An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).

Intracellular signalling: PDK1--a kinase at the hub of things. (1/7238)

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is at the hub of many signalling pathways, activating PKB and PKC isoenzymes, as well as p70 S6 kinase and perhaps PKA. PDK1 action is determined by colocalization with substrate and by target site availability, features that may enable it to operate in both resting and stimulated cells.  (+info)

The MAP kinase ERK2 inhibits the cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase HSPDE4D3 by phosphorylating it at Ser579. (2/7238)

The extracellular receptor stimulated kinase ERK2 (p42(MAPK))-phosphorylated human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 at Ser579 and profoundly reduced ( approximately 75%) its activity. These effects could be reversed by the action of protein phosphatase PP1. The inhibitory state of PDE4D3, engendered by ERK2 phosphorylation, was mimicked by the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3. In COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3, challenge with epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused the phosphorylation and inhibition of PDE4D3. This effect was blocked by the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and was not apparent using the Ser579-->Ala mutant form of PDE4D3. Challenge of HEK293 and F442A cells with EGF led to the PD98059-ablatable inhibition of endogenous PDE4D3 and PDE4D5 activities. EGF challenge of COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3 increased cAMP levels through a process ablated by PD98059. The activity of the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3 was increased by PKA phosphorylation. The transient form of the EGF-induced inhibition of PDE4D3 is thus suggested to be due to feedback regulation by PKA causing the ablation of the ERK2-induced inhibition of PDE4D3. We identify a novel means of cross-talk between the cAMP and ERK signalling pathways whereby cell stimuli that lead to ERK2 activation may modulate cAMP signalling.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the DNA repair protein APE/REF-1 by CKII affects redox regulation of AP-1. (3/7238)

The DNA repair protein apurinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) exerts several physiological functions such as cleavage of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and redox regulation of the transcription factor AP-1, whose activation is part of the cellular response to DNA damaging treatments. Here we demonstrate that APE/Ref-1 is phosphorylated by casein kinase II (CKII). This was shown for both the recombinant APE/Ref-1 protein (Km=0.55 mM) and for APE/Ref-1 expressed in COS cells. Phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 did not alter the repair activity of the enzyme, whereas it stimulated its redox capability towards AP-1, thus promoting DNA binding activity of AP-1. Inhibition of CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 blocked mutagen-stimulated increase in AP-1 binding. It also abrogated the induction of c-Jun protein and rendered cells more sensitive to induced DNA damage. Thus, phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 appears to be involved in regulating the different physiological activities of the enzyme. CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 and concomitant increase in AP-1 binding activity appears to be a novel mechanism of cellular stress response, forcing transcription of AP-1 target gene(s) the product(s) of which may exert protective function.  (+info)

A novel interaction mechanism accounting for different acylphosphatase effects on cardiac and fast twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pumps. (4/7238)

In cardiac and skeletal muscle Ca2+ translocation from cytoplasm into sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is accomplished by different Ca2+-ATPases whose functioning involves the formation and decomposition of an acylphosphorylated phosphoenzyme intermediate (EP). In this study we found that acylphosphatase, an enzyme well represented in muscular tissues and which actively hydrolyzes EP, had different effects on heart (SERCA2a) and fast twitch skeletal muscle SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1). With physiological acylphosphatase concentrations SERCA2a exhibited a parallel increase in the rates of both ATP hydrolysis and Ca2+ transport; in contrast, SERCA1 appeared to be uncoupled since the stimulation of ATP hydrolysis matched an inhibition of Ca2+ pump. These different effects probably depend on phospholamban, which is associated with SERCA2a but not SERCA1. Consistent with this view, the present study suggests that acylphosphatase-induced stimulation of SERCA2a, in addition to an enhanced EP hydrolysis, may be due to a displacement of phospholamban, thus to a removal of its inhibitory effect.  (+info)

PrKX is a novel catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulated by the regulatory subunit type I. (5/7238)

The human X chromosome-encoded protein kinase X (PrKX) belongs to the family of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. The catalytically active recombinant enzyme expressed in COS cells phosphorylates the heptapeptide Kemptide (LRRASLG) with a specific activity of 1.5 micromol/( Using surface plasmon resonance, high affinity interactions were demonstrated with the regulatory subunit type I (RIalpha) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (KD = 10 nM) and the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor (KD = 15 nM), but not with the type II regulatory subunit (RIIalpha, KD = 2.3 microM) under physiological conditions. Kemptide and autophosphorylation activities of PrKX are strongly inhibited by the RIalpha subunit and by protein kinase inhibitor in vitro, but only weakly by the RIIalpha subunit. The inhibition by the RIalpha subunit is reversed by addition of nanomolar concentrations of cAMP (Ka = 40 nM), thus demonstrating that PrKX is a novel, type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase that is activated at lower cAMP concentrations than the holoenzyme with the Calpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Microinjection data clearly indicate that the type I R subunit but not type II binds to PrKX in vivo, preventing the translocation of PrKX to the nucleus in the absence of cAMP. The RIIalpha subunit is an excellent substrate for PrKX and is phosphorylated in vitro in a cAMP-independent manner. We discuss how PrKX can modulate the cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathway by preferential binding to the RIalpha subunit and by phosphorylating the RIIalpha subunit in the absence of cAMP.  (+info)

Prior exposure to neurotrophins blocks inhibition of axonal regeneration by MAG and myelin via a cAMP-dependent mechanism. (6/7238)

MAG is a potent inhibitor of axonal regeneration. Here, inhibition by MAG, and myelin in general, is blocked if neurons are exposed to neurotrophins before encountering the inhibitor; priming cerebellar neurons with BDNF or GDNF, but not NGF, or priming DRG neurons with any of these neurotrophins blocks inhibition by MAG/myelin. Dibutyryl cAMP also overcomes inhibition by MAG/myelin, and cAMP is elevated by neurotrophins. A PKA inhibitor present during priming abrogates the block of inhibition. Finally, if neurons are exposed to MAG/myelin and neurotrophins simultaneously, but with the Gi protein inhibitor, inhibition is blocked. We suggest that priming neurons with particular neurotrophins elevates cAMP and activates PKA, which blocks subsequent inhibition of regeneration and that priming is required because MAG/myelin activates a Gi protein, which blocks increases in cAMP. This is important for encouraging axons to regrow in vivo.  (+info)

Mechanisms for generating the autonomous cAMP-dependent protein kinase required for long-term facilitation in Aplysia. (7/7238)

The formation of a persistently active cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for establishing long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia. The injection of bovine catalytic (C) subunits into sensory neurons is sufficient to produce protein synthesis-dependent LTF. Early in the LTF induced by serotonin (5-HT), an autonomous PKA is generated through the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis of regulatory (R) subunits. The degradation of R occurs during an early time window and appears to be a key function of proteasomes in LTF. Lactacystin, a specific proteasome inhibitor, blocks the facilitation induced by 5-HT, and this block is rescued by injecting C subunits. R is degraded through an allosteric mechanism requiring an elevation of cAMP coincident with the induction of a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase.  (+info)

Marker genes of decidualization: activation of the decidual prolactin gene. (8/7238)

Decidualization of human endometrial stromal (ES) cells in vitro is induced by cAMP analogues and ligands that elevate cellular cAMP levels in a manner resembling the gonadotrophins, prostaglandin E2 and relaxin (RLX). This differentiation process is marked by the onset of decidual prolactin (PRL) production in the late luteal phase of the cycle. Using transfection assays and a primary ES cell culture system, we have demonstrated that decidual PRL gene transcription is driven by an alternative upstream promoter (dPRL), approximately 6 kb upstream of the pituitary transcription start site. In primary cell cultures, RLX not only acutely but also permanently elevated cellular cAMP levels and induced PRL secretion after 6 days. Northern and Western blot analyses revealed all regulatory subunit isoforms (RIalpha, RIbeta, RIIalpha, RIIbeta) and catalytic subunits Calpha and Cbeta of protein kinase A (PKA) in ES cells. Transcript levels of PKA subunit isoforms are not altered during decidualization, but in decidualized ES cells exposed to elevated cellular cAMP levels by stimulation with RLX for >6 days, RIalpha protein levels were significantly reduced, whereas levels of all other forms remained unchanged. Reducing the availability of R subunits changed the R:C subunit ratio in favour of C and increased kinase activity. In transient transfections of undifferentiated ES cells, the dPRL promoter was activated by 8-Br-cAMP and by C subunit (Cbeta) of PKA. This induction, and the differentiation-dependent activity of the dPRL promoter in transfected decidualized cells, was effectively abolished by the co-expression of protein kinase inhibitor (PKI). A fragment of 332 bp of 5'-flanking region of the dPRL transcription start site was sufficient to mediate full inducibility by cAMP. cAMP activation of the dPRL promoter in ES cells was biphasic as an initial weak induction within 12 hours was followed by a subsequent, much more intense induction after 12 hours. The secondary induction was not seen with a control construct driven by a consensus cAMP response element (CRE) linked to a minimal promoter. The early response of the dPRL promoter depended upon a non-palindromic CRE at position -12 and mutation of this sequence led to omission of the early, but not of the delayed, induction. The major activation of the dPRL promoter depended upon a different region between position -332 and -270 since its deletion significantly reduced inducibility by cAMP. Its action was probably indirect as its kinetics differed from classic CRE-mediated responses, and it was specific to ES cells.  (+info)

Cardiac myocyte ryanodine receptors (sarcoplasmic reticulum [SR] Ca release channel; cardiac ryanodine receptor [RyR2]) are localized in the junctional SR, in close proximity to L-type Ca channels (LTCCs) embedded in the membranes of the transverse (T)-tubules. This signaling microdomain has been termed the couplon,1 because it is here that excitation-contraction coupling takes place. As the heart fills with blood during diastole, RyR2 is stabilized in a closed state, allowing Ca uptake by the SR Ca ATPase to pump Ca from the cytoplasm into the SR, providing the primary source of Ca to activate the contractile apparatus during the next heart beat (systole). During systole, the cardiac action potential depolarizes the T-tubules and causes the opening of LTCCs. Ca influx through LTCCs elevates the [Ca] within the cytoplasmic space between the T-tubular and SR membrane, which promotes Ca binding to neighboring RyR2s, inducing some to open. Ca then moves out of the SR lumen into the subsarcolemmal, ...
Adenosine suppresses protein kinase A- and C-induced enhancement of glutamate release in the hippocampus.: Cultured hippocampal neurons from neonatal rats were
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The data described above demonstrate a local PDE feedback regulation in cardiac myocytes whereby β1AR signals activate PDE4B3 via PKA-mediated phosphorylation. PKA-activated PDE4B, in turn, reduces the local steady-state cAMP concentration in a confined subsarcolemmal domain. The functional consequences of interrupting this feedback include increased PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Cav1.2 and RyR2, which is necessary for fine-tuning of ECC, a finding consistent with the cardiac phenotype of PDE4BKO mice (Leroy et al., 2011). Functional data on intracellular Ca2+ levels and contraction rate confirm the altered cAMP/PKA signaling in PDE4BKO myocytes. These conclusions are based on measurements of βAR-induced cAMP accumulation at the plasma membrane of PDE4BKO myocytes, the effects of acute PDE4B-selective inhibition in wild-type myocytes, the β1AR-dependent activation of PDE4B and the altered PKA-mediated phosphorylation of some, but not all substrates involved in Ca2+ homeostasis and ...
Voltage-gated sodium channels, which initiate action potentials in mammalian brain neurons, are modulated functionally by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), resulting in reduced sodium current amplitude. Comparing brain and muscle sodium channels, we show that only the brain channel is modulated by PKA. The brain sodium channel I-II linker is both necessary and sufficient for PKA modulation, as shown by exchanging the I-II linker regions of the two channels. PKA consensus sites in the brain channel I-II linker were eliminated by deletion and site-specific mutagenesis. The mutant channels demonstrated decreased levels of phosphorylation when metabolically labeled in oocytes with [gamma-32P]-ATP, and they did not respond with a reduction in current magnitude after PKA induction. Modulation of the brain channel by PKA phosphorylation was mimicked by adding fixed negative charges at the PKA consensus sites, suggesting that the decrease in current was a direct result of the negative charge at one ...
We have previously shown that the protein kinase inhibitor β (PKIβ) form of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor exists in multiple isoforms, some of which are specific inhibitors of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, whereas others also inhibit the cGMP-dependent enzyme [Kumar, Van Patten and Walsh (1997), J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20011-20020]. We have now demonstrated that the switch from a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-specific inhibitor to one with dual specificity arises as a consequence of alternate gene splicing. We have confirmed using bacterially produced pure protein that a single inhibitor species has dual specificity for both PKA and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), inhibiting each with very high and closely similar inhibitory potencies. The gene splicing converted a protein with 70 amino acids into one of 109 amino acids, and did not change the inhibitory potency to PKA, but changed it from a protein that had no detectable PKG inhibitory activity to one that now ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase complex, cytoplasm, nucleus, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, mitochondrion organization, protein kinase A signaling, protein phosphorylation, Ras protein signal transduction
Mediates cAMP-dependent signaling triggered by receptor binding to GPCRs. PKA activation regulates diverse cellular processes such as cell proliferation, the cell cycle, differentiation and regulation of microtubule dynamics, chromatin condensation and decondensation, nuclear envelope disassembly and reassembly, as well as regulation of intracellular transport mechanisms and ion flux. Regulates the abundance of compartmentalized pools of its regulatory subunits through phosphorylation of PJA2 which binds and ubiquitinates these subunits, leading to their subsequent proteolysis ...
Protein Kinase A-Dependent Derepression of the Human Prodynorphin Gene via Differential Binding to an Intragenic Silencer Element: Induction of the prodynorphin
Protein kinases are able to recognize their appropriate targets in a complex milieu of cellular protein. This process must be carried out with high fidelity to ensure proper signal transduction in eukaryotic cells (Hunter 2000). In this study, we attempted to obtain insight into this recognition by examining PKA variants that exhibit a stable association with substrates. This binding provided a facile assay that allowed us to identify domains in both enzyme and substrates that were important for PKA phosphorylation. The substrate domains identified were physically removed from the sites of phosphorylation and were required for efficient recognition by PKA both in vivo and in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, these studies are the first to show that such distal sequence elements in substrates are required for phosphorylation by PKA. These observations may help explain why only a fraction of proteins that contain a PKA consensus site are phosphorylated by this enzyme in vivo (Budovskayaet al. ...
Neuromodulators have profound effects on behavior, but the dynamics of their intracellular effectors has remained unclear. Most neuromodulators exert their function via G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). One major challenge for understanding neuromodulator action is the lack of dynamic readouts of the biochemical signals produced by GPCR activation. The adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) module is a central component of such biochemical signaling. This module is regulated by several behaviorally important neuromodulator receptors. Furthermore, PKA activity is necessary for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity as well as for the formation of long-term memory. In order to monitor PKA activity in brain tissue, we have developed a 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2pFLIM) compatible PKA sensor termed FLIM-AKAR, which is based on the ratiometric FRET sensor AKAR3. FLIM-AKAR shows a large dynamic range and little pH sensitivity. In addition, it is a ...
The first indication that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the β2AR might do more than simply desensitize the receptor by inhibiting its coupling to Gs was provided by Okamoto et al. (1991). They demonstrated that a short peptide derived from the third cytoplasmic loop of the β2AR effectively activated purified Gs but only very weakly activated Gi in vitro. This peptide contains one of the two consensus PKA phosphorylation sites found in the receptor. When the peptide was phosphorylated by PKA, its ability to activate Gs was dramatically reduced, whereas its ability to activate Gi was reciprocally increased.. These results are essentially identical to findings in recent in vitro reconstitution studies with the intact recombinant human β2AR and recombinant Gsand Gi (Zamah et al., 2002). Reconstituted native β2AR mediates robust activation of Gs but not Gi. When the receptor is phosphorylated in vitro by PKA, Gscoupling is reduced, but Gi activation is markedly enhanced. The results are ...
The major objective of the present study was to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which perturbations of the cAMP pathway regulate PKA subunit expression in neural cells. Indeed, the cAMP-induced down-regulation of PKA subunits described here contrasts with the findings reported for non-neural systems. In Sertoli cells, an extensively studied model system for PKA regulation (reviewed in Skålhegg and Taskén, 1997), activation of the cAMP pathway elevates PKA subunit protein levels along with a 2- to 4-fold increase in RIα, RIIα and Cα mRNA and a 50-fold increase in RIIβ mRNA. This up-regulation of mRNA levels involved both increased transcription and increased mRNA stability. In mouse epithelial cells (Lange-Carter and Malkinson, 1991), elevated levels of cAMP resulted in a similar increase in RIIβ mRNA but a decrease in mRNA for RIα and no change in that for RIIα. Earlier studies have suggested cAMP stimulated proteolytic degradation of C, but not R, subunits in ...
42 of the Chromas software package (Conor McCarthy, Southport, Australia). For all analyses, data obtained PLX3397 purchase with the forward and reverse primers were combined and aligned to the consensus sequence obtained from the BLAST GenBank database http://​www.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​nuccore/​166706780?​report=​genbank. Figure 1 Sequencing of the KRAS gene in DNA isolated from NSCLC tissues. (A) Wild type-(12Gly-GGT, 13Gly-GGC), (B) Mutant- (12Asp-GAT). Pyrosequencing In the pyrosequencing method for DNA sequence analysis [16, 17], inorganic phosphate released in the course of nucleotide incorporation serves as the initial substrate in a sequence of four. successive enzymatic reactions. This result in the emission of light, which functions as a signal that is proportional to the number of nucleotides incorporated. In this project, the PyroMark K-ras assay test (Biotage, Uppsala, Sweden) was used for primary amplification P005091 cost and pyrosequencing of both the 12th and ...
Dive into the research topics of Characterization and comparison of membrane-associated and cytosolic cAMP-dependent protein kinases. Physicochemical and immunological studies on bovine cerebral cortex protein kinases.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Intracellular Ca2+ cycling and associated signaling pathway in cardiomyocytes. On a beat-by-beat basis, a calcium transient is evoked by the initial influx of a small amount of Ca2+ through the LTCC and the subsequent large-scale Ca2+ release from the SR through the RyR. During diastole, cytosolic Ca2+ is taken up into the SR by the PLN-regulated SERCA2a pump. β receptor-mediated PKA stimulation regulates this Ca2+ cycling by phosphorylating LTCC, RyR, and PLN. In normal hearts, sympathetic stimulation activates β1-adrenergic receptor, which in turn stimulates the production of cAMP by adenylyl cyclase and thereby activates PKA. PKA phosphorylates PLN and RyR, both of which contribute to an increased intracellular Ca2+ transient and enhanced cellular contractility (pink zone signal). PP1 and PP2A regulate the dephosphorylation process of these Ca2+ regulatory proteins (RyR, PLN, LTCC) (blue zone signaling). Activation of the Gαq-coupled receptors (angiotensin II receptor, endothelin 1 ...
Guanosine 3ʹ,5ʹ-cyclic Monophosphorothioate, 8-Bromo-, Rp-Isomer, Sodium Salt - Calbiochem - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Second, the biological response to a second messenger can depend on the scaffolding complex that binds enzymes that synthesize or degrade the second messenger, and effectors (Figure 1B). There are numerous examples of this mode of operation in cells. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are known to localize cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to different subcellular compartments in the cell, thereby ensuring phosphorylation of PKA targets in the correct cellular vicinity.16 Some AKAPs have also been found to associate with cAMP-hydrolyzing PDE isoforms, thereby providing a mechanism for fine-tuning local cAMP levels and downstream effects of PKA.17 The PDE4D splice variant PDE4D3 binds to muscle-selective AKAP (mAKAP), and this association results in low cAMP levels and prevents PKA activation under basal conditions. Following stimulation of cAMP synthesis, however, PKA is activated and phosphorylates mAKAP. These phosphorylation events result in a more efficient PDE4D3 action, and provides a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - cAMP-dependent protein kinase. T2 - role in normal and malignant growth. AU - Cho-Chung, Yoon S.. AU - Pepe, Stefano. AU - Clair, Timothy. AU - Budillon, AlfreD O.. AU - Nesterova, Maria. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/1040-8428(94)00166-9. DO - 10.1016/1040-8428(94)00166-9. M3 - Article. C2 - 8822496. AN - SCOPUS:0029565543. VL - 21. SP - 33. EP - 61. JO - Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. JF - Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. SN - 1040-8428. IS - 1-3. ER - ...
In our work we develop and analyze an ordinary differential equation. model that describes the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) --Protein Kinase A (PKA) pathway in budding yeast. In particular our. model describes the effect of glucose stimulation on the concentration of cAMP in the short term,. and the effect of stress in the long term. We develop this model in. order to understand two specific experimental results, reported by. Ma et al. (1999) and Garmendia-Torres et al. (2007). In order to describe the. surprising results published by Ma et al. (1999) we make a key assumption. that three enzymes within the cAMP-PKA network compete with one. another for activation by PKA. This assumption sets our model apart. from previous models of the cAMP-PKA network.. Our model focuses on two forms of negative feedback that. drive oscillations in the concentration of cAMP. Under high or low. stress conditions (for example, following glucose stimulation) our model reduces to a single ...
The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA, has been proposed to regulate many aspects of β-cell biology, including insulin secretion, insulin synthesis, β-cell survival and β-cell proliferation. We have established β-caPKA mice, a model of tamoxifen-inducible PKA activity that is targeted specifically to the islet β-cells. We have shown that enhanced insulin secretion in β-caPKA mice tightens glucose control and that this not dependent upon increased β-cell mass. Enhanced insulin secretion and improved glucose control was maintained to 52 weeks of age but β-cell mass at 52 weeks of age did not differ between β-caPKA mice and littermate controls, indicating again that activation of PKA in the islet β-cells does not promote β-cell proliferation. To determine whether PKA activity is protective for β-cells, PKA activity was induced in β-caPKA mice, then streptozotocin was administered to induced β-cell destruction. Increasing PKA activity in β-cells protected them from ...
|P>PKA (Protein Kinase-A) is an enzyme that regulates processes as diverse as growth, development, memory, and metabolism. In its inactivated state, PKA exists as a tetrameric complex of two Catalytic subunits (PKA-C) and a Regulatory (PKA-R) subunit dimer. To date, [...]
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Lapatinib was provided alone for six weeks,just before sufferers had been taken care of with trastuzumab and chemotherapy for 12 weeks prior to surgical treatment.In the course of the primary six weeks of lapatinib therapy,tumor volumes total have been decreased.Matched pre- and post-lapatinib therapy biopsies with ample tumor materials were accessible from eight patients for RNA isolation and microarray Ecdysone hybridization to Affymetrix GeneChips.We in contrast the intensity of expression for probesets corresponding to Src,Yes,Fyn,Lyn,Lck,and Hck ahead of and after lapatinib.We identified statistically important increases in expression of approximately 2-fold for 7 probesets corresponding to Lyn,Lck,and Fyn.Unfortunately,the Y416 pSrc antibody in our hands was inadequate for trustworthy quantitation of immunohistochemistry in these samples.Inhibition of SFKs inhibits development and PI3K-Akt in lapatinib-resistant cells To determine if SFK inhibition in drug-resistant cells would restore ...
1BKX: A binary complex of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and adenosine further defines conformational flexibility.
In the hippocampus, the cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) plays critical roles in neurotransmission, cell excitability, and synaptic plasticity.All of these p...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), ubiquitous in mammalian cells, regulates a plethora of cell processes including development, differentiation, memory, and m...
Sinerik Ayrapetyan-The Dysfunction of Camp-Dependent Na+/Ca2+ Exchange in Reverse Mode as a Primary Mechanism for Age-Dependent Cardio-Muscle Failure
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein kinase A-anchoring inhibitor peptides arrest mammalian sperm motility. AU - Vijayaraghavan, Srinivasan. AU - Goueli, Said A.. AU - Davey, Michael. AU - Carr, Daniel. PY - 1997/2/21. Y1 - 1997/2/21. N2 - Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is anchored at specific subcellular sites through the interaction of the regulatory subunit (R) with protein kinase A-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) via an amphipathic helix binding motif. Synthetic peptides containing this amphipathic helix domain competitively disrupt PKA binding to AKAPs and cause a loss of PKA modulation of cellular responses. In this report we use S-Ht31, a cell-permeant anchoring inhibitor peptide, to study the role of PKA anchoring in sperm. Our analysis of three species of mammalian sperm detected three isoforms of PKA (RIIα, RIIβ, and RIβ) and one 110-kDa AKAP. The addition of S-Ht31 to bovine caudal epididymal sperm inhibits motility in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. A control peptide, ...
Looking for online definition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the Medical Dictionary? cAMP-dependent protein kinase explanation free. What is cAMP-dependent protein kinase? Meaning of cAMP-dependent protein kinase medical term. What does cAMP-dependent protein kinase mean?
In the present study we demonstrated that IL-13, a Th2 cell-derived cytokine, is a potent arginase activator, and its induction of arginase contributes significantly to the suppression of NO production in LPS-activated macrophages. The increase in arginase activity is a result of de novo synthesis of arginase I mRNA and protein. Studies on the signaling molecules involved in arginase activation show that a surge in intracellular cAMP and the subsequent activation of PKA are obligatory for arginase induction. In addition, tyrosine kinases and p38 MAPK play a role in IL-13-induced arginase activation. To provide a perspective on our observations and conclusions, the results from the present study are discussed below in reference to previous findings regarding the signaling pathways involved in arginase activation and NO regulation by arginase.. In the present study despite the basal level of arginase I gene expression being detected in resting macrophages, arginase protein expression and enzyme ...
Lawler OA, Miggin SM, Kinsella BT (2001). Protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of serine 357 of the mouse prostacyclin receptor regulates its coupling to G(s)-, to G(i)-, and to G(q)-coupled effector signaling.. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (36): 33596-607. PMID 11443126. doi:10.1074/jbc.M104434200. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the bovine lens plasma membrane substrates for cAMP‐dependent protein kinase. AU - LOUIS, Charles F.. AU - JOHNSON, Ross. AU - JOHNSON, Keith. AU - TURNQUIST, Janet. PY - 1985/7. Y1 - 1985/7. N2 - cAMP‐dependent protein kinase, derived from either calf lens or bovine heart, promotes the phosphorylation of three lens plasma membrane proteins of molecular mass 28 kDa, 26 kDa and 18 kDa. Correlation of the maximal level of phosphorylation of these components with the Coomassie blue staining intensity of fractionated lens membranes suggests that the phosphorylation of the 28 kDa and 18 kDa components may be approximately stoichiometric. The protein kinase substrates could be dephosphorylated by a cardiac sarcoplasmic‐reticulum‐bound protein phosphatase activity. The 26 kDa component comigrated with MP26, the major lens membrane component that has been localized to the lens fiber cell junction. Treatment of phosphorylated lens membranes with chymotrypsin ...
cansSAR 3D Structure of 5N3F | CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE A FROM CRICETULUS GRISEUS IN COMPLEX WITH FRAGMENT LIKE MOLECULE N-[3-(AMINOMETHYL)PHENYL]ACETAMIDE | 5N3F_A | cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha - Also known as KAPCA_CRIGR, PRKACA. Phosphorylates a large number of substrates in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Regulates the abundance of compartmentalized pools of its regulatory subunits through phosphorylation of PJA2 which binds and ubiquitinates these subunits, leading to their subsequent proteolysis. Phosphorylates CDC25B, ABL1, NFKB1, CLDN3, PSMC5/RPT6, PJA2, RYR2, RORA and VASP. RORA is activated by phosphorylation. Required for glucose-mediated adipogenic differentiation increase and osteogenic differentiation inhibition from osteoblasts. Involved in the regulation of platelets in response to thrombin and collagen; maintains circulating platelets in a resting state by phosphorylating proteins in numerous platelet inhibitory pathways when in complex with NF-kappa-B
The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is involved in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Two regulatory and two catalytic subunits form the PKA holoenzyme, disbands after cAMP binding. The holoenzyme is involved in many cellular events, including ion transport, metabolism, and transcription. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015 ...
In the plant, filamentous growth is required for pathogenicity of the corn smut pathogen Ustilago maydis. Earlier, we identified a role for the cAMP signal transduction pathway in the switch between budding and filamentous growth for this fungus. A gene designated ubc1 (for Ustilago bypass of cyclase) was found to be required for filamentous growth and to encode the regulatory subunit of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Here, we show that ubc1 is important for the virulence of the pathogen. Specifically, ubc1 mutants are able to colonize maize plants and, like the wild-type pathogen, cause localized symptoms in association with the presence of hyphae. However, in contrast to plants infected with wild-type cells that often developed galls from initially chlorotic tissue, plants infected with the ubc1 mutant did not produce galls. These data suggest that PKA regulation is critical for the transition from saprophytic to pathogenic growth and from vegetative to reproductive development. Plate ...
The occurrence of endogenous substrate proteins for Ca2+-dependent protein kinase, augmented by either phospholipid or calmodulin, and for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was examined in homogenates and subcellular fractions of mouse pancreatic islets. Islet protein phosphorylation was enhanced by Ca2+-calmodulin; the major endogenous substrates in the homogenate were two proteins of Mr 53000 and 100000. The Mr-100000 phosphoprotein was localized to a 27000g-supernatant fraction, whereas the Mr-53000 phosphoprotein was present in a 27000g particulate fraction of mouse islets. In the presence of Ca2+, phosphatidylserine stimulated phosphorylation of 15 proteins, of Mr 17000-190000, in a 27000g-supernatant fraction. No effects of Ca2+ plus phosphatidylserine were observed in a 27000g particulate fraction of mouse islets. Examination of cyclic AMP-dependent protein phosphorylation revealed five substrate proteins, of Mr 23000-72000, present in the 27000g supernatant of mouse islets. No common ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning, characterization, and expression of the gene for the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in Caenorhabditis elegans. T2 - Identification of highly conserved and unique isoforms generated by alternative splicing. AU - Gross, Robert E.. AU - Bagchi, Srilata. AU - Lu, Xiangyi. AU - Rubin, Charles S.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans expresses substantial amounts of several forms (Mr values = 39,000-41,000) of the catalytic subunit (C) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Approximately 65% of the total cAMP-dependent phosphotransferase activity is recovered in particulate fractions of homogenates prepared from asynchronous populations of C. elegans. The C subunit is expressed at a low level in cytosolic and particulate compartments during embryogenesis. As the nematodes progress from late embryonic stages to the newly hatched, first larval (L1) stage, C subunit content increases 15-fold. High levels of C subunits are observed in ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PKIB gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor family. Studies of a similar protein in rat suggest that this protein may interact with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and act as a competitive inhibitor. At least three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000135549 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000019876 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Zheng L, Yu L, Tu Q, Zhang M, He H, Chen W, Gao J, Yu J, Wu Q, Zhao S (Jan 2001). Cloning and mapping of human PKIB and PKIG, and comparison of tissue expression patterns of three members of the protein kinase inhibitor family, including PKIA. Biochem J. 349 (Pt 2): 403-7. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3490403. PMC 1221161 . PMID 10880337. Entrez Gene: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of synaptic GABA(A) receptors by cAMP-dependent protein kinase in mouse cerebellar and olfactory bulb neurones. AU - Nusser, Zoltan. AU - Sieghart, Werner. AU - Mody, Istvan. PY - 1999/12/1. Y1 - 1999/12/1. N2 - 1. It has been demonstrated that the regulation of recombinant GABA(A) receptors by phosphorylation depends on the subunit composition. Here we studied the regulation of synaptic GABA(A) receptor function by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in neurones expressing distinct receptor subtypes. 2. Light microscopic immunocytochemistry revealed that granule cells of the olfactory bulb express only the β3 as the β subunit variant, whereas cerebellar stellate and basket cells express only the β2 as the β subunit. 3. In cerebellar interneurones, intracellular application of 20 μM microcystin, a protein phosphatase 1/2A inhibitor, prolonged (63 ± 14%; mean ± S.E.M.) the decay time course of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) without significantly affecting ...
A-kinase anchor protein 10, mitochondrial (AKAP-10) (Dual specificity A kinase-anchoring protein 2) (D-AKAP-2) (Protein kinase A-anchoring protein 10) (PRKA10), ...
We identified pka-C1 as a candidate for the gene mutated in Cos12, Cos13, Cos18, and Cos19. We detected sequence changes at the DNA level at the pka-C1 locus, and these changes translated to substitutions in the coding sequence. These point mutations could influence PKA activity in several possible ways. First, they could render PKA-C1 catalytically inactive and give dominant phenotypes due to haplo-insufficiency. Alternatively, the point mutations could destabilize the encoded protein to such a degree that the mutant protein would be degraded and thus function as a protein null. This scenario would also result in dominant phenotypes due to haplo-insufficiency. These haplo-insufficiency explanations are unlikely to be correct. pka-C1 is a recessive negative regulator of Hh signaling and heterozygosity for pka-C1 null alleles or for deficiencies that delete pka-C1 does not result in any obvious phenotype. Second, the mutations could render PKA-C1 constitutively active. The unregulated activity ...
Moen, Line Victoria; Ramberg, Håkon Andre; Zhao, Sen; Grytli, Helene Hartvedt; Sveen, Anita; Berge, Viktor; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Tasken, Kristin Austlid & Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen (2017). Observed correlation between the expression levels of catalytic subunit, C?2, of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and prostate cancer aggressiveness. Urologic Oncology. ISSN 1078-1439. 35(3), s 111.e1- 111.e8 . doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2016.10.002 Vis sammendrag Background As an intracellular human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is facing multiple stressful stimuli inside the macrophage and the granuloma. Understanding Mtb responses to stress is essential to identify new virulence factors and pathways that play a role in the survival of the tubercle bacillus. The main goal of this study was to map the regulatory networks of differentially expressed (DE) transcripts in Mtb upon various forms of genotoxic stress. We exposed Mtb cells to oxidative (H2O2 or paraquat), nitrosative ...
Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger involved in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes, a majority of which act through the cAMP - protein kinase A (PKA) signalling pathway and involve PKA phosphorylation of specific substrates. PKA phosphorylation events are typically spatially restricted and temporally well controlled. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) directly bind PKA and recruit it to specific subcellular loci targeting the kinase activity towards particular substrates, and thereby provide discrete spatiotemporal control of downstream phosphorylation events. AKAPs also scaffold other signalling molecules into multi-protein complexes that function as crossroads between different signalling pathways. Targeting AKAP coordinated protein complexes with high-affinity peptidomimetics or small molecules to tease apart distinct protein-protein interactions (PPIs) therefore offer important means to disrupt binding of specific components of the complex to better
Background The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling transduction pathway has been shown to play an important role in the modulation of several ethanol (EtOH)-induced behavioral actions. In vivo, short-term exposure to EtOH up-regulates the cAMP-signaling cascade. Interestingly, different Ca2+-dependent cAMP-PKA cascade mediators play a critical role in the neurobehavioral response to EtOH, being of special relevance to the Ca2+-dependent adenylyl cyclases 1 and 8. We hypothesize an intracellular PKA activation elicited by EtOH administration, which may be regulated by a Ca2+-dependent mechanism as an early cellular response. Thus, the present work aims to explore the role of Ca2+ (internal and external) on the EtOH-activated PKA cascade. Methods Swiss male mice received an intraperitoneal injection of EtOH (0 or 4 g/kg), and brains were dissected following a temporal pattern (7, 15, 30, 45, 90, or 120 minutes). Either the enzymatic PKA activity or its fingerprint was analyzed on ...
Similarly to AA-dependent calcium entry, NO-activated calcium signals triggered by direct application of NO donors are significantly affected on pretreatment with PKI (Fig. 5B and C).. We do not know the identity of AA- and NO-activated channel(s) in B-TECs, although some candidates can be considered. TRPV1 and TRPV4 (both expressed in B-TEC) 5 are regulated by fatty acids, including AA, and their metabolites. They are also modulated by NO through S-nitrosylation and sensitized by PKA phosphorylation (37-40). TRPC3 and TRPC6 are activated by fatty acids and substrate for nitrosylation as well, and the cAMP/PKA pathway could enhance their insertion into the plasma membrane (34). Finally, in m3-HEK cell line, the so-called arachidonate-regulated channels require PKA phosphorylation and are composed of Orai1 and Orai3 proteins (35, 41).. B-TECs could express two (or more than two) types of calcium-permeable, PKA-dependent ion channels: one activated by AA and another by NO. Such hypothesis is in ...
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab96186 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: WB,ICC/IF…cAMP Protein Kinase Catalytic subunit抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
In this issue of Acta Physiologica, Benz et al. study the role of one important protein in the cyclic AMP signaling pathway, the A-kinase anchoring (AKAP)12. The downstream effects stemming from cAMP release are tightly controlled and activate a profusion of signaling pathways. However, many of these different processes function with largely the same major constituent proteins, including adenylate cyclases, kinases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which is the main intracellular target for cAMP, is widely found in these signaling assemblies, and is present at high concentrations in many tissues, playing varied roles in the regulation of molecular processes. Unexpectedly, despite its ubiquity there are only four isoforms of PKA regulatory subunit with which to impart functional and locational specificity ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Doherty, P J.; Tsao, J; Schimmer, B P.; Mumby, M C.; and Beavo, J A., Alteration of the regulatory subunit of type 1 camp-dependent protein kinase in mutant y1 adrenal cells resistant to 8-bromoadenosine 3:5-monophosphate. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2372 ...
Amp protein powder review 2020, that happened after 12 weeks! Results amaze, side effects could be dangerous for some users | Important tips & pictures
Both types of reciprocal antagonistic A2A-D2 receptor interactions coexist in the same cells. In fact, under normal conditions, there is a strong tonic activation of D2 receptors that blocks the ability of A2A receptors to signal through the cAMP-PKA pathway. Conversely, the antagonistic A2A-D2 receptor interaction determines the ability of A2A receptors to control the inhibitory role of D2 receptors in neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release (Ferré et al., 2008).. In line with our previous studies (Calabresi et al., 1993; Picconi et al., 2004; Tozzi et al., 2007), we found that the application of D2 receptor agonists alone did not affect glutamate-mediated synaptic potentials/currents in striatal slices under physiological conditions. Conversely, simultaneous A2A receptor antagonism and D2 receptor activation resulted in a reduction of excitatory glutamatergic transmission. In our model, electrical stimulation of the slice mainly activates glutamatergic projections to the striatum. ...
Subcellular fractionation revealed that pp97, pp96 and pp64 are head protein whereas pp90 and pp55 are tail proteins. Advanced proteomic analysis (GeLC-MS) identified 37 proteins, including AKAP4, AKAP3, CALI, HSPAlL and HSP70 as candidates for the dephosphorylated proteins. AKAP4 was excluded because it was localised to the tail. Two AKAP3 antibodies showed non-specific binding and a better quality antibody will be needed for further investigations. CALI was excluded because it was localised to the tail fraction. HSP70/72 and HSPA1L were strong candidates for pp64. However, immunoprecipitation of dephosphorylated proteins using phospho (S/T) PKA substrate Ab and HSPA1L Ab was unsuccessful and further work is now required to address this.. ...
Zhao X, Nedvetsky P, Stanchi F, Vion AC, Popp O, Zühlke K, Dittmar G, Klussmann E, Gerhardt H. 2019. Endothelial PKA activity regulates angiogenesis by limiting autophagy through phosphorylation of ATG16L1. eLife 8:e46380. doi: 10.7554/eLife.46380.. Published 03, October 2019. We have discovered a panel duplication in Figure 4 supplement 1C and D. It appears that during reorganisation of this Figure supplement in the course of revisions, panel 1C was duplicated as 1D. The correct panel was present in the original version of the figure, showing the quantification of ESM1 positive area in 1D. We further discovered a small typesetting error in the method section which read ml/min instead of µl/min. We would like to correct these errors as follows. The corrections do not affect data or conclusions.. The corrected text (change is underlined):. Five microliters of the sample was loaded on a nano-LC column (0.074 × 250 mm, 3 mm Reprosil C18; Dr. Maisch) and separated on a 155 min gradient (4%-76% ...
Full-length recombinant human PRKX was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. PRKX is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is closely related to the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
Full-length recombinant human PRKX was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. PRKX is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is closely related to the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
Bacterial expression plasmid for GST tagged with a PKA phosphorylation site. Described in Ron D, Dressler H. pGSTag: a versatile bacterial expression plasmid for enzymatic labeling of recombinant proteins. Biotechniques. 1992 Dec;13(6):866-9. Erratum in: Biotechniques 1993 Feb;14(2):221. Plasmid sequence in EMBL format is available for downloading here. ...
Complete information for AKAP5 gene (Protein Coding), A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
20E transmits signals through the ErGPCR-cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway prior to the initiation of the gene expression through the EcR/UPS pathway
Camp Nursing, Camp nursing has its own unique twists: you are charged with the health care of many unknowns and this is where you can come to for answers. How do you... - pg. 7
ค่ายนี้เป็นค่ายระดับมัธยมศึกษา สำหรับเยาวชนที่สนใจการศึกษาต่อในสาขาชีวเคมี. จัดขึ้นเป็นครั้งแรกเมื่อเดือนมกราคม 2558 โดยนิสิตภาควิชาชีวเคมี คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย. ชมมิวสิควิดิโอ What is the pathway? ซึ่งจัดทำขึ้นโดยนิสิตภาควิชาชีวเคมี คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย. ...
Nguyen, P. V., & Woo, N. H. (2003). Regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. ... For example, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways appear to participate in neuronal ... cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein) in this process. Certain synapses on recruited neurons are more likely to ... The dendritic branch is the preferred integrative unit for protein synthesis-dependent LTP. Neuron 69, 132-146 (2011). Harvey, ...
Pan, X, Heitman, J (July 1999). "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase regulates pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces ... Pan, X, Heitman, J (June 2002). "Protein kinase A operates a molecular switch that governs yeast pseudohyphal differentiation ... Lorenz, MC, Pan, X, Harashima, T, Cardenas, ME, Xue, Y, Hirsch, JP, Heitman, J (February 2000). "The G protein-coupled receptor ... Heitman, J, Movva, NR, Hiestand, PC, Hall, MN (March 1991). "FK506-binding protein proline rotamase is a target for the ...
"Platelet glycoprotein Ib beta is phosphorylated on serine 166 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (26 ... GP1BB+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) PDBe-KB provides an overview of all ... Du X, Harris SJ, Tetaz TJ, Ginsberg MH, Berndt MC (July 1994). "Association of a phospholipase A2 (14-3-3 protein) with the ... Du X, Harris SJ, Tetaz TJ, Ginsberg MH, Berndt MC (1994). "Association of a phospholipase A2 (14-3-3 protein) with the platelet ...
"Phosphorylation and activation of brain aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". Journal of ... AADC has several conserved protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase G recognition sites, with residues S220, S336, S359, T320 ... It consists of 15 exons encoding a protein of 480 amino acids. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and other gene variations have ... The short term activation is thought to proceed through kinase activation and subsequent phosphorylation of AADC, while the ...
They are Gs/a coupled and can stimulate neurons by indirectly activating cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. The DRD1 gene ... It is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene. D1 receptors are the most abundant kind of dopamine receptor in the ... "Regulation of transport of the dopamine D1 receptor by a new membrane-associated ER protein". Nature Cell Biology. 3 (5): 492- ... CryoEM structures of agonists bound to the dopamine D1 receptor complexed with the stimulatory heterotrimeric Gs protein have ...
"BRSK2 is activated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A through phosphorylation at Thr260". Biochemical and Biophysical ... BR serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BRSK2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "LKB1 is a master kinase that activates 13 kinases of the AMPK subfamily, including MARK/PAR-1". The EMBO Journal. 23 (4): 833- ... Lu R, Niida H, Nakanishi M (Jul 2004). "Human SAD1 kinase is involved in UV-induced DNA damage checkpoint function". The ...
"Negative regulation of histone deacetylase 8 activity by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (2): 765- ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to class I of the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family. It has histone deacetylase ... HDAC8+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... Gantt SL, Gattis SG, Fierke CA (2006). "Catalytic activity and inhibition of human histone deacetylase 8 is dependent on the ...
... by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (30): 20070-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... this phosphorylation is mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Second allosteric regulation is mediated by binding ... Leitges M, Gimborn K, Elis W, Kalesnikoff J, Hughes MR, Krystal G, Huber M (June 2002). "Protein kinase C-delta is a negative ... kinase-dependent Lyn/Tec/Dok-1 complex formation in hematopoietic cells". Blood. 96 (10): 3406-13. doi:10.1182/blood.V96.10. ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACG gene. Cyclic AMP- ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ... "Characterization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Cgamma expressed and purified from sf9 cells". Protein ... "Entrez Gene: PRKACG protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma". Marx, S O; Reiken S; Hisamatsu Y; Jayaraman T; Burkhoff ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ser19 ( ... is phosphorylated by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. MAPKAPK2 (mitogen-activated-protein kinase-activating ... "Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for brain-specific 14-3-3 protein, a protein kinase-dependent activator of tyrosine and ...
Huang W, Zhou X, Lefebvre V, de Crombrugghe B (June 2000). "Phosphorylation of SOX9 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A ... SOX9+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SOX9 human gene location in the UCSC ... The Sox9 protein has been implicated in both initiation and progression of multiple solid tumors. Its role as a master ... Transcription factor SOX-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOX9 gene. SOX-9 recognizes the sequence CCTTGAG along ...
... two sites on glycogen synthetase phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and their dephosphorylation by protein ... "A reinvestigation of the phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal-muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... protein kinase A (PKA), and casein kinase 2 (CK2). Each of these protein kinases lead to phosphorylated and catalytically ... Insulin stimulates glycogen synthase by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinases or/and activating protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) ...
... dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isozyme by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and calmodulin-dependent ... Sharma, R. K.; Adachi, A. M.; Adachi, K.; Wang, J. H. (1984). "Demonstration of bovine brain calmodulin dependent cyclic ... "Inhibition of Ca2+-activated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase reaction by a heat-stable inhibitor protein from bovine brain ... Huang, C. Y.; Chau, V.; Chock, P. B.; Wang, J. H.; Sharma, R. K. (1982). "Mechanism of activation of cyclic nucleotide ...
... encodes a serine threonine protein kinase that has similarity to the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases ... Huang S, Li Q, Alberts I, Li X (2016). "PRKX, a Novel cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Member, Plays an Important Role in ... Protein kinase, X-linked is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRKX gene. This gene ... a phylogenetically and functionally distinct cAMP-dependent protein kinase, activates renal epithelial cell migration and ...
Expression of the promoter is shown to be induce by phorbol esters and cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase signaling. The four ... due to phosphorylation of Ser-460 by PKA or AMP-dependent protein kinase. The high '2-Kase' activity of PFKFB3 is also due to ... September 2009). "Nuclear targeting of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3) increases proliferation via cyclin-dependent kinases ... Manes NP, El-Maghrabi MR (June 2005). "The kinase activity of human brain 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase ...
Identification of four sites phosphorylated in intact cells and in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and p34cdc2". ... Regulation of stathmin is cell cycle dependent and controlled by the cell's protein kinases in response to specific cell ... Maucuer A, Camonis JH, Sobel A (April 1995). "Stathmin interaction with a putative kinase and coiled-coil-forming protein ... "Serine 25 of oncoprotein 18 is a major cytosolic target for the mitogen-activated protein kinase". The Journal of Biological ...
"MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc ... with serine/threonine protein kinases and heat shock protein HSP90 in human hematopoietic cell lines". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 ( ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
... where it stimulates a protein kinase called cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. By phosphorylating proteins, cyclic AMP- ... Eckly-Michel A, Martin V, Lugnier C (September 1997). "Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in cyclic AMP ... G proteins). The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) ... dependent protein kinase alters protein activity. cAMP's role in this process terminates upon hydrolysis to AMP by ...
... type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5 ... "Ezrin is a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring protein". The EMBO Journal. 16 (1): 35-43. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.1.35. ... "A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220 binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta ) and mediates protein kinase A-dependent ... Beebe SJ, Salomonsky P, Holroyd C, Becker D (Dec 1993). "Differential expression of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ...
... of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on the beta 2 subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNB2 gene. Mutation in ... Bünemann M, Gerhardstein BL, Gao T, Hosey MM (1999). "Functional regulation of L-type calcium channels via protein kinase A- ... GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Brugada syndrome CACNB2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
"Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates merlin at serine 518 independently of p21-activated kinase and promotes ... protein kinase A, and p21 activated kinases. Work in Drosophila identified Merlin as an upstream regulator of the Hippo tumor ... Merlin is a member of the ERM family of proteins including ezrin, moesin, and radixin, which are in the protein 4.1 superfamily ... Merlin (also called Neurofibromin 2 or schwannomin) is a cytoskeletal protein. In humans, it is a tumor suppressor protein ...
Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... "A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) interaction and dimerization of the RIalpha and RIbeta regulatory subunits of protein kinase ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAR1A gene. cAMP ...
... or cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. 1992: Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1996: Elected to the ... She is known for her research on protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine ... Taylor's research group has focused on the structure and function of protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A, since ... "Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". Frontiers in Bioscience. 13 (13): 1206-26. doi: ... involved in calcium-mediated activation of protein kinase C; the prostaglandins, which are one type of fatty-acid derived ... Many polyketides are cyclic molecules whose backbones are often further modified by glycosylation, methylation, hydroxylation, ... Parodi AJ, Leloir LF (April 1979). "The role of lipid intermediates in the glycosylation of proteins in the eucaryotic cell". ...
... cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This enzyme, in turn, activates ... The enzyme protein kinase A that was stimulated by the cascade initiated by glucagon will also phosphorylate a single serine ... The conformation change in the receptor activates G proteins, a heterotrimeric protein with α, β, and γ subunits. When the G ... When dissolved in a fluid state, glucagon can form amyloid fibrils, or tightly woven chains of proteins made up of the ...
... cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This enzyme, in turn, activates ... cAMP binds to protein kinase A, and the complex phosphorylates phosphorylase kinase. Phosphorylated phosphorylase kinase ... The enzyme protein kinase A (PKA) that was stimulated by the cascade initiated by glucagon will also phosphorylate a single ... The transmembrane proteins interacts with Gɑβ𝛾. Gɑ separates from Gβ𝛾 and interacts with the transmembrane protein adenylyl ...
Mayeenuddin LH, Garrison JC (January 2006). "Phosphorylation of P-Rex1 by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the ... 5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchanger 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PREX1 gene. The protein encoded ... March 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. ...
By the late 1960s, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase had been purified, and most attention was centered on kinases and ... "Synergistic phosphorylation of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and casein kinase I. ... Hanks SK, Hunter T (May 1995). "Protein kinases 6. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain ... Casein kinase 2 - a distinct protein kinase family Eide EJ, Virshup DM (May 2001). "Casein kinase I: another cog in the ...
Misra, K. and Pandey, S.C. (2006). The decreased cyclic-AMP dependent-protein kinase A function in the nucleus accumbens: a ... Some of the kinase families currently linked to alcoholism are Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), protein ... Ethanol enhances growth factor activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Proc ... Ethanol exposure alters the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein and cyclic AMP responsive element ...
Through these studies, the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling has been identified as a key mediator of cortisol ... and the mutations associated with the dysregulation of cyclic AMP - protein kinase A pathways have been implicated in the ... The term "Cushing's disease" refers specifically to "secondary hypercortisolism" classified as "ACTH-dependent Cushing's ...
The activated OR in turn activates the intracellular G-protein, GOLF (GNAL), adenylate cyclase and production of cyclic AMP ( ... "Phosphorylation and inhibition of olfactory adenylyl cyclase by CaM kinase II in Neurons: a mechanism for attenuation of ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of a calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase enriched in olfactory sensory neurons". Proc ... The surface of the cilia is covered with olfactory receptors, a type of G protein-coupled receptor. Each olfactory receptor ...
... cyclic AMP receptor - cyclic AMP receptor protein - cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein - cyclic electron flow - cyclic ... nucleotide - cyclic peptide - cyclin - cyclin A - cyclin B - cyclin E - cyclin-dependent kinase - cycloleucine - cyclosporin - ... protein subunit - protein synthesis - protein targeting - protein translocation - protein-tyrosine kinase - protein-tyrosine- ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ...
This gene is a member of the type IV, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family. Cyclic ... Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ ... "The phosphodiesterase PDE4B limits cAMP-associated PI3K/AKT-dependent apoptosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma". Blood. 105 ( ... The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate the cellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides and thereby play a ...
Yang TT, Xiong Q, Enslen H, Davis RJ, Chow CW (Jun 2002). "Phosphorylation of NFATc4 by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases ... Chow CW, Davis RJ (Jan 2000). "Integration of calcium and cyclic AMP signaling pathways by 14-3-3". Molecular and Cellular ... Molkentin JD, Lu JR, Antos CL, Markham B, Richardson J, Robbins J, Grant SR, Olson EN (Apr 1998). "A calcineurin-dependent ... NFATC4+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ...
Liedtke CM, Yun CH, Kyle N, Wang D (June 2002). "Protein kinase C epsilon-dependent regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane ... Cholera: ADP-ribosylation caused by cholera toxin results in increased production of cyclic AMP which in turn opens the CFTR ... not present in other ABC transporters which carry 19 predicted sites for protein kinase A(PKA). Six of these have been reported ... "E3KARP mediates the association of ezrin and protein kinase A with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in ...
February 2008). "Metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis through AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent regulation of the ... activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), inhibition of glucagon-induced elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate ( ... "Metformin and phenformin activate AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart by increasing cytosolic AMP concentration". ... March 2016). "HL156A, a novel AMP-activated protein kinase activator, is protective against peritoneal fibrosis in an in vivo ...
... neurite outgrowth and protein phosphorylation by a newly synthesized selective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... novel and potent inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C". Biochemistry. 23 (21): 5036- ... H-89 is a protein kinase inhibitor with greatest effect on protein kinase A (PKA). H-89, derived from H-8 (N-[2-(methylamino) ... However, subsequent work has suggested a variety of additional effects such as inhibition of other protein kinases (IC50 values ...
"Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP Receptor Protein Influence both Synthesis and Uptake of Extracellular Autoinducer 2 in Escherichia ... Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a furanosyl borate diester or tetrahydroxy furan (species dependent), is a member of a family of ... and is recognized by the two-component sensor kinase LuxPQ in Vibrionaceae. AI-2 is actively transported by the Lsr ABC-type ... Although the luxS gene, which encodes the protein responsible for AI-2 production is widespread, the latter has mainly a ...
September 2004). "Cyclic AMP promotes growth and secretion in human polycystic kidney epithelial cells". Kidney International. ... "Polycystin-1 activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and AP-1 is mediated by heterotrimeric G proteins". The Journal of ... March 2005). "Progressive loss of renal function is an age-dependent heritable trait in type 1 autosomal dominant polycystic ... which in turn is suggested to increase due to secondary effects from an increased intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP ( ...
... cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in human epithelial cells expressing the FLT-1 receptor". Growth Factors. 19 (3): 193-206. doi: ... There are three isoforms of this protein: PGF-1, PGF-2, PGF-3. PGF-1 is specifically found in the colon as well as mammary ... Serum levels of PGF and sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, also known as soluble VEGF receptor-1) are altered in women ... Shibuya M (April 2008). "Vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent and -independent regulation of angiogenesis". BMB Reports ...
"Synergism between calcium and cyclic GMP in cyclic AMP response element-dependent transcriptional regulation requires ... Shimomura A, Ogawa Y, Kitani T, Fujisawa H, Hagiwara M (Jul 1996). "Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II potentiates ... Hoeffler JP, Meyer TE, Yun Y, Jameson JL, Habener JF (Dec 1988). "Cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein: structure based on ... Pandey SC (Oct 2004). "The gene transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein: role in positive and ...
Protein kinase A (PKA) has been found to play an important role in learning and memory in Drosophila. When calcium enters a ... cAMP or cyclic AMP) is a second messenger that has been implicated in facilitating mushroom body calcium influx in Drosophila ... The intermediate term memory trace is dependent on expression of the amn gene located in dorsal paired medial neurons. An ... "Preferential expression in mushroom bodies of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and its role in learning and memory". ...
"Mechanism of assembly of G protein betagamma subunits by protein kinase CK2-phosphorylated phosducin-like protein and the ... or inhibiting adenylyl cyclase leading to the intracellular increase or decrease of the secondary messenger cyclic AMP. For ... Ikeda SR (March 1996). "Voltage-dependent modulation of N-type calcium channels by G-protein beta gamma subunits". Nature. 380 ... Portal: Biology (Protein pages needing a picture, G proteins, Protein complexes). ...
"Alteration of a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site in the c-Fos protein augments its transforming ... Zaheer A, Lim R (Feb 1997). "Protein kinase A (PKA)- and protein kinase C-phosphorylated glia maturation factor promotes the ... "Identification of regulatory phosphorylation sites in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase-1a/ ... This gene encodes a member of the RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) family of serine/threonine kinases. This kinase contains 2 ...
Stegmayr B, Ronquist G (1982). "Distribution of cyclic AMP in human seminal plasma and its relation to sperm progressive ... Stegmayr B, Brody I, Ronquist G (February 1982). "A biochemical and ultrastructural study on the endogenous protein kinase ... Brody I, Ronquist G, Gottfries A, Stegmayr B (1981). "Abnormal deficiency of both Mg2+ and Ca2+-dependent adenosine ... Skibinski G, Kelly RW, James K (April 1994). "Expression of a common secretory granule specific protein as a marker for the ...
Hoffmann R, Baillie GS, MacKenzie SJ, Yarwood SJ, Houslay MD (Feb 1999). "The MAP kinase ERK2 inhibits the cyclic AMP-specific ... "Phosphorylation and activation of a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Involvement of serine ... Le Jeune IR, Shepherd M, Van Heeke G, Houslay MD, Hall IP (Sep 2002). "Cyclic AMP-dependent transcriptional up-regulation of ... Zhang HT (2009). "Cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4 as a target for the development of antidepressant drugs". Current ...
Cyclic AMP acts by activating cAMP-sensitive pathways such as protein kinase A and EPAC1. Its derivatives include colforsin ... In mice, extracts of Coleus forskohlii exhibited dose-dependent liver toxicity although purified forskolin did not exhibit ... Forskolin is commonly used in biochemistry to raise levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the study and research of cell physiology. ... Adenylyl cyclase Cyclic AMP "Forskolin" (PDF). Sigma Aldrich. "Forskolin". 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2018. Alasbahi, ...
2007). "Cyclic AMP Stimulates SF-1-Dependent CYP11A1 Expression through Homeodomain-Interacting Protein Kinase 3-Mediated Jun N ... Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HIPK3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Kim YH, Choi CY, Lee SJ, Conti MA, Kim Y (Nov 1998). "Homeodomain-interacting protein kinases, a novel family of co-repressors ... Nupponen NN, Visakorpi T (2000). "Assignment of the protein kinase homolog of YAK1 (HIPK3) to human chromosome band 11p13 by in ...
The cyclic AMP-binding domains of these proteins display approximately 25% identity and 60% similarity to the Popeye domain. ... Significant structural similarity is evident between the Popeye domain and cAMP binding domains of eukaryotic protein kinase A ... Genetic inactivation of Popdc2 in mice resulted in bradyarrhythmia, which is strictly stress-dependent. At rest a normal ECG ... The bacterial CAP or CRP proteins are the closest related non-Popdcproteins. CRP proteins function as cyclic nucleotide- ...
Braunewell KH, Spilker C, Behnisch T, Gundelfinger ED (1997). "The neuronal calcium-sensor protein VILIP modulates cyclic AMP ... and beta II-subspecies of protein kinase C in rat hippocampus". Brain Res. 518 (1-2): 209-17. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(90)90974-G ... "Reversible translocation and activity-dependent localization of the calcium-myristoyl switch protein VILIP-1 to different ... Visinin-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VSNL1 gene. This gene is a member of the visinin/recoverin ...
... but has no effect on protein kinase C or cyclic AMP-dependent kinase. Mutagenicity does not appear to occur for purified toxins ... In this way the protein phosphatase is inhibited and more phosphorylated proteins in the liver cells are left, which is ... These large proteins are made up of different protein domains, coined 'modules', that each have their own specific enzymatic ... Microcystin-LR inhibits protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A) activities in the cytoplasm of liver cells. This ...
Gendron L, Oligny JF, Payet MD, Gallo-Payet N (February 2003). "Cyclic AMP-independent involvement of Rap1/B-Raf in the ... "MAP kinase stimulation by cAMP does not require RAP1 but SRC family kinases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (36): ... "Molecular cloning of a GTPase activating protein specific for the Krev-1 protein p21rap1". Cell. 65 (6): 1033-42. doi:10.1016/ ... Schmitt JM, Stork PJ (November 2002). "Galpha and Gbeta gamma require distinct Src-dependent pathways to activate Rap1 and Ras ...
Then, it converts adenosine triphosphate into cyclic AMP, which activates Protein kinase A. PKA leads to protein tyrosine ... "Cyclic GMP signaling is involved in the luteinizing hormone-dependent meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes". Biology of ... These proteins activate protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) that phosphorylates various proteins important for capacitation and ... Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase) regulates gene transcription through successive kinase ...
... encoding protein cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4 BCR (22q11) encoding breakpoint cluster region protein CARD10 ... encoding protein Nucleolar protein 12 PARVB PDGFB PI4KA: encoding enzyme Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase alpha PI4KAP2: ... encoding protein Ribosomal RNA-processing protein 7 homolog A RTCB: encoding protein RNA 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ... encoding protein Thyrotroph embryonic factor THAP7: encoding protein THAP domain-containing protein 7 THOC5: encoding protein ...
... produces a monophasic rise in cyclic AMP that peaks at 15 s and a depletion of cycl ... produces a monophasic rise in cyclic AMP that peaks at 15 s and a depletion of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase that ... Mast cell mediator release as a function of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activation. C M Winslow, C M Winslow ... C M Winslow, R A Lewis, K F Austen; Mast cell mediator release as a function of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activation ...
... phosphorylates G protein coupled receptors in an agonist-dependent manner. Since the exact sites of receptor phosphorylation by ... beta-ARK are poorly defined, the identification of substrate amino acids that are critical to phosphorylation by the kinase a … ... Protein Kinases * Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases * G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1 ... The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta-ARK) phosphorylates G protein coupled receptors in an agonist-dependent manner. Since ...
... studies on protein-protein interaction arrays and en … ... maintaining protein stability during the slide processing steps ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / analysis * Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / genetics ... studies on protein-protein interaction arrays and enzyme arrays are lacking. In this paper we used five bait-prey protein ... The protein arrays for the study were fabricated by combining HaloTag technology and cell-free protein expression. The HaloTag ...
Phosphorylation of proteins is an essential signalling mechanism in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Although N- ... 31 Glass, D. B. (1983) Differential responses of cyclic. GMP-dependent and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases to ... A protein kinase was purified from rat liver nuclei by affinity chromatography on poly(l-lysine)-agarose and protein kinase ... tional lysine kinase activity [18], protein lysine kinases involved. in histone H1 phosphorylation [19] and bovine liver ...
... the anti-inflammatory effects of the cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA); and 3) pro-inflammatory proteases as triggers ... airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 and IL-8 with sequential activation of the airway epithelial protein kinase C isoforms ( ...
3.3.2. Protein kinase A (Mg2+). The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (or PKA) was the first protein kinase to be ... The small regulatory protein calmodulin binds four Ca2+ ions, which act as a switch for calmodulin binding to other proteins; ... Protein Chem. 42, 1-76. CrossRef PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Harding, M. M. (1999). Acta Cryst. D55, 1432-1443. Web of Science ... Levisson, M. et al. (2012). Proteins, 80, 1545-1559. Web of Science CrossRef CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Lunin, V. Y. & ...
G Protein Coupled Receptor 100% * Cyclic AMP Dependent Protein Kinase 80% * Protein Kinase A 80% ... Deep brain live imaging of cAMP and protein kinase A activities underlying synaptic- and circuit-level mechanisms during ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases Medicine & Life Sciences 92% * Synapses Medicine & Life Sciences 82% ... Conversely, incubation with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor dideoxyadenosine, with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor N-[2-(p ... Conversely, incubation with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor dideoxyadenosine, with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor N-[2-(p ... Conversely, incubation with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor dideoxyadenosine, with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor N-[2-(p ...
Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors Medicine & Life Sciences 19% * Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases Medicine & Life ... by a cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanism. Since glucagon is capable of stimulating PI3K activity in hepatocytes and a ... by a cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanism. Since glucagon is capable of stimulating PI3K activity in hepatocytes and a ... by a cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanism. Since glucagon is capable of stimulating PI3K activity in hepatocytes and a ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases Medicine & Life Sciences 12% * Salts Medicine & Life Sciences 10% ... It is proposed that protein kinase A exploits the intrinsic flexibility of the 11-21 region when binding PLB. In agreement with ... It is proposed that protein kinase A exploits the intrinsic flexibility of the 11-21 region when binding PLB. In agreement with ... It is proposed that protein kinase A exploits the intrinsic flexibility of the 11-21 region when binding PLB. In agreement with ...
Phosphorylation and flexibility of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) using P-31 NMR Spectroscopy. Biochemistry 41 (19 ... Sperl, B.; Seifert, M. H. J.; Berg, T.: Natural product inhibitors of protein-protein interactions mediated by Src-family SH2 ... Studien zur strukturellen Dynamik des Grün-fluoreszierenden Proteins und der cAMP-abhängigen Protein Kinase. Dissertation, ... Backbone dynamics of green fluorescent protein and the effect of histidine 148 substitution. Biochemistry 42 (9), pp. 2500 - ...
Rat mammary gland ATP-citrate lyase is phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Guy, P. S., Cohen, P. & Hardie, D ... acid sequence of a region in rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthase phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... A specific substrate from rabbit cerebellum for guanosine-3: 5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. III. Amino acid ... The behaviour of Leighton Buzzard sand in cyclic simple shear tests. Muir Wood, D. & Budhu, M., 1980, Soils under cyclic and ...
Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase 16% * Synthetase 16% * Caffeine 16% * Cyclic AMP Dependent Protein Kinase 16% ...
The increase in synaptic currents is dependent upon an increase in newly synthesized cell surface synaptic GABAA receptors and ... and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. These kinases can subsequently phosphorylate γ-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase protein kinase C and Ca2+/calmodulin type II-dependent protein kinase. Neuropharmacol 36, 1377- ... dependent protein kinase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 18111-18117 (1994). ...
SOK2 may regulate cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-stimulated growth and pseudohyphal development by repressing ... Target hub proteins serve as master regulators of development in yeast. Borneman, A.R., Leigh-Bell, J.A., Yu, H., Bertone, P., ... In Saccharomyces, this switch is controlled by two regulatory proteins, Ste12p and Phd1p [1]. ... PHD1 maps to chromosome XI and is predicted to encode a 366-amino-acid protein [4]. ...
Tissue distribution of the AMP-activated protein kinase, and lack of activation by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase, studied ... Purification and characterization of the AMP-activated protein kinase. Copurification of acetyl-CoA carboxylase kinase and 3- ... Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action. Gaochao Zhou,1 Robert Myers,1 Ying Li,1 Yuli Chen,1 ... AMP-activated protein kinase, a metabolic master switch: possible roles in type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol 1999. 277:E1-E10. View ...
... responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) plays an important role in cognitive functions. In this study, we hypothesized ... responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) plays an important role in cognitive functions. In this study, we hypothesized ... Quinn, P. G., and Granner, D. K. (1990). Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase regulates transcription of the phosphoenolpyruvate ... Sands, W. A., and Palmer, T. M. (2008). Regulating gene transcription in response to cyclic AMP elevation. Cell. Signal. 20, ...
... including a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-responsive transcriptional activator and antagonist. Mol Cell Biol 15: 5123- ... We used a monoclonal antibody raised against the dCREB2-b protein (Belvin et al., 1999) to analyze dCREB2 protein expression in ... we assayed protein extracts from flies expressing the dCREB2-a full-length protein from a transgene that was corrected for the ... Does cAMP response element-binding protein have a pivotal role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent ...
... cyclic AMP agonist). No metabolic side effects as observed with ,a href=/no_cache/products/eshop/product/C_007/,8-Cl-cAMP,/a ... 5. Beaver C. J., Ji Q. H., Fischer Q. S.Daw N. W., Nature Neurosci., 4, 159 - 163 (2001), "Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase ... "Blockade of Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase does not Prevent the Reverse Ocular Dominance Shift in Kitten Visiual Cortex" ... Metabolically resistant activator of protein kinase A (cyclic AMP agonist). No metabolic side effects as observed with 8-Cl- ...
Tissue distribution of the AMP-activated protein kinase, and lack of activation by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase, studied ... Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta is an alternative upstream kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase ... The Ca2+/calmoldulin-dependent protein kinase kinases are AMP-activated protein kinase kinases ... hepatocytes is due to phosphorylation by the AMP-activated protein kinase and not cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ...
Steady-State Modulation of Voltage-Gated K+ Channels in Rat Arterial Smooth Muscle by Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase and ... Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase. By biological activity:. Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase Substrate. By catalog ... A novel phospho-modulatory mechanism contributes to the calcium-dependent regulation of T-type Ca2+ channels: J. Chemin, et al ... Protein Phosphatase 2B: J.L. Brignell, et al.; PLoS One 10, e0121285 (2015), Application(s): Cell Culture, Abstract; Full Text ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases Medicine & Life Sciences 61% * Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Medicine & Life Sciences 61% ... Tec kinase stimulates cell survival in transfected Hek293T cells and is regulated by the anti-apoptotic growth factor IGF-I in ... 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2-O-methyladenosine-3-5-cyclic monophosphate Medicine & Life Sciences 47% ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases 6% * Lysine 6% * 運用凝血?作為基楚之癒合組織工程:與韌帶及肌腱組織癒合為例. Hsieh, M. ... CAAT/enhancer binding protein beta訊息路徑參與thrombin誘導人類肺部上皮細胞IL-8/CXCL8表現之研究(3/3). Chen, B. ... Study the role of the endoplasmic reticulum stress related proteins, Glycoprotein 96(GP96), in liver cancer progression
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases 28% * Cold Temperature 12% 8 Scopus citations ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases 67% * Phosphotransferases 50% 74 引文 斯高帕斯(Scopus) ... protein kinase A, IκB kinase, and NF-κB. Chen, B. C., Liao, C. C., Hsu, M. J., Liao, Y. T., Lin, C-C., Sheu, J. R. & Lin, C-H. ... P53-dependent downregulation of hTERT protein expression and telomerase activity induces senescence in lung cancer cells as a ... Pb2+ induced IL-8 gene expression by extracellular signal-regulated kinases and the transcription factor, activator protein 1, ...
Then you get cyclic AMP. It activates a so-called cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase A. That phosphorylates specifically ... The insulin receptor is a tyrosine kinase. This is different from the G protein coupled receptors that go into the cyclic AMP ... He was the first to purify the first G protein, the one that is involved with stimulation of cyclic AMP. He took the Rodbell ... Theyre a family of different G proteins, which in turn lead to different kinds of second messengers, not just cyclic AMP, and ...
... in beta-catenins role as a co-transcriptional factor with the DNA binding proteins TCF (T cell factor) and LEF-1 (lymphoid ... Phosphorylation of beta-catenin by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase stabilizes beta-catenin through inhibition of its ... and the serine/threonine kinases casein kinase 1α (CK-1α) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) mediates phosphorylation of β- ... NARF, an nemo-like kinase (NLK)-associated ring finger protein regulates the ubiquitylation and degradation of T cell factor/ ...
Salicylic acid and aspirin inhibit the activity of RSK2 kinase and repress RSK2-dependent transcription of cyclic AMP response ... element binding protein- and NF-kappa B-responsive genes. ... kinase and repress RSK2-dependent transcription of cyclic AMP ... inhibit the activity of RSK2 kinase and repress RSK2-dependent transcription of cyclic AMP response element binding protein- ... a 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase with a critical role as an effector of the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and a ...
... of recombinant tau by the paired-helical filament-associated protein kinase is dependent on cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... of recombinant tau by the paired-helical filament-associated protein kinase is dependent on cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylations on tau in Alzheimers disease. J Neurosci. 1999 Sep 1;19(17):7486-94. PubMed. ... Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation and microtubule binding of tau protein stably transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases Medicine & Life Sciences 18% View full fingerprint ... Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are two intracellular receptors that ... N2 - Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are two intracellular receptors ... AB - Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are two intracellular receptors ...
  • Since the exact sites of receptor phosphorylation by beta-ARK are poorly defined, the identification of substrate amino acids that are critical to phosphorylation by the kinase are also unknown. (
  • Removal of the negatively charged amino acids surrounding a cluster of serines in this alpha 2-peptide resulted in a complete loss of phosphorylation by the kinase. (
  • Comparing a variety of kinases, only rhodopsin kinase and casein kinase II exhibited significant phosphorylation of the acidic peptides. (
  • Phosphorylation of proteins is an essential signalling mechanism in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. (
  • We have used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effect of phosphorylation and mutation on the cytoplasmic domain of phospholamban (PLB), a 52-residue protein that regulates the calcium pump in cardiac muscle. (
  • Phosphorylation and flexibility of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) using P-31 NMR Spectroscopy. (
  • The increase in synaptic currents is dependent upon an increase in newly synthesized cell surface synaptic GABA A receptors and is abolished by preventing CaMKII phosphorylation of GABA A receptors. (
  • This form of dCREB is thought to activate changes in gene expression in response to intracellular elevations of cAMP and phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). (
  • A casual decision made one evening in 1976, in a bar near the Biochemistry Department at the University of Dundee, led me to start my personal research journey by following up a paper that suggested that acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (believed to be a key regulatory enzyme of fatty acid synthesis) was inactivated by phosphorylation by what appeared to be a novel, cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase. (
  • NSAIDs inhibited the activity of purified RSK2 kinase in vitro and of RSK2 in mammalian cells and suppressed the phosphorylation of RSK2 substrates cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and I-kappa B alpha in vivo. (
  • Additionally, NaSal inhibited the phosphorylation by RSK2 of CREB and I-kappa B alpha on residues crucial for their transcriptional activity in vivo and thus repressed CREB and NF-kappa B-dependent transcription. (
  • Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation, to name but a few, have evolved to diversify the functions of a single protein and account for the vast increase in proteome complexity and functional diversity 1 . (
  • In the absence of Wnt binding to the co-receptor complex of Frizzled (Fz) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRP) 5 and 6, a multi-protein destruction complex consisting of the scaffolding/tumor suppressor proteins Axin and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and the serine/threonine kinases casein kinase 1α (CK-1α) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) mediates phosphorylation of β-catenin 2,3,9 . (
  • Upon phosphorylation, the E3 ubiquitin ligase β-transducin repeats containing protein (β-TrCP) ubiquitinates phospho-β-catenin on Lys19 and Lys49 13,14 , which leads to proteasomal destruction and low β-catenin levels and activity 15,16 . (
  • Stabilization occurs through partial inhibition of CK-1α and GSK318, inhibition of β-TrCP20, phosphorylation of five highly conserved PPPSP motifs in LRP6's intracellular domain 21,22 (Fig.1), and subsequent aggregation of these Wnt signaling proteins. (
  • Protein phosphorylation can be a potentially significant mechanism to explain rapid and multiple physiological and biochemical changes linked to PSS-dependent muscle-to-meat conversion. (
  • Noticeable and statistically significant differences in the extent of protein phosphorylation were detected between sample groups at the qualitative and quantitative levels. (
  • However, fast skeletal myosin light chain 2 followed by troponin T, F-actin-capping and small heat shock proteins showed the greatest phosphorylation change, and therefore they were the most important phosphoproteins underlying LT muscle conversion to DFD meat in the Rubia Gallega breed. (
  • Phosphorylation is a ubiquitous protein post-translational modification that regulates a plethora of fundamental cell processes such as signal transduction pathways, cell cycle and apoptosis [ 1 ]. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD by mitochondria-anchored protein kinase A'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (
  • A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. (
  • this enzyme catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of 5-InsP7 to at least one 1,5-InsP8. (
  • The binding of IQ 1 to PR72/130 leads to decreased phosphorylation of the coactivator protein p300 at Ser-89. (
  • Crystal structures of catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in complex with isoquinolinesulfonyl protein kinase inhibitors H7, H8, and H89. (
  • Localization of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent. (
  • Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene in Japanese patients with several adrenal adenomas secreting cortisol [Rapid Communication]. (
  • PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) mediates several signal transduction pathways in hepatocytes, including some involved in the regulation of vesicle trafficking. (
  • Our results suggest that PI3K activation is involved in the glucagon-dependent signal transduction pathways leading to hepatocyte AQP8 translocation. (
  • The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway has been shown to play an essential role in memory and cognitive abilities ( Kandel, 2012 ). (
  • This led me to define and name the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway, on which I am still working 46 years later. (
  • Our findings indicate that ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2), a 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase with a critical role as an effector of the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and a regulator of immediate early gene transcription is a target for inhibition by the NSAIDs. (
  • The protein factor β2-microglobulin (β2M), purified from the conditioned medium of human prostate cancer cell lines, stimulated growth and enhanced osteocalcin (OC) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) gene expression in human prostate cancer cells by activating a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A signaling pathway. (
  • The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta-ARK) phosphorylates G protein coupled receptors in an agonist-dependent manner. (
  • Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are two intracellular receptors that mediate the effects of the prototypic second messenger cAMP. (
  • Finally, the structure provides a basis for rationalizing the effects of kinase mutations in FGF receptors that lead to developmental disorders in nematodes and humans. (
  • [ 40 , 47 ] Two recent studies identified STING and the cytoplasmic helicase DDX41 as host cell receptors for c-di-AMP and c-di-GMP. (
  • Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition. (
  • Natural product inhibitors of protein-protein interactions mediated by Src-family SH2 domains. (
  • Of these, the H series protein kinase inhibitors (1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), N-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H8) N-[2-(p-Bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H89)) are frequently used to block signaling pathways in studies of cellular regulation. (
  • The conservation of the ATP-binding site of protein kinases allows evaluation of factors governing general selectivity of these inhibitors among kinases. (
  • These results should assist efforts in the design of protein kinase inhibitors with specific properties. (
  • Expansion of the genetic code enables design of a novel "gold'' class of green fluorescent proteins. (
  • The kinase domains that define this group of enzymes contain 12 conserved subdomains that fold into a common catalytic core structure, as revealed by the 3-dimensional structures of several protein-serine kinases. (
  • There are two main subdivisions within the superfamily: the protein-serine/threonine kinases and the protein-tyrosine kinases. (
  • XIV" YNL224C 2 15 16 YNL224C "Ynl224cp,XIV" YNL238W 2 15 17 YNL238W "Ca2+-dependent serine protease,XIV" YNL240C 2 15 18 YNL240C "Nar1p,XIV" YNL242W 2 15 19 YNL242W "Required for sporulation. (
  • The crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1K) has been determined in its unliganded form to 2.0 angstroms resolution and in complex with with an ATP analog to 2.3 angstrosms A resolution. (
  • Several features distinguish the structure of FGFR1K from that of the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor. (
  • Residues in the activation loop of FGFR1K appear to interfere with substrate peptide binding but not with ATP binding, revealing a second and perhaps more general autoinhibitory mechanism for receptor tyrosine kinases. (
  • Although these studies firmly link the activation of cytoplasmic cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase to the IgE receptor-initiated transmembrane activation of adenylate cyclase. (
  • The PKA-dependent transcriptional activity of the dCREB2-a and dCREB2-b isoforms was tested in F9 cells. (
  • Significantly changed phosphoproteins involved a variable number of isoforms of 13 myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic nonredundant proteins. (
  • Hepatocytes express the water channel AQP8 (aquaporin-8) predominantly in an intracellular location, and it redistributes to the canalicular membrane, upon stimulation with the hormone glucagon, by a cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanism. (
  • Filamin A (FLNA) is a ubiquitously expressed actin-crosslinking protein that also serves as an intracellular signalling scaffold. (
  • An intracellular-signaling kinase that plays a role in regulating APOPTOSIS . (
  • Salicylic acid and aspirin inhibit the activity of RSK2 kinase and repress RSK2-dependent transcription of cyclic AMP response element binding protein- and NF-kappa B-responsive genes. (
  • In canonical Wnt-mediated signaling, β-catenin is a key effector and interacts, as a co-transcription factor, with the DNA binding proteins TCF (T cell factor) and LEF-1 (lymphoid enhancer factor 1) to activate the transcription of Wnt/β-catenin target genes including cyclin D1, c-jun, and c-myc 8-11 (Fig. 1). (
  • One observation that's particularly illustrative may be the altered amount of transcription of over 900 genes (2-fold transformation in appearance), following deletion of (a PPIP5K homologue) in person in the inositol phosphate kinase signaling family members. (
  • When β2M was overexpressed in prostate cancer cells, it induced explosive tumor growth in mouse bone through increased phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and activated CREB target gene expression, including OC, BSP, cyclin A, cyclin D1, and vascular endothelial growth factor. (
  • In this paper we used five bait-prey protein interaction pairs and three enzymes to optimize the washing, drying, and storage conditions for protein arrays. (
  • A classification scheme can be founded on a kinase domain phylogeny, which reveals families of enzymes that have related substrate specificities and modes of regulation. (
  • The eukaryotic protein kinases make up a large superfamily of homologous proteins. (
  • Conversely, incubation with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor dideoxyadenosine, with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor N-[2-(p-Bromocinnamyl-amino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride (H89), or with the Golgi-disturbing agent brefeldin A, blocked the ability of forskolin to facilitate the inhibitory actions of ME. (
  • Our testing strategy could be generally appropriate to inhibitor finding campaigns for additional inositol phosphate kinases. (
  • The protein arrays for the study were fabricated by combining HaloTag technology and cell-free protein expression. (
  • The HaloTag technology, in combination with cell-free expression, allowed rapid expression and immobilization of fusion proteins on hydrogel-coated glass slides directly from cell extracts without any prior purification. (
  • These experiments suggest that RSK2 is a target for NSAIDs in the inhibition of monocyte-specific gene expression and indicate the importance of RSK2 and related kinases in cell regulation, indicating a new area for anti-inflammatory drug discovery. (
  • Expression of PIM1 protein in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. (
  • We evaluated receptor mRNA and protein expression levels and effects of octreotide, pasireotide, and cabergoline on ACTH secretion by cultured human corticotroph adenoma cells. (
  • There were no statistically significant differences in sst 5 and D 2 R mRNA expression or in sst 2 , sst 5 , and D 2 R protein expression between both groups of corticotroph adenomas. (
  • Whether sustained normocortisolism induced by medical therapy induces re-expression of functional sst 2 protein in corticotroph adenomas and whether this increases the ACTH-lowering potency of octreotide remains to be established. (
  • Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to assess mRNA and protein expression of cartonectin. (
  • They are related by virtue of their kinase domains (also known as catalytic domains), which consist of approximately 250-300 amino acid residues. (
  • Intro Inositol phosphate kinases (IP3K, IPMK, ITPK1, IP5K, IP6K and PPIP5K) perform several biological procedures through their involvement inside a carefully-regulated, metabolic network that changes phospholipase C-derived Ins(1,4,5)P3 into a range of even more extremely phosphorylated cell-signaling substances [1C3]. (
  • Using the nucleotide-binding sites of proteins TNR kinases specifically at heart as drug-targets, several chemical libraries have already been curated that consist of substances either knownor forecasted and purified to homogeneity [8]. (
  • His discoveries paved the way for the first Alzheimer's drugs and uncovered the startling complexity of the tau protein and its role in Alzheimer's and other tauopathies. (
  • Up to now, research in to the biology of inositol phosphate kinases continues to be well-served by hereditary research, including gene knock-outs both in microorganisms and cultured cells. (
  • Provided the limited precedent, collection of a suitable collection to screen a fresh class of focus on, such as for example an inositol phosphate kinase, is certainly a critical element of the complete HTS technique. (
  • Our selection of a collection was influenced with the recognition the fact that substrate binding storage compartments of inositol phosphate kinases are extremely electropositive buy Protopanaxatriol [7,8,21,22]. (
  • For the existing research we posited the fact that even more hydrophobic nucleotide-binding site of the inositol phosphate kinase would provide a possibly even more tractable focus on [23]. (
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain structure and classification. (
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether the increased AKT or MAPK kinase-1/2 (MEK1/2) activity observed in endometriotic stromal cells (OSIS) from ovarian endometriomas influences levels of PR protein. (
  • Protein kinase in cultured cells using a specific antibody. (
  • Upon T cell activation of human peripheral blood T cells, we found that the majority of cAMP was generated in T cell lipid rafts followed by activation of protein kinase A. However, upon TCR and CD28 coligation, beta-arrestin in complex with cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) was recruited to lipid rafts which down-regulated cAMP levels. (
  • Inhibiting AKT with MK-2206 or MEK1/2 with U0126 for 24 hours in the absence of R5020 increased total and nuclear PRA and PRB protein levels in OSIS but not in eutopic endometrial stromal cells from disease-free patients from disease-free patients. (
  • The previously observed linear relationship between the attenuation in the monophasic rise in cyclic AMP and the quantity of mediator release in the presence of incremental concentrations of the adenosine analogue 2',5',-dideoxyadenosine, DDA, which is known to inhibit adenylate cyclase, indicated a direct relationship between receptor perturbation, transmembrane activation of adenylate cyclase, and granule secretion. (
  • The role of cyclic AMP as a second messenger in this sequence is now apparent from the linear relationship between net percent mediator release and net percent activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase isoenzyme when IgE-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase is suppressed by incremental quantities of DDA. (
  • There was a comparable percent activation of both types I and II mast cell cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase isoenzymes with anti-IgE-induced activation and secretion, and there was a parallel suppression of the activation of both isoenzymes in the presence of DDA. (
  • The strongest genetic risk factor is the presence of the epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene, which encodes a protein that has a crucial role in cholesterol metabolism. (
  • Although several studies have focused on the stability of immobilized antibodies in antibody microarrays, studies on protein-protein interaction arrays and enzyme arrays are lacking. (
  • SOK2 may regulate cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-stimulated growth and pseudohyphal development by repressing transcription. (
  • The discovery of several hundred different protein kinases involved in highly diverse cellular signaling pathways is in stark contrast to the much smaller number of known modulators of cell signaling. (
  • The data suggested that the dCREB2-a isoform functioned as a PKA-dependent activator, whereas dCREB2-b functioned as a repressor of PKA-dependent activation by the dCREB2-a. (
  • NMR-spektroskopische Studien zur strukturellen Dynamik des Grün-fluoreszierenden Proteins und der cAMP-abhängigen Protein Kinase. (
  • Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) plays an important role in cognitive functions. (
  • In Drosophila, the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein 2 (dCREB2) has been reported to modulate the formation of long-term olfactory memory (LTM). (
  • Whereas inhibition of protein kinase A increased TCR-induced immune responses, inhibition of PDE4 blunted T cell cytokine production. (
  • Inhibition of AKT or MEK1/2 increased total and nuclear PR protein in OSIS. (
  • Basidiocarps of A. hygrometricus are rich in proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, crude fibre and essential amino acids with lower concentration of fat. (
  • Basidiocarp of this macrofungi contains considerable amount of carbohydrate, protein, fibre, minerals, vitamins, essential amino acids and very minute concentration of fat. (
  • 4 Edible mushrooms are low calorie-low fat food supplement with generous amount of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals amino acids 5 and dietary fibre. (
  • For protein microarrays, maintaining protein stability during the slide processing steps of washing, drying, and storage is of major concern. (
  • Kinases can cause posttranslational modifications of the progesterone receptor (PR) to influence cellular localization and protein stability. (
  • Conversely, in the presence of Wnt binding, the scaffold protein Dishevelled (Dvl) is recruited to the Fz-LRP5/6 co-receptor complex, which activates a sequence of molecular signals that inhibit the destruction complex and result in stabilization of unphosphorylated, cytosolic β-catenin and β-catenin-dependent transcription 2,3,17-19 . (
  • The resulting postsynaptic Ca 2+ entry via voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels activates Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (
  • Mast cell mediator release as a function of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activation. (
  • Importantly, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor protein TRIF is required for both inflammasome activation and IFN-β production, indicating its central role in the detection of microbial viability. (