from P2 was specifically inhibited by cAMP-CRP (cAMP receptor protein) in vitro. This regulatory mechanism was shown to be physiologically relevant through quantitative analyses of the cya mRNA in intact cells by S1 and dot blot assays. DNase I protection experiments revealed that cAMP-CRP binds to the cya DNA region between +11 and -20, in which a consensus CRP binding sequence is present. Moreover, it was found that cAMP-CRP alters the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter region, thus inhibiting the transcription of the cya gene.. J. Biol. Chem. 260:3063-3070(1985) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] ...
We have previously described purification and characterization of a nuclear protein, TREF, which interacts specifically with the transcriptional control element, TRA, of the human transferrin receptor (TR) gene. In this report we show that TREF can be separated into two functionally distinct DNA-binding activities. The first DNA-binding activity (TRAC) is highly specific for the 8-bp element TRA and the related Escherichia coli cAMP receptor binding site. This motif is homologous to the phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate- and cAMP-responsive elements of eukaryotic genes and the regulatory proximal sequence elements of the U1 small nuclear RNA gene and is also present in the promoter of the Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein factor 1 gene. In striking contrast, the second activity exhibits high affinity for the ends of double-stranded DNA in a sequence-unspecific manner and is attributable to the heterodimeric Ku autoantigen. Notably, transcription of Ku is induced during mid-late G0/G1 with ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Ritu Sharma, Anisha Zaveri, Jayashree Gopalakrishnapai, Thiruneelakantan Srinath, Srinath Thiruneelakantan, Umesh Varshney, Sandhya S Visweswariah].
When creating a LACP Link Aggregation, all Force10 switches (with the exception of the I/O Aggregator) have two transmit timer values. This value determines how often the ports send LACPDUs. The default is one LACPDU sent every 1 second. You can also configure it to send one every 30 seconds with the lacp long-timeout command. Long-timeout is best practice and recommended for the Force10 switches.. When the LACPDU transmit timer values mismatch, this can cause intermittent ungrouping of ports, thus causing connection issues. The following command and output helps determine how many LACPDUs being sent and received. This example uses LACP 10.. FTOS#clear lacp 10 counters. FTOS#show lacp 10 counters. ----------------------------------------------------------------------. LACP PDU Marker PDU Unknown Illegal. Port Xmit Recv Xmit Recv Pkts Rx Pkts Rx. ----------------------------------------------------------------------. Gi 0/1 4560 152 0 0 0 0. Gi 0/3 4560 152 0 0 0 0. As you can see, Xmit ...
Purified MalE-SoxS fusion protein specifically stimulated in vitro transcription of the Escherichia coli zwf, fpr, fumC, micF, nfo, and sodA genes, indicating that activation of the superoxide regulon requires only SoxS. As in vivo, a 21 bp sequence adjacent to the zwf promoter was able to activate …
Sharma, Ritu and Zaveri, Anisha and Gopalakrishnapai, Jayashree and Thiruneelakantan, Srinath and Thiruneelakantan, Umesh and Visweswariah, Sandhya S (2014) Paralogous cAMP Receptor Proteins in Mycobacterium smegmatis Show Biochemical and Functional Divergence. In: BIOCHEMISTRY, 53 (49). pp. 7765-7776. ...
Nucleic acids encoding mammalian, e.g., human receptors, purified receptor proteins and fragments thereof. Antibodies, both polyclonal and monoclonal, are also provided. Methods of using the compositi
filtered_set; other; UniRef90: No significant hits (1e-5); maizesequence.org: GO:0007186; G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway , GO:0016021; integral to ...
Immunoglobulin E (IgE), directed against components of Acacia (wattle) pollen, has been detected by (RAST) in the sera of some children and adults who develop allergic symptoms in the presence of flowering Acacia trees in Australia. All these subjects also had high levels of IgE directed against Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen. Inhibition by RAST showed that most of the IgE molecules which bound to Acacia pollen components also bound to L. perenne pollen extracts, and to Glycoprotein 1, the major allergen of L. perenne pollen. In these assays, the allergens have been immobilized on polyvinyl chloride microtitre trays: the sensitivity of this approach is compared to that of commercial RAST kits [3]. Sensitization to gum arabic carbohydrate structures occurs casually in atopic patients with pollen sensitization without obvious exposure to gum arabic. According to the study of Sander I, et al (2006) allergy to gum arabic is mediated preferentially by IgE antibodies directed to polypeptide chains ...
A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding Cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP Receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite Gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface Cyclic AMP Receptors are not included (Cyclic AMP Receptors), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic Cyclic AMP Receptor Proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases ...
The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv includes a homologue of the CRP/FNR (cAMP receptor protein/fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator) family of transcription regulators encoded by Rv3676. Sequencing of the orthologous gene from attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strains revealed point mutations that affect the putative DNA-binding and cNMP-binding domains of the encoded protein. These mutations are not present in the published sequences of the Rv3676 orthologues in M. bovis, M. tuberculosis or Mycobacterium leprae. An Escherichia coli lacZ reporter system was used to show that the M. tuberculosis Rv3676 protein binds to DNA sites for CRP, but this DNA binding was decreased or abolished with the Rv3676 protein counterparts from BCG strains. The DNA-binding ability of the M. tuberculosis Rv3676 protein was decreased by the introduction of base changes corresponding to the BCG point mutations. Conversely, the DNA binding of the BCG Rv3676 proteins from BCG strains
Antibodies for proteins involved in negative regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Buy our Recombinant Human 5HT1E Receptor protein. Ab158713 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides…
Initialize a given class with the message bundle Keys Should be called from a class that extends NLS in a static block at class load time ...
have a virus i think, headache dizzy hot and cold etc and my god im tempted to eat crap i only had wi at class last night and had my usual treat tea...
Phototaxis and thermotaxis by Dictyostelium discoideum slugs on water agar were impaired by the presence in the agar of adenosine, which is a cyclic AMP receptor antagonist in aggregating amoebae. Caffeine, and presumably its analogue theophylline, inhibit cyclic AMP signalling in aggregating amoebae of D. discoideum. Both compounds perturbed slug behaviour in a similar manner to adenosine, as did both ammonium and sulphate ions. (NH4)3SO4 is known to perturb cyclic AMP binding to its receptor, and ammonia is an inhibitor of cyclic AMP signalling in aggregating amoebae. The receptor agonist, cyclic AMPS, disrupted slug organization and impaired phototaxis when present at concentrations high enough to saturate cyclic AMP receptors and compete effectively with endogenous cyclic AMP signals of similar magnitude to those observed during aggregation. Taken together with the considerable circumstantial evidence for cyclic AMP signalling in slugs, these results support a role for cyclic AMP signalling ...
Bacteria sense the amount of glucose by watching the product of another chemical reaction. The enzyme adenylate cyclase converts ATP into cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate). The cAMP acts as a messenger to the cell ... it says Im starving. How does it do that? It turns out that when glucose levels are sufficient, adenylate cyclase activity is inhibited. Glucose interferes with the production of cAMP. Thus, when glucose is high, cAMP is low and vice-versa. cAMP activates the protein CAP (sometimes called CRP, for cAMP Receptor Protein). When CAP-cAMP binds to the promoter of the lac operon, it revs up transcription to a very high level. If lactose is absent, repression prevents transcription ... but if lactose is present, the receptor protein is deactivated and you get tonnes of permease and beta-galactosidase (and transacetylase, whatever thats for ...). ...
Porcine C-Reactive Protein/CRP ELISA Kit (Colorimetric). High sensitivity ELISA kit for detection of C-Reactive Protein/CRP. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
The Buoyancy module is key to both the Degradation and the Aggregation systems. Buoyancy is required to position our bacteria in the water column, and also to enable them to buoy the plastic aggregates. This module requires driving the expression of a gas vesicle gene cluster. Gas vesicles are formed within the cell, and are hollow spaces surrounded by a wall of hydrophobic protein. These gas vesicles are permeable to gases, which diffuse into the gas vesicles, increasing its partial pressure, thereby increasing buoyancy. The Buoyancy system is subject to the control of a glucose-repressible promoter, cstA (BBa_K118011). During carbon starvation, ATP is transformed into cAMP and then it binds the cAMP receptor protein, this complex activates the cstA promoter. Studies suggest that cstA promoter can be used to induce the expression of reporter genes in cultures with different glucose concentrations (Schultz and Matin, 1990). Free glucose concentration varies in the upper 300 m of the seawater ...
The Buoyancy module is key to both the Degradation and the Aggregation systems. Buoyancy is required to position our bacteria in the water column, and also to enable them to buoy the plastic aggregates. This module requires driving the expression of a gas vesicle gene cluster. Gas vesicles are formed within the cell, and are hollow spaces surrounded by a wall of hydrophobic protein. These gas vesicles are permeable to gases, which diffuse into the gas vesicles, increasing its partial pressure, thereby increasing buoyancy. The Buoyancy system is subject to the control of a glucose-repressible promoter, cstA (BBa_K118011). During carbon starvation, ATP is transformed into cAMP and then it binds the cAMP receptor protein, this complex activates the cstA promoter. Studies suggest that cstA promoter can be used to induce the expression of reporter genes in cultures with different glucose concentrations (Schultz and Matin, 1990). Free glucose concentration varies in the upper 300 m of the seawater ...
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CRP may refer to: C-reactive protein, an acute phase protein produced by the liver cAMP receptor protein (catabolite gene activator protein), a regulatory protein in bacteria Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer, an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced polymer Chinese restaurant process, a partition-valued stochastic process in probability theory Chronic relapsing polyneuropathy, an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, a rare skin condition involving pigmentation Common reuse principle, in software design Conference room pilot, in software validation Calgary Regional Partnership, a cooperative of economically associated municipalities in Alberta, Canada California Republican Party, an affiliate of the United States Republican Party Chicana Rights Project, a legal project to protect Mexican American womens rights Committee to Re-elect the President, a fundraising organization of Richard Nixons administration, ...
Find WebMDs comprehensive coverage of C-reactive protein (CRP test) including medical reference, news, pictures, videos, and more.
Publications:. Rowe L, Teasley K, Dikici E, Qu X, Ensor M, Deo S, Daunert S. Recombinant Aequorin-Based Systems for Biomarker Analysis. Editor(s): Marks, Robert S. Handbook of Biosensors and Biochips, John Wiley & Sons, 1:173-186, 2007.. Teasley Hamorsky K, Ensor CM, Wei Y, Daunert S. A Bioluminescent Molecular Switch for Glucose. Angewandte Chemie, International Edition 47(20): 3718-3721, 2008.. Teasley Hamorsky K, Dikici E, Ensor CM, Daunert S. Biotechnological Improvements of Bioluminescent Systems. Editor(s): Roda, Aldo. Analytical Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence: past, present and future, Royal Society of Chemistry, 1:443-487, 2010.. Scott D, Teasley Hamorsky K, Ensor CM, Anderson K, Daunert S. Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein-Aequorin Molecular Switch for Cyclic AMP. Bioconjugate Chemistry 22(3): 475-481, 2011.. Teasley Hamorsky K, Ensor CM, Pasini P, Daunert S. A Protein Switch Sensing System for the Quantification of Sulfate. Analytical Biochemistry 421(1): 172-180, 2012.. Teasley ...
3 References. Quantikine Mouse C-Reactive Protein/CRP ELISA Kit(MCRP00). Sensitivity: 0.015 ng/mL. Validated for Cell Culture Supernates, Tissue Lysates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma. High precision and reproducibility. View product details.
Townsend, P. D., Jungwirth, B., Pojer, F., Bußmann, M., Money, V. A., Cole, S. T., Pühler, A., et al. (2014). The Crystal Structures of Apo and cAMP-Bound GlxR from Corynebacterium glutamicum Reveal Structural and Dynamic Changes upon cAMP Binding in CRP/FNR Family Transcription Factors. PloS one, 9(12), 113265. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113265 ...
Members of Princetons class of 2009 gathered on Cannon Green Monday, June 1, to celebrate the conclusion of their undergraduate careers in a Class Day ceremony honoring their service and accomplishments.
Tuesdays are one of my most favorite days - I get out of school just an hour or two after lunch, and on days we dont have Surgery lab, I dont have to be at class until 9. But now, its 9:30PM and I am exhausted. Heres a rundown of my productive day: 5:10AM: Up,…
CRP se određuje kada postoji sumnja na zapaljenje, kod praćenja efikasnosti terapije i kod praćenja napredovanja nekih bolesti.
BBa_K398326 (pCaiF) is by far the smallest part of our project; as we explained before we looked for a promoter that could enable the expression of proteins under low glucose concentrations in order to mimic a diauxic shift for the alkane degradation system: once glucose becomes a limiting factor, the expression of alkane degradation genes under pCaiF control will (theoreticallly) enable the cells to shift from glucose metabolism to alkane degradation. This all could be achieved just by a adding a piece of DNA of just 51 base pairs. The pCaiF regulation mechanism is really simple, BBa_K398326 pCaiF contains a cAMP-crp complex binding domain, cAMP-crp is known as transcriptional regulator. When glucose concentrations in the surroundings are high, cAMP levels are low because there is a lot of energy source that can be metabolized by the cells; however during starvation periods cAMP levels increase and thus the concentration of the complex cAMP-crp activating at least 180 genes related to ...
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"Downregulation of the Escherichia coli guaB promoter by upstream-bound cyclic AMP receptor protein". Journal of Bacteriology. ... The gua operon is repressed by GMP and is induced by AMP. Similarly AMP synthesis is repressed by AMP itself while it is ... While growing on media in which growth rates are low, cAMP binds to a cAMP receptor protein forming a complex which has ... One method through which this happens is the DnaA protein. DnaA is a protein which recognises the origin of replication, ...
It has also been shown that cyaR expression is tightly controlled by the cyclic AMP receptor protein, CRP. A comparative ... This small RNA was shown to be bound by the Hfq protein. This RNA has been renamed as CyaR for (cyclic AMP-activated RNA). It ...
Polayes DA, Rice PW, Garner MM, Dahlberg JE (July 1988). "Cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein as a repressor of ... cAMP-receptor protein) complex. Spot42 is found in 100-200 copies per cell when cells are grown in glucose, and is reduced 3-4 ... Furthermore, in a spf deletion mutant a gene encoding a pirin-like protein was upregulated 16 folds. Pirin has key roles in the ... In E. coli Spot 42 accumulates under growth in the presence of glucose (i.e., when adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) ...
"Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP Receptor Protein Influence both Synthesis and Uptake of Extracellular Autoinducer 2 in Escherichia ... Rezzonico, F.; Duffy, B. (2008). "Lack of genomic evidence of AI-2 receptors suggests a non-quorum sensing role for luxS in ... Although the luxS gene, which encodes the protein responsible for AI-2 production is widespread, the latter has mainly a ... An unequivocally AI-2 related behavior was found to be restricted primarily to organisms bearing known AI-2 receptor genes. ...
"Dual control for transcription of the galactose operon by cyclic AMP and its receptor protein at two interspersed promoters". ... For this repressor protein to function properly, the operon also contains a histone binding site to facilitate this process. An ... Activity of this repressor protein is controlled based on the levels of D-galactose in the cell. Increased levels of this sugar ... This looping requires the presence of the histone-like protein, HU to facilitate the formation of the structure and allow for ...
First discovered in Gram-negative bacteria, both Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP Receptor Protein (CRP) function in sucrose ... The covalent complex was experimentally isolated by chemical modification of the protein using NaIO4 after addition of the ...
araC encodes the AraC protein, which regulates activity of both the PBAD and PC promoters. The cyclic AMP receptor protein CAP ... Schleif R. AraC protein, regulation of the L-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli, and the light switch mechanism of AraC ... The N-terminal arm of AraC interacts with its DNA binding domain, allowing two AraC proteins to bind to the O2 and I1 operator ... Schleif R. AraC protein: a love-hate relationship. Bioessays 2003, 25:274-282. Reed WL, Schleif RF. Hemiplegic Mutations in ...
"Hepcidin directly inhibits transferrin receptor 1 expression in astrocytes via a cyclic AMP-protein kinase A pathway". Glia. 59 ... To be absorbed, dietary iron can be absorbed as part of a protein such as heme protein or iron must be in its ferrous Fe2+ form ... Most cell types take up iron primarily through receptor-mediated endocytosis via transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), transferrin ... the interactions of transferrin receptor and transferrin receptor 2 with transferrin and the hereditary hemochromatosis protein ...
Flanking rpoSp are two putative cAMP-CRP (cyclic AMP-cAMP receptor protein) binding sites that seem to control rpoS ... Sigma factors are proteins that regulate transcription in bacteria. Sigma factors can be activated in response to different ... However, the RNA-binding protein Hfq is implicated in the process. Hfq binds to rpoS mRNA in vitro and may thereby modify rpoS ... The gene rpoS (RNA polymerase, sigma S) encodes the sigma factor sigma-38 (σ38, or RpoS), a 37.8 kD protein in Escherichia coli ...
"Differential A1-adenosine receptor reserve for inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation and G-protein activation in DDT1 MF-2 ... cyclic AMP accumulation or elimination, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes. The 35S labelled radioligand of the ... binding assay for analysis of ligand potency and efficacy at G protein-coupled receptors". British Journal of Pharmacology. 161 ... This usually occurs rapidly, and the GTP-binding protein can then only be activated by exchanging the GDP for a new GTP ...
... cyclic AMP receptor - cyclic AMP receptor protein - cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein - cyclic electron flow - Cyclic ... prostaglandin receptor - protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein ... fusion oncogene protein - G protein - G protein-coupled receptor - G3P - GABA - GABA receptor - GABA-A receptor - gag-onc ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ...
... showing that cyclic AMP and its receptor protein CRP (cyclic AMP receptor protein) positively regulated the activity of many ... These studies serve as a paradigm for the mechanism of action of cyclic AMP and steroid hormones on gene expression in animal ... Pastan, with his colleague Jesse Roth, was the first to clearly demonstrate the presence of specific protein receptors on the ... Besides being one of the first 3 laboratories to obtain the DNA sequence of the EGF receptor, they showed that the EGF receptor ...
"Neural expression of G protein-coupled receptors GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12 up-regulates cyclic AMP levels and promotes neurite ... G protein-coupled receptor 6, also known as GPR6, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the GPR6 gene. GPR6 is a member of ... GPR6 up-regulates cyclic AMP levels and promotes neurite outgrowth. Lysophospholipid receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: GPR6 G protein-coupled receptor 6". Song ZH, Modi W, Bonner TI (July 1995). "Molecular cloning and chromosomal ...
In Escherichia coli, cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) can regulate the transcription of more than 100 genes. The signal to ... cAMP receptor protein (CRP; also known as catabolite activator protein, CAP) is a regulatory protein in bacteria. CRP protein ... CRP then activates transcription through direct protein-protein interactions with RNA polymerase. The genes regulated by CRP ... in which protein-protein interactions between CRP and RNA polymerase assist binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter. Busby S ...
At high concentrations, cyclic di-AMP binds to receptor and target proteins to control specific pathways. Elevated c-di-AMP ... Cyclic di-AMP (also called c-di-AMP and c-di-adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger used in signal transduction in ... Cyclic di-AMP has also been linked to bacterial RNA synthesis inhibition. c-di-AMP stimulates the production of (p)ppGpp, an ... December 2012). "The helicase DDX41 recognizes the bacterial secondary messengers cyclic di-GMP and cyclic di-AMP to activate a ...
... from slime molds are a distinct family of G-protein coupled receptors. These receptors control development ... In D. discoideum, the cyclic AMP receptors coordinate aggregation of individual cells into a multicellular organism, and ... cAMP receptor protein Devreotes PN, Kimmel AR, Johnson RL, Klein PS, Sun TJ, Saxe III CL (1988). "A chemoattractant receptor ... in a manner reminiscent of the rhodopsins and other receptors believed to interact with G-proteins. However, while a similar 3D ...
They are Gs/a coupled and can stimulate neurons by indirectly activating cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. The DRD1 gene ... histamine H3 receptor, μ opioid receptor, NMDA receptor, and adenosine A1 receptor. D1-D2 receptor complex D1−H3−NMDAR receptor ... The D1 receptor forms heteromers with the following receptors: dopamine D2 receptor, dopamine D3 receptor, ... Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene. D1 receptors are the most ...
... stimulation of this receptor is known to effectively decrease cyclic AMP levels and downregulate the activity of protein kinase ... is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily of integral membrane proteins. It is coupled to Gq protein. Binding ... "Phosphorylation of human m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and protein kinase C". ... "Signaling through transforming G protein-coupled receptors in NIH 3T3 cells involves c-Raf activation. Evidence for a protein ...
Epinephrine binds to a receptor protein that activates adenylate cyclase. The latter enzyme causes the formation of cyclic AMP ... two molecules of cyclic AMP bind to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A, which activates it allowing the catalytic ... Calcium ions or cyclic AMP (cAMP) act as secondary messengers. This is an example of negative control. The calcium ions ... This latter enzyme is itself activated by protein kinase A and deactivated by phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Protein kinase A ...
The G protein (Golf and/or Gs) in turn activates the lyase - adenylate cyclase - which converts ATP into cyclic AMP (cAMP). The ... Olfactory Receptor Database Human Olfactory Receptor Data Exploratorium (HORDE) Olfactory+Receptor+Protein at the US National ... These receptors are members of the class A rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The olfactory ... Olfactory receptors (ORs), also known as odorant receptors, are expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ... transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors ( ... doi:10.1093/protein/7.2.195. PMID 8170923.. *^ Kolakowski LF (1994). "GCRDb: a G-protein-coupled receptor database". Receptors ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to G protein-coupled receptors.. *G-protein-coupled+receptors at the US National Library of ...
When released, ADH binds to V2 G-protein coupled receptors within the distal convoluted tubules, increasing cyclic AMP, which ... it acts on proteins called aquaporins and more specifically aquaporin 2 in the following cascade. ... couples with protein kinase A, stimulating translocation of the aquaporin 2 channel stored in the cytoplasm of the distal ...
... the G-protein complex associated with the receptor cannot activate production of cyclic AMP, which is responsible for turning ... Sotalol non-selectively binds to both β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors preventing activation of the receptors by their ... Sotalol is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker which has both class II and class III antiarrhythmic properties. ... Kassotis J, Sauberman RB, Cabo C, Wit AL, Coromilas J (November 2003). "Beta receptor blockade potentiates the antiarrhythmic ...
... thereby reducing the intracellular concentration of the second messenger cyclic AMP. The human protein is coded by the DRD4 on ... The dopamine receptor D4 is a dopamine D2-like G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the DRD4 gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5 ... "Modulation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels by different human dopamine D4 receptor variants". Journal of Neurochemistry. 65 ... The D4 receptor is considered to be D2-like in which the activated receptor inhibits the enzyme adenylate cyclase, ...
The activated OR in turn activates the intracellular G-protein, GOLF (GNAL), adenylate cyclase and production of cyclic AMP ( ... The surface of these cilia is covered with olfactory receptors, a type of G protein-coupled receptor. Each olfactory receptor ... but many separate olfactory receptor cells express ORs which bind the same set of odors. The axons of olfactory receptor cells ... An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a sensory neuron within the olfactory ...
... cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D12.644.360.200.125.500 - beta-adrenergic receptor kinase MeSH D12.644.360.200.150 - ... smad6 protein MeSH D12.644.360.024.334.200.700 - smad7 protein MeSH D12.644.360.024.334.500 - smad proteins, receptor-regulated ... tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated peptides and proteins MeSH D12.644.360.024.500.500 - tnf receptor-associated factor 1 ... 14-3-3 proteins MeSH D12.644.360.024.318 - proto-oncogene proteins c-crk MeSH D12.644.360.024.326 - proto-oncogene proteins c- ...
This mechanism was postulated on the basis that the predominant signaling protein and receptor present in WAT are PGE2 and EP3 ... Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase decreases the conversion of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. Lower levels of cAMP decrease the ... PGE2 enters the signaling pathway binding to G protein-coupled receptor (EP3) which inhibits adenylyl cyclase. ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... Whereas G proteins are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, they are inactivated by RGS proteins (for "Regulator of G ... 5 Gβ proteins, and 12 Gγ proteins. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... These include receptor antagonists, neurotransmitters, neurotransmitter reuptake, G protein-coupled receptors, G proteins, ...
Patrizio M, Colucci M, Levi G (2001). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein decreases cyclic AMP synthesis in rat ... It is regulated by a family of G protein-coupled receptors, protein kinases, and calcium. The type 9 adenylyl cyclase is a ... cyclic AMP generation, Ig production, and B-cell receptor expression". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 105 (5): 975-82. doi:10.1067/ ... Adenylyl cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme that catalyses the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP. ...
The G-protein activates a downstream signalling cascade that causes increased level of cyclic-AMP (cAMP), which trigger ... A receptor cell converts the energy in a stimulus into an electrical signal.[1] Receptors are broadly split into two main ... In the olfactory system, odorant molecules in the mucus bind to G-protein receptors on olfactory cells. ... through taste receptor cells, G proteins, ion channels, and effector enzymes.[9] ...
... coli is regulated transcriptionally by cyclic AMP.[6] In 1970, he and his wife, Constance Casey, moved to San Francisco, where ... discovery of ribosomal frameshifting to make retroviral proteins (with Tyler Jacks[16]); isolation of a cellular receptor for ... he researched the regulation of bacterial gene expression by cyclic AMP. In 1970, he began postdoctoral research in Bishop's ... "A receptor for subgroup A Rous sarcoma virus is related to the low density lipoprotein receptor". Cell. 74: 1043-51. doi: ...
By 1972 they had evidence that the second messenger molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) was produced in Aplysia ganglia under conditions ... "Genetic evidence for a protein-kinase-A-mediated presynaptic component in NMDA-receptor-dependent forms of long-term synaptic ... One of the nuclear targets for PKA is the transcriptional control protein CREB (cAMP response element binding protein).[5] In ... By 1980, collaboration with Paul Greengard resulted in demonstration that cAMP-dependent protein kinase, also known as protein ...
Heterotrimeric G protein *Gs/Gi. *Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase ... protein tyrosine phosphatase: Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase. *Sh2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase ... GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. Small GTPases act as molecular switches in ... and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). ...
"Conversion of protein kinase to a cyclic AMP independent form by affinity chromatography on N0-caproyl 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine ... or receptor and ligand. The method was subsequently adopted for a variety of other techniques. Specific uses of affinity ... To purify, proteins are tagged e.g. using His-tags or GST (glutathione-S-transferase) tags, which can be recognized by a metal ... In 1971, Wilchek and colleagues applied this method to show that protein kinase is composed of regulatory and catalytic ...
... an effect mediated by decreased cyclic AMP-mediated phosphorylation-activation of the enzyme.[25] α2 receptors also cause ... including suppression of voltage-gated Ca2+ currents and activation of G protein-coupled receptor-operated K+ currents). ... Assays have shown that selective NRIs have insignificant penchant for mACh, α1 and α2 adrenergic, or H1 receptors.[22] ... NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., ketamine, dextromethorphan, methadone). *Opioids (e.g., hydrocodone, morphine, oxycodone, ...
Lin B, Morris DW, Chou JY (1997). "The role of HNF1alpha, HNF3gamma, and cyclic AMP in glucose-6-phosphatase gene activation". ... Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma (HNF-3G), also known as forkhead box protein A3 (FOXA3) or transcription factor 3G (TCF-3G) ... protein domain specific binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. ... HNF-3G is a member of the forkheadclass of DNA-binding proteins. These hepatocyte nuclear factors are transcriptional ...
Signals triggered by binding to the receptor are relayed within the cells by the cyclic AMP second messenger system. ... Gonadotropin receptors are embedded in the surface of the target cell membranes and coupled to the G-protein system. ... Parhar, Ishwar S. (2002). Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone: Molecules and Receptors. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-50979-8. .. ... The alpha subunit is common to each protein dimer (well conserved within species, but differing between them[5]), and a unique ...
... which is necessary for lipid mobilization in response to cyclic AMP, which itself is provided by the activation of Gs protein- ... Examples include beta adrenergic stimulation, stimulation of the glucagon receptor and ACTH stimulation of the ACTH receptor in ... protein binding. • hydrolase activity. • protein kinase binding. • serine hydrolase activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. ... protein phosphorylation. • long-chain fatty acid catabolic process. • metabolism. • triglyceride catabolic process. ...
type 1 angiotensin receptor binding. • protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase ... Heterotrimeric G protein *Gs/Gi. *Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase ... phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • retina development in camera-type eye. • Ras protein ... G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway. • adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway ...
"Isolation and characterization of the human spr1 gene and its regulation of expression by phorbol ester and cyclic AMP.". J. ... SPRR1B‏ (Small proline rich protein 1B) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين SPRR1B في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ... Suppression by retinoic acid receptor-selective retinoids.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (7): 3737-42. PMID 8631988. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Entrez Gene: SPRR1B small proline-rich protein 1B (cornifin)". الوسيط ,المسار=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة); الوسيط ,العنوان=. تم تجاهله ...
Białko CD39 umożliwia rozkład ATP do ADP lub AMP[92]. Drugim istotnym elementem jest cząsteczka CD73, która z kolei przetwarza ... Toll-like receptor 2 signaling modulates the functions of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells. „Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A". 103 (18), ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate is a key component of regulatory T cell-mediated suppression. „J Exp Med". 204 (6), s. 1303-1310 ... Tregs utilize beta-galactoside-binding protein to transiently inhibit PI3K/p21ras activity of human CD8+ T cells to block their ...
ARPP-21: Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa. *AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 ... PHF7 encoding protein PHD finger protein 7. *PTHR1: parathyroid hormone receptor 1 ... C3orf14-Chromosome 3 open reading frame 14: predicted DNA binding protein.. *C3orf23: encoding protein Uncharacterized protein ... FRA3A encoding protein Fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(3)(p24.2). *FRMD4B encoding protein FERM domain containing ...
Its actions are mediated by specific, oxytocin receptors. The oxytocin receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor that requires ... response to organic cyclic compound. • negative regulation of gastric acid secretion. • positive regulation of prostaglandin ... This precursor protein also includes the oxytocin carrier protein neurophysin I.[21] The inactive precursor protein is ... It belongs to the rhodopsin-type (class I) group of G-protein-coupled receptors.[citation needed] ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Melatonergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine reuptake ... Roskoski R, Roskoski LM (Jan 1987). "Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells by the cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP second ... protein binding. • amino acid binding. • monooxygenase activity. • protein domain specific binding. Cellular component. • ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". 》Frontiers in Bioscience》 13 (13): 1206-26. doi: ... Bełtowski J (2008). "Liver X receptors (LXR) as therapeutic targets in dyslipidemia". 》Cardiovascular Therapeutics》 26 (4): 297 ... Parodi AJ, Leloir LF (April 1979). "The role of lipid intermediates in the glycosylation of proteins in the eucaryotic cell". 》 ... The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid droplets and control of lipolysis". 》Journal ...
He later identified the compound as cyclic AMP (cAMP) and with his discovery created the concept of second-messenger-mediated ... Peptide and proteinEdit. Peptide hormones and protein hormones consist of three (in the case of thyrotropin-releasing hormone) ... Some forms of vitamin D, such as calcitriol, are steroid-like and bind to homologous receptors, but lack the characteristic ... Mammalian steroid hormones can be grouped into five groups by the receptors to which they bind: glucocorticoids, ...
... production of cyclic AMP [cAMP]);[5] e) G proteins types to which they link and activate, i.e. those containing the Gs alpha ... All of the prostanoid receptors are G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the Subfamily A14 of the rhodopsin-like receptor ... "Prostanoid receptors - G protein-coupled receptors - IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY". www.guidetopharmacology.org.. ... Prostaglandin receptors or prostanoid receptors represent a sub-class of cell surface membrane receptors that are regarded as ...
... can be phosphorylated to become guanosine monophosphate (GMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), guanosine ... These forms play important roles in various biochemical processes such as synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins, ... Receptor. (ligands). P0 (adenine). *Agonists: 8-Aminoadenine. *Adenine. P1. (adenosine). *Agonists: 2-(1-Hexynyl)-N- ... and leaving just the exons on either side to be translated into protein.[1] ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... Whereas G proteins are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, they are inactivated by RGS proteins (for "Regulator of G ... Heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G proteins, are activated by G protein-coupled receptors and ... These include receptor antagonists, neurotransmitters, neurotransmitter reuptake, G protein-coupled receptors, G proteins, ...
Francis SH, Corbin JD (August 1999). "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: intracellular receptors for cAMP and cGMP ... is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). cGMP acts as a second messenger much like cyclic AMP. Its ... cGMP; 3',5'-cyclic GMP; Guanosine cyclic monophosphate; Cyclic 3',5'-GMP; Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate ... Protein kinase activationEdit. cGMP is involved in the regulation of some protein-dependent kinases. For example, PKG (protein ...
During protein synthesis, tRNAs with attached amino acids are delivered to the ribosome by proteins called elongation factors, ... aminoacyl-AMP + tRNA → aminoacyl-tRNA + AMP. Certain organisms can have one or more aminoacyl tRNA synthetases missing. This ... Arts, G. J.; Fornerod, M. .; Mattaj, L. W. (1998). "Identification of a nuclear export receptor for tRNA". Current Biology. 8 ( ... the tRFs have a characteristically unusual cyclic phosphate at their 3' end and a hydroxyl group at the 5' end.[38] ...
... and were eventually shown to encode components of an intracellular signaling pathway involving cyclic AMP, protein kinase A, ... where the neurohormone bursicon interacts with its complementary G protein-coupled receptor; this receptor drives one of the G- ... Calcium binds to proteins such as calmodulin (CaM) and an eye-specific protein kinase C (PKC) known as InaC. These proteins ... However, in vertebrates, the G protein is transducin, while the G protein in invertebrates is Gq (dgq in Drosophila). When ...
... , more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by ... change is induced in the receptor that is transmitted to an attached intracellular heterotrimeric G protein complex by protein ... Cyclic+AMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... "cAMP-dependent protein kinase" redirects here. It is not to be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase or cyclin-dependent ...
Cyclic ADP-Ribose and NAADP: Structure, Metabolism and Functions. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002. ISBN 1-40207-281-3. ... 36,0 36,1 Rao S, Rossmann M «Comparison of super-secondary structures in proteins». J Mol Biol, 76, 2, 1973, pàg. 241-56. DOI: ... AMP) al fosfat 5' d'un extrem del DNA. Aquest intermediari és seguidament atacat pel grup hidroxil 3' de l'altre extrem de DNA ... Això es realitza mitjançant la unió i l'obertura d'un tipus de canals de calci anomenats receptors de rianodina, presents a les ...
... most commonly in G protein-coupled receptor signal transduction pathways and is transformed to second messenger, cyclic AMP, ... aa-AMP + tRNA --, aa-tRNA + AMP. The amino acid is coupled to the penultimate nucleotide at the 3′-end of the tRNA (the A in ... Kinases are the most common ATP-binding proteins. They share a small number of common folds.[22] Phosphorylation of a protein ... including cyclic AMP, ammonium ions, inorganic phosphate, and fructose-1,6- and -2,6-biphosphate.[17] ...
Heterotrimeric G protein *Gs/Gi. *Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase ... Gong R, Ding C, Hu J, Lu Y, Liu F, Mann E, Xu F, Cohen M, Luo M (2011). "Role for the membrane receptor guanylate cyclase-c in ... Guanylyl cyclase activator (protein). References[edit]. *^ Sakurai K.; Chen J.; Kefalov V. (2011). "Role of guanylate cylcase ... Indirect/downstream NO modulators: ACE inhibitors/AT-II receptor antagonists (e.g., captopril, losartan) ...
Francis SH, Corbin JD (1999). "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: intracellular receptors for cAMP and cGMP action". ... Djeluje kao sekundarni glasnik kao i ciklični AMP. Naprimjer, cGMP aktivira unutarćelijske protein kinaze u odgovoru na ... Monofosfati (AMP, GMP, UMP, CMP) • Difosfati (ADP, GDP, UDP, CDP) • Trifosfati (ATP, GTP, UTP, CTP) ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate na US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
"Modulation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels by different human dopamine D4 receptor variants". Journal of Neurochemistry. 65 ... identical protein binding. • dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • protein ... The dopamine receptor D4 is a G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the DRD4 gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5.[5] ... dopamine receptor signaling pathway. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine ...
The cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) strongly enhanced hapA transcription in the deceleration phase. Analysis of rpoS ... Cyclic AMP and its receptor protein negatively regulate the coordinate expression of cholera toxin and toxin co-regulated pilus ... Transcriptional Regulation of Vibrio cholerae Hemagglutinin/Protease by the Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and RpoS. Anisia J. ... 64 ng of protein (lane 2), 128 ng of protein (lane 3), no protein (lane 4), 64 ng of protein (lane 5), 128 ng of protein (lane ...
1988) Cyclic AMP-induced conformational change of cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP): intragenic suppressors of cyclic AMP- ... 1985) Sites of allosteric shift in the structure of cyclic AMP receptor protein. Cell 41:745-751. ... The primary structure of PrfA has significant similarities to that ofEscherichia coli cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) ... Functional Similarities between the Listeria monocytogenes Virulence Regulator PrfA and Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein: the PrfA ...
Role of Cyclic AMP Receptor Proteins in Growth, Differentiation, and Suppression of Malignancy: New Approaches to Therapy. Yoon ... Role of Cyclic AMP Receptor Proteins in Growth, Differentiation, and Suppression of Malignancy: New Approaches to Therapy ... Role of Cyclic AMP Receptor Proteins in Growth, Differentiation, and Suppression of Malignancy: New Approaches to Therapy ... Role of Cyclic AMP Receptor Proteins in Growth, Differentiation, and Suppression of Malignancy: New Approaches to Therapy ...
Salmonella typhimurium deletion mutants lacking adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP receptor protein are avirulent and immunogenic ... Salmonella typhimurium deletion mutants lacking adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP receptor protein are avirulent and immunogenic ... Salmonella typhimurium deletion mutants lacking adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP receptor protein are avirulent and immunogenic ... Salmonella typhimurium deletion mutants lacking adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP receptor protein are avirulent and immunogenic ...
... primary role of a beta-adrenergic receptor/cyclic AMP mechanism. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Norepinephrine stimulation of pineal cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation: primary role of a beta- ... Norepinephrine stimulation of pineal cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation: primary role of a beta- ... Norepinephrine stimulation of pineal cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation: primary role of a beta- ...
β2-Adrenergic Receptor Lacking the Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Consensus Sites Fully Activates Extracellular Signal- ... β2-Adrenergic Receptor Lacking the Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Consensus Sites Fully Activates Extracellular Signal- ... β2-Adrenergic Receptor Lacking the Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Consensus Sites Fully Activates Extracellular Signal- ... β2-Adrenergic Receptor Lacking the Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Consensus Sites Fully Activates Extracellular Signal- ...
Transcription activation at Escherichia coli promoters dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein: effects of binding ... Transcription activation at Escherichia coli promoters dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein: effects of binding ... Transcription activation at Escherichia coli promoters dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein: effects of binding ... Transcription activation at Escherichia coli promoters dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein: effects of binding ...
Here we report that loss of the global regulatory protein cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) or its allosteric effector, ... These genes encode the global regulatory protein cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) and the enzyme adenylate cyclase (Cya ... The Global Regulatory Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein (CRP) Controls Multifactorial Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility in Salmonella ... The Global Regulatory Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein (CRP) Controls Multifactorial Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility in Salmonella ...
Basak, S., Song, H., & Jiang, R. (2012). Error-prone PCR of global transcription factor cyclic AMP receptor protein for ... Error-prone PCR of global transcription factor cyclic AMP receptor protein for enhanced organic solvent (toluene) tolerance. ... improve the organic solvent tolerance of Escherichia coli by engineering its global transcription factor cAMP receptor protein ...
Involvement of Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein in Regulation of the rmf Gene Encoding the Ribosome Modulation Factor in Escherichia ...
Structure and Dynamics of the Modular Halves of Escherichia coli Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein † ...
Specific antibodies were used to determine and quantify the expression of secretory proteins (alphaamylase and the regulatory ... Conclusions: Our data show that diabetes elicits specific changes in secretory protein expression in human salivary glands, ... Specific antibodies were used to determine and quantify the expression of secretory proteins (alphaamylase and the regulatory ... Conclusions: Our data show that diabetes elicits specific changes in secretory protein expression in human salivary glands, ...
While the mutation was not reliably mapped to crp, several lines of evidence indicate the genesis of a second form of c-AMP ... A mutant strain was developed that is independent of the c-AMP requirement for induction of the arabinose operon, but dependent ... Recent work with a mutant CRP independent of the c-AMP requirement for induction of the lactose operon suggested that the CRP ... on c-AMP for induction of the lactose operon. ... Evidence For Dissimilar Cyclic-Amp Receptor Protein Binding ...
Interaction of cyclic AMP receptor protein with the ilvB biosynthetic operon in E. coli. In: Nucleic acids research. 1984 ; Vol ... Interaction of cyclic AMP receptor protein with the ilvB biosynthetic operon in E. coli. / Friden, Phillip; Tsui, Ping; Okamoto ... Friden P, Tsui P, Okamoto K, Freundlich M. Interaction of cyclic AMP receptor protein with the ilvB biosynthetic operon in E. ... Friden, P., Tsui, P., Okamoto, K., & Freundlich, M. (1984). Interaction of cyclic AMP receptor protein with the ilvB ...
cyclic-AMP receptor protein Source for information on CRP: The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations dictionary. ... C-reactive protein. • Biochem. cyclic-AMP receptor protein. The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations ...
The effect of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein phosphorylation on gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor function was ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase decreases gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor-mediated 36Cl- uptake by brain microsacs. ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase decreases gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor-mediated 36Cl- uptake by brain microsacs.. ... The effect of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein phosphorylation on gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor function was ...
The budding of HIV from infected cells is driven by the protein-protein interaction between the p6 domain of the HIV Gag ... protein and the UEV domain of the human... ... Receptors, Cyclic Amp. Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic ... Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP ... CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins ...
E. coli cyclic AMP receptor protein, CRP, is a modular protein that consists of a covalent linkage of two common structural ... abstract = "E. coli cyclic AMP receptor protein, CRP, is a modular protein that consists of a covalent linkage of two common ... N2 - E. coli cyclic AMP receptor protein, CRP, is a modular protein that consists of a covalent linkage of two common ... AB - E. coli cyclic AMP receptor protein, CRP, is a modular protein that consists of a covalent linkage of two common ...
Lin, SH, Kovac, L, Chin, AJ, Chin, CCQ & Lee, JC 2002, Ability of E. coli Cyclic AMP receptor protein to differentiate cyclic ... Ability of E. coli Cyclic AMP receptor protein to differentiate cyclic nucelotides: Effects of single site mutations. ... Ability of E. coli Cyclic AMP receptor protein to differentiate cyclic nucelotides : Effects of single site mutations. In: ... Ability of E. coli Cyclic AMP receptor protein to differentiate cyclic nucelotides : Effects of single site mutations. / Lin, ...
AMP-responsive element binding-binding protein mediates transcriptional coactivation by the CD28 T cell costimulatory receptor. ... Nandiwada, S. L., Li, W., Zhang, R., & Mueller, D. L. (2006). p300/cyclic AMP-responsive element binding-binding protein ... title = "p300/cyclic AMP-responsive element binding-binding protein mediates transcriptional coactivation by the CD28 T cell ... T1 - p300/cyclic AMP-responsive element binding-binding protein mediates transcriptional coactivation by the CD28 T cell ...
Direct and negative regulation of the sycO-ypkA-ypoJ operon by cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) in Yersinia pestis, BMC ... and six Yop effector proteins including YpkA and YopJ. The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), a global regulator, was recently ... and six Yop effector proteins including YpkA and YopJ. The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), a global regulator, was recently ... The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) is a global regulator that controls the transcription initiation for more than 100 ...
Role of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in insulin-like growth factor-I receptor up-regulation by sex steroids in ... Role of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in insulin-like growth factor-I receptor up-regulation by sex steroids in ... Role of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in insulin-like growth factor-I receptor up-regulation by sex steroids in ... stim ulation with either androgens or estrogens up-regulates IGF-IR by inducing cyclic AMP response element-binding protein ( ...
Communications between the High-Affinity Cyclic Nucleotide Binding Sites in E. coli Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein: Effect of ...
2002) Stoichiometry and structural effect of the cyclic nucleotide binding to cyclic AMP receptor protein. J Biol Chem 277: ... negatively controls the intracellular cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) level through a receptor protein RpfR, ... upon which the signal activates its cognate receptor, a LuxR-family protein, by the formation of a protein-ligand complex, ... In this study we identified the unique BDSF receptor RpfR, a multidomain protein containing a PAS, a GGDEF, and an EAL domain ( ...
de Crombrugghe, B.; Busby, S.; Buc, H. Cyclic AMP receptor protein: Role in transcription activation. Science 1984, 224, 831- ... Sinha, S.; Mell, J.C.; Redfield, R.J. Seventeen Sxy-dependent cyclic AMP receptor protein site-regulated genes are needed for ... Liang, W.; Pascual-Montano, A.; Silva, A.J.; Benitez, J.A. The cyclic AMP receptor protein modulates quorum sensing, motility ... Kumar, S.; Srivastava, S. Cyclic AMP and its receptor protein are required for expression of transfer genes of conjugative ...
Molecuar model of the DNA interaction site for the cyclic AMP receptor protein M C ONeill, K Amass, and B de Crombrugghe ... Identification of receptors for phorbol ester tumor promoters in intact mammalian cells and of an inhibitor of receptor binding ... 3H]Bradykinin receptor binding in mammalian tissue membranes R B Innis, D C Manning, J M Stewart, and S H Snyder ... Distribution of protein I in mammalian brain as determined by a detergent-based radioimmunoassay S E Goelz, E J Nestler, B ...
In this study, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based protein-DNA binding assay has been developed ... Protein-nucleic acid interaction is an important process in many biological phenomena. ... The binding specificity of cyclic AMP receptor protein to recognition sites. J Mol Biol 200:709-723CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... De Crombrugghe B, Busby S, Buc H (1984) Cyclic AMP receptor protein: role in transcription activation. Science 224:831-838 ...
In the ovary, high-affinity FSH receptors on granulosa cells (GC) are the specific targets for FSH (1, for review). The... ... Hormonal regulation of cyclic AMP binding to specific receptor proteins in rat ovarian follicles. J Biol Chem 1980; 255: 5481-9 ... Hormonal regulation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in cultured ovarian granulosa cells. Effects of follicle-stimulating ... Hormonal regulation of the synthesis and mRNA content of the regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type II ...
... we identified 3402 acetylation sites on 1240 proteins. Of the acetylated proteins, more than half were acetylated on two or ... we identified 3402 acetylation sites on 1240 proteins. Of the acetylated proteins, more than half were acetylated on two or ... In conclusion, this is the first global protein lysine acetylome analysis of V. cholerae and should constitute a valuable r... ... As reported for other bacteria, we observed that many of the acetylated proteins were involved in metabolic and cellular ...
Promoter fusion studies also suggest that cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) is involved in ompT activation. Gel mobility shift ... OmpT is the only identified protein under negative regulation of ToxR. To understand the molecular mechanism by which ToxR ...
  • Two isoforms of the regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase that bind cAMP are inversely expressed during ontogeny and cell differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • β2-Adrenergic Receptor Lacking the Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Consensus Sites Fully Activates Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cells: Lack of Evidence for Gs/Gi Switching. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Stimulation of the β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells causes a transient activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) 1/2. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To examine these phenomena, we characterized agonist activation of ERK1/2 in HEK293 cells by the endogenous β 2 AR and in HEK293 cells stably overexpressing either the wild-type β 2 AR or a substitution mutant β 2 AR (PKA − ) that lacks the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consensus phosphorylation sites (S261A, S262A and S345A, S346A). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Specific antibodies were used to determine and quantify the expression of secretory proteins (alphaamylase and the regulatory subunit of type II protein kinase A). Results: Morphologic changes in the diabetic samples included increased numbers of secretory granules, and alterations in internal granule structure. (unica.it)
  • Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase decreases gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor-mediated 36Cl- uptake by brain microsacs. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Muscimol-stimulated 36Cl- uptake was studied in mouse brain microsacs permeabilized to introduce the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). (muscimol.xyz)
  • CREB phosphorylation involved c-Src-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation, but not protein kinase A,prot ein kinase C,or calmodulin-dependent kinase II,and occurred also in cells transfected with AR or estrogen receptor mutants that do not localize into the nucleus. (unict.it)
  • Analysis of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase system using molecular genetic approaches. (springer.com)
  • Amino acid sequence of the regulatory subunit of bovine type I adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate dependent protein kinase. (springer.com)
  • Genetic characterization of a brain-specific form of the type I regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (springer.com)
  • Takio K, Smith SB, Krebs EG, Walsh KA, Titani K. Amino acid sequence of the regulatory subunit of bovine type II adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate dependent protein kinase. (springer.com)
  • The molecular cloning of a type H regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase from rat skeletal muscle and mouse brain. (springer.com)
  • Molecular cloning, cDNA structure, and regulation of the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from rat ovarian granulosa cells. (springer.com)
  • The neural type II regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is present and regulated by hormones in the rat ovary. (springer.com)
  • Induction of adenosine 3', 5'monophosphate-dependent protein kinase subunits during adipogenesis in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Hartl FT, Roskoski R, Jr. Cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. (springer.com)
  • The regulatory subunit of neural cAMPdependent protein kinase II represents a unique gene product. (springer.com)
  • Isolation and sequence of a tryptic peptide containing the autophosphorylation site of the regulatory subunit of bovine brain protein kinase II. (springer.com)
  • Identification and differential expression of two forms of regulatory subunits (RH) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase II in Friend erythroleukemic cells. (springer.com)
  • In this study, the cellular compartmentalization and biochemical localization of regulatory subunits (R-subunits) of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) of ventricle heart tissue obtained from space-flown rats were determined. (nasa.gov)
  • The function of the dopamine D1 receptor in the renal proximal tubule depends on the interaction with G-protein receptor kinase 4 (GRK4). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase are major intracellular receptors for these nucleotides, and the actions of these enzymes account for much of the cellular responses to increased levels of cAMP or cGMP. (nih.gov)
  • DAG remains near the cell membrane and activates protein kinase C (PKC). (jove.com)
  • cAMP can stimulate protein kinase A (PKA), open calcium ion channels, and initiate the enzyme- Exchange-protein activated by cAMP (Epac). (jove.com)
  • As a second messenger, cGMP induces protein kinase G (PKG). (jove.com)
  • This event is triggered when growth factors bind the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) receptor. (jove.com)
  • DAG remains in the plasma membrane to recruit protein kinase C, while IP3 diffuses through the cytoplasm and binds to IP3 receptors on the endoplasmic reticulum causing calcium ions to be released into the cytoplasm. (jove.com)
  • These calcium ions bind to and activate the protein kinase C, which phosphorylates other intracellular proteins resulting in a cellular response. (jove.com)
  • Phenotypic mutant characterization, transcriptomic analysis, protein-protein interaction, and phosphotransfer studies revealed that the Shewanella Arc system consists of the sensor kinase ArcS, the single phosphotransfer domain protein HptA, and the response regulator ArcA. (asm.org)
  • Here, we investigate the role of protein kinase A (PKA) in extinction of memory for contextual fear by using conventional and temporally regulated transgenic approaches that allow us to inhibit PKA activity in neurons within brain regions thought to be involved in extinction. (jneurosci.org)
  • One molecular pathway that regulates memory formation across species is the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling cascade. (jneurosci.org)
  • Identification of a protein kinase as an intrinsic component of rat liver coated vesicles," Biochem. (patentgenius.com)
  • Protein kinase A (PKA), the main effector of cAMP in eukaryotes, is a paradigm for the mechanisms of ligand-dependent and allosteric regulation in signalling. (nature.com)
  • Hence, the synonym cAMP-dependent protein kinase is commonly used. (nature.com)
  • The R 2 homodimer is formed by an N-terminal dimerization/docking (DD) domain that also mediates sub-cellular localization via A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). (nature.com)
  • Two C-terminal cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB) domains cooperatively bind two molecules of cAMP, resulting in a conformational change of the R subunit that releases the active catalytic kinase subunit(s) from the inhibitory pseudo-substrate or substrate site of PKAR. (nature.com)
  • During the perinatal period, approximately half of these neurons downregulate TrkA and begin to express Ret, the receptor tyrosine kinase for the GDNF family of ligands (GFL): GDNF, artemin, and neurturin ( Molliver and Snider, 1997 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • In rat adipocyted, cell production of phsphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate, a product of PI 3-kinase, increased synergistically by insulin (tyrosine kinase-activating) and adenosine (G-protein-activating). (nii.ac.jp)
  • This effect of GTP-binding proteins was accompanied by the potentiation of insulin-induced activation of protein kinase B,a putative downstream target of PI 3-kinases. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Activation of Π 3-kinase by G protein β γ subunits. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Heterodimeric phosphoinositide 3-kinase consisting of p85 and p110β is synergistically activated by the β γ-subunits of G proteins and phosphotyrosyl peptide. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) exists in two isoforms, PKA-I (type I) and PKA-II (type II), that contain an identical catalytic (C) subunit but distinct regulatory (R) subunits, RI and RII, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Characterization of the isolated cAMP-binding B domain of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (embl.de)
  • A 14.4-kDa cAMP-binding fragment was generated during bacterial expression and purification of recombinant bovine cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I alpha regulatory subunit (RI alpha). (embl.de)
  • 7-10 Several studies have indicated that u-PA binding activates several signalling molecules implicated in the control of cell migration, such as focal adhesion kinase, 11 protein kinase C (PKC), 8 extracellular signal regulated kinase, 11 12 Janus associated kinases, 13 14 src family tyrosine kinases, 15 and G proteins. (bmj.com)
  • Most Listeria monocytogenes virulence genes are positively regulated by the PrfA protein, a transcription factor sharing sequence similarities with cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP). (asm.org)
  • Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) is a global transcriptional regulator which controls the expression of many different genes. (utmb.edu)
  • The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), a global regulator, was recently found to regulate the laterally acquired genes (pla and pst) in Y. pestis. (paperity.org)
  • The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) is a global regulator that controls the transcription initiation for more than 100 bacterial genes/operons [3]. (paperity.org)
  • Cyclic-di-GMP and Cyclic-AMP receptor co-regulate the genes expression of low-molecular-weight bacteriocin in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • To explore this possibility, we tested whether genes that encode the same protein but vary only in their base compositions at synonymous sites have effects on bacterial fitness. (pnas.org)
  • However, because bacterial genomes are composed primarily of protein-coding genes ( 14 ), a selective force that acts on each gene to increase its G+C content can cumulatively influence the overall genomic base composition. (pnas.org)
  • For two genes, both of which encode proteins that are neither native nor physiologically relevant to Escherichia coli , we detected a strong and significant association between G+C contents and bacterial fitness. (pnas.org)
  • G+C-enrichment of mRNAs is observed in a majority of bacterial species, and the G+C content of functionless, nontranscribed regions in the E. coli genome are decidedly lower than that of fourfold degenerate sites in protein-coding genes. (pnas.org)
  • The exact size of the GPCR superfamily is unknown, but at least 831 different human genes (or ~ 4% of the entire protein-coding genome ) have been predicted to code for them from genome sequence analysis . (wikipedia.org)
  • By studying the structure of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) found in Mycobacterium tuberculosis , researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Brookhaven National Lab are unlocking the mystery of how genes turn on and off. (medgadget.com)
  • DNA affinity purification allowed us to identify SugR, a global repressor of genes involved in sugar uptake and glycolysis, as a protein binding to the ldhA promoter region. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CRP protein binds cAMP, which causes a conformational change that allows CRP to bind tightly to a specific DNA site in the promoters of the genes it controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Escherichia coli, cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) can regulate the transcription of more than 100 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • LIM-homeodomain proteins direct cellular differentiation by activating transcription of cell-type-specific genes, but this activation requires cooperation with other nuclear factors. (worldwidescience.org)
  • CRP (cAMP receptor protein), the global regulator of genes for carbon source utilization in the absence of glucose, is the best-studied prokaryotic transcription factor. (nih.gov)
  • The insertion of genes into the bacterial chromosome by homologous recombination can achieve a high degree of stability, but this approach sometimes limits the level of protein synthesis due to the single gene copy and, thus, may lessen the production of a protective immune response with the live vaccine ( 29 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We therefore implemented a search system that is independent of protein-coding genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This protein regulates the expression of numerous genes in response to variations in the intracellular concentration of cAMP [ 17 ], which is synthesized by membrane-bound adenylate cyclase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases. (springer.com)
  • The distribution and dissociation of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinases in adipose, cardiac, and other tissues. (springer.com)
  • Cellular localization and age-dependent changes in mRNA for cyclic adensoine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinases in rat testis. (springer.com)
  • Identification of two subclasses of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinases. (springer.com)
  • Neural-specific and non-neural protein kinases. (springer.com)
  • This review summarizes many studies that have contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the catalytic, regulatory, and structural properties of these protein kinases. (nih.gov)
  • These accumulated findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which these enzymes produce their specific physiological effects and are helpful in considering the actions of other protein kinases as well. (nih.gov)
  • This G-protein coupled receptor stimulates adenylyl cyclase and activates cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. (novusbio.com)
  • Further, these experiments represent the first genetic evidence that protein kinases may be constraints for the extinction of fear. (jneurosci.org)
  • Catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) is a prokaryotic homologue of eukaryotic cNMP-binding domains, present in ion channels, and cNMP-dependent kinases. (embl.de)
  • cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cAPK and cGPK) contain two tandem copies of the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain. (embl.de)
  • The cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) strongly enhanced hapA transcription in the deceleration phase. (asm.org)
  • Transcription activation at two semi-synthetic Escherichia coli promoters, CC(-41.5) and CC(-72.5), is dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) that binds to sites centred 41.5 and 72.5 bp upstream from the respective transcription startpoints. (biochemj.org)
  • Here, we aimed to improve the organic solvent tolerance of Escherichia coli by engineering its global transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP). (ntu.edu.sg)
  • In this study, we show that the costimulation of Fos transcription by CD28 is associated with increased binding of p300/CREB-binding protein (CBP) molecules at the Fos promoter, and is blocked by an adenoviral E1A molecular antagonist of p300/CBP. (elsevier.com)
  • De Crombrugghe B, Busby S, Buc H (1984) Cyclic AMP receptor protein: role in transcription activation. (springer.com)
  • In addition, the efficiency of transcription and translation is reduced due to stabilization of the secondary structures of DNA and RNA, protein folding is inefficient, and ribosomes need to be adapted to cold before they can function properly ( Phadtare, 2004 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) family of transcription factors consists of global regulators of bacterial gene expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A repressor protein, the product of the lacI gene, binds with the operator and prevents transcription. (coursehero.com)
  • The work with RNA polymerase has focused on the roles of the alpha and sigma subunits, whilst the work on transcription activation has developed from studies of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (known as CRP or CAP), which have established a paradigm for understanding transcription activation in bacteria. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • CRP then activates transcription through direct protein-protein interactions with RNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • At "Class I" CRP-dependent promoters, CRP binds to a DNA site located upstream of core promoter elements and activates transcription through protein-protein interactions between "activating region 1" of CRP and the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase alpha subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • At "Class II" CRP-dependent promoters, CRP binds to a DNA site that overlaps the promoter -35 element and activates transcription through two sets of protein-protein interactions: (1) an interaction between "activating region 1" of CRP and the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase alpha subunit, and (2) an interaction between "activating region 2" of CRP and the N-terminal domain of RNA polymerase alpha subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • At most CRP-dependent promoters, CRP activates transcription primarily or exclusively through a "recruitment" mechanism, in which protein-protein interactions between CRP and RNA polymerase assist binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • RLA allows an organism to rapidly and reversibly modulate the biological activity of proteins involved in carbon utilization, transcription, translation, and stress responses ( 2 - 5 ) by modulating the acetylation state of the epsilon amino group of lysyl residues critical for function (reviewed in reference 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Crp (cAMP receptor protein) was the first prokaryotic transcription factor to be purified [ 14 ] and crystallized [ 15 ] from Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) and is the best characterized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gomez-Gomez, J.M., Baquero, F. and Blazquez, J. (1996) Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Positively Controls gyrA Transcription and Alters DNA Topology after Nutritional Upshift in Escherichia coli. (scirp.org)
  • During Ag stimulation of T cells, the recognition of B7 molecules by the CD28 costimulatory receptor increases the level of c-Fos, a component of the AP-1 transactivator known to bind the 5′ Il2 gene enhancer. (elsevier.com)
  • Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 5q35.1 that encodes G protein-coupled dopamine receptor D1, which is the most abundant dopamine receptor in the CNS. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Disruption of dopamine D1 receptor gene expression attenuates alcohol-seeking behavior. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The two proteins (MSMEG_0539 and MSMEG_6189) show differences in cAMP binding affinity, trypsin sensitivity, and binding to a CRP site that we have identified upstream of the msmeg_3781 gene. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This gene duplication event has subsequently led to the evolution of two proteins whose biochemical differences translate to differential gene regulation, thus catering to the specific needs of the organism. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex (cAMP-CRP) is a global regulator of gene expression. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • The previous reports from our laboratory the regulation factors, DGC and CRP, play an important role in expression mechanism of Carocin in Pcc.In this study, we want to known that how is the regulatory mechanism of carocin gene throgh cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) and cAMP receptor protein (CRP) cooperation. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • To test this possibility, we examined the fitness effects of protein-coding gene variants that differed only in their base composition at synonymous codon positions. (pnas.org)
  • The biochemical puzzle surrounding the CRP switch is the mechanism by which the protein binds cAMP at one end, then attaches to-and activates-a gene (DNA) at the other end. (medgadget.com)
  • Structured noncoding RNAs perform many functions that are essential for protein synthesis, RNA processing, and gene regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclic AMP (cAMP) has been implicated in a wide variety of (often contradictory) physiological processes, including different aspects of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, development, ion transport, pH regulation and gene expression. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, earlier work on cultured follicles has established that oocytes actively participate in the regulation of the surrounding cumulus cells, which are distinguished from steroid-producing mural granulosa cells in gene expression, protein synthesis, and physical interactions ( 16 , 18 - 28 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The human AVP receptor V2 gene maps to chromosome Xq28 and is expressed in lung and kidney. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Evidence of an association between the vasopressin V1b receptor gene (AVPR1B) and childhood-onset mood disorders. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The best studied of these proteins is the prokaryotic catabolite gene activator (also known as the cAMP receptor protein) (gene crp) where such a domain is known to be composed of three alpha-helices and a distinctive eight-stranded, antiparallel beta-barrel structure. (embl.de)
  • The 3 angstrom resolution crystal structure of the Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) complexed with a 30-base pair DNA sequence shows that the DNA is bent by 90 degrees. (embl.de)
  • This gene encodes the D1 subtype of the dopamine receptor. (genetex.com)
  • Signaling by each of the GDNF family members also requires a preferred coreceptor glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor α 1 (GFRα1) to GFRα3], which binds the GFL and activates Ret. (jneurosci.org)
  • The AVP Receptor V2 activates the Gs protein and the cyclic AMP second messenger system. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Our work presents a unique and widely conserved DSF-family signal receptor that directly links the signal perception to c-di-GMP turnover in regulation of bacterial physiology. (pnas.org)
  • Hormonal regulation of cyclic AMP binding to specific receptor proteins in rat ovarian follicles. (springer.com)
  • OmpT is the only identified protein under negative regulation of ToxR. (nih.gov)
  • This approach captures, for instance, the in vivo kinetics of CRP regulation by cyclic-AMP. (nature.com)
  • Another aspect in which the eukaryotic regulation is very different is that eukaryotes have differential regulation of the branches leading to AMP and GMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Krasteva PV, Sondermann H (2017) Versatile modes of cellular regulation via cyclic dinucleotides. (springer.com)
  • Ross P et al (1987) Regulation of cellulose synthesis in Acetobacter xylinum by cyclic diguanylic acid. (springer.com)
  • 7500 members that confers ligand-dependent allosteric regulation to a diverse range of proteins 2 . (nature.com)
  • The results indicated a novel role of GTP-binding proteins, a permissive regulation of the insulin receptor-derived signal. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Novel roles of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in regulation of transport and metabolism of carbon sources. (nih.gov)
  • Except for the well characterized BMP family proteins, including GDF9 and BMP15, oocytes are known to secrete oocyte secreted factors that are important for the regulation of cumulus cell survival and the maintenance of tertiary structure of cumulus cell-enclosed oocyte complexes (COCs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Regulation of meiotic prophase arrest in mouse oocytes by GPR3, a constitutive activator of the Gs G protein. (researchmap.jp)
  • Vasopressin (AVP), the antidiuretic hormone, is a cyclic nonpeptide that is involved in the regulation of body fluid osmolality. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Many bacteria produce, detect, and respond to diffusible QS signal molecules in a cell-density-dependent manner ( 1 , 4 ), highlighting the critical roles of QS signal and its receptor in bacterial cell-cell communications. (pnas.org)
  • Mutations in the Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L22 selectively suppress the expression of a secreted bacterial virulence factor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cyclic dinucleotides are a family of secondary messenger molecules that regulate bacterial physiology, cell division, motility, and biofilm formation. (springer.com)
  • Huynh TN, Woodward JJ (2016) Too much of a good thing: regulated depletion of c-di-AMP in the bacterial cytoplasm. (springer.com)
  • Römling U, Galperin MY, Gomelsky M (2013) Cyclic di-GMP: the first 25 years of a universal bacterial second messenger. (springer.com)
  • High levels of bacterial protein synthesis specified by multiple-copy plasmids often result in either the rapid loss of the foreign plasmid or a reduction in bacterial growth and the ability to colonize lymphoid tissues due to the demand of the extrametabolic burden. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We developed a genetic reporter system for protein localization to the pole within the bacterial cytoplasm that allows saturation screening for mutants in Escherichia coli in which protein localization is altered. (asm.org)
  • Autotransporters, widely distributed bacterial virulence proteins, are secreted at the bacterial pole. (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate further that this system can be applied to the study of proteins other than autotransporters that display polar positioning within bacterial cells. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Many proteins localize to specific sites within bacterial cells, and localization to these sites is frequently critical to proper protein function. (asm.org)
  • We developed a genetic reporter assay that enables screening of bacterial populations for changes in localization of proteins to the bacterial pole, and we demonstrate the utility of the system in identifying factors required for proper localization of the polar Shigella autotransporter protein IcsA. (asm.org)
  • Using this method, we identify the conserved cell division protein FtsQ as being required for positioning of IcsA to the bacterial pole. (asm.org)
  • In rod-shaped bacteria, a subset of proteins localize to the bacterial pole. (asm.org)
  • Extracellular release of bacterial outer membrane proteins has been suggested to mainly occur via outer membrane vesicles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Genome-wide identification of in vivo binding sites of GlxR, a cyclic AMP receptor protein-type regulator in Corynebacterium glutamicum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This new auto-aggregative E. coli 's behaviour does not require the ac tivity of the biofilm master regulator CsgD, the adhesiveness of flagella, pili type 1, adhesin Ag43, β -1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine polymer-PGA, cellulose or colanic acid, but it is under glucose repression and the control of cAMP receptor protein (CRP). (scirp.org)
  • E. coli cyclic AMP receptor protein, CRP, is a modular protein that consists of a covalent linkage of two common structural domains. (utmb.edu)
  • Using CRP from the bacterium Escherichia coli, researchers were able to crystallize the protein in its active ('on') state and examine the structure using a technique called X-ray diffraction. (medgadget.com)
  • and BNL's Howard Robinson substituted the CRP from Mycobacterium tuberculosis [the pathogen that causes tuberculosis] for the E. coli protein. (medgadget.com)
  • Prolonged induction of the B domain in E. coli or storage of the purified protein resulted in the formation of a dimer that could be reverted to the monomer by incubation in 2-mercaptoethanol. (embl.de)
  • G protein-coupled receptors ( GPCRs ), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors , 7TM receptors , heptahelical receptors , serpentine receptor , and G protein-linked receptors ( GPLR ), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ligands that bind and activate these receptors include light-sensitive compounds, odors , pheromones , hormones , and neurotransmitters , and vary in size from small molecules to peptides to large proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • this is mediated by quorum molecules and receptors in a density-dependent manner [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In the cAMP pathway, the activated receptor induces adenylate cyclase to produce multiple copies of cAMP from nearby adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules. (jove.com)
  • After binding cyclic AMP molecules (the yellow bodies in the center), the CRP is believed to change its structure so that the two subunits (colored purple on left and green on right) become symmetrical (identical in shape). (medgadget.com)
  • The existence of eukaryotic CNB domains not associated with binding of cyclic nucleotides suggests that orphan CNB domains in other eukaryotes may bind undiscovered signalling molecules. (nature.com)
  • An alternative strategy is to accumulate compatible solutes, which are small, zwitterionic, highly soluble organic molecules that are thought to stabilize proteins and lead to hydration of the cell ( 25 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Dopamine D1 receptor mutant mice are defident in striatal expression of dynorphin and in dopamine-mediated behavioral responses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Genetic analyses have indicated a central importance of renal sodium handling in the determination of salt sensitivity, and particularly in the function of the renal dopamine D1 receptor in the proximal tubule (8-11). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Behavioral and molecular effects of dopamine D1 receptor stimulation during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dopamine-opioid interactions in the rat striatum: a modulatory role for dopamine D1 receptors in delta opioid receptor-mediated signal transduction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Simultaneous with the financial closing, Psyadon and Schering Corporation executed an agreement under which Psyadon will acquire worldwide rights to Schering's selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, ecopipam. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ecopipam is a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist that was discovered by the Schering-Plough Research Institute, a division of Schering Corporation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Reversal of antipsychotic-induced working memory deficits by short-term dopamine D1 receptor stimulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Characterization of in vivo pharmacokinetic properties of the dopamine D1 receptor agonist DAR-0100A in nonhuman primates using PET with [11C] NNC112 and [11C] raclopride. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The improvement was related to dose levels, and was consistent with that seen in conventional therapies for PD such as dopamine D1 receptor agonists. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, they also found that if they blocked the dopamine D1 receptors with drugs, Ritalin was unable to enhance learning. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This work further demonstrates the relative simplicity with which the potency and activity of cyclic peptides identified from SICLOPPS libraries can be optimized. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Design of Cyclic Peptides as Protein Recognition Motifs. (bioportfolio.com)
  • By applying a combination of immuno-enrichment of acetylated peptides and high resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 3,402 acetylation sites on 1,240 proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hydrolysis of amyloid precursor protein-derived peptides by cysteine proteinases and extracts of rat brain clathrin-coated vesicles," Peptides 15(1):175-182 (1994). (patentgenius.com)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are embedded in the nasal epithelium, which contains olfactory receptors embedded in plasma membrane that bind odorants. (google.com)
  • The intracellular signal transduction machinery couples the olfactory receptors to heterotrimeric G-proteins. (google.com)
  • Of class A GPCRs, over half of these are predicted to encode olfactory receptors , while the remaining receptors are liganded by known endogenous compounds or are classified as orphan receptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although different cyclic nucleotides can bind to CRP with almost equal affinity, only in the presence of cAMP could wild-type CRP bind to specific DNA sequences. (utmb.edu)
  • Thus, these mutants might aid in identifying the structural elements that are involved in the modulation of CRP to correctly differentiate the messages embedded in cyclic nucleotides. (utmb.edu)
  • In this in vitro study, five CRP* mutants, namely, D53H, S62F, G141Q, G141K, and L148R, were tested for their abilities to bind the lac promoter sequence and the effects of cyclic nucleotides in modulating DNA sequence recognition. (utmb.edu)
  • Thus, residues in CRP outside of the cyclic nucleotide binding site modulate the ability of CRP to differentiate these three cyclic nucleotides through long-range communication. (utmb.edu)
  • Hence it stops biosynthesis if guanine can be obtained from the external medium, increases its expression if nucleotides are needed (for example during DNA replication) and balances the production of GMP with respect to AMP and the pyrimidine nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, CNB domains are bound and regulated by cyclic nucleotides. (nature.com)
  • Because prostacyclin can activate members of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of nuclear receptors, we examined the role of PPARγ in the protection of prostacyclin against lung tumorigenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, ECLs are a group of ligands active at 7‐transmembrane and nuclear receptors, as well as transmitter‐gated and ion channels. (deepdyve.com)
  • Positively regulated systems are typically controlled by transcriptional activator proteins. (coursehero.com)
  • Transcriptional synergy between LIM-homeodomain proteins and basic helix-loop-helix proteins: the LIM2 domain determines specificity. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Norepinephrine stimulation of pineal cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation: primary role of a beta-adrenergic receptor/cyclic AMP mechanism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present study the effects of NE on the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were studied to determine whether CREB phosphorylation might be involved in cAMP signal transduction in this tissue. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This antiserum generates a supershifted CREB signal with protein extracts obtained from glands treated with NE (EC50 approximately equal to 10 nM) in organ culture, demonstrating that NE stimulates CREB phosphorylation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pharmacological studies show that NE-stimulated CREB phosphorylation is mediated primarily through beta 1-adrenergic receptor-stimulated increases in cAMP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Activation of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, which is known to elevate the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration, does not cause CREB phosphorylation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • One of the mechanisms proposed for this activation is a PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the β 2 AR that switches receptor coupling from G s to G i and triggers internalization of the receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our results indicate that the dominant mechanism of β 2 AR activation of ERK1/2 does not require PKA phosphorylation of the β 2 AR, receptor internalization or switching from activation of G s to G i but clearly requires activation of a Src family member that may be downstream of PKA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The effect of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein phosphorylation on gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor function was examined using isolated brain membrane vesicles (microsacs). (muscimol.xyz)
  • Data from such experiments show that PKA increases the phosphorylation of several microsac proteins, including a 66-kDa polypeptide specifically immunoprecipitated with the GABAA receptor anti-alpha 1 subunit antibody. (muscimol.xyz)
  • These results provide evidence that the catalytic subunit of PKA inhibits the function of brain GABAA receptors and demonstrate that this functional change is concomitant with an increase in protein phosphorylation. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Paricalcitol increased phosphorylation of Akt and cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and suppressed nuclear factor- κ B (NF- κ B) in IR-exposed cells and cotreatment of EP4 antagonist or EP4 small interfering RNA blunted these signals. (hindawi.com)
  • Protein tyrosine phosphorylation by IgG1-subclass CD38 monoclonal antibodies is mediated through stimulation of the Fc γ II receptors in human myeloid cell lines. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Importantly, sAC knockout cells also exhibit decreased probability of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca 2+ release associated with diminished phosphorylation of the inositol 3-phosphate receptor. (biologists.org)
  • The human beta-2 adrenergic receptor in complex with the partial inverse agonist carazolol . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been implicated as an effector of inflammatory pain because it sensitizes primary afferents to noxious thermal, mechanical, and chemical [e.g., capsaicin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) agonist] stimuli and because NGF levels increase during inflammation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, the phenotype of prfA * mutants is presumably due to the synthesis of a PrfA protein with higher promoter-activating activity (PrfA*), which keeps its intracellular levels constantly elevated by positive feedback. (asm.org)
  • Gel retardation assays performed with a DNA fragment carrying the PrfA binding site of the plcA promoter demonstrated that the PrfA* mutant form is much more efficient than wild-type PrfA at forming specific DNA-protein complexes. (asm.org)
  • Recent work with a mutant CRP independent of the c-AMP requirement for induction of the lactose operon suggested that the CRP binding sites in the promoter regions of the inducible operons are dissimilar. (carroll.edu)
  • DNase and restriction site protection studies show that cAMP and its receptor protein (CRP) bind to the promoter of the ilvB operon at approximately position -44 to -82. (elsevier.com)
  • Promoter fusion studies also suggest that cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) is involved in ompT activation. (nih.gov)
  • They generally appear when a multiple promoter region is coregulated by cyclic AMP receptor protein. (asm.org)
  • also known as catabolite activator protein, CAP) is a regulatory protein in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The catabolite repressor protein (Crp) positively regulated expression of pat while having no effect on cobB . (asm.org)
  • Cytoplasmic R-peptide of murine leukemia virus envelope protein negatively regulates its interaction with the cell surface receptor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Results showed that protein banding patterns in both the cytoplasmic fraction and in a fraction enriched in chromatin-bound proteins showed some individual variability in tissues of different animals, but exhibited no changes that can be attributed to the flight. (nasa.gov)
  • The filtrates were immunoblot negative for a cytoplasmic marker, cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Photoaffinity labeling with a 32P-8-azido analog of cyclic AMP, and electrophoretic separation of the proteins, was followed by autoradiographic identification of the subcellular fraction in which the labeled R subunits are localized. (nasa.gov)
  • The G protein's α subunit, together with the bound GTP, can then dissociate from the β and γ subunits to further affect intracellular signaling proteins or target functional proteins directly depending on the α subunit type ( G αs , G αi/o , G αq/11 , G α12/13 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the M. tuberculosis protein in the 'off' state consists of two subunits that are genetically identical, we were surprised to see that the subunits were not structurally symmetrical as well,' Gallagher says. (medgadget.com)
  • The two subunits of the protein (colored purple on the left and green on the right) are genetically identical but, surprisingly were found to be asymmetric (different in shape) for the areas shown in white (top). (medgadget.com)
  • The other is activated by the betagamma subunits of GTP-binding proteins (GBgamma). (nii.ac.jp)
  • HA/protease can proteolytically activate CT A subunit ( 6 ) and the El Tor cytolysin/hemolysin ( 38 ) and can hydrolyze several physiologically important proteins such as mucin, fibronectin, and lactoferrin ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • The GPCR can then activate an associated G protein by exchanging the GDP bound to the G protein for a GTP . (wikipedia.org)
  • G-protein coupled receptors can activate both phosphoinositol and cyclic AMP (cAMP) second messenger pathways. (jove.com)
  • On the cell surface hormones and neurotransmitters bind to G-protein coupled receptors that activate an enzyme, such as phospholipase C. This enzyme hydrolyzes, or breaks down with water, the inner layer of the phospholipid bi-layer yielding two second messengers, DAG and IP3. (jove.com)
  • Biological functions of PGE 2 rely on the receptor subtypes EP1 to EP4, which activate diverse signaling pathways through coupling to different G proteins [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The signal to activate CRP is the binding of cyclic AMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GPCR can then activate an associated G-protein by exchanging its bound GDP for a GTP . (thefullwiki.org)
  • At "Class III" CRP-dependent promoters, CRP functions together with one or more "co-activator" proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • While growing on media in which growth rates are low, cAMP binds to a cAMP receptor protein forming a complex which has regulatory properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 The receptor for u-PA (u-PAR) is a 55-65 kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked protein that binds the epidermal growth factor-(EGF)-like domain (amino acids 20-32) of two chain u-PA. (bmj.com)
  • In a canonical pathway, proteins are synthesized and post-translationally modified in the somatic ER, transported to a perinuclear Golgi for additional modifications and targeted distally in long-haul post-Golgi vesicles. (biologists.org)
  • The pathway then branches to form adenylosuccinate and then adenylate (AMP) in one branch and xanthylate (XMP) and then guanylate (GMP) in the other branch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence for a nonsecretory, acidic degradation pathway for amyloid precursor protein in 293 cells," J. Biol. (patentgenius.com)
  • An early study based on available DNA sequence suggested that the human genome encodes roughly 750 G protein-coupled receptors, [17] about 350 of which detect hormones, growth factors, and other endogenous ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because many receptor binding ligands are hydrophilic, they do not cross the cell membrane and thus their message must be relayed to a second messenger on the inside. (jove.com)
  • The human genome encodes thousands of G protein-coupled receptors, [ 10 ] about 350 of which detect hormones, growth factors, and other endogenous ligands. (thefullwiki.org)
  • These cAMP-binding receptor proteins in harmony may regulate the growth of normal cells and their differentiation into nondividing states. (aacrjournals.org)
  • they regulate neuronal growth and development, mediate some behavioural responses, and modulate dopamine receptor D2-mediated events. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B metabotropic receptors (GABA B Rs) regulate the efficacy of synaptic transmission throughout the brain. (biologists.org)
  • Once made, cyclic dinucleotides bind macromolecule receptors, including proteins and RNA, to allosterically regulate downstream functions. (springer.com)
  • In parallel experiments, PKA and [gamma-32P]ATP were introduced into the microsacs, and we attempted to immunoprecipitate the entire GABAA receptor complex, under nondenaturing conditions, using an anti-alpha 1-subunit antibody. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Western blot (WB) analysis of AVP Receptor V3 antibody (Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Avpr1b polyclonal antibody ( Cat # PAB11503 ) ( 0.5 µg/ml ) staining of human amygdala lysate ( 35 µg protein in RIPA buffer ) in lane 1.Avpr1b polyclonal antibody ( Cat # PAB11503 ) ( 0.05 µg/ml ) staining of rat brain lysate ( 35 µg protein in RIPA buffer ) in lane 2.Primary incubation was 1 hour. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Dopamine Receptor D1 antibody [C2C3], C-term detects Dopamine Receptor D1 protein by immunofluorescent analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Green: Dopamine Receptor D1 stained by Dopamine Receptor D1 antibody [C2C3], C-term (GTX100354) diluted at 1:500. (genetex.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded U373 xenograft, using Dopamine Receptor D1(GTX100354) antibody at 1:500 dilution. (genetex.com)
  • There are currently no reviews for Dopamine Receptor D1 antibody [C2C3], C-term (GTX100354) . (genetex.com)
  • Here we show that in Burkholderia cenocepacia the DSF-family signal cis -2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) negatively controls the intracellular cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) level through a receptor protein RpfR, which contains Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS)-GGDEF-EAL domains. (pnas.org)
  • Similar to cAMP, is cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). (jove.com)
  • Fra proteins influencing filament integrity, diazotrophy and localization of septal protein SepJ in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Spatial organization within bacteria is fundamental to many cellular processes, although the basic mechanisms underlying localization of proteins to specific sites within bacteria are poorly understood. (asm.org)
  • We show that the conserved cell division protein FtsQ is required for localization of IcsA and other autotransporters to the pole. (asm.org)
  • The mechanisms that underlie protein localization are incompletely understood, in part because of the paucity of methods that allow saturation screening for mutants in which protein localization is altered. (asm.org)
  • A major challenge in the investigation of the mechanism of protein localization has been the paucity of methods that enable screening of large numbers of mutants for defects in protein localization. (asm.org)
  • The optimal EAA-containing protein format necessary to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis and optimize whole-body net protein balance during caloric deprivation has not been dete. (bioportfolio.com)
  • As reported for other bacteria, we observed that many of the acetylated proteins were involved in metabolic and cellular processes and there was an over-representation of acetylated proteins involved in protein synthesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Similarly AMP synthesis is repressed by AMP itself while it is activated by GMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate that the antisense depletion of RI α in cancer cells results in increased RII β protein without increasing the rate of RII β synthesis or RII β mRNA levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this report, we demonstrate, using cultured cancer cells, that the loss of RI α by antisense treatment results in biochemical compensation by RII β and that this compensation is attributable to an increase in the half-life of RII β protein without changes in the rate of RII β protein synthesis or RII β mRNA levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cancer cells can also be made to differentiate and stop growing when the functional balance of these cAMP receptor proteins is restored by treatment with site-selective cAMP analogues or by the use of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide, suggesting new approaches to cancer treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Paralogous cAMP receptor proteins in Mycobacterium smegmatis show biochemical and functional divergence. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In neurons, secretory organelles within the cell body are complemented by the dendritic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi outposts (GOPs), whose role in neurotransmitter receptor trafficking is poorly understood. (biologists.org)
  • protein in endoplasmic reticulum and golgi," Biochem. (patentgenius.com)
  • Dopamine Receptor D1 (DRD1) is a 50 kDa member of class 1 GPCR superfamily and is the most abundant dopamine receptor in the central nervous system. (novusbio.com)
  • [14] [15] This human β 2 -adrenergic receptor GPCR structure, proved to be highly similar to the bovine rhodopsin in terms of the relative orientation of the seven transmembrane helices. (wikidoc.org)
  • New SDC function prediction based on protein-protein interaction using bioinformatics tools. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Salmonella typhimurium deletion mutants lacking adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP receptor protein are avirulent and immunogenic. (asm.org)
  • Mutations in the V2 receptor result in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a rare X-linked disorder characterized by the inability of the kidney to concentrate urine in response to AVP. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Coupling with G proteins , they are called seven-transmembrane receptors because they pass through the cell membrane seven times. (wikipedia.org)
  • The seven-transmembrane α-helix structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor. (thefullwiki.org)
  • GPCRs are integral membrane proteins that possess seven membrane-spanning domains or transmembrane helices (Figure 1). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Some seven-transmembrane helix proteins ( channelrhodopsin ) that resemble GPCRs may contain ion channels, within their protein. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Some seven transmembrane helix proteins (such as channelrhodopsin ) that resemble GPCRs may contain different functional groups, such as entire ion channels, within their protein. (wikidoc.org)
  • G-protein-coupled receptor mechanism. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Release of outer membrane vesicles is regarded as the primary mechanism for delivering structural surface components, such as outer membrane proteins (OMP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), into the extracellular milieu. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study of protein positioning has been limited by a paucity of methods that allow rapid large-scale screening for mutants in which protein positioning is altered. (asm.org)
  • A mutant strain was developed that is independent of the c-AMP requirement for induction of the arabinose operon, but dependent on c-AMP for induction of the lactose operon. (carroll.edu)
  • The gua operon is repressed by GMP and is induced by AMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of cAMP to CRP leads to a long-distance signal transduction from the N-terminal cAMP-binding domain to the C-terminal domain of the protein, which is responsible for interaction with specific sequences of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteria, protein acetylation can be achieved by two distinct mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Availability is governed by mechanisms of intracellular trafficking that deliver newly synthesized receptors to the plasma membrane and remove them for storage, recycling or degradation. (biologists.org)
  • The identity of cyclic dinucleotide receptors will allow for a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cyclic dinucleotide signaling on cellular physiology. (springer.com)
  • An integrated view of the roles and mechanisms of heat shock protein gp96-peptide complex in eliciting immune response. (elsevier.com)
  • We now show that,in prostate cancer cells,stim ulation with either androgens or estrogens up-regulates IGF-IR by inducing cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation. (unict.it)
  • Our observations suggest that the structural similarities between PrfA and CRP are also functionally relevant and support a model in which the PrfA protein, like CRP, shifts from transcriptionally inactive to active conformations by interaction with a cofactor. (asm.org)
  • Development of a Cyclic Peptide Inhibitor of the p6/UEV Protein-Protein Interaction. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Protein Interaction. (bioportfolio.com)
  • HIV from infected cells is driven by the protein-protein interaction between the p6 domain of the HIV Gag protein and the UEV domain of the human TSG101 protein. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We report the development of a cyclic peptide inhibitor of the p6/UEV interaction, from a non cell-permeable parent that was identified in a SICLOPPS screen. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Genetic Selections with SICLOPPS Libraries: Toward the Identification of Novel Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors and Chemical Tools. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Protein-nucleic acid interaction is an important process in many biological phenomena. (springer.com)
  • Cai Y-H, Huang H (2012) Advances in the study of protein-DNA interaction. (springer.com)
  • AVP mediates its effects through a family of G protein coupled receptors, the vasopressin receptors type V1a, V2 and V3 (also designated V1b). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The control of the availability of neurotransmitter receptors at appropriate subdomains of the plasma membrane is crucial for neuronal function and synaptic plasticity. (biologists.org)
  • Carrier-protein conjugated synthetic peptide encompassing a sequence within the C-terminus region of human Dopamine Receptor D1. (genetex.com)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • The P. multocida crp mutant exhibited a similar lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane protein profile but displayed defective growth and serum complement resistance in vitro compared with the parent strain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The phosphoinositol path is active when the receptor induces phospholipase C to hydrolyze the phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol biphosphate (PIP 2 ), into two second messengers: diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol triphosphate (IP 3 ). (jove.com)
  • IMPORTANCE Reversible lysine acylation is used by cells of all domains of life to modulate the function of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. (asm.org)
  • The binding specificity of cyclic AMP receptor protein to recognition sites. (springer.com)