An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).

Intracellular signalling: PDK1--a kinase at the hub of things. (1/7238)

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is at the hub of many signalling pathways, activating PKB and PKC isoenzymes, as well as p70 S6 kinase and perhaps PKA. PDK1 action is determined by colocalization with substrate and by target site availability, features that may enable it to operate in both resting and stimulated cells.  (+info)

The MAP kinase ERK2 inhibits the cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase HSPDE4D3 by phosphorylating it at Ser579. (2/7238)

The extracellular receptor stimulated kinase ERK2 (p42(MAPK))-phosphorylated human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 at Ser579 and profoundly reduced ( approximately 75%) its activity. These effects could be reversed by the action of protein phosphatase PP1. The inhibitory state of PDE4D3, engendered by ERK2 phosphorylation, was mimicked by the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3. In COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3, challenge with epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused the phosphorylation and inhibition of PDE4D3. This effect was blocked by the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and was not apparent using the Ser579-->Ala mutant form of PDE4D3. Challenge of HEK293 and F442A cells with EGF led to the PD98059-ablatable inhibition of endogenous PDE4D3 and PDE4D5 activities. EGF challenge of COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3 increased cAMP levels through a process ablated by PD98059. The activity of the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3 was increased by PKA phosphorylation. The transient form of the EGF-induced inhibition of PDE4D3 is thus suggested to be due to feedback regulation by PKA causing the ablation of the ERK2-induced inhibition of PDE4D3. We identify a novel means of cross-talk between the cAMP and ERK signalling pathways whereby cell stimuli that lead to ERK2 activation may modulate cAMP signalling.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the DNA repair protein APE/REF-1 by CKII affects redox regulation of AP-1. (3/7238)

The DNA repair protein apurinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) exerts several physiological functions such as cleavage of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and redox regulation of the transcription factor AP-1, whose activation is part of the cellular response to DNA damaging treatments. Here we demonstrate that APE/Ref-1 is phosphorylated by casein kinase II (CKII). This was shown for both the recombinant APE/Ref-1 protein (Km=0.55 mM) and for APE/Ref-1 expressed in COS cells. Phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 did not alter the repair activity of the enzyme, whereas it stimulated its redox capability towards AP-1, thus promoting DNA binding activity of AP-1. Inhibition of CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 blocked mutagen-stimulated increase in AP-1 binding. It also abrogated the induction of c-Jun protein and rendered cells more sensitive to induced DNA damage. Thus, phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 appears to be involved in regulating the different physiological activities of the enzyme. CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 and concomitant increase in AP-1 binding activity appears to be a novel mechanism of cellular stress response, forcing transcription of AP-1 target gene(s) the product(s) of which may exert protective function.  (+info)

A novel interaction mechanism accounting for different acylphosphatase effects on cardiac and fast twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pumps. (4/7238)

In cardiac and skeletal muscle Ca2+ translocation from cytoplasm into sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is accomplished by different Ca2+-ATPases whose functioning involves the formation and decomposition of an acylphosphorylated phosphoenzyme intermediate (EP). In this study we found that acylphosphatase, an enzyme well represented in muscular tissues and which actively hydrolyzes EP, had different effects on heart (SERCA2a) and fast twitch skeletal muscle SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1). With physiological acylphosphatase concentrations SERCA2a exhibited a parallel increase in the rates of both ATP hydrolysis and Ca2+ transport; in contrast, SERCA1 appeared to be uncoupled since the stimulation of ATP hydrolysis matched an inhibition of Ca2+ pump. These different effects probably depend on phospholamban, which is associated with SERCA2a but not SERCA1. Consistent with this view, the present study suggests that acylphosphatase-induced stimulation of SERCA2a, in addition to an enhanced EP hydrolysis, may be due to a displacement of phospholamban, thus to a removal of its inhibitory effect.  (+info)

PrKX is a novel catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulated by the regulatory subunit type I. (5/7238)

The human X chromosome-encoded protein kinase X (PrKX) belongs to the family of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. The catalytically active recombinant enzyme expressed in COS cells phosphorylates the heptapeptide Kemptide (LRRASLG) with a specific activity of 1.5 micromol/(min.mg). Using surface plasmon resonance, high affinity interactions were demonstrated with the regulatory subunit type I (RIalpha) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (KD = 10 nM) and the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor (KD = 15 nM), but not with the type II regulatory subunit (RIIalpha, KD = 2.3 microM) under physiological conditions. Kemptide and autophosphorylation activities of PrKX are strongly inhibited by the RIalpha subunit and by protein kinase inhibitor in vitro, but only weakly by the RIIalpha subunit. The inhibition by the RIalpha subunit is reversed by addition of nanomolar concentrations of cAMP (Ka = 40 nM), thus demonstrating that PrKX is a novel, type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase that is activated at lower cAMP concentrations than the holoenzyme with the Calpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Microinjection data clearly indicate that the type I R subunit but not type II binds to PrKX in vivo, preventing the translocation of PrKX to the nucleus in the absence of cAMP. The RIIalpha subunit is an excellent substrate for PrKX and is phosphorylated in vitro in a cAMP-independent manner. We discuss how PrKX can modulate the cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathway by preferential binding to the RIalpha subunit and by phosphorylating the RIIalpha subunit in the absence of cAMP.  (+info)

Prior exposure to neurotrophins blocks inhibition of axonal regeneration by MAG and myelin via a cAMP-dependent mechanism. (6/7238)

MAG is a potent inhibitor of axonal regeneration. Here, inhibition by MAG, and myelin in general, is blocked if neurons are exposed to neurotrophins before encountering the inhibitor; priming cerebellar neurons with BDNF or GDNF, but not NGF, or priming DRG neurons with any of these neurotrophins blocks inhibition by MAG/myelin. Dibutyryl cAMP also overcomes inhibition by MAG/myelin, and cAMP is elevated by neurotrophins. A PKA inhibitor present during priming abrogates the block of inhibition. Finally, if neurons are exposed to MAG/myelin and neurotrophins simultaneously, but with the Gi protein inhibitor, inhibition is blocked. We suggest that priming neurons with particular neurotrophins elevates cAMP and activates PKA, which blocks subsequent inhibition of regeneration and that priming is required because MAG/myelin activates a Gi protein, which blocks increases in cAMP. This is important for encouraging axons to regrow in vivo.  (+info)

Mechanisms for generating the autonomous cAMP-dependent protein kinase required for long-term facilitation in Aplysia. (7/7238)

The formation of a persistently active cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for establishing long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia. The injection of bovine catalytic (C) subunits into sensory neurons is sufficient to produce protein synthesis-dependent LTF. Early in the LTF induced by serotonin (5-HT), an autonomous PKA is generated through the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis of regulatory (R) subunits. The degradation of R occurs during an early time window and appears to be a key function of proteasomes in LTF. Lactacystin, a specific proteasome inhibitor, blocks the facilitation induced by 5-HT, and this block is rescued by injecting C subunits. R is degraded through an allosteric mechanism requiring an elevation of cAMP coincident with the induction of a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase.  (+info)

Marker genes of decidualization: activation of the decidual prolactin gene. (8/7238)

Decidualization of human endometrial stromal (ES) cells in vitro is induced by cAMP analogues and ligands that elevate cellular cAMP levels in a manner resembling the gonadotrophins, prostaglandin E2 and relaxin (RLX). This differentiation process is marked by the onset of decidual prolactin (PRL) production in the late luteal phase of the cycle. Using transfection assays and a primary ES cell culture system, we have demonstrated that decidual PRL gene transcription is driven by an alternative upstream promoter (dPRL), approximately 6 kb upstream of the pituitary transcription start site. In primary cell cultures, RLX not only acutely but also permanently elevated cellular cAMP levels and induced PRL secretion after 6 days. Northern and Western blot analyses revealed all regulatory subunit isoforms (RIalpha, RIbeta, RIIalpha, RIIbeta) and catalytic subunits Calpha and Cbeta of protein kinase A (PKA) in ES cells. Transcript levels of PKA subunit isoforms are not altered during decidualization, but in decidualized ES cells exposed to elevated cellular cAMP levels by stimulation with RLX for >6 days, RIalpha protein levels were significantly reduced, whereas levels of all other forms remained unchanged. Reducing the availability of R subunits changed the R:C subunit ratio in favour of C and increased kinase activity. In transient transfections of undifferentiated ES cells, the dPRL promoter was activated by 8-Br-cAMP and by C subunit (Cbeta) of PKA. This induction, and the differentiation-dependent activity of the dPRL promoter in transfected decidualized cells, was effectively abolished by the co-expression of protein kinase inhibitor (PKI). A fragment of 332 bp of 5'-flanking region of the dPRL transcription start site was sufficient to mediate full inducibility by cAMP. cAMP activation of the dPRL promoter in ES cells was biphasic as an initial weak induction within 12 hours was followed by a subsequent, much more intense induction after 12 hours. The secondary induction was not seen with a control construct driven by a consensus cAMP response element (CRE) linked to a minimal promoter. The early response of the dPRL promoter depended upon a non-palindromic CRE at position -12 and mutation of this sequence led to omission of the early, but not of the delayed, induction. The major activation of the dPRL promoter depended upon a different region between position -332 and -270 since its deletion significantly reduced inducibility by cAMP. Its action was probably indirect as its kinetics differed from classic CRE-mediated responses, and it was specific to ES cells.  (+info)

Cardiac myocyte ryanodine receptors (sarcoplasmic reticulum [SR] Ca release channel; cardiac ryanodine receptor [RyR2]) are localized in the junctional SR, in close proximity to L-type Ca channels (LTCCs) embedded in the membranes of the transverse (T)-tubules. This signaling microdomain has been termed the couplon,1 because it is here that excitation-contraction coupling takes place. As the heart fills with blood during diastole, RyR2 is stabilized in a closed state, allowing Ca uptake by the SR Ca ATPase to pump Ca from the cytoplasm into the SR, providing the primary source of Ca to activate the contractile apparatus during the next heart beat (systole). During systole, the cardiac action potential depolarizes the T-tubules and causes the opening of LTCCs. Ca influx through LTCCs elevates the [Ca] within the cytoplasmic space between the T-tubular and SR membrane, which promotes Ca binding to neighboring RyR2s, inducing some to open. Ca then moves out of the SR lumen into the subsarcolemmal, ...
Adenosine suppresses protein kinase A- and C-induced enhancement of glutamate release in the hippocampus.: Cultured hippocampal neurons from neonatal rats were
The data described above demonstrate a local PDE feedback regulation in cardiac myocytes whereby β1AR signals activate PDE4B3 via PKA-mediated phosphorylation. PKA-activated PDE4B, in turn, reduces the local steady-state cAMP concentration in a confined subsarcolemmal domain. The functional consequences of interrupting this feedback include increased PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Cav1.2 and RyR2, which is necessary for fine-tuning of ECC, a finding consistent with the cardiac phenotype of PDE4BKO mice (Leroy et al., 2011). Functional data on intracellular Ca2+ levels and contraction rate confirm the altered cAMP/PKA signaling in PDE4BKO myocytes. These conclusions are based on measurements of βAR-induced cAMP accumulation at the plasma membrane of PDE4BKO myocytes, the effects of acute PDE4B-selective inhibition in wild-type myocytes, the β1AR-dependent activation of PDE4B and the altered PKA-mediated phosphorylation of some, but not all substrates involved in Ca2+ homeostasis and ...
Voltage-gated sodium channels, which initiate action potentials in mammalian brain neurons, are modulated functionally by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), resulting in reduced sodium current amplitude. Comparing brain and muscle sodium channels, we show that only the brain channel is modulated by PKA. The brain sodium channel I-II linker is both necessary and sufficient for PKA modulation, as shown by exchanging the I-II linker regions of the two channels. PKA consensus sites in the brain channel I-II linker were eliminated by deletion and site-specific mutagenesis. The mutant channels demonstrated decreased levels of phosphorylation when metabolically labeled in oocytes with [gamma-32P]-ATP, and they did not respond with a reduction in current magnitude after PKA induction. Modulation of the brain channel by PKA phosphorylation was mimicked by adding fixed negative charges at the PKA consensus sites, suggesting that the decrease in current was a direct result of the negative charge at one ...
We have previously shown that the protein kinase inhibitor β (PKIβ) form of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor exists in multiple isoforms, some of which are specific inhibitors of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, whereas others also inhibit the cGMP-dependent enzyme [Kumar, Van Patten and Walsh (1997), J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20011-20020]. We have now demonstrated that the switch from a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-specific inhibitor to one with dual specificity arises as a consequence of alternate gene splicing. We have confirmed using bacterially produced pure protein that a single inhibitor species has dual specificity for both PKA and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), inhibiting each with very high and closely similar inhibitory potencies. The gene splicing converted a protein with 70 amino acids into one of 109 amino acids, and did not change the inhibitory potency to PKA, but changed it from a protein that had no detectable PKG inhibitory activity to one that now ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase complex, cytoplasm, nucleus, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, mitochondrion organization, protein kinase A signaling, protein phosphorylation, Ras protein signal transduction
Mediates cAMP-dependent signaling triggered by receptor binding to GPCRs. PKA activation regulates diverse cellular processes such as cell proliferation, the cell cycle, differentiation and regulation of microtubule dynamics, chromatin condensation and decondensation, nuclear envelope disassembly and reassembly, as well as regulation of intracellular transport mechanisms and ion flux. Regulates the abundance of compartmentalized pools of its regulatory subunits through phosphorylation of PJA2 which binds and ubiquitinates these subunits, leading to their subsequent proteolysis ...
Protein Kinase A-Dependent Derepression of the Human Prodynorphin Gene via Differential Binding to an Intragenic Silencer Element: Induction of the prodynorphin
Protein kinases are able to recognize their appropriate targets in a complex milieu of cellular protein. This process must be carried out with high fidelity to ensure proper signal transduction in eukaryotic cells (Hunter 2000). In this study, we attempted to obtain insight into this recognition by examining PKA variants that exhibit a stable association with substrates. This binding provided a facile assay that allowed us to identify domains in both enzyme and substrates that were important for PKA phosphorylation. The substrate domains identified were physically removed from the sites of phosphorylation and were required for efficient recognition by PKA both in vivo and in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, these studies are the first to show that such distal sequence elements in substrates are required for phosphorylation by PKA. These observations may help explain why only a fraction of proteins that contain a PKA consensus site are phosphorylated by this enzyme in vivo (Budovskayaet al. ...
Neuromodulators have profound effects on behavior, but the dynamics of their intracellular effectors has remained unclear. Most neuromodulators exert their function via G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). One major challenge for understanding neuromodulator action is the lack of dynamic readouts of the biochemical signals produced by GPCR activation. The adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) module is a central component of such biochemical signaling. This module is regulated by several behaviorally important neuromodulator receptors. Furthermore, PKA activity is necessary for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity as well as for the formation of long-term memory. In order to monitor PKA activity in brain tissue, we have developed a 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2pFLIM) compatible PKA sensor termed FLIM-AKAR, which is based on the ratiometric FRET sensor AKAR3. FLIM-AKAR shows a large dynamic range and little pH sensitivity. In addition, it is a ...
The first indication that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the β2AR might do more than simply desensitize the receptor by inhibiting its coupling to Gs was provided by Okamoto et al. (1991). They demonstrated that a short peptide derived from the third cytoplasmic loop of the β2AR effectively activated purified Gs but only very weakly activated Gi in vitro. This peptide contains one of the two consensus PKA phosphorylation sites found in the receptor. When the peptide was phosphorylated by PKA, its ability to activate Gs was dramatically reduced, whereas its ability to activate Gi was reciprocally increased.. These results are essentially identical to findings in recent in vitro reconstitution studies with the intact recombinant human β2AR and recombinant Gsand Gi (Zamah et al., 2002). Reconstituted native β2AR mediates robust activation of Gs but not Gi. When the receptor is phosphorylated in vitro by PKA, Gscoupling is reduced, but Gi activation is markedly enhanced. The results are ...
The major objective of the present study was to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which perturbations of the cAMP pathway regulate PKA subunit expression in neural cells. Indeed, the cAMP-induced down-regulation of PKA subunits described here contrasts with the findings reported for non-neural systems. In Sertoli cells, an extensively studied model system for PKA regulation (reviewed in Skålhegg and Taskén, 1997), activation of the cAMP pathway elevates PKA subunit protein levels along with a 2- to 4-fold increase in RIα, RIIα and Cα mRNA and a 50-fold increase in RIIβ mRNA. This up-regulation of mRNA levels involved both increased transcription and increased mRNA stability. In mouse epithelial cells (Lange-Carter and Malkinson, 1991), elevated levels of cAMP resulted in a similar increase in RIIβ mRNA but a decrease in mRNA for RIα and no change in that for RIIα. Earlier studies have suggested cAMP stimulated proteolytic degradation of C, but not R, subunits in ...
42 of the Chromas software package (Conor McCarthy, Southport, Australia). For all analyses, data obtained PLX3397 purchase with the forward and reverse primers were combined and aligned to the consensus sequence obtained from the BLAST GenBank database http://​www.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​nuccore/​166706780?​report=​genbank. Figure 1 Sequencing of the KRAS gene in DNA isolated from NSCLC tissues. (A) Wild type-(12Gly-GGT, 13Gly-GGC), (B) Mutant- (12Asp-GAT). Pyrosequencing In the pyrosequencing method for DNA sequence analysis [16, 17], inorganic phosphate released in the course of nucleotide incorporation serves as the initial substrate in a sequence of four. successive enzymatic reactions. This result in the emission of light, which functions as a signal that is proportional to the number of nucleotides incorporated. In this project, the PyroMark K-ras assay test (Biotage, Uppsala, Sweden) was used for primary amplification P005091 cost and pyrosequencing of both the 12th and ...
Intracellular Ca2+ cycling and associated signaling pathway in cardiomyocytes. On a beat-by-beat basis, a calcium transient is evoked by the initial influx of a small amount of Ca2+ through the LTCC and the subsequent large-scale Ca2+ release from the SR through the RyR. During diastole, cytosolic Ca2+ is taken up into the SR by the PLN-regulated SERCA2a pump. β receptor-mediated PKA stimulation regulates this Ca2+ cycling by phosphorylating LTCC, RyR, and PLN. In normal hearts, sympathetic stimulation activates β1-adrenergic receptor, which in turn stimulates the production of cAMP by adenylyl cyclase and thereby activates PKA. PKA phosphorylates PLN and RyR, both of which contribute to an increased intracellular Ca2+ transient and enhanced cellular contractility (pink zone signal). PP1 and PP2A regulate the dephosphorylation process of these Ca2+ regulatory proteins (RyR, PLN, LTCC) (blue zone signaling). Activation of the Gαq-coupled receptors (angiotensin II receptor, endothelin 1 ...
Second, the biological response to a second messenger can depend on the scaffolding complex that binds enzymes that synthesize or degrade the second messenger, and effectors (Figure 1B). There are numerous examples of this mode of operation in cells. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are known to localize cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to different subcellular compartments in the cell, thereby ensuring phosphorylation of PKA targets in the correct cellular vicinity.16 Some AKAPs have also been found to associate with cAMP-hydrolyzing PDE isoforms, thereby providing a mechanism for fine-tuning local cAMP levels and downstream effects of PKA.17 The PDE4D splice variant PDE4D3 binds to muscle-selective AKAP (mAKAP), and this association results in low cAMP levels and prevents PKA activation under basal conditions. Following stimulation of cAMP synthesis, however, PKA is activated and phosphorylates mAKAP. These phosphorylation events result in a more efficient PDE4D3 action, and provides a ...
In our work we develop and analyze an ordinary differential equation. model that describes the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) --Protein Kinase A (PKA) pathway in budding yeast. In particular our. model describes the effect of glucose stimulation on the concentration of cAMP in the short term,. and the effect of stress in the long term. We develop this model in. order to understand two specific experimental results, reported by. Ma et al. (1999) and Garmendia-Torres et al. (2007). In order to describe the. surprising results published by Ma et al. (1999) we make a key assumption. that three enzymes within the cAMP-PKA network compete with one. another for activation by PKA. This assumption sets our model apart. from previous models of the cAMP-PKA network.. Our model focuses on two forms of negative feedback that. drive oscillations in the concentration of cAMP. Under high or low. stress conditions (for example, following glucose stimulation) our model reduces to a single ...
The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA, has been proposed to regulate many aspects of β-cell biology, including insulin secretion, insulin synthesis, β-cell survival and β-cell proliferation. We have established β-caPKA mice, a model of tamoxifen-inducible PKA activity that is targeted specifically to the islet β-cells. We have shown that enhanced insulin secretion in β-caPKA mice tightens glucose control and that this not dependent upon increased β-cell mass. Enhanced insulin secretion and improved glucose control was maintained to 52 weeks of age but β-cell mass at 52 weeks of age did not differ between β-caPKA mice and littermate controls, indicating again that activation of PKA in the islet β-cells does not promote β-cell proliferation. To determine whether PKA activity is protective for β-cells, PKA activity was induced in β-caPKA mice, then streptozotocin was administered to induced β-cell destruction. Increasing PKA activity in β-cells protected them from ...
|P>PKA (Protein Kinase-A) is an enzyme that regulates processes as diverse as growth, development, memory, and metabolism. In its inactivated state, PKA exists as a tetrameric complex of two Catalytic subunits (PKA-C) and a Regulatory (PKA-R) subunit dimer. To date, [...]
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
1BKX: A binary complex of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and adenosine further defines conformational flexibility.
In the hippocampus, the cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) plays critical roles in neurotransmission, cell excitability, and synaptic plasticity.All of these p...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), ubiquitous in mammalian cells, regulates a plethora of cell processes including development, differentiation, memory, and m...
Sinerik Ayrapetyan-The Dysfunction of Camp-Dependent Na+/Ca2+ Exchange in Reverse Mode as a Primary Mechanism for Age-Dependent Cardio-Muscle Failure
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein kinase A-anchoring inhibitor peptides arrest mammalian sperm motility. AU - Vijayaraghavan, Srinivasan. AU - Goueli, Said A.. AU - Davey, Michael. AU - Carr, Daniel. PY - 1997/2/21. Y1 - 1997/2/21. N2 - Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is anchored at specific subcellular sites through the interaction of the regulatory subunit (R) with protein kinase A-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) via an amphipathic helix binding motif. Synthetic peptides containing this amphipathic helix domain competitively disrupt PKA binding to AKAPs and cause a loss of PKA modulation of cellular responses. In this report we use S-Ht31, a cell-permeant anchoring inhibitor peptide, to study the role of PKA anchoring in sperm. Our analysis of three species of mammalian sperm detected three isoforms of PKA (RIIα, RIIβ, and RIβ) and one 110-kDa AKAP. The addition of S-Ht31 to bovine caudal epididymal sperm inhibits motility in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. A control peptide, ...
Looking for online definition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the Medical Dictionary? cAMP-dependent protein kinase explanation free. What is cAMP-dependent protein kinase? Meaning of cAMP-dependent protein kinase medical term. What does cAMP-dependent protein kinase mean?
In the present study we demonstrated that IL-13, a Th2 cell-derived cytokine, is a potent arginase activator, and its induction of arginase contributes significantly to the suppression of NO production in LPS-activated macrophages. The increase in arginase activity is a result of de novo synthesis of arginase I mRNA and protein. Studies on the signaling molecules involved in arginase activation show that a surge in intracellular cAMP and the subsequent activation of PKA are obligatory for arginase induction. In addition, tyrosine kinases and p38 MAPK play a role in IL-13-induced arginase activation. To provide a perspective on our observations and conclusions, the results from the present study are discussed below in reference to previous findings regarding the signaling pathways involved in arginase activation and NO regulation by arginase.. In the present study despite the basal level of arginase I gene expression being detected in resting macrophages, arginase protein expression and enzyme ...
Lawler OA, Miggin SM, Kinsella BT (2001). Protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of serine 357 of the mouse prostacyclin receptor regulates its coupling to G(s)-, to G(i)-, and to G(q)-coupled effector signaling.. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (36): 33596-607. PMID 11443126. doi:10.1074/jbc.M104434200. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the bovine lens plasma membrane substrates for cAMP‐dependent protein kinase. AU - LOUIS, Charles F.. AU - JOHNSON, Ross. AU - JOHNSON, Keith. AU - TURNQUIST, Janet. PY - 1985/7. Y1 - 1985/7. N2 - cAMP‐dependent protein kinase, derived from either calf lens or bovine heart, promotes the phosphorylation of three lens plasma membrane proteins of molecular mass 28 kDa, 26 kDa and 18 kDa. Correlation of the maximal level of phosphorylation of these components with the Coomassie blue staining intensity of fractionated lens membranes suggests that the phosphorylation of the 28 kDa and 18 kDa components may be approximately stoichiometric. The protein kinase substrates could be dephosphorylated by a cardiac sarcoplasmic‐reticulum‐bound protein phosphatase activity. The 26 kDa component comigrated with MP26, the major lens membrane component that has been localized to the lens fiber cell junction. Treatment of phosphorylated lens membranes with chymotrypsin ...
cansSAR 3D Structure of 5N3F | CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE A FROM CRICETULUS GRISEUS IN COMPLEX WITH FRAGMENT LIKE MOLECULE N-[3-(AMINOMETHYL)PHENYL]ACETAMIDE | 5N3F_A | cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha - Also known as KAPCA_CRIGR, PRKACA. Phosphorylates a large number of substrates in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Regulates the abundance of compartmentalized pools of its regulatory subunits through phosphorylation of PJA2 which binds and ubiquitinates these subunits, leading to their subsequent proteolysis. Phosphorylates CDC25B, ABL1, NFKB1, CLDN3, PSMC5/RPT6, PJA2, RYR2, RORA and VASP. RORA is activated by phosphorylation. Required for glucose-mediated adipogenic differentiation increase and osteogenic differentiation inhibition from osteoblasts. Involved in the regulation of platelets in response to thrombin and collagen; maintains circulating platelets in a resting state by phosphorylating proteins in numerous platelet inhibitory pathways when in complex with NF-kappa-B
The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is involved in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Two regulatory and two catalytic subunits form the PKA holoenzyme, disbands after cAMP binding. The holoenzyme is involved in many cellular events, including ion transport, metabolism, and transcription. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015 ...
In the plant, filamentous growth is required for pathogenicity of the corn smut pathogen Ustilago maydis. Earlier, we identified a role for the cAMP signal transduction pathway in the switch between budding and filamentous growth for this fungus. A gene designated ubc1 (for Ustilago bypass of cyclase) was found to be required for filamentous growth and to encode the regulatory subunit of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Here, we show that ubc1 is important for the virulence of the pathogen. Specifically, ubc1 mutants are able to colonize maize plants and, like the wild-type pathogen, cause localized symptoms in association with the presence of hyphae. However, in contrast to plants infected with wild-type cells that often developed galls from initially chlorotic tissue, plants infected with the ubc1 mutant did not produce galls. These data suggest that PKA regulation is critical for the transition from saprophytic to pathogenic growth and from vegetative to reproductive development. Plate ...
The occurrence of endogenous substrate proteins for Ca2+-dependent protein kinase, augmented by either phospholipid or calmodulin, and for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was examined in homogenates and subcellular fractions of mouse pancreatic islets. Islet protein phosphorylation was enhanced by Ca2+-calmodulin; the major endogenous substrates in the homogenate were two proteins of Mr 53000 and 100000. The Mr-100000 phosphoprotein was localized to a 27000g-supernatant fraction, whereas the Mr-53000 phosphoprotein was present in a 27000g particulate fraction of mouse islets. In the presence of Ca2+, phosphatidylserine stimulated phosphorylation of 15 proteins, of Mr 17000-190000, in a 27000g-supernatant fraction. No effects of Ca2+ plus phosphatidylserine were observed in a 27000g particulate fraction of mouse islets. Examination of cyclic AMP-dependent protein phosphorylation revealed five substrate proteins, of Mr 23000-72000, present in the 27000g supernatant of mouse islets. No common ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning, characterization, and expression of the gene for the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in Caenorhabditis elegans. T2 - Identification of highly conserved and unique isoforms generated by alternative splicing. AU - Gross, Robert E.. AU - Bagchi, Srilata. AU - Lu, Xiangyi. AU - Rubin, Charles S.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans expresses substantial amounts of several forms (Mr values = 39,000-41,000) of the catalytic subunit (C) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Approximately 65% of the total cAMP-dependent phosphotransferase activity is recovered in particulate fractions of homogenates prepared from asynchronous populations of C. elegans. The C subunit is expressed at a low level in cytosolic and particulate compartments during embryogenesis. As the nematodes progress from late embryonic stages to the newly hatched, first larval (L1) stage, C subunit content increases 15-fold. High levels of C subunits are observed in ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PKIB gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor family. Studies of a similar protein in rat suggest that this protein may interact with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and act as a competitive inhibitor. At least three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000135549 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000019876 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Zheng L, Yu L, Tu Q, Zhang M, He H, Chen W, Gao J, Yu J, Wu Q, Zhao S (Jan 2001). Cloning and mapping of human PKIB and PKIG, and comparison of tissue expression patterns of three members of the protein kinase inhibitor family, including PKIA. Biochem J. 349 (Pt 2): 403-7. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3490403. PMC 1221161 . PMID 10880337. Entrez Gene: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of synaptic GABA(A) receptors by cAMP-dependent protein kinase in mouse cerebellar and olfactory bulb neurones. AU - Nusser, Zoltan. AU - Sieghart, Werner. AU - Mody, Istvan. PY - 1999/12/1. Y1 - 1999/12/1. N2 - 1. It has been demonstrated that the regulation of recombinant GABA(A) receptors by phosphorylation depends on the subunit composition. Here we studied the regulation of synaptic GABA(A) receptor function by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in neurones expressing distinct receptor subtypes. 2. Light microscopic immunocytochemistry revealed that granule cells of the olfactory bulb express only the β3 as the β subunit variant, whereas cerebellar stellate and basket cells express only the β2 as the β subunit. 3. In cerebellar interneurones, intracellular application of 20 μM microcystin, a protein phosphatase 1/2A inhibitor, prolonged (63 ± 14%; mean ± S.E.M.) the decay time course of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) without significantly affecting ...
A-kinase anchor protein 10, mitochondrial (AKAP-10) (Dual specificity A kinase-anchoring protein 2) (D-AKAP-2) (Protein kinase A-anchoring protein 10) (PRKA10), ...
We identified pka-C1 as a candidate for the gene mutated in Cos12, Cos13, Cos18, and Cos19. We detected sequence changes at the DNA level at the pka-C1 locus, and these changes translated to substitutions in the coding sequence. These point mutations could influence PKA activity in several possible ways. First, they could render PKA-C1 catalytically inactive and give dominant phenotypes due to haplo-insufficiency. Alternatively, the point mutations could destabilize the encoded protein to such a degree that the mutant protein would be degraded and thus function as a protein null. This scenario would also result in dominant phenotypes due to haplo-insufficiency. These haplo-insufficiency explanations are unlikely to be correct. pka-C1 is a recessive negative regulator of Hh signaling and heterozygosity for pka-C1 null alleles or for deficiencies that delete pka-C1 does not result in any obvious phenotype. Second, the mutations could render PKA-C1 constitutively active. The unregulated activity ...
Moen, Line Victoria; Ramberg, Håkon Andre; Zhao, Sen; Grytli, Helene Hartvedt; Sveen, Anita; Berge, Viktor; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Tasken, Kristin Austlid & Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen (2017). Observed correlation between the expression levels of catalytic subunit, C?2, of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and prostate cancer aggressiveness. Urologic Oncology. ISSN 1078-1439. 35(3), s 111.e1- 111.e8 . doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2016.10.002 Vis sammendrag Background As an intracellular human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is facing multiple stressful stimuli inside the macrophage and the granuloma. Understanding Mtb responses to stress is essential to identify new virulence factors and pathways that play a role in the survival of the tubercle bacillus. The main goal of this study was to map the regulatory networks of differentially expressed (DE) transcripts in Mtb upon various forms of genotoxic stress. We exposed Mtb cells to oxidative (H2O2 or paraquat), nitrosative ...
Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger involved in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes, a majority of which act through the cAMP - protein kinase A (PKA) signalling pathway and involve PKA phosphorylation of specific substrates. PKA phosphorylation events are typically spatially restricted and temporally well controlled. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) directly bind PKA and recruit it to specific subcellular loci targeting the kinase activity towards particular substrates, and thereby provide discrete spatiotemporal control of downstream phosphorylation events. AKAPs also scaffold other signalling molecules into multi-protein complexes that function as crossroads between different signalling pathways. Targeting AKAP coordinated protein complexes with high-affinity peptidomimetics or small molecules to tease apart distinct protein-protein interactions (PPIs) therefore offer important means to disrupt binding of specific components of the complex to better
Background The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling transduction pathway has been shown to play an important role in the modulation of several ethanol (EtOH)-induced behavioral actions. In vivo, short-term exposure to EtOH up-regulates the cAMP-signaling cascade. Interestingly, different Ca2+-dependent cAMP-PKA cascade mediators play a critical role in the neurobehavioral response to EtOH, being of special relevance to the Ca2+-dependent adenylyl cyclases 1 and 8. We hypothesize an intracellular PKA activation elicited by EtOH administration, which may be regulated by a Ca2+-dependent mechanism as an early cellular response. Thus, the present work aims to explore the role of Ca2+ (internal and external) on the EtOH-activated PKA cascade. Methods Swiss male mice received an intraperitoneal injection of EtOH (0 or 4 g/kg), and brains were dissected following a temporal pattern (7, 15, 30, 45, 90, or 120 minutes). Either the enzymatic PKA activity or its fingerprint was analyzed on ...
Similarly to AA-dependent calcium entry, NO-activated calcium signals triggered by direct application of NO donors are significantly affected on pretreatment with PKI (Fig. 5B and C).. We do not know the identity of AA- and NO-activated channel(s) in B-TECs, although some candidates can be considered. TRPV1 and TRPV4 (both expressed in B-TEC) 5 are regulated by fatty acids, including AA, and their metabolites. They are also modulated by NO through S-nitrosylation and sensitized by PKA phosphorylation (37-40). TRPC3 and TRPC6 are activated by fatty acids and substrate for nitrosylation as well, and the cAMP/PKA pathway could enhance their insertion into the plasma membrane (34). Finally, in m3-HEK cell line, the so-called arachidonate-regulated channels require PKA phosphorylation and are composed of Orai1 and Orai3 proteins (35, 41).. B-TECs could express two (or more than two) types of calcium-permeable, PKA-dependent ion channels: one activated by AA and another by NO. Such hypothesis is in ...
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab96186 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: WB,ICC/IF…cAMP Protein Kinase Catalytic subunit抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
In this issue of Acta Physiologica, Benz et al. study the role of one important protein in the cyclic AMP signaling pathway, the A-kinase anchoring (AKAP)12. The downstream effects stemming from cAMP release are tightly controlled and activate a profusion of signaling pathways. However, many of these different processes function with largely the same major constituent proteins, including adenylate cyclases, kinases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which is the main intracellular target for cAMP, is widely found in these signaling assemblies, and is present at high concentrations in many tissues, playing varied roles in the regulation of molecular processes. Unexpectedly, despite its ubiquity there are only four isoforms of PKA regulatory subunit with which to impart functional and locational specificity ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Doherty, P J.; Tsao, J; Schimmer, B P.; Mumby, M C.; and Beavo, J A., Alteration of the regulatory subunit of type 1 camp-dependent protein kinase in mutant y1 adrenal cells resistant to 8-bromoadenosine 3:5-monophosphate. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2372 ...
Amp protein powder review 2020, that happened after 12 weeks! Results amaze, side effects could be dangerous for some users | Important tips & pictures
Both types of reciprocal antagonistic A2A-D2 receptor interactions coexist in the same cells. In fact, under normal conditions, there is a strong tonic activation of D2 receptors that blocks the ability of A2A receptors to signal through the cAMP-PKA pathway. Conversely, the antagonistic A2A-D2 receptor interaction determines the ability of A2A receptors to control the inhibitory role of D2 receptors in neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release (Ferré et al., 2008).. In line with our previous studies (Calabresi et al., 1993; Picconi et al., 2004; Tozzi et al., 2007), we found that the application of D2 receptor agonists alone did not affect glutamate-mediated synaptic potentials/currents in striatal slices under physiological conditions. Conversely, simultaneous A2A receptor antagonism and D2 receptor activation resulted in a reduction of excitatory glutamatergic transmission. In our model, electrical stimulation of the slice mainly activates glutamatergic projections to the striatum. ...
Subcellular fractionation revealed that pp97, pp96 and pp64 are head protein whereas pp90 and pp55 are tail proteins. Advanced proteomic analysis (GeLC-MS) identified 37 proteins, including AKAP4, AKAP3, CALI, HSPAlL and HSP70 as candidates for the dephosphorylated proteins. AKAP4 was excluded because it was localised to the tail. Two AKAP3 antibodies showed non-specific binding and a better quality antibody will be needed for further investigations. CALI was excluded because it was localised to the tail fraction. HSP70/72 and HSPA1L were strong candidates for pp64. However, immunoprecipitation of dephosphorylated proteins using phospho (S/T) PKA substrate Ab and HSPA1L Ab was unsuccessful and further work is now required to address this.. ...
Zhao X, Nedvetsky P, Stanchi F, Vion AC, Popp O, Zühlke K, Dittmar G, Klussmann E, Gerhardt H. 2019. Endothelial PKA activity regulates angiogenesis by limiting autophagy through phosphorylation of ATG16L1. eLife 8:e46380. doi: 10.7554/eLife.46380.. Published 03, October 2019. We have discovered a panel duplication in Figure 4 supplement 1C and D. It appears that during reorganisation of this Figure supplement in the course of revisions, panel 1C was duplicated as 1D. The correct panel was present in the original version of the figure, showing the quantification of ESM1 positive area in 1D. We further discovered a small typesetting error in the method section which read ml/min instead of µl/min. We would like to correct these errors as follows. The corrections do not affect data or conclusions.. The corrected text (change is underlined):. Five microliters of the sample was loaded on a nano-LC column (0.074 × 250 mm, 3 mm Reprosil C18; Dr. Maisch) and separated on a 155 min gradient (4%-76% ...
Full-length recombinant human PRKX was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. PRKX is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is closely related to the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
Full-length recombinant human PRKX was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. PRKX is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is closely related to the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
Bacterial expression plasmid for GST tagged with a PKA phosphorylation site. Described in Ron D, Dressler H. pGSTag: a versatile bacterial expression plasmid for enzymatic labeling of recombinant proteins. Biotechniques. 1992 Dec;13(6):866-9. Erratum in: Biotechniques 1993 Feb;14(2):221. Plasmid sequence in EMBL format is available for downloading here. ...
Complete information for AKAP5 gene (Protein Coding), A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
20E transmits signals through the ErGPCR-cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway prior to the initiation of the gene expression through the EcR/UPS pathway
Camp Nursing, Camp nursing has its own unique twists: you are charged with the health care of many unknowns and this is where you can come to for answers. How do you... - pg. 7
ค่ายนี้เป็นค่ายระดับมัธยมศึกษา สำหรับเยาวชนที่สนใจการศึกษาต่อในสาขาชีวเคมี. จัดขึ้นเป็นครั้งแรกเมื่อเดือนมกราคม 2558 โดยนิสิตภาควิชาชีวเคมี คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย. ชมมิวสิควิดิโอ What is the pathway? ซึ่งจัดทำขึ้นโดยนิสิตภาควิชาชีวเคมี คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย. ...
Nguyen, P. V., & Woo, N. H. (2003). Regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. ... For example, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways appear to participate in neuronal ... cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein) in this process. Certain synapses on recruited neurons are more likely to ... The dendritic branch is the preferred integrative unit for protein synthesis-dependent LTP. Neuron 69, 132-146 (2011). Harvey, ...
"BRSK2 is activated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A through phosphorylation at Thr260". Biochemical and Biophysical ... BR serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BRSK2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "LKB1 is a master kinase that activates 13 kinases of the AMPK subfamily, including MARK/PAR-1". The EMBO Journal. 23 (4): 833- ... "Entrez Gene: BRSK2 BR serine/threonine kinase 2". Human BRSK2 genome location and BRSK2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ...
"Negative regulation of histone deacetylase 8 activity by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (2): 765- ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to class I of the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family. It has histone deacetylase ... HDAC8 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... Gantt SL, Gattis SG, Fierke CA (2006). "Catalytic activity and inhibition of human histone deacetylase 8 is dependent on the ...
"Platelet glycoprotein Ib beta is phosphorylated on serine 166 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (26 ... GP1BB protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... Du X, Harris SJ, Tetaz TJ, Ginsberg MH, Berndt MC (July 1994). "Association of a phospholipase A2 (14-3-3 protein) with the ... Du X, Harris SJ, Tetaz TJ, Ginsberg MH, Berndt MC (1994). "Association of a phospholipase A2 (14-3-3 protein) with the platelet ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACG gene. Cyclic AMP- ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ... "Characterization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Cgamma expressed and purified from sf9 cells". Protein ... "Entrez Gene: PRKACG protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma". Marx, S O; Reiken S; Hisamatsu Y; Jayaraman T; Burkhoff ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ser19 ( ... is phosphorylated by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. MAPKAPK2 (mitogen-activated-protein kinase-activating ... "Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for brain-specific 14-3-3 protein, a protein kinase-dependent activator of tyrosine and ...
Huang W, Zhou X, Lefebvre V, de Crombrugghe B (2000). "Phosphorylation of SOX9 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A ... SOX9 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SOX9 human gene location in the UCSC ... Transcription factor SOX-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOX9 gene. SOX-9 recognizes the sequence CCTTGAG along ... 1998). "Direct interaction of SRY-related protein SOX9 and steroidogenic factor 1 regulates transcription of the human anti- ...
This G-protein coupled receptor is Gs/a coupled and indirectly activates cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, stimulating the ... Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene. Based upon Northern blot and ... "Regulation of transport of the dopamine D1 receptor by a new membrane-associated ER protein". Nat. Cell Biol. 3 (5): 492-8. doi ...
... two sites on glycogen synthetase phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and their dephosphorylation by protein ... "A reinvestigation of the phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal-muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... protein kinase A (PKA), and casein kinase 2 (CK2). Each of these protein kinases lead to phosphorylated and catalytically ... Insulin stimulates glycogen synthase by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinases or/and activating protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) ...
... encodes a serine threonine protein kinase that has similarity to the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases ... Huang S, Li Q, Alberts I, Li X (2016). "PRKX, a Novel cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Member, Plays an Important Role in ... Protein kinase, X-linked is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRKX gene. This gene ... a phylogenetically and functionally distinct cAMP-dependent protein kinase, activates renal epithelial cell migration and ...
"MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc ... with serine/threonine protein kinases and heat shock protein HSP90 in human hematopoietic cell lines". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 ( ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
Expression of the promoter is shown to be induce by phorbol esters and cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase signaling. The four ... due to phosphorylation of Ser-460 by PKA or AMP-dependent protein kinase. The high '2-Kase' activity of PFKFB3 is also due to ... "Nuclear Targeting of 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3) Increases Proliferation via Cyclin-dependent Kinases". Journal of ... Manes NP, El-Maghrabi MR (June 2005). "The kinase activity of human brain 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase ...
Identification of four sites phosphorylated in intact cells and in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and p34cdc2". ... Regulation of stathmin is cell cycle dependent and controlled by the cell's protein kinases in response to specific cell ... Maucuer A, Camonis JH, Sobel A (April 1995). "Stathmin interaction with a putative kinase and coiled-coil-forming protein ... "Serine 25 of oncoprotein 18 is a major cytosolic target for the mitogen-activated protein kinase". The Journal of Biological ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases.[12][25] Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.[ ... is phosphorylated by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase.[27] MAPKAPK2 (mitogen-activated-protein kinase-activating ... Roskoski R, Roskoski LM (Jan 1987). "Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells by the cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP second ...
... of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on the beta 2 subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNB2 gene. Mutation in ... Bünemann M, Gerhardstein BL, Gao T, Hosey MM (1999). "Functional regulation of L-type calcium channels via protein kinase A- ... GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Brugada syndrome CACNB2 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... "A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) interaction and dimerization of the RIalpha and RIbeta regulatory subunits of protein kinase ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAR1A gene. cAMP ...
... cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This enzyme, in turn, activates ... The enzyme protein kinase A that was stimulated by the cascade initiated by glucagon will also phosphorylate a single serine ... The conformation change in the receptor activates G proteins, a heterotrimeric protein with α, β, and γ subunits. When the G ... When dissolved in a fluid state, glucagon can form amyloid fibrils, or tightly woven chains of proteins made up of the ...
... cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This enzyme, in turn, activates ... The enzyme protein kinase A that was stimulated by the cascade initiated by glucagon will also phosphorylate a single serine ... The conformation change in the receptor activates G proteins, a heterotrimeric protein with α, β, and γ subunits. When the G ... Insulin allows glucose to be taken up and used by insulin-dependent tissues. Thus, glucagon and insulin are part of a feedback ...
It is also a substrate for the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, calcium/calmodulin- dependent protein kinase II, and ... Lin AN, Barnes S, Wallace RW (1990). "Phosphorylation by protein kinase C inactivates an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation mechanism". EMBO J. 16 (8): 1943-52. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.8.1943. PMC ... 2006). "Down-regulation of 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A protein expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma". ...
Mayeenuddin LH, Garrison JC (Jan 2006). "Phosphorylation of P-Rex1 by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the ... 5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchanger 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PREX1 gene. The protein encoded ... 2007). "Membrane translocation of P-Rex1 is mediated by G protein betagamma subunits and phosphoinositide 3-kinase". J. Biol. ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ...
... or cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. 1992: Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1996: Elected to the ... She is known for her research on protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine ... Taylor's research group has focused on the structure and function of protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A, since ... "Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ...
... type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5 ... "Ezrin is a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring protein". The EMBO Journal. 16 (1): 35-43. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.1.35. ... "A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220 binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta ) and mediates protein kinase A-dependent ... Beebe SJ, Salomonsky P, Holroyd C, Becker D (Dec 1993). "Differential expression of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ...
Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinases family, and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2A calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II alpha". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, ... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ...
Misra, K. and Pandey, S.C. (2006). The decreased cyclic-AMP dependent-protein kinase A function in the nucleus accumbens: a ... Some of the kinase families currently linked to alcoholism are Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), protein ... Ethanol enhances growth factor activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Proc ... Ethanol exposure alters the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein and cyclic AMP responsive element ...
... two sites on glycogen synthetase phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and their dephosphorylation by protein ... "A reinvestigation of the phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal-muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Amino acid sequence at the sites phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase-3, and extension of the N-terminal sequence ... "The muscle-specific protein phosphatase PP1G/R(GL)(G(M))is essential for activation of glycogen synthase by exercise". J Biol ...
enlarged intracellular cyclic AMP will increase the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, that inhibits the ... cAMP decreases calcium concentrations within cells and activates protein kinase A. Both of these changes, inactivate myosin ... β adrenergic receptors are coupled to a stimulatory G protein of adenylyl cyclase. This enzyme produces the second messenger ... and decreased myosin light chain kinase activity leads to smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. Findings indicate that ...
1995). "Protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylate phospholemman, an insulin and adrenaline- ... The protein encoded by this gene is a plasma membrane substrate for several kinases, including protein kinase A, protein kinase ... 2000). "Phospholemman is a substrate for myotonic dystrophy protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (30): 23362-7. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... 2006). "Correlation of gene and protein structures in the FXYD family proteins". J. Mol. Biol. 354 (4): 743-50. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". Frontiers in Bioscience. 13 (13): 1206-26. doi: ... involved in calcium-mediated activation of protein kinase C;[76] the prostaglandins, which are one type of fatty-acid derived ... Protein-lipid interaction. *Phenolic lipid, a class of natural products composed of long aliphatic chains and phenolic rings ... Parodi AJ, Leloir LF (April 1979). "The role of lipid intermediates in the glycosylation of proteins in the eucaryotic cell". ...
"Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates merlin at serine 518 independently of p21-activated kinase and promotes ... protein kinase A, and p21 activated kinases. Work in Drosophila identified Merlin as an upstream regulator of the Hippo tumor ... Merlin is a member of the ERM family of proteins including ezrin, moesin, and radixin, which are in the protein 4.1 superfamily ... Merlin (also called Neurofibromin 2 or schwannomin) is a cytoskeletal protein. In humans, it is a tumor suppressor protein ...
... but has no effect on protein kinase C or cyclic AMP-dependent kinase. Mutagenicity does not appear to occur for purified toxins ... In this way the protein phosphatase is inhibited and more phosphorylated proteins in the liver cells are left, which is ... These large proteins are made up of different protein domains, coined 'modules', that each have their own specific enzymatic ... Microcystin-LR inhibits protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A) activities in the cytoplasm of liver cells. This ...
... collaboration with Paul Greengard resulted in demonstration that cAMP-dependent protein kinase, also known as protein kinase A ... By 1972 they had evidence that the second messenger molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) was produced in Aplysia ganglia under conditions ... "Genetic evidence for a protein-kinase-A-mediated presynaptic component in NMDA-receptor-dependent forms of long-term synaptic ... are defective in mice carrying a targeted disruption of the gene encoding the RI beta subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase" ...
3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase A. cGMP:. *Transducin. *Gustducin. *Guanylate cyclase ... see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. Small GTPases act as molecular switches in ... and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). ...
Also, it may be activated by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). This pathway is significantly less effective than the first ... which is necessary for lipid mobilization in response to cyclic AMP, which itself is provided by the activation of Gs protein- ... protein binding. • hydrolase activity. • protein kinase binding. • serine hydrolase activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. ... protein phosphorylation. • long-chain fatty acid catabolic process. • metabolism. • triglyceride catabolic process. ...
3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase A. cGMP:. *Transducin. *Gustducin. *Guanylate cyclase ... "Direct binding of G-protein betagamma complex to voltage-dependent calcium channels". Nature. 385 (6615): 446-50. doi:10.1038/ ... protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase activity. • GTPase binding. • G-protein ... 1omw: Crystal Structure of the complex between G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 and Heterotrimeric G Protein beta 1 and ...
ARPP-21: Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa. *AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 ... PIK3CA: phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide. *PROSER1: Proline and serine rich protein 1 ... CACNA2D3: calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3. *CCR5: chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 ... C3orf14-Chromosome 3 open reading frame 14: predicted DNA binding protein.. *C3orf23: encoding protein Uncharacterized protein ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". 》Frontiers in Bioscience》 13 (13): 1206-26. doi: ... Parodi AJ, Leloir LF (April 1979). "The role of lipid intermediates in the glycosylation of proteins in the eucaryotic cell". 》 ... The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid droplets and control of lipolysis". 》Journal ... "Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis: phospholipids and proteins go hand in hand". 》The Journal of Cell Biology》 184 (4): 469-72 ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ... Types of G protein signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside ...
Protein kinase activationEdit. cGMP is involved in the regulation of some protein-dependent kinases. For example, PKG (protein ... is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). cGMP acts as a second messenger much like cyclic AMP. Its ... Francis SH, Corbin JD (August 1999). "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: intracellular receptors for cAMP and cGMP ... cGMP; 3',5'-cyclic GMP; Guanosine cyclic monophosphate; Cyclic 3',5'-GMP; Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate ...
... and were eventually shown to encode components of an intracellular signaling pathway involving cyclic AMP, protein kinase A, ... Sepia colored eyes are not dependent on the sex of the fly. The Sepia eye color decreases sexual activity in males and ... Calcium binds to proteins such as calmodulin (CaM) and an eye-specific protein kinase C (PKC) known as InaC. These proteins ... For example, disruption of the interaction between InaC, the protein kinase C, and InaD results in a delay in inactivation of ...
... , more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by ... "cAMP-dependent protein kinase" redirects here. It is not to be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase or cyclin-dependent ... Cyclic+AMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... protein kinase A (PKA[N 1]) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP). PKA is ...
Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinasesEdit. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by ... The G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are protein kinases that phosphorylate only active GPCRs.[53] G-protein-coupled ... stimulative regulative G-protein (Gs) or inhibitory regulative G-protein (Gi); adenylyl cyclase; protein kinase A (PKA); and ... G-protein-dependent signalingEdit. There are three main G-protein-mediated signaling pathways, mediated by four sub-classes of ...
North B, Verdin E «Sirtuins: Sir2-related NAD-dependent protein deacetylases». Genome Biol, 5, 5, 2004, pàg. 224. DOI: 10.1186/ ... Sakuraba H, Kawakami R, Ohshima T «First archaeal inorganic polyphosphate/ATP-dependent NAD kinase, from hyperthermophilic ... Cyclic ADP-Ribose and NAADP: Structure, Metabolism and Functions. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002. ISBN 1-40207-281-3. ... AMP) al fosfat 5' d'un extrem del DNA. Aquest intermediari és seguidament atacat pel grup hidroxil 3' de l'altre extrem de DNA ...
Phosphorylation of a protein by a kinase can activate a cascade such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade.[23] ... cyclic AMP, which is involved in triggering calcium signals by the release of calcium from intracellular stores.[24] This form ... Enzyme inhibitors of ATP-dependent enzymes such as kinases are needed to examine the binding sites and transition states ... Kinases are the most common ATP-binding proteins. They share a small number of common folds.[22] ...
3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase A. cGMP:. *Transducin. *Gustducin. *Guanylate cyclase ... see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Guanylyl cyclase activator (protein). References[edit]. *^ Sakurai K.; Chen J.; Kefalov V. (2011). "Role of guanylate cylcase ... Guanylate cyclase is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and ...
Carugo O, Argos P (1997). "NADP-dependent enzymes. I: Conserved stereochemistry of cofactor binding". Proteins 28 (1): 10-28. ... "First archaeal inorganic polyphosphate/ATP-dependent NAD kinase, from hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii: cloning ... Guse AH (2004). "Biochemistry, biology, and pharmacology of cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose (cADPR)". Curr. Med. Chem. 11 (7 ... AMP) ao fosfato 5' dun extremo do ADN. Este intermediario é entón atacado polo grupo hidroxilo 3' do outro extremo de ADN, ...
... and glucose 6 phosphate may inhibit the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase.[7] ... For example, phosphorylating glucose is necessary for insulin-dependent mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway activity within ... Protein phosphorylationEdit. Main article: Protein phosphorylation. Protein phosphorylation is considered the most abundant ... Cohen, Philip (2002-05-01). "The origins of protein phosphorylation". Nature Cell Biology. 4 (5): E127-130. doi:10.1038/ncb0502 ...
... and adenyl cyclase converts AMP into cyclic AMP (cAMP) thereby down-regulating cAMP-responsive proteins involved in cell ... DAG activates certain protein kinase C enzymes )PKCs) that phosphorylate and thereby regulate target proteins involved in cell ... This control involves, at least in part, the DP2-dependent activation of the male germ cell marker Nanos2 and the inhibition of ... coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger. • chemotaxis. • positive regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein ...
... upstream enhancer of the rat sodium/iodide symporter gene and participates in both thyroid-specific and cyclic-AMP-dependent ... Protein kinase A) activation and, as a result, the activation of the transcription factor Pax8 after phosphorylation. These two ... TSH first binds to its receptors which are joined to G proteins, and then induces the activation of the enzyme adenylate ... This ingested iodine is bound to serum proteins, especially to albumins.[citation needed] The rest of the iodine which remains ...
"Phosphorylation of SOX9 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A enhances SOX9's ability to transactivate a Col2a1 chondrocyte- ... SOX9 protein, human Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) na Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina dos EUA. ... "SOX9 interacts with a component of the human thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein complex". Nucleic Acids Res. 30 (14 ... "Direct interaction of SRY-related protein SOX9 and steroidogenic factor 1 regulates transcription of the human anti-Müllerian ...
T cells by cyclic AMP-dependent signal transduction pathway.". Cytokine. 10 (11): 841-50. PMID 9878122. doi:10.1006/cyto. ... Expression of IL-17 in human memory CD45RO+ T lymphocytes and its regulation by protein kinase A pathway.". Cytokine. 11 (4): ... induced gene expression in articular chondrocytes is associated with activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF- ... Laan M, Palmberg L, Larsson K, Lindén A (2002). „Free, soluble interleukin-17 protein during severe inflammation in human ...
3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase A. cGMP:. *Transducin. *Gustducin. *Guanylate cyclase ... function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein ... an enzyme called protein kinase A (PKA).[12]. The PKA enzyme is also known as cAMP-dependent enzyme because it gets activated ... "Multiple pathway signal transduction by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase". FASEB J. 8 (15): 1227-36. doi:10.1096/fasebj.8.15. ...
... s, when bound with the dependent kinases, such as the p34/cdc2/cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor. MPFs ... Heterotrimeric G protein *Gs/Gi. *Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase ... is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK ... Nurse won the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase.[17] ...
... and glucose 6 phosphate may inhibit the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase.[12] ... In the late 1990s, it was recognized that phosphorylation of some proteins causes them to be degraded by the ATP-dependent ... Protein phosphorylation[edit]. Main article: Protein phosphorylation. Function[edit]. Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is ... Kinases phosphorylate proteins and phosphatases dephosphorylate proteins. Many enzymes and receptors are switched "on" or "off ...
It is a thiamine-pyrophosphate-dependent protein that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate substrate and ... Cofactor TPP and AMP are shown in cyan and blue, respectively. [17] (B) Diagram of the 12 subunit catalytic core of the cubic ... The citric acid cycle is a cyclic metabolic pathway involved in cellular respiration, which eventually converts carbohydrates, ... Aβ oligomers formed are found to be toxic since they can bind to different neurotransmitter receptors and thus stimulate kinase ...
It is hypothesized that the dual effects of lithium are due to the inhibition of G-proteins that mediate cyclic AMP production. ... "Definition of a metal-dependent/Li+-inhibited phosphomonoesterase protein family based upon a conserved three-dimensional core ... Gould, Todd; Picchini, Alyssa; Einat, Haim; Manji, Husseini (2006-11-01). "Targeting Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 in the CNS: ... Lithium was found to increase the basal levels of cyclic AMP but impair receptor coupled stimulation of cyclic AMP production.[ ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Frontiers in Bioscience. 2008, 13 (13): 1206-26. PMID ... The role of lipid intermediates in the glycosylation of proteins in the eucaryotic cell. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. April 1979, ... Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis: phospholipids and proteins go hand in hand. Journal of Cell Biology. 2009, 184 (4): 469-72. ... The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid droplets and control of lipolysis. J. Lipid ...
The encoded protein is a catalytic subunit of cAMP (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, which mediates signalling though cAMP ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. ... Fluorescence polarization-based biochemical high throughput dose response assay for activators of the Protein Kinase A-R2B (PKA ... Counterscreen for activators of the Protein Kinase A-R2B (PKA-R2B) complex: fluorescence polarization-based biochemical high ...
Human cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase PKA inhibitor complex. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3MVJ/pdb ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha. A, B, E. 371. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: PKA, PKACA, ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor alpha. I, J, K. 20. N/A. Mutation(s): 0 ...
There is a possibility that this protein is a physiological substrate of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and that the ... An endogenous polysomal cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase specifically phosphorylates a 150,000-dalton peptide bound to an ... Endogenous substrate for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in adrenocortical polyadenylated messenger ribonucleoproteins ... Endogenous substrate for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in adrenocortical polyadenylated messenger ribonucleoproteins ...
Cyclic AMPdependent protein kinase explanation free. What is Cyclic AMPdependent protein kinase? Meaning of Cyclic AMPdependent ... protein kinase medical term. What does Cyclic AMPdependent protein kinase mean? ... Looking for online definition of Cyclic AMPdependent protein kinase in the Medical Dictionary? ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (redirected from Cyclic AMPdependent protein kinase) cAMP-dependent protein kinase. a tetrameric ...
... of cyclic AMP and defective glucose repression in yeast strains with reduced activity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Controls Virulence of the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans Cletus A. DSouza, J. ... 1999) Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase regulates pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Cell. Biol. ... ThePKA1 gene encoding the major cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit was identified and disrupted.pka1 ...
... of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and studies on the rates of transcription from the gene coding for this protein, showed that ... The regulation of the levels of cAMP-dependent protein kinases during myogenesis in L6 was studied, as these enzymes have been ... Studies on the regulation of the catalytic subunit (C) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase showed that the increase in this ... Lorimer, Ian Anthony, "Regulation Of Cyclic-amp-dependent Protein Kinases During Skeletal Myogenesis" (1989). Digitized Theses ...
These peptides bind to cell surface receptors to activate the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway leading to an increase of ... Cyclic AMP stimulates SF-1-dependent CYP11A1 expression through homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 3-mediated Jun N- ... These peptides bind to cell surface receptors to activate the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway leading to an increase of ... Investigating the factors participating in SF-1 action, we found that c-Jun and homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 3 (HIPK3 ...
Ca2+-phospholipid-dependent and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases in mouse pancreatic islets. P Thams, K Capito, C J ... Endogenous substrate proteins for Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent, Ca2+-phospholipid-dependent and cyclic AMP-dependent protein ... Endogenous substrate proteins for Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent, Ca2+-phospholipid-dependent and cyclic AMP-dependent protein ... Endogenous substrate proteins for Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent, Ca2+-phospholipid-dependent and cyclic AMP-dependent protein ...
Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes. Olav K. ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ...
cAMP-dependent PKA is an ubiquitous serine/theonine protein kinase present in a variety of tissues (e.g. brain, skeletal muscle ... Cyclic AMP Dependent Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit 1a, Recombinant (cAMP PKA R1) ... Customer review for "Cyclic AMP Dependent Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit 1a, Recombinant (cAMP PKA R1)" ... Product information "Cyclic AMP Dependent Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit 1a, Recombinant (cAMP PKA R1)" ...
... dependent kinase and phosphatase, cyclic AMPdependent protein kinase (PKA) and calcineurin (also called protein phosphatase 2B ... Ser 656 is phosphorylated by cyclic AMPdependent protein kinase and dephosphorylated by calcineurin, and its phosphorylation ... Reversible phosphorylation of Drp1 by cyclic AMPdependent protein kinase and calcineurin regulates mitochondrial fission and ... Drp1, dynamin‐related protein 1; GFP, green fluorescent protein; PKA, cAMP‐dependent protein kinase, pS40 TH, phospho‐Ser 40 ...
These results suggest that both protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase are involved in melanin production by cyclic AMP-dependent ... Melanin production and tyrosinase activity by MSH are significantly inhibited by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor), PD098059 (mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, MAPKK) and worthmannin ... KT5720) and protein kinase C down-regulation treated with PMA. Bisindolmaleimide (1,TEX,$\mu$,/TEX,M), protein kinase C ...
Effect of indomethacin on the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. , European journal of pharmacology , 5/2/1980 ... Effect of indomethacin on the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. R E Catalán M D Aragones A M Martinez M Armijo M Piña 5/2/ ... Catalán RE, Aragones MD, Martinez AM, Armijo M, Piña M. Effect of indomethacin on the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Eur ... Indomethacin inhibited cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in small intestine in in vivo experiments. An inverse ...
Vulliet PR, Langan TA, Weiner N. Tyrosine hydroxylase: A substrate of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Proceedings of the ... Vulliet, P. R., Langan, T. A., & Weiner, N. (1980). Tyrosine hydroxylase: A substrate of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Vulliet, Philip R ; Langan, T. A. ; Weiner, N. / Tyrosine hydroxylase : A substrate of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. In ... Tyrosine hydroxylase : A substrate of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. / Vulliet, Philip R; Langan, T. A.; Weiner, N. ...
Micro-analysis of adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activities in human mammary tumors. ...
Berglund, L. (1978). Phosphorylation of rat kidney pyruvate kinase type L by cyclic 3′,5′-amp-dependent protein kinase. BBA - ... Berglund, L 1978, Phosphorylation of rat kidney pyruvate kinase type L by cyclic 3′,5′-amp-dependent protein kinase, BBA - ... Phosphorylation of rat kidney pyruvate kinase type L by cyclic 3′,5′-amp-dependent protein kinase. BBA - Enzymology. 1978 May ... Phosphorylation of rat kidney pyruvate kinase type L by cyclic 3′,5′-amp-dependent protein kinase. In: BBA - Enzymology. 1978 ...
Expression of cyclic AMP-dependent protein KINASE-I isoforms in the human prostate: Relation to smooth muscle alpha-actin and ... HomeResearch Outputs Expression of cyclic AMP-dependent protein KINASE-I isoforms... ...
... cyclase 6 mediates the action of cyclic AMP-dependent secretagogues in mouse pancreatic exocrine cells via protein kinase A ... cyclase 6 mediates the action of cyclic AMP-dependent secretagogues in mouse pancreatic exocrine cells via protein kinase A ... cyclase 6 mediates the action of cyclic AMP-dependent secretagogues in mouse pancreatic exocrine cells via protein kinase A ... cyclase 6 mediates the action of cyclic AMP-dependent secretagogues in mouse pancreatic exocrine cells via protein kinase A ...
Wound-healing effect of ginsenoside Rd from leaves of Panax ginseng via cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase pathway. In: ... Wound-healing effect of ginsenoside Rd from leaves of Panax ginseng via cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase pathway. European ... Wound-healing effect of ginsenoside Rd from leaves of Panax ginseng via cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase pathway. / Kim, ... title = "Wound-healing effect of ginsenoside Rd from leaves of Panax ginseng via cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase pathway", ...
The cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase are major intrace … ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism* * Cyclic GMP / metabolism* * Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / ... The cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase are major intracellular receptors for these nucleotides, ... Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: intracellular receptors for cAMP and cGMP action Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 1999 Aug; ...
... cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase; cGK, cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase; FAK, focal adhesion kinase; GBSS, Geys balanced ... VASP is a prominent substrate for both cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Evidence ... VASP is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK) or cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK). The phosphorylation of ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase is required for thrombospondin and tenascin mediated focal adhesion disassembly. J. Cell ...
... rather than cAMP-protein kinase A, mediates GSIS potentiation via OLFR15. These findings suggest that the OR system in ... experiments using inhibitors and siRNA revealed that the pathway dependent on phospholipase C-inositol triphosphate, ... OLFR15-dependent GSIS enhancement is independent of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. We next endeavored to ... concanavalin A, an ER marker protein. (g) The expressions of OLFR15 protein in MIN6 cells and murine islets, and the ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/chemistry. *Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/genetics ... cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA) are ubiquitous signalling molecules that mediate many extracellular signals in eukaryotes ... Molecular mechanisms controlling the localisation of protein kinase A.. Griffioen G1, Thevelein JM. ...
... is a paradigm for the mechanisms of ligand-dependent and allosteric regulation in signalling. Here we report the orthologous ... Protein kinase A (PKA) is typically activated by cAMP. Here, Bachmaier et al. show that PKA of Trypanosoma is activated by ... The existence of eukaryotic CNB domains not associated with binding of cyclic nucleotides suggests that orphan CNB domains in ... subunit and its unique C-terminal αD helix account for this ligand swap between trypanosome PKA and canonical cAMP-dependent ...
Roles of the AMP-activated and cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinases in the adrenaline-induced inactivation of acetyl-CoA ... phosphorylated by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase) and Ser-79 (phosphorylated by the AMP-activated protein kinase). ... which is an antagonist of binding of cyclic AMP to the regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase, opposes the ... Roles of the AMP-activated and cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinases in the adrenaline-induced inactivation of acetyl-CoA ...
The effect of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein phosphorylation on gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor function was ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase decreases gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor-mediated 36Cl- uptake by brain microsacs. ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase decreases gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor-mediated 36Cl- uptake by brain microsacs.. ... The effect of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein phosphorylation on gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor function was ...
Retinoid acid increases cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase activity in b16-f1 mouse melanoma cells. Abstr. ... Niles, R M. and Logue, M P., "Retinoid acid increases cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase activity in b16-f1 mouse melanoma ...
It encodes a protein with 23 predicted cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylation sequences. The Radish protein ... PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the Radish protein, as suggested by numerous PKA target sites, would logically link ARM to the ... The specific defect of the radish mutant, diminished ARM, normal long-lasting protein-synthesis-dependent memory, provides a ... The Radish protein is similar to a predicted protein from the mosquito Anopheles gambiae (66% identity) and to one from the ...
The effect of methacholine and histamine on cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in the guinea-pig isolated trachea ...
... inactive eIF-2 kinase) catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (ATP-protein phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1.37), and (b) ... AMP, unlabeled cyclic AMP can displace bound cyclic [3H]AMP but not [3H]hemin. This suggests that cyclic AMP and hemin bind to ... Translational control by hemin is due to binding to cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... Translational control by hemin is due to binding to cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Expression in Escherichia coli of BCY1, the regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from Saccharomyces ... the regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Biological Chemistry, ... The regulatory (R) subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was expressed in ... protein types , enzymes , kinase. bioinformatics , genomics and proteomics , genetics & nucleic acid processing , protein ...