A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cyclic nucleotides are closed-chain molecules formed from nucleotides (ATP or GTP) through the action of enzymes called cyclases, functioning as second messengers in various cellular signaling pathways, with cAMP and cGMP being the most prominent members.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the addition of a phosphate group, usually on serine, threonine or tyrosine residues, which can play a role in their regulation, function, interaction with other molecules, and localization within the cell.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the TESTES and BRAIN. Variants of this subtype exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its mRNA.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.

PrKX is a novel catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulated by the regulatory subunit type I. (1/231)

The human X chromosome-encoded protein kinase X (PrKX) belongs to the family of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. The catalytically active recombinant enzyme expressed in COS cells phosphorylates the heptapeptide Kemptide (LRRASLG) with a specific activity of 1.5 micromol/(min.mg). Using surface plasmon resonance, high affinity interactions were demonstrated with the regulatory subunit type I (RIalpha) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (KD = 10 nM) and the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor (KD = 15 nM), but not with the type II regulatory subunit (RIIalpha, KD = 2.3 microM) under physiological conditions. Kemptide and autophosphorylation activities of PrKX are strongly inhibited by the RIalpha subunit and by protein kinase inhibitor in vitro, but only weakly by the RIIalpha subunit. The inhibition by the RIalpha subunit is reversed by addition of nanomolar concentrations of cAMP (Ka = 40 nM), thus demonstrating that PrKX is a novel, type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase that is activated at lower cAMP concentrations than the holoenzyme with the Calpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Microinjection data clearly indicate that the type I R subunit but not type II binds to PrKX in vivo, preventing the translocation of PrKX to the nucleus in the absence of cAMP. The RIIalpha subunit is an excellent substrate for PrKX and is phosphorylated in vitro in a cAMP-independent manner. We discuss how PrKX can modulate the cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathway by preferential binding to the RIalpha subunit and by phosphorylating the RIIalpha subunit in the absence of cAMP.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases differ in their regulation of cyclic AMP response element-dependent gene transcription. (2/231)

The ability of cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) to activate cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent gene transcription was compared with that of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (cAKs). Although both the type Ibeta cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKIbeta) and the type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAKII) phosphorylated the cytoplasmic substrate VASP (vasodilator- and A kinase-stimulated phosphoprotein) to a similar extent, cyclic nucleotide regulation of CRE-dependent transcription was at least 10-fold higher in cAKII-transfected cells than in cGKIbeta-transfected cells. Overexpression of each kinase in mammalian cells resulted in a cytoplasmic localization of the unactivated enzyme. As reported previously, the catalytic (C) subunit of cAKII translocated to the nucleus following activation by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. However, cGKIbeta did not translocate to the nucleus upon activation by 8-bromo-cyclic GMP. Replacement of an autophosphorylated serine (Ser79) of cGKIbeta with an aspartic acid resulted in a mutant kinase with constitutive kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. The cGKIbetaS79D mutant localized to the cytoplasm and was only a weak activator of CRE-dependent gene transcription. However, an amino-terminal deletion mutant of cGKIbeta was found in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm and was a strong activator of CRE-dependent gene transcription. These data suggest that the inability of cGKs to translocate to the nucleus is responsible for the differential ability of cAKs and cGKs to activate CRE-dependent gene transcription and that nuclear redistribution of cGKs is not required for NO/cGMP regulation of gene transcription.  (+info)

Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulation of glutamate responses in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. (3/231)

Glutamate is the primary excitatory transmitter in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate transduction of light information from the retina to the SCN, an important circadian clock phase shifting pathway. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) may play a significant modulatory role. mGluR modulation of SCN responses to glutamate was investigated with fura-2 calcium imaging in SCN explant cultures. SCN neurons showed reproducible calcium responses to glutamate, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Although the type I/II mGluR agonists L-CCG-I and t-ACPD did not evoke calcium responses, they did inhibit kainate- and NMDA-evoked calcium rises. This interaction was insensitive to pertussis toxin. Protein kinase A (PKA) activation by 8-bromo-cAMP significantly reduced iGluR inhibition by mGluR agonists. The inhibitory effect of mGluRs was enhanced by activating protein kinase C (PKC) and significantly reduced in the presence of the PKC inhibitor H7. Previous reports show that L-type calcium channels can be modulated by PKC and PKA. In SCN cells, about one-half of the calcium rise evoked by kainate or NMDA was blocked by the L-type calcium channel antagonist nimodipine. Calcium rises evoked by K+ were used to test whether mGluR inhibition of iGluR calcium rises involved calcium channel modulation. These calcium rises were primarily attributable to activation of voltage-activated calcium channels. PKC activation inhibited K+-evoked calcium rises, but PKC inhibition did not affect L-CCG-I inhibition of these rises. In contrast, 8Br-cAMP had no effect alone but blocked L-CCG-I inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of mGluRs, likely type II, modulates glutamate-evoked calcium responses in SCN neurons. mGluR inhibition of iGluR calcium rises can be differentially influenced by PKC or PKA activation. Regulation of glutamate-mediated calcium influx could occur at L-type calcium channels, K+ channels, or at GluRs. It is proposed that mGluRs may be important regulators of glutamate responsivity in the circadian system.  (+info)

Type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulates electrogenic ion transport in rabbit collecting duct. (4/231)

cAMP mediates many of the effects of vasopressin, prostaglandin E2, and beta-adrenergic agents upon salt and water transport in the renal collecting duct. The present studies examined the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in mediating these effects. PKA is a heterotetramer comprised of two regulatory (R) subunits and two catalytic (C) subunits. The four PKA isoforms may be distinguished by their R subunits that have been designated RIalpha, RIbeta, RIIalpha, and RIIbeta. Three regulatory subunits, RIalpha, RIIalpha, and RIIbeta, were detected by immunoblot and ribonuclease protection in both primary cultures and fresh isolates of rabbit cortical collecting ducts (CCDs). Monolayers of cultured CCDs grown on semipermeable supports were mounted in an Ussing chamber, and combinations of cAMP analogs that selectively activate PKA type I vs. PKA type II were tested for their effect on electrogenic ion transport. Short-circuit current (Isc) was significantly increased by the PKA type II-selective analog pairs N6-monobutyryl-cAMP plus 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP or N6-monobutyryl-cAMP plus 8-chloro-cAMP. In contrast the PKA type I-selective cAMP analog pair [N6-monobutyryl-cAMP plus 8-(6-aminohexyl)-amino-cAMP] had no effect on Isc. These results suggest PKA type II is the major isozyme regulating electrogenic ion transport in the rabbit collecting duct.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding an A-kinase anchoring protein located in the centrosome, AKAP450. (5/231)

A combination of protein kinase A type II (RII) overlay screening, database searches and PCR was used to identify a centrosomal A-kinase anchoring protein. A cDNA with an 11.7 kb open reading frame was characterized and found to correspond to 50 exons of genomic sequence on human chromosome 7q21-22. This cDNA clone encoded a 3908 amino acid protein of 453 kDa, that was designated AKAP450 (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession No. AJ131693). Sequence comparison demonstrated that the open reading frame contained a previously characterized cDNA encoding Yotiao, as well as the human homologue of AKAP120. Numerous coiled-coil structures were predicted from AKAP450, and weak homology to pericentrin, giantin and other structural proteins was observed. A putative RII-binding site was identified involving amino acid 2556 of AKAP450 by mutation analysis combined with RII overlay and an amphipatic helix was predicted in this region. Immunoprecipitation of RII from RIPA-buffer extracts of HeLa cells demonstrated co-precipitation of AKAP450. By immunofluorecent labeling with specific antibodies it was demonstrated that AKAP450 localized to centrosomes. Furthermore, AKAP450 was shown to co-purify in centrosomal preparations. The observation of two mRNAs and several splice products suggests additional functions for the AKAP450 gene.  (+info)

Phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD by mitochondria-anchored protein kinase A. (6/231)

Signaling pathways between cell surface receptors and the BCL-2 family of proteins regulate cell death. Survival factors induce the phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD, a proapoptotic member. Purification of BAD kinase(s) identified membrane-based cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) as a BAD Ser-112 (S112) site-specific kinase. PKA-specific inhibitors blocked the IL-3-induced phosphorylation on S112 of endogenous BAD as well as mitochondria-based BAD S112 kinase activity. A blocking peptide that disrupts type II PKA holoenzyme association with A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) also inhibited BAD phosphorylation and eliminated the BAD S112 kinase activity at mitochondria. Thus, the anchoring of PKA to mitochondria represents a focused subcellular kinase/substrate interaction that inactivates BAD at its target organelle in response to a survival factor.  (+info)

cAMP-dependent and -independent downregulation of type II Na-Pi cotransporters by PTH. (7/231)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) leads to the inhibition of Na-Pi cotransport activity and to the downregulation of the number of type II Na-Pi cotransporters in proximal tubules, as well as in opossum kidney (OK) cells. PTH is known also to lead to an activation of adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C in proximal tubular preparations, as well as in OK cells. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of these two regulatory pathways in OK cells in the PTH-dependent downregulation of the number of type II Na-Pi cotransporters. We have addressed this issue by using pharmacological activators of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC), i.e., 8-bromo-cAMP (8-BrcAMP) and beta-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (beta-TPA), respectively, as well as by the use of synthetic peptide fragments of PTH that activate adenylate cyclase and/or phospholipase C, i.e., PTH-(1-34) and PTH-(3-34), respectively. Our results show that PTH signal transduction via cAMP-dependent, as well as cAMP-independent, pathways leads to a membrane retrieval and degradation of type II Na-Pi cotransporters and, thereby, to the inhibition of Na-Pi cotransport activity. Thereby, the cAMP-independent regulatory pathway leads only to partial effects (approximately 50%).  (+info)

Conservation and function of a bovine sperm A-kinase anchor protein homologous to mouse AKAP82. (8/231)

Protein kinase A regulates sperm motility through the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins. One mechanism to direct the activity of the kinase is to localize it near its protein substrates through the use of anchoring proteins. A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) act by binding the type II regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and tethering it to a cellular organelle or cytoskeletal element. We showed previously that mAKAP82, the major protein of the fibrous sheath of the mouse sperm flagellum, is an AKAP. The available evidence indicates that protein kinase A is compartmentalized to the fibrous sheath by binding mAKAP82. To characterize AKAP82 in bovine sperm, a testicular cDNA library was constructed and used to isolate a clone encoding bAKAP82, the bovine homologue. Sequence analysis showed that the primary structure of bAKAP82 was highly conserved. In particular, the amino acid sequence corresponding to the region of mAKAP82 responsible for binding the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A was identical in the bull. Bovine AKAP82 was present in both epididymal and ejaculated sperm and was localized to the entire principal piece of the flagellum, the region in which the fibrous sheath is located. Finally, bAKAP82 bound the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. These data support the idea that bAKAP82 functions as an anchoring protein for the subcellular localization of protein kinase A in the flagellum.  (+info)

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase type II (PKG II) is a subtype of cGMP-dependent protein kinases, which are enzymes that play a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular functions. PKG II is specifically expressed in certain tissues such as the smooth muscle and the brain.

The activation of PKG II occurs when cGMP binds to the regulatory subunit of the enzyme, leading to the release and activation of the catalytic subunit. Once activated, PKG II phosphorylates specific serine and threonine residues on target proteins, which in turn modulate their activity, localization, or stability.

PKG II has been implicated in several physiological processes, including smooth muscle relaxation, platelet aggregation, neuronal signaling, and cardiovascular function. Dysregulation of PKG II has been associated with various pathological conditions such as hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, heart failure, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinases (PKGs) are a type of enzyme that add phosphate groups to other proteins, thereby modifying their function. These kinases are activated by cGMP, which is a second messenger molecule that helps transmit signals within cells. PKGs play important roles in various cellular processes, including smooth muscle relaxation, platelet aggregation, and cardiac contractility. They have been implicated in the regulation of a number of physiological functions, such as blood flow, inflammation, and learning and memory. There are two main isoforms of cGMP-dependent protein kinases, PKG I and PKG II, which differ in their tissue distribution, regulatory properties, and substrate specificity.

Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 2 (CAMK2) is a type of serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in signal transduction pathways related to synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. It is composed of four subunits, each with a catalytic domain and a regulatory domain that contains an autoinhibitory region and a calmodulin-binding site.

The activation of CAMK2 requires the binding of calcium ions (Ca^2+^) to calmodulin, which then binds to the regulatory domain of CAMK2, relieving the autoinhibition and allowing the kinase to phosphorylate its substrates. Once activated, CAMK2 can also undergo a process called autophosphorylation, which results in a persistent activation state that can last for hours or even days.

CAMK2 has many downstream targets, including ion channels, transcription factors, and other protein kinases. Dysregulation of CAMK2 signaling has been implicated in various neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy.

Protein kinases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding phosphate groups to other proteins, a process known as phosphorylation. This modification can activate or deactivate the target protein's function, thereby regulating various signaling pathways within the cell. Protein kinases are essential for numerous biological functions, including metabolism, signal transduction, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Abnormal regulation of protein kinases has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase type I (PKG I) is a major enzyme responsible for mediating the effects of cGMP, which is a second messenger molecule involved in various cellular signaling pathways. PKG I is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is activated by binding to cGMP.

PKG I exists in two isoforms, alpha and beta, which are encoded by separate genes but share a similar structure and function. The enzyme consists of a regulatory domain, which contains the cGMP-binding sites, and a catalytic domain, which carries out the phosphorylation of target proteins.

PKG I plays a critical role in regulating various physiological processes, including smooth muscle relaxation, cardiac contractility, platelet aggregation, and neuronal signaling. It does so by phosphorylating specific protein targets that control these processes, such as ion channels, enzymes, and cytoskeletal proteins.

Defects in PKG I function have been implicated in several human diseases, including pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, and erectile dysfunction. Therefore, PKG I is an important therapeutic target for the development of drugs to treat these conditions.

Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 4 (CAMK4) is a type of serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in signal transduction pathways related to synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. It is activated by the binding of calcium ions and calmodulin, a regulatory protein that binds calcium ions, to its calcium-calmodulin binding domain.

Once activated, CAMK4 phosphorylates various downstream target proteins, including transcription factors, ion channels, and other kinases, thereby modulating their activities. This enzyme is widely expressed in various tissues, but it is particularly abundant in the brain, where it has been implicated in long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory.

Mutations or dysregulation of CAMK4 have been associated with several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying CAMK4 activation and regulation is an important area of research in neuroscience and pharmacology.

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type II (PKA II) is a subtype of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase, which is a crucial enzyme in many cellular processes. PKA II is composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits. When cAMP levels are low, the regulatory subunits bind to and inhibit the catalytic subunits. However, when cAMP levels rise, cAMP molecules bind to the regulatory subunits, causing a conformational change that releases and activates the catalytic subunits.

The activated catalytic subunits then phosphorylate specific serine and threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity, localization, or stability. PKA II is widely expressed in various tissues and plays a role in regulating diverse cellular functions such as metabolism, gene expression, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis.

PKA II is distinct from the other subtype of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA I, in its regulatory subunit composition and tissue distribution. While both PKA I and PKA II contain identical catalytic subunits, they differ in their regulatory subunits: PKA I contains the RIα, RIβ, or RIIβ regulatory subunits, while PKA II contains the RIIα regulatory subunit. Additionally, PKA II is predominantly expressed in tissues such as the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle, whereas PKA I is more widely distributed throughout the body.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. They are activated by the binding of calcium ions and calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, to their regulatory domain.

Once activated, CAMKs phosphorylate specific serine or threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity, localization, or stability. This post-translational modification is essential for various cellular processes, including synaptic plasticity, gene expression, metabolism, and cell cycle regulation.

There are several subfamilies of CAMKs, including CaMKI, CaMKII, CaMKIII (also known as CaMKIV), and CaMK kinase (CaMKK). Each subfamily has distinct structural features, substrate specificity, and regulatory mechanisms. Dysregulation of CAMK signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders.

Benzylamines are a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring attached to an amine group. The amine group (-NH2) can be primary, secondary, or tertiary, depending on the number of hydrogen atoms bonded to the nitrogen atom. Benzylamines are used in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other organic compounds. They have a variety of biological activities and can act as central nervous system depressants, local anesthetics, and muscle relaxants. However, some benzylamines can also be toxic or carcinogenic, so they must be handled with care.

Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine-threonine kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are activated by second messengers such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), which result from the activation of cell surface receptors like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs).

Once activated, PKC proteins phosphorylate downstream target proteins, thereby modulating their activities. This regulation is involved in numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and membrane trafficking. There are at least 10 isoforms of PKC, classified into three subfamilies based on their second messenger requirements and structural features: conventional (cPKC; α, βI, βII, and γ), novel (nPKC; δ, ε, η, and θ), and atypical (aPKC; ζ and ι/λ). Dysregulation of PKC signaling has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinases, also known as protein kinase A (PKA), are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are responsible for the regulation of various cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell growth and differentiation.

PKA is composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits. When cAMP binds to the regulatory subunits, it causes a conformational change that leads to the dissociation of the catalytic subunits. The freed catalytic subunits then phosphorylate specific serine and threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity.

The cAMP-dependent protein kinases are activated in response to a variety of extracellular signals, such as hormones and neurotransmitters, that bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). These signals lead to the activation of adenylyl cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. The resulting increase in intracellular cAMP levels triggers the activation of PKA and the downstream phosphorylation of target proteins.

Overall, cAMP-dependent protein kinases are essential regulators of many fundamental cellular processes and play a critical role in maintaining normal physiology and homeostasis. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Adaptor Protein Complex 3 (APC3), also known as AP-3, is a type of adaptor protein complex that plays a crucial role in the sorting and trafficking of proteins within cells. It is composed of four subunits: delta, beta3A, mu3, and sigma3A. APC3 is primarily involved in the transport of proteins from the early endosomes to the lysosomes or to the plasma membrane. It also plays a role in the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes and platelet-dense granules. Mutations in the genes encoding for APC3 subunits have been associated with several genetic disorders, including Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome and Chediak-Higashi syndrome.

Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 (CAMK1) is a type of serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in signal transduction pathways involved in various cellular processes, including synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. It is activated by the binding of calcium ions (Ca2+) and calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, to its regulatory domain.

Once activated, CAMK1 phosphorylates various downstream target proteins, leading to changes in their activity or function. In the brain, CAMK1 is primarily expressed in neurons and has been implicated in the regulation of synaptic strength and transmission, as well as in the modulation of gene expression and cell survival. Dysregulation of CAMK1 has been associated with several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy.

Enzyme activation refers to the process by which an enzyme becomes biologically active and capable of carrying out its specific chemical or biological reaction. This is often achieved through various post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage, phosphorylation, or addition of cofactors or prosthetic groups to the enzyme molecule. These modifications can change the conformation or structure of the enzyme, exposing or creating a binding site for the substrate and allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

For example, in the case of proteolytic cleavage, an inactive precursor enzyme, known as a zymogen, is cleaved into its active form by a specific protease. This is seen in enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are initially produced in the pancreas as inactive precursors called trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen, respectively. Once they reach the small intestine, they are activated by enteropeptidase, a protease that cleaves a specific peptide bond, releasing the active enzyme.

Phosphorylation is another common mechanism of enzyme activation, where a phosphate group is added to a specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue on the enzyme by a protein kinase. This modification can alter the conformation of the enzyme and create a binding site for the substrate, allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

Enzyme activation is a crucial process in many biological pathways, as it allows for precise control over when and where specific reactions take place. It also provides a mechanism for regulating enzyme activity in response to various signals and stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or changes in the intracellular environment.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase RIα subunit, also known as PKA RIα or PRKAR1A, is a type of regulatory subunit of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) enzyme. PKA is a key enzyme in many cellular signaling pathways and is composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits. The RIα subunit is one of the four different regulatory subunits (RIα, RIβ, RIIα, and RIIβ) that regulate PKA activity by binding to cAMP, which leads to the release and activation of the catalytic subunits.

The RIα subunit is encoded by the PRKAR1A gene and is primarily expressed in many tissues, including the brain, heart, and adrenal glands. Mutations in the PRKAR1A gene have been associated with several genetic disorders, such as Carney Complex, a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple tumors and endocrine overactivity. The RIα subunit plays an essential role in regulating various cellular processes, including metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a important second messenger molecule that plays a crucial role in various biological processes within the human body. It is synthesized from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by the enzyme guanylyl cyclase.

Cyclic GMP is involved in regulating diverse physiological functions, such as smooth muscle relaxation, cardiovascular function, and neurotransmission. It also plays a role in modulating immune responses and cellular growth and differentiation.

In the medical field, changes in cGMP levels or dysregulation of cGMP-dependent pathways have been implicated in various disease states, including pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, erectile dysfunction, and glaucoma. Therefore, pharmacological agents that target cGMP signaling are being developed as potential therapeutic options for these conditions.

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PKA) is a key enzyme in intracellular signaling pathways that is activated by the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). PKA is composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits, which are held in an inactive state by binding to cAMP. When cAMP levels increase, it binds to the regulatory subunits, causing them to dissociate from the catalytic subunits and allowing the catalytic subunits to phosphorylate and activate target proteins.

PKA plays a critical role in many physiological processes, including metabolism, gene expression, cell growth and differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. Dysregulation of PKA signaling has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate PKA activity is crucial for developing therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

Protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) are a class of drugs that work by interfering with the function of protein kinases. Protein kinases are enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding a phosphate group to specific proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules. This process of adding a phosphate group is known as phosphorylation and is a key mechanism for regulating various cellular functions, including signal transduction, metabolism, and cell division.

In some diseases, such as cancer, protein kinases can become overactive or mutated, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Protein kinase inhibitors are designed to block the activity of these dysregulated kinases, thereby preventing or slowing down the progression of the disease. These drugs can be highly specific, targeting individual protein kinases or families of kinases, making them valuable tools for targeted therapy in cancer and other diseases.

Protein kinase inhibitors can work in various ways to block the activity of protein kinases. Some bind directly to the active site of the enzyme, preventing it from interacting with its substrates. Others bind to allosteric sites, changing the conformation of the enzyme and making it inactive. Still, others target upstream regulators of protein kinases or interfere with their ability to form functional complexes.

Examples of protein kinase inhibitors include imatinib (Gleevec), which targets the BCR-ABL kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia, and gefitinib (Iressa), which inhibits the EGFR kinase in non-small cell lung cancer. These drugs have shown significant clinical benefits in treating these diseases and have become important components of modern cancer therapy.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases (PSTKs) are a type of protein kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl side chains of serine or threonine residues on target proteins. This phosphorylation process plays a crucial role in various cellular signaling pathways, including regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. PSTKs are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, and their dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Calmodulin is a small, ubiquitous calcium-binding protein that plays a critical role in various intracellular signaling pathways. It functions as a calcium sensor, binding to and regulating the activity of numerous target proteins upon calcium ion (Ca^2+^) binding. Calmodulin is expressed in all eukaryotic cells and participates in many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, metabolism, and cell cycle progression.

The protein contains four EF-hand motifs that can bind Ca^2+^ ions. Upon calcium binding, conformational changes occur in the calmodulin structure, exposing hydrophobic surfaces that facilitate its interaction with target proteins. Calmodulin's targets include enzymes (such as protein kinases and phosphatases), ion channels, transporters, and cytoskeletal components. By modulating the activity of these proteins, calmodulin helps regulate essential cellular functions in response to changes in intracellular Ca^2+^ concentrations.

Calmodulin's molecular weight is approximately 17 kDa, and it consists of a single polypeptide chain with 148-150 amino acid residues. The protein can be found in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of cells. In addition to its role as a calcium sensor, calmodulin has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disorders.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and apoptosis, in response to diverse stimuli such as mitogens, growth factors, hormones, cytokines, and environmental stresses. They are highly conserved across eukaryotes and consist of a three-tiered kinase module composed of MAPK kinase kinases (MAP3Ks), MAPK kinases (MKKs or MAP2Ks), and MAPKs.

Activation of MAPKs occurs through a sequential phosphorylation and activation cascade, where MAP3Ks phosphorylate and activate MKKs, which in turn phosphorylate and activate MAPKs at specific residues (Thr-X-Tyr or Ser-Pro motifs). Once activated, MAPKs can further phosphorylate and regulate various downstream targets, including transcription factors and other protein kinases.

There are four major groups of MAPKs in mammals: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 MAPKs (p38α/β/γ/δ), and ERK5/BMK1. Each group of MAPKs has distinct upstream activators, downstream targets, and cellular functions, allowing for a high degree of specificity in signal transduction and cellular responses. Dysregulation of MAPK signaling pathways has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Paramecium tetraurelia" is not a medical term. It is the scientific name of a species of ciliate protists, which are single-celled organisms commonly found in freshwater environments. These organisms are often studied in biology and microbiology as models for cellular and molecular processes. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or definitions, I would be happy to help with those instead.

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling system is a crucial pathway for the transmission and regulation of various cellular responses in eukaryotic cells. It plays a significant role in several biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, and stress response. The MAPK cascade consists of three main components: MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K or MEKK), MAP kinase kinase (MAP2K or MEK), and MAP kinase (MAPK).

The signaling system is activated by various extracellular stimuli, such as growth factors, cytokines, hormones, and stress signals. These stimuli initiate a phosphorylation cascade that ultimately leads to the activation of MAPKs. The activated MAPKs then translocate into the nucleus and regulate gene expression by phosphorylating various transcription factors and other regulatory proteins.

There are four major MAPK families: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 MAPKs (p38α/β/γ/δ), and ERK5. Each family has distinct functions, substrates, and upstream activators. Dysregulation of the MAPK signaling system can lead to various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathway is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies.

p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (p38 MAPKs) are a family of conserved serine-threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including inflammation, immune response, differentiation, apoptosis, and stress responses. They are activated by diverse stimuli such as cytokines, ultraviolet radiation, heat shock, osmotic stress, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

Once activated, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate and regulate several downstream targets, including transcription factors and other protein kinases. This regulation leads to the expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of p38 MAPK signaling has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, p38 MAPKs are considered promising targets for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction. They phosphorylate the 3-hydroxyl group of the inositol ring in phosphatidylinositol and its derivatives, which results in the production of second messengers that regulate various cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival.

PI3Ks are divided into three classes based on their structure and substrate specificity. Class I PI3Ks are further subdivided into two categories: class IA and class IB. Class IA PI3Ks are heterodimers consisting of a catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, or p110δ) and a regulatory subunit (p85α, p85β, p55γ, or p50γ). They are primarily activated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors. Class IB PI3Ks consist of a catalytic subunit (p110γ) and a regulatory subunit (p101 or p84/87). They are mainly activated by G protein-coupled receptors.

Dysregulation of PI3K signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, PI3Ks have emerged as important targets for drug development in these areas.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

eIF-2 kinase is a type of protein kinase that phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2) at serine 51. This phosphorylation event inhibits the guanine nucleotide exchange factor eIF-2B, thereby preventing the recycling of eIF-2 and reducing global protein synthesis.

There are four main subtypes of eIF-2 kinases:

1. HRI (heme-regulated inhibitor) - responds to heme deficiency and oxidative stress
2. PERK (PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) - activated by ER stress and misfolded proteins in the ER
3. GCN2 (general control non-derepressible 2) - responds to amino acid starvation
4. PKR (double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase) - activated by double-stranded RNA during viral infections

These eIF-2 kinases play crucial roles in regulating cellular responses to various stress conditions, such as the integrated stress response (ISR), which helps maintain cellular homeostasis and promote survival under adverse conditions.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) is defined as a pharmacological agent that is a derivative of the phorbol ester family. It is a potent tumor promoter and activator of protein kinase C (PKC), a group of enzymes that play a role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, proliferation, and differentiation. TPA has been widely used in research to study PKC-mediated signaling pathways and its role in cancer development and progression. It is also used in topical treatments for skin conditions such as psoriasis.

Pyruvate kinase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the final step of glycolysis, a process by which glucose is broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Specifically, pyruvate kinase catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), resulting in the formation of pyruvate and ATP.

There are several isoforms of pyruvate kinase found in different tissues, including the liver, muscle, and brain. The type found in red blood cells is known as PK-RBC or PK-M2. Deficiencies in pyruvate kinase can lead to a genetic disorder called pyruvate kinase deficiency, which can result in hemolytic anemia due to the premature destruction of red blood cells.

Protein Kinase C-alpha (PKC-α) is a specific isoform of the Protein Kinase C (PKC) family, which are serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. PKC-α is activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+). It is involved in signal transduction pathways related to cell growth, differentiation, and oncogenic transformation. Mutations or dysregulation of PKC-alpha have been implicated in several diseases including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 (MAPK1), also known as Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 2 (ERK2), is a protein kinase that plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways. It is a member of the MAPK family, which regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and stress response.

MAPK1 is activated by a cascade of phosphorylation events initiated by upstream activators like MAPKK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase) in response to various extracellular signals such as growth factors, hormones, and mitogens. Once activated, MAPK1 phosphorylates downstream targets, including transcription factors and other protein kinases, thereby modulating their activities and ultimately influencing gene expression and cellular responses.

MAPK1 is widely expressed in various tissues and cells, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of MAPK1 signaling pathways has important implications for developing therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunits, also known as protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunits, are key enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. These subunits are responsible for the regulation of various cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell growth and differentiation.

The activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunits occurs through a cascade of events that begins with the binding of extracellular signals to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on the cell surface. This binding event activates adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that converts ATP to cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then bind to and activate regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, leading to the release and activation of the catalytic subunits.

Once activated, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunits phosphorylate specific serine and threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity and function. This process is reversible, as phosphatases can dephosphorylate these residues and inactivate the target proteins.

There are four different isoforms of cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunits (PKA-Cα, PKA-Cβ, PKA-Cγ, and PKA-Cδ) that are encoded by separate genes but share a high degree of sequence homology. These isoforms can form homodimers or heterodimers with each other, and their expression patterns and subcellular localization can vary depending on the cell type and physiological context.

Overall, cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunits are essential regulators of many fundamental cellular processes, and their dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases (MAP2K or MEK) are a group of protein kinases that play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways. They are so named because they are activated by mitogens, which are substances that stimulate cell division, and other extracellular signals.

MAP2Ks are positioned upstream of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPK) in a three-tiered kinase cascade. Once activated, MAP2Ks phosphorylate and activate MAPKs, which then go on to regulate various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis.

There are several subfamilies of MAP2Ks, including MEK1/2, MEK3/6 (also known as MKK3/6), MEK4/7 (also known as MKK4/7), and MEK5. Each MAP2K is specific to activating a particular MAPK, and they are activated by different MAP3Ks (MAP kinase kinase kinases) in response to various extracellular signals.

Dysregulation of the MAPK/MAP2K signaling pathways has been implicated in numerous diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, targeting these pathways with therapeutic agents has emerged as a promising strategy for treating various diseases.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Cyclic nucleotides are formed by the intramolecular phosphoester bond between the phosphate group and the hydroxyl group at the 3'-carbon atom of the ribose sugar in a nucleotide. This creates a cyclic structure, specifically a cyclic phosphate. The most common cyclic nucleotides are cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). These molecules function as second messengers in cells, playing crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways related to metabolism, gene expression, and cell differentiation. The levels of cAMP and cGMP are tightly regulated by the activities of enzymes such as adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase for their synthesis, and phosphodiesterases for their degradation.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 (MAPK3), also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways. It is involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and survival, in response to extracellular stimuli such as growth factors, hormones, and stress.

MAPK3 is activated through a phosphorylation cascade that involves the activation of upstream MAPK kinases (MKK or MEK). Once activated, MAPK3 can phosphorylate and activate various downstream targets, including transcription factors, to regulate gene expression. Dysregulation of MAPK3 signaling has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Protein Kinase C-delta (PKC-δ) is a specific isoform of the Protein Kinase C (PKC) family, which are serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways. PKC-δ is involved in several cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and motility. It is activated by second messengers like diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), and its activation leads to the phosphorylation of specific target proteins, thereby modulating their functions. Aberrant regulation of PKC-δ has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Colforsin is a drug that belongs to a class of medications called phosphodiesterase inhibitors. It works by increasing the levels of a chemical called cyclic AMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) in the body, which helps to relax and widen blood vessels.

Colforsin is not approved for use in humans in many countries, including the United States. However, it has been used in research settings to study its potential effects on heart function and other physiological processes. In animals, colforsin has been shown to have positive inotropic (contractility-enhancing) and lusitropic (relaxation-enhancing) effects on the heart, making it a potential therapeutic option for heart failure and other cardiovascular conditions.

It is important to note that while colforsin has shown promise in preclinical studies, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy in humans. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional and in the context of a clinical trial or research study.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Bucladesine" is not a recognized medical term or a medication in current use in medicine. It's possible that there may be some mistake or typo in the spelling. If you have any more context about where you encountered this term, I might be able to provide a more accurate and helpful response.

Isoquinolines are not a medical term per se, but a chemical classification. They refer to a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring fused to a piperidine ring. This structure is similar to that of quinoline, but with the nitrogen atom located at a different position in the ring.

Isoquinolines have various biological activities and can be found in some natural products, including certain alkaloids. Some isoquinoline derivatives have been developed as drugs for the treatment of various conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer. However, specific medical definitions related to isoquinolines typically refer to the use or effects of these specific drugs rather than the broader class of compounds.

Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) are a diverse group of proteins that have the ability to bind calcium ions (Ca^2+^) with high affinity and specificity. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and protection against oxidative stress.

The binding of calcium ions to these proteins induces conformational changes that can either activate or inhibit their functions. Some well-known CaBPs include calmodulin, troponin C, S100 proteins, and parvalbumins. These proteins are essential for maintaining calcium homeostasis within cells and for mediating the effects of calcium as a second messenger in various cellular signaling pathways.

JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases are a subgroup of the Ser/Thr protein kinases that are activated by stress stimuli and play important roles in various cellular processes, including inflammation, apoptosis, and differentiation. They are involved in the regulation of gene expression through phosphorylation of transcription factors such as c-Jun. JNKs are activated by a variety of upstream kinases, including MAP2Ks (MKK4/SEK1 and MKK7), which are in turn activated by MAP3Ks (such as ASK1, MEKK1, MLKs, and TAK1). JNK signaling pathways have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

Phosphoprotein phosphatases (PPPs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes by removing phosphate groups from serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues on proteins. Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification that regulates protein function, localization, and stability, and dephosphorylation by PPPs is essential for maintaining the balance of this regulation.

The PPP family includes several subfamilies, such as PP1, PP2A, PP2B (also known as calcineurin), PP4, PP5, and PP6. Each subfamily has distinct substrate specificities and regulatory mechanisms. For example, PP1 and PP2A are involved in the regulation of metabolism, signal transduction, and cell cycle progression, while PP2B is involved in immune response and calcium signaling.

Dysregulation of PPPs has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of PPPs is important for developing therapeutic strategies to target these diseases.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Peptide T" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It appears that you might be referring to "T-20," which is also known as "Enfuvirtide." Enfuvirtide is a medication used in the treatment of HIV infection. It is a synthetic peptide that mimics a portion of the gp41 protein, which is a component of the viral envelope of HIV. By binding to this protein, enfuvirtide prevents the virus from infecting cells, providing an additional line of defense against the virus in combination therapy regimens.

If you meant something else by "Peptide T," please provide more context or clarify your question so I can give you a more accurate answer.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPK) are a group of heterotrimeric enzymes that play a crucial role in cellular energy homeostasis. They are composed of a catalytic subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ). AMPK is activated under conditions of low energy charge, such as ATP depletion, hypoxia, or exercise, through an increase in the AMP:ATP ratio.

Once activated, AMPK phosphorylates and regulates various downstream targets involved in metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and protein synthesis. This results in the inhibition of energy-consuming processes and the promotion of energy-producing processes, ultimately helping to restore cellular energy balance.

AMPK has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including glucose and lipid metabolism, autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and inflammation. Dysregulation of AMPK activity has been linked to several diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, AMPK is an attractive target for therapeutic interventions in these conditions.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified by the addition of a phosphate group (-PO3H2) onto specific amino acid residues, most commonly serine, threonine, or tyrosine. This process is known as phosphorylation and is mediated by enzymes called kinases. Phosphoproteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, metabolism, and gene expression. The addition or removal of a phosphate group can activate or inhibit the function of a protein, thereby serving as a switch to control its activity. Phosphoproteins can be detected and quantified using techniques such as Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunofluorescence.

Serine is an amino acid, which is a building block of proteins. More specifically, it is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can produce it from other compounds, and it does not need to be obtained through diet. Serine plays important roles in the body, such as contributing to the formation of the protective covering of nerve fibers (myelin sheath), helping to synthesize another amino acid called tryptophan, and taking part in the metabolism of fatty acids. It is also involved in the production of muscle tissues, the immune system, and the forming of cell structures. Serine can be found in various foods such as soy, eggs, cheese, meat, peanuts, lentils, and many others.

8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) is a synthetic, cell-permeable analog of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Cyclic AMP is an important second messenger in many signal transduction pathways, and 8-Br-cAMP is often used in research to mimic or study the effects of increased cAMP levels. The bromine atom at the 8-position makes 8-Br-cAMP more resistant to degradation by phosphodiesterases, allowing it to have a longer duration of action compared to cAMP. It is used in various biochemical and cellular studies as a tool compound to investigate the role of cAMP in different signaling pathways.

Cyclic AMP (Adenosine Monophosphate) receptors are a type of membrane receptor that play an essential role in intracellular signaling pathways. They belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are characterized by their seven transmembrane domains.

Cyclic AMP is a second messenger, a molecule that relays signals from hormones and neurotransmitters within cells. When an extracellular signaling molecule binds to the receptor, it activates a G protein, which in turn triggers the enzyme adenylyl cyclase to convert ATP into cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various downstream effectors, such as protein kinases, ion channels, and transcription factors, ultimately leading to changes in cellular function.

There are two main types of cAMP receptors: stimulatory G protein-coupled receptors (Gs) and inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors (Gi). The activation of Gs receptors leads to an increase in cAMP levels, while the activation of Gi receptors results in a decrease in cAMP levels.

Examples of hormones and neurotransmitters that act through cAMP receptors include adrenaline, glucagon, dopamine, serotonin, and histamine. Dysregulation of cAMP signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protamine Kinase" is not a widely recognized or established term in medical or biological sciences. Protamines are small, arginine-rich proteins found in the sperm cells of many organisms, and they play a crucial role in the packaging and protection of DNA during spermatogenesis.

Kinases, on the other hand, are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to specific amino acids in proteins, thereby modulating their function, localization, or stability.

A search of scientific literature reveals only a few instances where "protamine kinase" is mentioned, usually in the context of potential regulatory mechanisms during sperm maturation or fertilization. However, there is no widely accepted or well-characterized enzyme known as "protamine kinase." Therefore, it would be challenging to provide a concise and accurate medical definition for this term.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

SRC-family kinases (SFKs) are a group of non-receptor tyrosine kinases that play important roles in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration. They are named after the founding member, SRC, which was first identified as an oncogene in Rous sarcoma virus.

SFKs share a common structure, consisting of an N-terminal unique domain, a SH3 domain, a SH2 domain, a catalytic kinase domain, and a C-terminal regulatory tail with a negative regulatory tyrosine residue (Y527 in human SRC). In their inactive state, SFKs are maintained in a closed conformation through intramolecular interactions between the SH3 domain, SH2 domain, and the phosphorylated C-terminal tyrosine.

Upon activation by various signals, such as growth factors, cytokines, or integrin engagement, SFKs are activated through a series of events that involve dephosphorylation of the regulatory tyrosine residue, recruitment to membrane receptors via their SH2 and SH3 domains, and trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop in the kinase domain.

Once activated, SFKs can phosphorylate a wide range of downstream substrates, including other protein kinases, adaptor proteins, and cytoskeletal components, thereby regulating various signaling pathways that control cell behavior. Dysregulation of SFK activity has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders.

Protein Kinase C-epsilon (PKCε) is a serine-threonine protein kinase that belongs to the family of Protein Kinase C (PKC) enzymes. These enzymes play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, cell survival, differentiation, and apoptosis.

PKCε is specifically involved in regulating several signaling pathways related to inflammation, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. It can be activated by different stimuli such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and phorbol esters, which lead to its translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, where it phosphorylates and modulates the activity of various target proteins.

Abnormal regulation or expression of PKCε has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, PKCε is considered a potential therapeutic target for these conditions, and inhibitors of this enzyme are being developed and tested in preclinical and clinical studies.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Calcium signaling is the process by which cells regulate various functions through changes in intracellular calcium ion concentrations. Calcium ions (Ca^2+^) are crucial second messengers that play a critical role in many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, and programmed cell death (apoptosis).

Intracellular calcium levels are tightly regulated by a complex network of channels, pumps, and exchangers located on the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. These proteins control the influx, efflux, and storage of calcium ions within the cell.

Calcium signaling is initiated when an external signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, binds to a specific receptor on the plasma membrane. This interaction triggers the opening of ion channels, allowing extracellular Ca^2+^ to flow into the cytoplasm. In some cases, this influx of calcium ions is sufficient to activate downstream targets directly. However, in most instances, the increase in intracellular Ca^2+^ serves as a trigger for the release of additional calcium from internal stores, such as the ER.

The release of calcium from the ER is mediated by ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), which are activated by specific second messengers generated in response to the initial external signal. The activation of these channels leads to a rapid increase in cytoplasmic Ca^2+^, creating a transient intracellular calcium signal known as a "calcium spark" or "calcium puff."

These localized increases in calcium concentration can then propagate throughout the cell as waves of elevated calcium, allowing for the spatial and temporal coordination of various cellular responses. The duration and amplitude of these calcium signals are finely tuned by the interplay between calcium-binding proteins, pumps, and exchangers, ensuring that appropriate responses are elicited in a controlled manner.

Dysregulation of intracellular calcium signaling has been implicated in numerous pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms governing calcium homeostasis and signaling is crucial for the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting these diseases.

Protein Kinase C beta (PKCβ) is a serine-threonine protein kinase that belongs to the family of Protein Kinase C (PKC) enzymes. It plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, cell survival, differentiation, and apoptosis. PKCβ is activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), which results in its translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, where it phosphorylates downstream target proteins.

There are two isoforms of PKCβ, PKCβI and PKCβII, which differ in their regulatory domains but have similar catalytic domains. PKCβ has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders, making it a potential therapeutic target for drug development.

1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase (PI4K) is a type of enzyme that belongs to the family of kinases, which are enzymes that transfer phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules to specific target proteins or lipids in the cell. PI4K specifically phosphorylates the 4th position on the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol (PI), a type of phospholipid found in the cell membrane, converting it to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P).

PI4K has several isoforms, including PI4K alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, which are located in different cellular compartments and play distinct roles. For example, PI4K alpha and beta are primarily involved in vesicle trafficking and Golgi function, while PI4K gamma and delta are associated with the plasma membrane and regulate ion channels and other signaling pathways.

PI4P, the product of PI4K activity, is an important signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, cytoskeleton organization, and protein sorting. Dysregulation of PI4K and its downstream pathways has been implicated in several human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and viral infection.

CREB (Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in response to various cellular signals. CREB binds to the cAMP response element (CRE) sequence in the promoter region of target genes and regulates their transcription.

When activated, CREB undergoes phosphorylation at a specific serine residue (Ser-133), which leads to its binding to the coactivator protein CBP/p300 and recruitment of additional transcriptional machinery to the promoter region. This results in the activation of target gene transcription.

CREB is involved in various cellular processes, including metabolism, differentiation, survival, and memory formation. Dysregulation of CREB has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and mood disorders.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) are a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in various cellular functions, including signal transduction, cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. They catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the tyrosine residues of proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules.

PTKs can be divided into two main categories: receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). RTKs are transmembrane proteins that become activated upon binding to specific ligands, such as growth factors or hormones. NRTKs, on the other hand, are intracellular enzymes that can be activated by various signals, including receptor-mediated signaling and intracellular messengers.

Dysregulation of PTK activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, PTKs are important targets for drug development and therapy.

Cytosol refers to the liquid portion of the cytoplasm found within a eukaryotic cell, excluding the organelles and structures suspended in it. It is the site of various metabolic activities and contains a variety of ions, small molecules, and enzymes. The cytosol is where many biochemical reactions take place, including glycolysis, protein synthesis, and the regulation of cellular pH. It is also where some organelles, such as ribosomes and vesicles, are located. In contrast to the cytosol, the term "cytoplasm" refers to the entire contents of a cell, including both the cytosol and the organelles suspended within it.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Gene expression regulation, enzymologic refers to the biochemical processes and mechanisms that control the transcription and translation of specific genes into functional proteins or enzymes. This regulation is achieved through various enzymatic activities that can either activate or repress gene expression at different levels, such as chromatin remodeling, transcription factor activation, mRNA processing, and protein degradation.

Enzymologic regulation of gene expression involves the action of specific enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions involved in these processes. For example, histone-modifying enzymes can alter the structure of chromatin to make genes more or less accessible for transcription, while RNA polymerase and its associated factors are responsible for transcribing DNA into mRNA. Additionally, various enzymes are involved in post-transcriptional modifications of mRNA, such as splicing, capping, and tailing, which can affect the stability and translation of the transcript.

Overall, the enzymologic regulation of gene expression is a complex and dynamic process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment and maintain proper physiological function.

G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4 (GRK4) is a type of enzyme belonging to the family of GRKs, which play a crucial role in the regulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors are involved in various cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters.

GRK4 specifically phosphorylates agonist-activated GPCRs, leading to their desensitization and internalization. This enzyme has four isoforms (GRK4A, GRK4B, GRK4C, and GRK4D) generated through alternative splicing, with different tissue distributions and functions.

GRK4 is most abundantly expressed in the heart, brain, adrenal glands, and testis. In the heart, it plays a significant role in regulating cardiac function, including modulating beta-adrenergic receptor signaling, which impacts heart rate and contractility. Dysregulation of GRK4 has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as heart failure, hypertension, and neurological disorders.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

Creatine kinase (CK) is a muscle enzyme that is normally present in small amounts in the blood. It is primarily found in tissues that require a lot of energy, such as the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles. When these tissues are damaged or injured, CK is released into the bloodstream, causing the levels to rise.

Creatine kinase exists in several forms, known as isoenzymes, which can be measured in the blood to help identify the location of tissue damage. The three main isoenzymes are:

1. CK-MM: Found primarily in skeletal muscle
2. CK-MB: Found primarily in heart muscle
3. CK-BB: Found primarily in the brain

Elevated levels of creatine kinase, particularly CK-MB, can indicate damage to the heart muscle, such as occurs with a heart attack. Similarly, elevated levels of CK-BB may suggest brain injury or disease. Overall, measuring creatine kinase levels is a useful diagnostic tool for assessing tissue damage and determining the severity of injuries or illnesses.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It forms the thickest part of the heart wall and is divided into two sections: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The myocardium contains several types of cells, including cardiac muscle fibers, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The muscle fibers are arranged in a highly organized pattern that allows them to contract in a coordinated manner, generating the force necessary to pump blood through the heart and circulatory system.

Damage to the myocardium can occur due to various factors such as ischemia (reduced blood flow), infection, inflammation, or genetic disorders. This damage can lead to several cardiac conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

CDC2 protein kinase, also known as cell division cycle 2 or CDK1, is a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle. The cell cycle is the series of events that cells undergo as they grow, replicate their DNA, and divide into two daughter cells.

CDC2 protein kinase is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family, which are serine/threonine protein kinases that are activated by binding to regulatory subunits called cyclins. CDC2 protein kinase is primarily associated with the regulation of the G2 phase and the entry into mitosis, the stage of the cell cycle where nuclear and cytoplasmic division occur.

CDC2 protein kinase functions by phosphorylating various target proteins, which alters their activity and contributes to the coordination of the different events that occur during the cell cycle. The activity of CDC2 protein kinase is tightly regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, as well as the binding and destruction of cyclin subunits.

Dysregulation of CDC2 protein kinase has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, where uncontrolled cell division can lead to the formation of tumors. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of CDC2 protein kinase is an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Sulfonamides are a group of synthetic antibacterial drugs that contain the sulfonamide group (SO2NH2) in their chemical structure. They are bacteriostatic agents, meaning they inhibit bacterial growth rather than killing them outright. Sulfonamides work by preventing the bacteria from synthesizing folic acid, which is essential for their survival.

The first sulfonamide drug was introduced in the 1930s and since then, many different sulfonamides have been developed with varying chemical structures and pharmacological properties. They are used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and ear infections.

Some common sulfonamide drugs include sulfisoxazole, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (a combination of a sulfonamide and another antibiotic called trimethoprim). While sulfonamides are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can cause side effects such as rash, nausea, and allergic reactions. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of xanthines. It is a methylated derivative of xanthine and is commonly found in some types of tea, coffee, and chocolate. This compound acts as a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which means it can increase the levels of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) by preventing its breakdown.

In medical terms, 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine is often used as a bronchodilator and a stimulant of central nervous system. It is also known to have diuretic properties. This compound is sometimes used in the treatment of asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and other respiratory disorders.

It's important to note that 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine can have side effects, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. It should be used under the supervision of a medical professional and its use should be carefully monitored to avoid potential adverse reactions.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Casein Kinase II (CK2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is widely expressed in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the regulation of various cellular processes. It is a heterotetrameric enzyme, consisting of two catalytic subunits (alpha and alpha') and two regulatory subunits (beta).

CK2 phosphorylates a wide range of substrates, including transcription factors, signaling proteins, and other kinases. It is known to play roles in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, and protein stability, among others. CK2 activity is often found to be elevated in various types of cancer, making it a potential target for cancer therapy.

Phosphatidylserines are a type of phospholipids that are essential components of the cell membrane, particularly in the brain. They play a crucial role in maintaining the fluidity and permeability of the cell membrane, and are involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, protein anchorage, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Phosphatidylserines contain a polar head group made up of serine amino acids and two non-polar fatty acid tails. They are abundant in the inner layer of the cell membrane but can be externalized to the outer layer during apoptosis, where they serve as signals for recognition and removal of dying cells by the immune system. Phosphatidylserines have been studied for their potential benefits in various medical conditions, including cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease, and depression.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

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"Identification of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on the beta 2 subunit of L-type voltage- ... Bünemann M, Gerhardstein BL, Gao T, Hosey MM (1999). "Functional regulation of L-type calcium channels via protein kinase A- ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNB2 gene. Mutation in ... GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Brugada syndrome CACNB2+protein,+human at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical ...
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... type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5 ... "MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... "Type II regulatory subunit (RII) of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase interaction with A-kinase anchor proteins requires ... "Type II regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and their binding proteins in the nervous system of Aplysia ...
"Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates merlin at serine 518 independently of p21-activated kinase and promotes ... is a cytoskeletal protein. In humans, it is a tumor suppressor protein involved in neurofibromatosis type II. Sequence data ... protein kinase A, and p21 activated kinases. Work in Drosophila identified Merlin as an upstream regulator of the Hippo tumor ... The two most common of these are also found in the mouse and are called type 1 and type 2, differing by the absence or presence ...
... enzyme called phosphorylase kinase was activated by another kinase that was dependent on the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP ... Likewise type II R subunits, of which there are two isoforms (RIIα, and RIIβ), create the type II PKA holoenzyme. In the ... Protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA Cα) is a member of the AGC kinase family (protein kinases A, G, and C), and contributes ... Biochemical studies demonstrated that there are two types of R subunits. The type I R subunits of which there are two isoforms ...
... two sites on glycogen synthetase phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and their dephosphorylation by protein ... Patients with type 2 diabetes normally exhibit low glycogen storage levels because of impairments in insulin-stimulated ... "A reinvestigation of the phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal-muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Glycogen synthase is directly regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), AMPK, protein kinase A (PKA), and casein kinase ...
Through these studies, the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling has been identified as a key mediator of cortisol ... A 2018 Cochrane Systematic review compared two different types of surgery: laparoscopic retroperotenial adrenalectomy and ... and the mutations associated with the dysregulation of cyclic AMP - protein kinase A pathways have been implicated in the ... The term "Cushing's disease" refers specifically to "secondary hypercortisolism" classified as "ACTH-dependent Cushing's ...
1996), "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK) in human B cells: co-localization of type I cAK (RIα2C2) with the antigen ... specific example of crosstalk between two major signaling pathways can be observed with the interaction of the cAMP and MAPK ... 1991), "Cyclic AMP modulation of human B cell proliferative responses: role of cAMP-dependent protein kinases in enhancing B ... Saxena, M. (1999), "Crosstalk between cAMP-dependent kinase and MAP kinase through a protein tyrosine phosphatase", Nat. Cell ...
A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs), which target cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to various sites in the cell. This ... topoisomerase IIα and kinesin family member 4 (KIF4) Chromosome scaffold constituent proteins are also called scaffold protein ... Such as type 4 collagen Shaw, Andrey S.; Filbert, Erin L. (January 2009). "Scaffold proteins and immune-cell signalling". ... Huntingtin protein co-localizes with ATM repair protein at sites of DNA damage. Huntingtin is a scaffolding protein in the ATM ...
Pan, X, Heitman, J (July 1999). "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase regulates pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces ... "Cell identity and sexual development in Cryptococcus neoformans are controlled by the mating-type-specific homeodomain protein ... "two duke faculty elected national academy of sciences". Duke University. Retrieved 29 April 2021. "news/2021/ nas election". ... Pan, X, Heitman, J (June 2002). "Protein kinase A operates a molecular switch that governs yeast pseudohyphal differentiation ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... 5 Gβ proteins, and 12 Gγ proteins. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... The specific mechanisms, however, differ between protein types. Receptor-activated G proteins are bound to the inner surface of ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ...
Huang W, Zhou X, Lefebvre V, de Crombrugghe B (June 2000). "Phosphorylation of SOX9 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A ... "A new long form of c-Maf cooperates with Sox9 to activate the type II collagen gene". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 ... siRNA-mediated knockdown of SOX-9 or RTL-3 results in the downregulation of the other and reduced Type-II Collagen (COL2A1) ... SOX9+protein,+human at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SOX9 human gene location in the ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Haycock JW, Ahn NG, Cobb MH, Krebs EG (Mar 1992). "ERK1 and ERK2, two microtubule-associated protein 2 kinases, mediate the ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is also an autoantigen in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome (APS) type I. A consistent abnormality in ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ser19 ( ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". Frontiers in Bioscience. 13 (13): 1206-1226. doi: ... White SW, Zheng J, Zhang YM (2005). "The structural biology of type II fatty acid biosynthesis". Annual Review of Biochemistry ... involved in calcium-mediated activation of protein kinase C; the prostaglandins, which are one type of fatty-acid derived ... Biological lipids originate entirely or in part from two distinct types of biochemical subunits or "building-blocks": ketoacyl ...
... which in turn produces cyclic AMP (cAMP). Protein kinase A, whose activation is dependent on the increased levels of cAMP, is ... "Proteins associated with type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR-II) and identified by two-dimensional gel ... The glucagon receptor is a 62 kDa protein that is activated by glucagon and is a member of the class B G-protein coupled family ... "Receptor activity modifying protein-directed G protein signaling specificity for the calcitonin gene-related peptide family of ...
In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase). PKA is normally ... are not cAMP-dependent. Further effects mainly depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell. ... consisting of two catalytic and two regulatory units (C2R2), with the regulatory units blocking the catalytic centers of the ... Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP. Several classes of protein kinases, including protein kinase C, ...
... on the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in cows as n-tetradecanoyl. Almost simultaneously in Claude B. ... First, myristoyl coenzyme A (CoA) is positioned in its binding pocket of NMT so that the carbonyl faces two amino acid residues ... This lipidation event is the most common type of fatty acylation and is present in many organisms, including animals, plants, ... "N-Tetradecanoyl is the NH2-terminal blocking group of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from bovine ...
They are Gs/a coupled and can stimulate neurons by indirectly activating cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. The DRD1 gene ... It is one of the two types of D1-like receptor family - receptors D1 and D5. It is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... II. Actions of dihydrexidine in D2L receptor-transfected MN9D cells and pituitary lactotrophs". The Journal of Pharmacology and ... January 2022). "Reversible Photocontrol of Dopaminergic Transmission in Wild-Type Animals". International Journal of Molecular ...
Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... "The two mRNA forms for the type I alpha regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase from human testis are due to the ... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAR1A gene. cAMP ...
Mayeenuddin LH, Garrison JC (January 2006). "Phosphorylation of P-Rex1 by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the ... August 2001). "A high-resolution 6.0-megabase transcript map of the type 2 diabetes susceptibility region on human chromosome ... 5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchanger 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PREX1 gene. The protein encoded ... March 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human ...
... cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This enzyme, in turn, activates ... It may occur alone or in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Elevated glucagon is the main contributor to ... Unger RH, Orci L (June 1981). "Glucagon and the A cell: physiology and pathophysiology (first two parts)". The New England ... cAMP binds to protein kinase A, and the complex phosphorylates glyocogen phosphorylase kinase. Phosphorylated glyocogen ...
By the late 1960s, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase had been purified, and most attention was centered on kinases and ... Casein kinase activity was found to be present in most cell types and to be associated with multiple enzymes. The type 1 casein ... The effects of phosphorylation are two-fold. It has been shown in Drosophila that phosphorylation of the PER proteins increase ... "Synergistic phosphorylation of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and casein kinase I. ...
Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase decreases the conversion of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. Lower levels of cAMP decrease the ... activity of protein kinase A to phosphorylate, thereby activating, hormone-sensitive lipase. The opposite effect can be reached ... Siegrist S, Féral C, Chami M, Solhonne B, Mattéi MG, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Guellaën G, Bulle F (2001). "hH-Rev107, a class II ... Fatty acid oxidation was also found to increase to levels of wild-type mice that were deficient in non-AdPLA deficient obese ...
1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ... "Evidence for two additional isoforms of the endogenous protein kinase inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in mouse". J. ... 1997). "The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhances serine phosphorylation of the viral matrix". J. Virol. ... Rabbi MF, al-Harthi L, Saifuddin M, Roebuck KA (1998). "The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and protein kinase C-beta pathways ...
AMP-activated protein kinase). Protein kinase A, more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent ... PRKAR1B regulatory subunit type II - PRKAR2A, PRKAR2B PKA is also commonly known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase, because it ... protein kinase A (PKA) is a family of serine-threonine kinase whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP ( ... Cyclic+AMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila cAMP- ...
... where it stimulates a protein kinase called cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. By phosphorylating proteins, cyclic AMP- ... By the end of the decade, the presence of two types of intramembrane receptors was understood: Rs (which stimulates cyclase) ... G proteins). The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) ... Eckly-Michel A, Martin V, Lugnier C (September 1997). "Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in cyclic AMP ...
... encoding protein cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4 BCR (22q11) encoding breakpoint cluster region protein CARD10 ... encoding protein Nucleolar protein 12 PARVB PDGFB PI4KA: encoding enzyme Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase alpha PI4KAP2: ... Humans normally have two copies of chromosome 22 in each cell. Chromosome 22 is the second smallest human chromosome, spanning ... A rearrangement (translocation) of genetic material between chromosomes 9 and 22 is associated with several types of blood ...
Expression of the promoter is shown to be induce by phorbol esters and cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase signaling. The four ... There are two active pockets within iPFK2 for fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase which are structurally ... Circadian clocks dysregulation is associated with many types of cancer. PFKFB3 expression exhibits circadian rhythmicity that ... kinase) activity than other isoforms, due to phosphorylation of Ser-460 by PKA or AMP-dependent protein kinase. The high '2- ...
Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 BRK1: SCAR/WAVE actin ... Forkhead Box Protein P1 FRA3A encoding protein Fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(3)(p24.2) FRMD4B encoding protein ... Cereblon protein DCLK3: Doublecortin like kinase 3 DLEC1: encoding protein Deleted in lung and esophageal cancer 1 EAF1: ELL ... People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 3 spans 201 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) ...
"MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc ... with serine/threonine protein kinases and heat shock protein HSP90 in human hematopoietic cell lines". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 ( ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
Increasing endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) by blocking its metabolism inhibits invasion of androgen-independent ... Noladin ether (a stable 2-AG analog) and exogenous CB1 receptor agonists possess similar … ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism * Cyclohexanones / pharmacology * Endocannabinoids * Glycerides / antagonists ... Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt * Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ...
... the anti-inflammatory effects of the cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA); and 3) pro-inflammatory proteases as triggers ... airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 and IL-8 with sequential activation of the airway epithelial protein kinase C isoforms ( ... Aim 2: Determine how agents that augment PKA, especially therapeutic beta-adrenergic agonists, dampen dust extract-induced PKC ...
Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Type 1 78% * Teriparatide 74% * Ligands 37% * Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases 22% ... AMP-activated protein kinase in adipose tissue. Kopietz, F., 2021, Lund: Lund University, Faculty of Medicine. 81 p.. Research ... Protein kinases in hormonal regulation of adipocyte metabolism.. Berggreen, C., 2014, Protein Phosphorylation, Faculty of ... Salt-inducible kinase 2 regulates TFEB and is required for autophagic flux in adipocytes. Negoita, F., Säll, J., Morén, B., ...
Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase is involved in glass fiber-induced ... In inhalation studies in rats the preponderant form of lung cancer is bronchoalveolar in origin, arising from type II alveolar ... c-Jun which acts on the TNF-a gene promoter through the cyclic AMP response element and the AP-1 binding site. ... This study of luciginen-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) induced in vitro over a 2 h period found a strong correlation of ...
1988) Activation of protein kinase C differentially modulates neuronal sodium, calcium and GABA type A channels. Proc Natl Acad ... 1984) Cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the sodium channel in synaptic nerve ending particles. J ... 1996) Phosphorylation of brain sodium channels in the I-II linker modulates channel function in Xenopus oocytes. J Neurosci 16: ... 1993) Convergent regulation of sodium channels by protein kinase C and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Science 261:1439-1442. ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit (4) * Immune Tolerance (4) * Biomarkers, Tumor (3) ... Innate type 2 immunity controls hair follicle commensalism by Demodex mites. Ricardo-Gonzalez, Roberto R; Kotas, Maya E; ... Heavily Pigmented Epithelioid Melanoma With Loss of Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit-α Expression. Cohen, Jarish N; Spies, ... Superficial Angiomyxomas Frequently Demonstrate Loss of Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit 1 Alpha Expression: ...
II. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation and capacitation are regulated by a cAMP-dependent pathway ... E, F) Ca2+ signals of capacitated sperm induced by cyclic nucleotide analogs (10 mM) in wild-type (E) and CatSper-null (F) ... PKA-dependent phosphorylation) or 90 min (tyrosine kinase-dependent phosphorylation). Similarly, bPAC sperm were illuminated ... Cyclic AMP signaling is essential for sperm development, motility, and maturation in the female genital tract (Visconti et al ...
Apelin increases cardiac contractility via protein kinase Cε- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent mechanisms. ... The apelin receptor (APJ), a novel G-protein-coupled receptor, shares homology with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and was ... The activation of apelin receptors inhibits forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP synthesis (47). In addition to the adenylyl cyclase ... mediated recruitment of β-arrestin and exhibits 37-fold increased selectivity for APJ compared with the angiotensin II type 1 ...
Cyclic AMP Dependent Protein Kinase 11% 30 Citations (Scopus) 263 Downloads (Pure) ... Caveolin-3 dependent loss of t-tubular ICa during hypertrophy and heart failure in mice. Bryant, S. M., Kong, C. H. T., Watson ... Loss of caveolin-3-dependent regulation of ICa in rat ventricular myocytes in heart failure. Bryant, S. M., Kong, C. H. T., ... Effect of SR load and pH regulatory mechanisms on stretch-dependent Ca(2+) entry during the slow force response.. Shen, X., ...
... regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE ... regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE ... A-Kinase Anchoring Protein A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins Anchor Proteins, A-Kinase Anchoring Protein, A-Kinase Protein Kinase A ... A-Kinase Anchoring Protein. A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins. Anchor Proteins, A-Kinase. Anchoring Protein, A-Kinase. Protein Kinase ...
We observe a role of selective type of autophagy in direct activation of cyclic AMP protein kinase A (PKA) and rejuvenation of ... Glucose starvation induces AKAP11-dependent degradation of RI, resulting in PKA activation that potentiates PKA-cAMP response ... We observe a role of selective type of autophagy in direct activation of cyclic AMP protein kinase A (PKA) and rejuvenation of ... We observe a role of selective type of autophagy in direct activation of cyclic AMP protein kinase A (PKA) and rejuvenation of ...
Leonard A.S., Hell J.W. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase С phosphorylate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. // J. Biol. Chem. 1993,268:7863-7867. ... The NMDA type glutamate receptors expressed by primary rat osteoblasts have the same electrophysiological characteristics as ... Crump F.T., Dillman K.S., Craig A.M. cAMP-dependent protein kinase mediates activity-regulated synaptic targeting of NMDA ...
These channels in normal cells are activated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C. In cystic fibrosis ... CaM kinase or CaM kinase II), but not by constitutive mutants of CaM kinase IV, calcineurin or protein kinase C. The block was ... as well as other types of Ca-binding proteins. In T-cells, a number of important kinases, phosphatases, and cytoskeleton- ... Multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) is a mediator of calcium signals in diverse signaling ...
Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene in Japanese patients with ... Common genetic variants in the glucocorticoid receptor and the 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 genes influence long- ... Novel somatic mutations in the catalytic subunit of the protein kinase A as a cause of adrenal Cushings syndrome: a European ... Pituitary 2013 Jun 16 (2): 175-81. Koutroumpi S, Daidone V, Sartori M T, Cattini M G, Albiger N M, Occhi G, Ferasin S, Frigo A ...
Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ... Clinical Trial, Phase II [Publication Type]. Clinical Trial, Phase II. Clinical Trial, Phase III [Publication Type]. Clinical ... 3,5-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase. 3,5-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases. Acetylserotonin N-Methyltransferase. ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ...
Differential activation of CREB by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases type II and type IV involves phosphorylation of a ... and activate the downstream transcription factor cyclic AMP element-binding protein (CREB) in AML cells [29]. CREB is one of ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Biochem J. 1989;258(2):313-25.. 7. Sun P, Enslen H, Myung PS, Maurer RA. ... Developmental regulation of two isoforms of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I beta in rat brain. Brain Res. 2000;869 ...
... cyclic AMP levels, protein kinase A (PKA) activation, and reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels. The ... Two of the eight production staff and two of the four laboratory staff showed signs of slight depigmentation around the neck ... Type of method:. in vitro. Endpoint addressed:. other: inhibition of melanogenic acitivity. Species:. other: in vitro assay. ... Oestrogen-dependent mammary cells, MCF-7 (BUS-stock), were provided by Tufts University Schoool of Medicine, Boston, ...
It forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone ... Can elicit oncogenic or tumor suppressor activities depending on the tissue or cell type. This gene encodes a transcription ... The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct ... The encoded protein may also be involved in cells DNA damage response independent of its role in transcriptional regulation. ...
Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) is a negative regulator of Parkin expression via the AMP-activated protein kinase ( ... The PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitophagy pathway and PINK1/Parkin-independent mitophagy pathway are the two classic mitophagy ... Upstream regulation on Parkin and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)-mediated mitophagy in obesity and type 2 diabetes ... In addition, FoxO3a reduction is an upstream regulator of NIX-mediated mitophagy through the cyclic adenosine monophosphate ( ...
Beta-arrestin-dependent formation of beta2 adrenergic receptor-Src protein kinase complexes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 283 5402 ... Targeting of cyclic AMP degradation to beta 2-adrenergic receptors by beta-arrestins. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298 5594, 834-6 ... Herpes simplex type 1 induction of persistent NF-kappa B nuclear translocation increases the efficiency of virus replication. ... Pasteurella multocida toxin stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase via G(q/11)-dependent transactivation of the epidermal ...
... defined by a premalignant neoplasm with intraductal papillary or villous growth of biliary-type epithelium. IOPN has a distinct ... protein kinase A, cAMP-dependent protein kinase. AMP:. adenosine monophosphate. AMPK:. AMP-activated protein kinase ... Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct consist of two distinct types specifically associated with clinicopathological ... activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related kinases [19]. GNAS mutation leads to constitutive activation of the cyclic adenosine ...
SSTR3 triggers PTP-dependent cell apoptosis accompanied by activation of p53 and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax 3. A study of ... By inhibiting intracellular cyclic AMP and Ca2+ and by a receptor-linked distal effect on exocytosis, SSTRs block cell ... and modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 3. With the exception of SSTR3, activation of SSTRs lead to ... Spectrum Type. Splash Key. Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated). Predicted LC-MS/MS. splash10-01bi-0000019000- ...
Rat CREB(Cyclic AMP Response Element Binding Protein) ELISA Kit. *Rat CDK9(Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9) ELISA Kit ... Human Fatty Acid Binding Protein 1, Liver ELISA Kit. Price : 18500 INR/Kit. Minimum Order Quantity : 1. Type : ELISA Kit. Send ... MUELLER HINTON II AGAR (Sheep Blood 5%). *Mueller Hinton Fastidious Agar (Horse blood 5% + 20 mg/L beta-NAD) ... Rat NTX(Cross Linked N-Telopeptide of Type Collagen) ELISA Kit. *Rat ICTP(Cross-linked C-Telopeptide of Type I Collagen) ELISA ...
... cAMP-activated protein kinases, and activation of cyclic AMP response element-binding (CREB) protein reduce 8-hydroxy-2- ... the type of exercise depends on the activation of AMPK and mTOR (27), and the type of exercise has different effects on the ... Nevertheless, its optimal effects appear to be dose-dependent, in a study by Hosseini et al. (10), 100 mg/kg of RJ had no ... Therefore, it seems that the neurotrophin effects of these two interventions in the present study have been influenced by ...
We found an antagonistic relationship between calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV (CAMK4) and GFAP which may include ... regulatory mechanisms involving cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, ... results were the age-related decline of synaptic transmission and activated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP ... Wang Z, Zhang L, Liang Y, Zhang C, Xu Z, Zhang L, Fuji R, Mu W, Li L, Jiang J, Ju Y, Wang Z (2015) Cyclic AMP mimics the anti- ...
Horrigan, L.A.; Kelly, J.P.; Connor, T.J. Caffeine suppresses TNF-α production via activation of the cyclic AMP/protein kinase ... time-dependent, and sex-dependent manner [126]. Women with low-moderate alcohol consumption had a 9% reduction in RA risk, and ... Juices, as well as low-moderate amounts of wine, certainly appear to be two beverages which would complement the benefits from ... and type 2 diabetes mellitus [134,135]. In fact, patients on long-term corticosteroids are four times as likely to develop type ...
C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP), cyclic AMP (cAMP), C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 12 ( ... DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Early Growth Response 2 (EGR2), Epithelial-mesenchymal ... Pioglitazone is an insulin sensitizer for type 2 diabetes with therapeutic effects in mouse models of thyroid cancer due to the ... Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), AKT Serine/Threonine Kinase (AKT), AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase), ...
Although ion-pair reversed-phase LC/MS/MS metabolome analysis revealed lower concentrations of γ-PGA precursors such as 2- ... Although ion-pair reversed-phase LC/MS/MS metabolome analysis revealed lower concentrations of γ-PGA precursors such as 2- ... offers a carbon-efficient alternative converting xylose to 2-oxoglutarate without carbon loss. We engineered a recombinant B. ... offers a carbon-efficient alternative converting xylose to 2-oxoglutarate without carbon loss. We engineered a recombinant B. ...
Changes in cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase and active stiffness in the rat volume overload model of heart hypertrophy ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and mechanical heart function in ventricular hypertrophy induced by pressure overload or ... Document type Artículo de revista (6). Biblioteca Digital - Universidad de Chile ... Protein phosphorylation (2)Systolic function (2)Angiotensin-(1-9) (1)Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (1)Cardiac dysfunction (1) ...
  • Activation of D1-like dopamine (DA) receptors reduces peak Na + current in acutely isolated hippocampal neurons through phosphorylation of the α subunit of the Na + channel by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). (jneurosci.org)
  • Mechanistically, autophagy selectively degrades the inhibitory subunit RI of PKA holoenzyme through A-kinase-anchoring protein (AKAP) 11. (edu.hk)
  • The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit RI is overexpressed in cancer cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene in Japanese patients with several adrenal adenomas secreting cortisol [Rapid Communication]. (cdc.gov)
  • Novel somatic mutations in the catalytic subunit of the protein kinase A as a cause of adrenal Cushing's syndrome: a European multicentric study. (cdc.gov)
  • Dissection of Protein Kinase Pathways in Live Cells Using Photoluminescent Probes: Surveillance or Interrogation? (mdpi.com)
  • Protein kinases catalyze phosphorylation, a small yet crucial modification that affects participation of the substrate proteins in the intracellular signaling pathways. (mdpi.com)
  • Hence, significant effort of scientific community has been dedicated to the dissection of protein kinase pathways in their natural milieu. (mdpi.com)
  • Most of all we determined two book cell success/level of resistance pathways ERK5 and cyclic AMP response component binding proteins (CREB) which were inhibited by Vehicle Foretinib and Dox. (cell-metabolism.com)
  • Furthermore crocidolite asbestos materials the strongest asbestos enter the causation of MM trigger protracted activation of ERK1/2 and ERK5 via EGFR-dependent versus 3rd party pathways in rodent mesothelial and lung epithelial cells (1 17 We've also proven that hepatocyte development factor/scatter element mediates proliferation of human being MMs through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mitogen extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (MEK5)/fos-related antigen 1 pathway (18). (cell-metabolism.com)
  • We 1st proven that crocidolite asbestos causes CREB activation in human being mesothelial cells via EGFR and PKA-dependent pathways (31). (cell-metabolism.com)
  • Because vandetanib (Vehicle) (ZD6474 ZACTIMA) can be a book orally energetic agent that inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of vascular endothelial development element receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and EGFR (32) and shows significant antitumor activity in a variety of xenograft types of human being cancers including MM (32) we hypothesized that many of the multiple signaling pathways seen in MMs could possibly be targeted by this medication. (cell-metabolism.com)
  • We display two fresh (ERK5 CREB) success pathways triggered by Dox in MM cells that are inhibited by coadministration of Vehicle correlating with lowers in cell viability. (cell-metabolism.com)
  • In obesity and diabetes, two classical pathways appear to regulate mitophagy, including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin-dependent mitophagy and receptors/adapters-dependent mitophagy. (e-dmj.org)
  • We are primarily using cytomegaloviruses to examine how the pathogens alter signaling pathways directed by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to facilitate robust replication in tissues important for host-host dissemination. (uc.edu)
  • The actions of somatostatin are mediated via signalling pathways of G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors. (drugbank.com)
  • Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bacterial regulatory proteins [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The difference is, for CaMKII, the Thr-286 residue in the regulatory domain is auto- phosphorylated before kinase activation. (scientificarchives.com)
  • Beta-adrenergic stimulation activates adenylate cyclase, which increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels and causes increased calcium influx into myocardial cells. (medscape.com)
  • While distribution of two active isoforms of somatostatin is similar, SST-14 is more predominant in the enteric neurons and peripheral nerves whereas SST-28 is more prominent in the retina and intestinal mucosal cells 1 . (drugbank.com)
  • 00:00:29.11 First, I'd like to point out why protein phosphorylation is so important in biology. (ibiology.org)
  • CaMKs have a special phosphorylation-dependent mechanism for the regulation of kinase activity. (scientificarchives.com)
  • The results suggest that cellular 2-AG, acting through the CB1 receptor, is an endogenous inhibitor of invasive prostate cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • [ 2 , 3 ] In male Wistar rats injected with cocaine to produce left ventricular dysfunction, Isabelle et al prevented cocaine-related cardiomyopathy with administration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitors, thereby preventing excess production of reactive oxygen species. (medscape.com)
  • They are multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate the development and activity of different kinds of cell types through a variety of substrates [ 6 - 8 ]. (scientificarchives.com)
  • Increasing endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) by blocking its metabolism inhibits invasion of androgen-independent prostate cancer (PC-3 and DU-145) cells. (nih.gov)
  • The function and mechanism of these kinases in leukemia development are summarized in this study. (scientificarchives.com)
  • nevertheless blockade of mTOR can boost AKT activity by responses systems downstream of mTOR inducing unwanted compensatory resistance systems (25 26 cAMP response component binding proteins (CREB) continues Foretinib to be classically researched in the physiology of nerve or contractile cells & most recently in a few malignancies (27-29). (cell-metabolism.com)
  • It was demonstrated, using immunoblotting, that intrathecal ML221 downregulated phosphorylated extracellular signal‑related kinase (ERK) in the rat spinal cord dorsal horn, suggesting that the effect of apelin on neuropathic pain may be mediated via ERK signaling. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Signaling cascades in charge of CREB activation by extracellular stimuli consist of proteins kinase A (PKA) proteins kinase C (PKC) Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaM kinases) p90 ribosomal S6 kinase and ERK1 and ERK2 (30). (cell-metabolism.com)
  • We observe a role of selective type of autophagy in direct activation of cyclic AMP protein kinase A (PKA) and rejuvenation of mitochondrial function. (edu.hk)
  • Glucose starvation induces AKAP11-dependent degradation of RI, resulting in PKA activation that potentiates PKA-cAMP response element-binding signaling, mitochondria respiration, and ATP production in accordance with mitochondrial elongation. (edu.hk)
  • A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ca 2+ signaling works by forming a complex with calmodulin (CaM), a 148-amino-acid protein that transduces signals in response to intracellular Ca 2+ elevation. (scientificarchives.com)
  • Cyclic AMP quantitation involved use of an enzyme immunoassay kit to measure intracellular cAMP. (europa.eu)
  • Aim 2: Determine how agents that augment PKA, especially therapeutic beta-adrenergic agonists, dampen dust extract-induced PKC isoform activation and attenuate lung inflammation in vitro and in vivo. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we report that neuromodulation of Na + currents by DA receptors via PKA is voltage-dependent in the range of −110 to −70 mV and is also sensitive to concurrent activation of protein kinase C (PKC). (jneurosci.org)
  • Dynamical Basis of Allosteric Activation for the Plasmodium falciparum Protein Kinase G . Biophysical Journal . (mcmaster.ca)
  • 00:02:19.22 If you look at proteins and translation now: RNA is translated into proteins, 00:02:25.05 where you have all these diverse amino acids and if we look at a protein's sequence, 00:02:30.23 it, of course, defines the chemical composition of that structure of that protein molecule. (ibiology.org)
  • 00:02:40.24 And to really understand how a protein works, you need to have structure so that you 00:02:46.11 know where those amino acids are, you know how they work together to create an active and functional protein. (ibiology.org)
  • Conversely, reducing endogenous 2-AG by inhibiting its synthesis or blocking its binding to CB1 receptors with antagonists increases the cell invasion. (nih.gov)
  • RUNX1T1 has been shown to interact with: CBFA2T2, CBFA2T3, Calcitriol receptor GFI1, Nuclear receptor co-repressor 1, Nuclear receptor co-repressor 2, PRKAR2A, and Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 16. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noladin ether (a stable 2-AG analog) and exogenous CB1 receptor agonists possess similar effects. (nih.gov)
  • 2-AG and noladin ether decrease protein kinase A activity in these cells, indicating coupling of the CB1 receptor to downstream effectors. (nih.gov)
  • The apelin receptor (APJ), a novel G-protein-coupled receptor, shares homology with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and was considered an 'orphan' receptor prior to the discovery of apelin in 1998 ( 1 , 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Common genetic variants in the glucocorticoid receptor and the 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 genes influence long-term cognitive impairments in patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission. (cdc.gov)
  • Human cytomegalovirus G protein-coupled receptor US28 promotes latency by attenuating c-fos. (uc.edu)
  • The chimeric protein is thought to associate with the nuclear corepressor/histone deacetylase complex to block hematopoietic differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc finger transcription factor and oncoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, based on their substrate specificity, not all CaM-regulated kinases are Ca 2+ /CaMdependent protein kinases (CaMKs). (scientificarchives.com)
  • Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase I/II AAV-CFTR gene therapy trials. (stanford.edu)
  • Individuals who carry two mild mutations in the GJB2 gene possibly have an increased risk of developing early presbycusis. (stanford.edu)
  • Description of the protein which includes the UniProt Function and the NCBI Gene Summary. (nih.gov)
  • 00:00:36.03 Then, in the second lecture, I'd like to introduce you to 00:00:40.16 the protein kinase molecular and how that functions. (ibiology.org)
  • ATPase, K+-dependent, ribosome-associated [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Periplasmic glucan biosynthesis protein [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • putative SAM-dependent methyltransferase [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • putative inner membrane protein [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. (bvsalud.org)
  • The activity of 538 protein kinases encoded in human genome relies upon spatiotemporally controlled mechanisms, ensuring correct progression of virtually all physiological processes on the cellular level-from cell division to cell death. (mdpi.com)
  • For Western blotting, equal amounts of protein were boiled for 2 minutes, chilled on ice and then subject to SDS-Page gel electrophoresis and electrophoretically transferred to a PVDF membrane and the proteins were then visualised with an enhanced chemiluminescence detection system. (europa.eu)
  • In this study, we found that neuropathic pain is abrogated when the kynurenine metabolic pathway initiated by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) is ablated pharmacologically or genetically. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Since the discovery of CaM in 1970 as a Ca 2+ regulator, there have been over 80 Ca 2+ /CaM-regulated protein kinases described [ 4 ]. (scientificarchives.com)
  • Additionally, selective autophagy is observed explicitly in yeast, such as xenophagy for pathogen clearance [ 2 ]. (e-dmj.org)
  • Protein concentrations were determined using protein assay reagents. (europa.eu)
  • Research in animals has shown impressive results with studies in mice and rats showing chronic caloric restriction able to extend lifespan by up to 40%, showing the ability in some animal studies to virtually eliminate type 2 diabetes, and dramatically reduce cancer incidence. (foundmyfitness.com)
  • cAMP-dependent protein kinase is involved in hormone- and cytokine-mediated signaling, and so representative hormone, cytokine, and peripheral lymphocyte subsets were measured. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Not to mention being notoriously hard to practice with long-term human caloric restricters inadequately restricting protein and ultimately failing at reproducing some of the cellular signaling changes that seem to be important: namely, reductions in an important growth factor known as IGF-1. (foundmyfitness.com)
  • The objective protein-protein interaction circle ended up being constructed employing STRING database. (blu-667inhibitor.com)
  • RNA polymerase-associated, ATP-dependent RNA translocase [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • uncharacterized protein [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The present study demonstrated that a single application of ML221 alleviated mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia 7 days following CCI, in a dose‑dependent manner. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The second day of the meeting will be devoted to critical assessment of the health effects that can be justifiably attributed to asbestos and vitreous fibers and to identifying critical data gaps and research needs that would further enlighten this subject (Topics #2 and #3). (cdc.gov)
  • The multifunctional Ca 2+ /CaM-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are critical intermediates of this signaling and play key roles in cancer development. (scientificarchives.com)
  • The aberrant functioning of protein kinases is linked to a wide spectrum of major health issues including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory diseases, etc. (mdpi.com)
  • In Phase II studies, a dose of 0.11 mg/kg/h for 3 days per week would be appropriate. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling plays a central role in both primary and motile cilia. (elifesciences.org)
  • 50S ribosome-binding GTPase, Protein of unknown function (DUF933) [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)