A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the TESTES and BRAIN. Variants of this subtype exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its mRNA.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.

PrKX is a novel catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulated by the regulatory subunit type I. (1/231)

The human X chromosome-encoded protein kinase X (PrKX) belongs to the family of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. The catalytically active recombinant enzyme expressed in COS cells phosphorylates the heptapeptide Kemptide (LRRASLG) with a specific activity of 1.5 micromol/(min.mg). Using surface plasmon resonance, high affinity interactions were demonstrated with the regulatory subunit type I (RIalpha) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (KD = 10 nM) and the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor (KD = 15 nM), but not with the type II regulatory subunit (RIIalpha, KD = 2.3 microM) under physiological conditions. Kemptide and autophosphorylation activities of PrKX are strongly inhibited by the RIalpha subunit and by protein kinase inhibitor in vitro, but only weakly by the RIIalpha subunit. The inhibition by the RIalpha subunit is reversed by addition of nanomolar concentrations of cAMP (Ka = 40 nM), thus demonstrating that PrKX is a novel, type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase that is activated at lower cAMP concentrations than the holoenzyme with the Calpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Microinjection data clearly indicate that the type I R subunit but not type II binds to PrKX in vivo, preventing the translocation of PrKX to the nucleus in the absence of cAMP. The RIIalpha subunit is an excellent substrate for PrKX and is phosphorylated in vitro in a cAMP-independent manner. We discuss how PrKX can modulate the cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathway by preferential binding to the RIalpha subunit and by phosphorylating the RIIalpha subunit in the absence of cAMP.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases differ in their regulation of cyclic AMP response element-dependent gene transcription. (2/231)

The ability of cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) to activate cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent gene transcription was compared with that of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (cAKs). Although both the type Ibeta cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKIbeta) and the type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAKII) phosphorylated the cytoplasmic substrate VASP (vasodilator- and A kinase-stimulated phosphoprotein) to a similar extent, cyclic nucleotide regulation of CRE-dependent transcription was at least 10-fold higher in cAKII-transfected cells than in cGKIbeta-transfected cells. Overexpression of each kinase in mammalian cells resulted in a cytoplasmic localization of the unactivated enzyme. As reported previously, the catalytic (C) subunit of cAKII translocated to the nucleus following activation by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. However, cGKIbeta did not translocate to the nucleus upon activation by 8-bromo-cyclic GMP. Replacement of an autophosphorylated serine (Ser79) of cGKIbeta with an aspartic acid resulted in a mutant kinase with constitutive kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. The cGKIbetaS79D mutant localized to the cytoplasm and was only a weak activator of CRE-dependent gene transcription. However, an amino-terminal deletion mutant of cGKIbeta was found in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm and was a strong activator of CRE-dependent gene transcription. These data suggest that the inability of cGKs to translocate to the nucleus is responsible for the differential ability of cAKs and cGKs to activate CRE-dependent gene transcription and that nuclear redistribution of cGKs is not required for NO/cGMP regulation of gene transcription.  (+info)

Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulation of glutamate responses in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. (3/231)

Glutamate is the primary excitatory transmitter in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate transduction of light information from the retina to the SCN, an important circadian clock phase shifting pathway. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) may play a significant modulatory role. mGluR modulation of SCN responses to glutamate was investigated with fura-2 calcium imaging in SCN explant cultures. SCN neurons showed reproducible calcium responses to glutamate, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Although the type I/II mGluR agonists L-CCG-I and t-ACPD did not evoke calcium responses, they did inhibit kainate- and NMDA-evoked calcium rises. This interaction was insensitive to pertussis toxin. Protein kinase A (PKA) activation by 8-bromo-cAMP significantly reduced iGluR inhibition by mGluR agonists. The inhibitory effect of mGluRs was enhanced by activating protein kinase C (PKC) and significantly reduced in the presence of the PKC inhibitor H7. Previous reports show that L-type calcium channels can be modulated by PKC and PKA. In SCN cells, about one-half of the calcium rise evoked by kainate or NMDA was blocked by the L-type calcium channel antagonist nimodipine. Calcium rises evoked by K+ were used to test whether mGluR inhibition of iGluR calcium rises involved calcium channel modulation. These calcium rises were primarily attributable to activation of voltage-activated calcium channels. PKC activation inhibited K+-evoked calcium rises, but PKC inhibition did not affect L-CCG-I inhibition of these rises. In contrast, 8Br-cAMP had no effect alone but blocked L-CCG-I inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of mGluRs, likely type II, modulates glutamate-evoked calcium responses in SCN neurons. mGluR inhibition of iGluR calcium rises can be differentially influenced by PKC or PKA activation. Regulation of glutamate-mediated calcium influx could occur at L-type calcium channels, K+ channels, or at GluRs. It is proposed that mGluRs may be important regulators of glutamate responsivity in the circadian system.  (+info)

Type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulates electrogenic ion transport in rabbit collecting duct. (4/231)

cAMP mediates many of the effects of vasopressin, prostaglandin E2, and beta-adrenergic agents upon salt and water transport in the renal collecting duct. The present studies examined the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in mediating these effects. PKA is a heterotetramer comprised of two regulatory (R) subunits and two catalytic (C) subunits. The four PKA isoforms may be distinguished by their R subunits that have been designated RIalpha, RIbeta, RIIalpha, and RIIbeta. Three regulatory subunits, RIalpha, RIIalpha, and RIIbeta, were detected by immunoblot and ribonuclease protection in both primary cultures and fresh isolates of rabbit cortical collecting ducts (CCDs). Monolayers of cultured CCDs grown on semipermeable supports were mounted in an Ussing chamber, and combinations of cAMP analogs that selectively activate PKA type I vs. PKA type II were tested for their effect on electrogenic ion transport. Short-circuit current (Isc) was significantly increased by the PKA type II-selective analog pairs N6-monobutyryl-cAMP plus 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP or N6-monobutyryl-cAMP plus 8-chloro-cAMP. In contrast the PKA type I-selective cAMP analog pair [N6-monobutyryl-cAMP plus 8-(6-aminohexyl)-amino-cAMP] had no effect on Isc. These results suggest PKA type II is the major isozyme regulating electrogenic ion transport in the rabbit collecting duct.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding an A-kinase anchoring protein located in the centrosome, AKAP450. (5/231)

A combination of protein kinase A type II (RII) overlay screening, database searches and PCR was used to identify a centrosomal A-kinase anchoring protein. A cDNA with an 11.7 kb open reading frame was characterized and found to correspond to 50 exons of genomic sequence on human chromosome 7q21-22. This cDNA clone encoded a 3908 amino acid protein of 453 kDa, that was designated AKAP450 (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession No. AJ131693). Sequence comparison demonstrated that the open reading frame contained a previously characterized cDNA encoding Yotiao, as well as the human homologue of AKAP120. Numerous coiled-coil structures were predicted from AKAP450, and weak homology to pericentrin, giantin and other structural proteins was observed. A putative RII-binding site was identified involving amino acid 2556 of AKAP450 by mutation analysis combined with RII overlay and an amphipatic helix was predicted in this region. Immunoprecipitation of RII from RIPA-buffer extracts of HeLa cells demonstrated co-precipitation of AKAP450. By immunofluorecent labeling with specific antibodies it was demonstrated that AKAP450 localized to centrosomes. Furthermore, AKAP450 was shown to co-purify in centrosomal preparations. The observation of two mRNAs and several splice products suggests additional functions for the AKAP450 gene.  (+info)

Phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD by mitochondria-anchored protein kinase A. (6/231)

Signaling pathways between cell surface receptors and the BCL-2 family of proteins regulate cell death. Survival factors induce the phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD, a proapoptotic member. Purification of BAD kinase(s) identified membrane-based cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) as a BAD Ser-112 (S112) site-specific kinase. PKA-specific inhibitors blocked the IL-3-induced phosphorylation on S112 of endogenous BAD as well as mitochondria-based BAD S112 kinase activity. A blocking peptide that disrupts type II PKA holoenzyme association with A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) also inhibited BAD phosphorylation and eliminated the BAD S112 kinase activity at mitochondria. Thus, the anchoring of PKA to mitochondria represents a focused subcellular kinase/substrate interaction that inactivates BAD at its target organelle in response to a survival factor.  (+info)

cAMP-dependent and -independent downregulation of type II Na-Pi cotransporters by PTH. (7/231)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) leads to the inhibition of Na-Pi cotransport activity and to the downregulation of the number of type II Na-Pi cotransporters in proximal tubules, as well as in opossum kidney (OK) cells. PTH is known also to lead to an activation of adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C in proximal tubular preparations, as well as in OK cells. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of these two regulatory pathways in OK cells in the PTH-dependent downregulation of the number of type II Na-Pi cotransporters. We have addressed this issue by using pharmacological activators of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC), i.e., 8-bromo-cAMP (8-BrcAMP) and beta-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (beta-TPA), respectively, as well as by the use of synthetic peptide fragments of PTH that activate adenylate cyclase and/or phospholipase C, i.e., PTH-(1-34) and PTH-(3-34), respectively. Our results show that PTH signal transduction via cAMP-dependent, as well as cAMP-independent, pathways leads to a membrane retrieval and degradation of type II Na-Pi cotransporters and, thereby, to the inhibition of Na-Pi cotransport activity. Thereby, the cAMP-independent regulatory pathway leads only to partial effects (approximately 50%).  (+info)

Conservation and function of a bovine sperm A-kinase anchor protein homologous to mouse AKAP82. (8/231)

Protein kinase A regulates sperm motility through the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins. One mechanism to direct the activity of the kinase is to localize it near its protein substrates through the use of anchoring proteins. A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) act by binding the type II regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and tethering it to a cellular organelle or cytoskeletal element. We showed previously that mAKAP82, the major protein of the fibrous sheath of the mouse sperm flagellum, is an AKAP. The available evidence indicates that protein kinase A is compartmentalized to the fibrous sheath by binding mAKAP82. To characterize AKAP82 in bovine sperm, a testicular cDNA library was constructed and used to isolate a clone encoding bAKAP82, the bovine homologue. Sequence analysis showed that the primary structure of bAKAP82 was highly conserved. In particular, the amino acid sequence corresponding to the region of mAKAP82 responsible for binding the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A was identical in the bull. Bovine AKAP82 was present in both epididymal and ejaculated sperm and was localized to the entire principal piece of the flagellum, the region in which the fibrous sheath is located. Finally, bAKAP82 bound the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. These data support the idea that bAKAP82 functions as an anchoring protein for the subcellular localization of protein kinase A in the flagellum.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification of a regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from Drosophila heads. AU - Inoue, Hiroko. AU - Yoshioka, Tohru. PY - 1997/6/9. Y1 - 1997/6/9. N2 - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using anion-exchange column chromatography. Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major isozyme. The regulatory subunit of type II PKA (RII) was purified, and only one isoform was observed. The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa on SDS gel electrophoresis. Partial amino acid sequences of the protein were almost identical with the RIIα subunit of human. Since PKA has been implicated to be especially important for learning and memory in Drosophila, the RII subunit may play an essential role in the regulation of neuronal activity in the brain of Drosophila, and possibly in human.. AB - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using ...
Our results provide evidence that PKA remains anchored to AKAPs in vivo in RIIα knockout mouse skeletal muscle and that this anchoring sustains the PKA-dependent potentiation of the L-type Ca2+ channel. These results challenge the idea that type II regulatory subunits are required for anchoring of PKA in vivo and raise the possibility that RIα can also serve in this capacity. Immunocytochemical studies show that the C subunit of the type I holoenzyme in RIIα knockout skeletal muscle is colocalized in transverse tubules with the L-type Ca2+ channel, consistent with anchoring of type I PKA with Ca2+ channels. In vitro measurements of RIα binding affinity to Ht31 demonstrate that RIα binds to AKAPs with a 500-fold lower affinity than RIIα, but this low affinity is apparently sufficient for anchoring in vivo. Previous reports have estimated the intracellular concentration of PKA to be in the 1 μM range, which would lead to significant binding at the Kd measured by surface plasmon resonance. ...
This gene encodes a member of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), a family of functionally related proteins that target protein kinase A to discrete locations within the cell. The encoded protein is localized to mitochondria and interacts with both the type I and type II regulatory subunits of PKA. It has been reported that this protein is important for maintaining heart rate and myocardial contractility through its targeting of protein kinase A. In mouse, defects of this gene lead to cardiac arrhythmias and premature death. In humans, polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is involved in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Two regulatory and two catalytic subunits form the PKA holoenzyme, disbands after cAMP binding. The holoenzyme is involved in many cellular events, including ion transport, metabolism, and transcription. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015 ...
1. CukkemaneA, SeifertR, KauppUB (2011) Cooperative and uncooperative cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channels. Trends Biochem Sci 36: 55-64.. 2. KauppUB, NiidomeT, TanabeT, TeradaS, BönigkW, et al. (1989) Primary structure and functional expression from complementary DNA of the rod photoreceptor cyclic GMP-gated channel. Nature 342: 762-766.. 3. LudwigA, ZongX, JeglitschM, HofmannF, BielM (1998) A family of hyperpolarization-activated mammalian cation channels. Nature 393: 587-591.. 4. TakioK, SmithSB, KrebsEG, WalshKA, TitaniK (1982) Primary structure of the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from bovine cardiac muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 2544-2548.. 5. TakioK, WadeRD, SmithSB, KrebsEG, WalshKA, et al. (1984) Guanosine cyclic 3′,5′-phosphate dependent protein kinase, a chimeric protein homologous with two separate protein families. Biochemistry 23: 4207-4218.. 6. de RooijJ, ZwartkruisFJ, VerheijenMH, CoolRH, NijmanSM, et al. (1998) Epac is a Rap1 ...
Most PRKAR1A tumorigenic mutations lead to nonsense mRNA that is decayed; tumor formation has been associated with an increase in type II protein kinase A (PKA) subunits. The IVS6+1G>T PRKAR1A mutation leads to a protein lacking exon 6 sequences [R1 alpha Delta 184-236 (R1 alpha Delta 6)]. We compared in vitro R1 alpha Delta 6 with wild-type (wt) R1 alpha. We assessed PKA activity and subunit expression, phosphorylation of target molecules, and properties of wt-R1 alpha and mutant (mt) R1 alpha; we observed by confocal microscopy R1 alpha tagged with green fluorescent protein and its interactions with Cerulean-tagged catalytic subunit (C alpha). Introduction of the R1 alpha Delta 6 led to aberrant cellular morphology and higher PKA activity but no increase in type II PKA subunits. There was diffuse, cytoplasmic localization of R1 alpha protein in wt-R1 alpha- and R1 alpha Delta 6-transfected cells but the former also exhibited discrete aggregates of R1 alpha that bound C alpha; these were absent ...
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Urinska kiselina je dvobazna kiselina sa pKa1=5,4 i pKa2=10,3[5]. Iz tog razloga ona u jakim bazama sa visokim pH formira dvostruko naelektrisani uratni jon, dok na biološkom pH, ili u prisustvu ugljene kiseline ili karbonatnog jona, formira jednostruko naelektrisani vodonik-uratni jon pošto je njegov pKa2 veći od pKa1 ugljene kiseline. Pošto se tako slabo jonizuje, njene soli teže hidrolizi nazad u vodonik-uratne soli i slobodnu bazu sa približno neutralnim vrednostima pH. Ova kiselina je aromatična jer je derivat purina. Kao dvociklični, heterociklični purinski derivat, urinska kiselina ne prima protone na isti način kao karboksilne kiseline. Studije difrakcije vodonik-uratnog jona rendgenskim zracima u kristalima amonijumvodonik-urata, formiranih in vivo kao gihtni depoziti, pokazuju da keto-kiseonik u poziciji 2 tautomera purinske strukture postoji kao hidroksilna grupa i da dva susedna atoma azota u pozicijama 1 i 3 dele jonsko naelektrisanje u šestočlanom, pi-rezonancom ...
Niles, R M. and Logue, M P., Retinoid acid increases cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase activity in b16-f1 mouse melanoma cells. Abstr. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 1639 ...
The stabilisation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the neuromuscular junction depends on muscle activity and the cooperative action of myosin Va and protein kinase A (PKA) type I. To execute its function, PKA has to be present in a subsynaptic microdomain where it is enriched by anchoring proteins. Here, we show that the AChR-associated protein, rapsyn, interacts with PKA type I in C2C12 and T-REx293 cells as well as in live mouse muscle beneath the neuromuscular junction. Molecular modelling, immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation approaches identify an α-helical stretch of rapsyn to be crucial for binding to the dimerisation and docking domain of PKA type I. When expressed in live mouse muscle, a peptide encompassing the rapsyn α-helical sequence efficiently delocalises PKA type I from the neuromuscular junction. The same peptide, as well as a rapsyn construct lacking the α-helical domain, induces severe alteration of acetylcholine receptor turnover as well as
en] Murine AIDS (MAIDS) is caused by infection with the murine leukemia retrovirus RadLV-Rs and is characterized by T-cell anergy and severe immunodeficiency with increased susceptibilty to several experimental opportunistic infections as observed in HIV infection. T cell anergy is associated with an increase of intracellular cAMP level, triggering a multistep pathway involving activation of PKA type I and resulting in inhibition of proximal TCR signaling. We have reviously demonstrated that blocking PKA type I using the selective inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS, restores T-cell function in vitro in MAIDS as well as in HIV infection. In the present report, we investigated the effect of parenteral administration of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS in mice with MAIDS. We show that the compound is not toxic and partially restores the ex vivo proliferative responses to anti-CD3 mAb, but that it has no effect on the lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly characterizing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Down-regulation of type I protein kinase A by transfection of human breast cancer cells with an epidermal growth factor receptor antisense expression vector. AU - Ciardiello, Fortunato. AU - Dixit, Mniralini. AU - Di Isernia, Giuditta. AU - Damiano, Vincenzo. AU - Bianco, Roberto. AU - Bianco, A. Raffaele. AU - Arteaga, Carlos L.. AU - Tortora, Giampaolo. PY - 1998/2/5. Y1 - 1998/2/5. N2 - MDA-468 human breast cancer cells overexpress the EGFR and exhibit a functional TGFα-EGFR autocrine pathway. Loss of EGFR expression following stable transfection with an antisense EGFR cDNA containing plasmid down-regulates type T cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKAI) expression with acquisition of cell growth resistance to the PKAI inhibitor 8-Cl-cAMP. These results suggest that PKAI expression and function are controlled by a TGFα-EGFR autocrine pathway in human breast cancer cells overexpressing the EGFR.. AB - MDA-468 human breast cancer cells overexpress the EGFR and exhibit a functional ...
Guided axonal growth is essential for both the initial wiring of neuronal circuitry during development and the regeneration of synaptic connections in the adult nervous system after injury and diseases (Bahr and Bonhoeffer, 1994; Aubert et al., 1995; Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996; Harel and Strittmatter, 2006). The directional motility of the growth cone at axonal tips is regulated by a variety of environmental factors that either promote/attract or inhibit/repel the axonal elongation (Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996; Dickson, 2002). Although many families of guidance ligands and receptors have been recently identified (Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996; Dickson, 2002; Charron and Tessier-Lavigne, 2005), the intricate signaling cascades that control and regulate axonal growth and guidance remain to be fully understood. The second messenger, cAMP, represents an important intracellular signal that exhibits profound effects on growth cone motility and guidance. Previous studies have linked ...
Protein kinase A (PKA) is targeted to distinct subcellular localizations by specific protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs). AKAPs are divided into subclasses based on their ability to bind type I or type II PKA or both. Dual-specificity AKAPs were recently reported to have an additional PKA binding determinant called the RI specifier region. A bioinformatic search with the consensus RI specifier region identified a novel AKAP, the splicing factor arginine/serine-rich 17A (SFRS17A). Here, we show by a variety of protein interaction assays that SFRS17A binds both type I and type II PKA in vitro and inside cells, demonstrating that SFRS17A is a dual-specific AKAP. Moreover, immunofluorescence experiments show that SFRS17A colocalizes with the catalytic subunit of PKA as well as the splicing factor SC35 in splicing factor compartments. Using the E1A minigene splicing assay, we found that expression of wild type SFRS17A conferred regulation of E1A alternative splicing, whereas the mutant ...
London E, Nesterova M, Sinaii N, Szarek E, Chanturiya T, Mastroyannis SA, Gavrilova O, Stratakis CA: Differentially regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity in adipose tissue and liver is associated with resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice that lack PKA regulatory subunit type IIα. Endocrinology; 2014 Sep;155(9):3397-408 ...
London E, Nesterova M, Sinaii N, Szarek E, Chanturiya T, Mastroyannis SA, Gavrilova O, Stratakis CA: Differentially regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity in adipose tissue and liver is associated with resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice that lack PKA regulatory subunit type IIα. Endocrinology; 2014 Sep;155(9):3397-408 ...
The subcellular distribution of protein kinase activity in isolated islets of Langerhans was determined. The majority (70%) of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was located in the S-100 (soluble) fraction, while the majority (42%) of cyclic AMP-independent activity was located in the solublised P-100 (containing mitochondria, secretory granules and microsomes) fraction. Partial characterisation of the islet cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity revealed the presence of two isozymes designated Type I and Type II. Type II kinase was the predominant isozyme of the S-100 fraction and Type I was the predominant isozyme found in the solublised P-100 fraction. Nonidet-P40 (a non-ionic detergent) was found to activate the S-100 cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, although no significant increase in protein kinase activity was observed when the P-0.6 (containing nuclei and cellular debris) fraction and P-100 fraction were solublised with Nonidet-P40. This activation was ...
Differentially targeted protein that binds to type I and II regulatory subunits of protein kinase A and anchors them to the mitochondria or the plasma membrane. Although the physiological relevance between PKA and AKAPS with mitochondria is not fully understood, one idea is that BAD, a proapoptotic member, is phosphorylated and inactivated by mitochondria-anchored PKA. It cannot be excluded too that it may facilitate PKA as well as G protein signal transduction, by acting as an adapter for assembling multiprotein complexes. With its RGS domain, it could lead to the interaction to G-alpha proteins, providing a link between the signaling machinery and the downstream kinase (By similarity).
Gene Information This gene encodes a member of the A-kinase anchor protein family. A-kinase anchor proteins are scaffold proteins that contain a binding domain for the RI/RII subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and recruit PKA and other signaling molecules to specific subcellular locations. This gene encodes a nuclear A-kinase anchor protein that binds to the RII alpha subunit of PKA and may play a role in chromosome condensation during mitosis by targeting PKA and the condensin complex to chromatin. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq May 2011]. ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase complex, cytoplasm, nucleus, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, mitochondrion organization, protein kinase A signaling, protein phosphorylation, Ras protein signal transduction
We have reported previously the design of a RIAD (RI-anchoring disruptor) peptide that specifically displaces PKA (protein kinase A) type I from the AKAP (A-kinase-anchoring protein) ezrin, which is present in the immunological synapse of T-cells. This increases immune reactivity by reducing the threshold for activation and may prove a feasible approach for improving immune function in patients with cAMP-mediated T-cell dysfunction. However, the use of RIAD in biological systems is restricted by its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavage and, consequently, its short half-life in presence of the ubiquitous serum peptidases. In the present study, carefully selected non-natural amino acids were employed in the design of RIAD analogues with improved stability. The resulting peptidomimetics demonstrated up to 50-fold increased half-lives in serum compared with RIAD, while maintaining similar or improved specificity and potency with respect to disruption of PKA type I-AKAP interactions.. ...
The second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) plays a pivotal role in axonal growth and guidance, but its downstream mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we report that type II protein kinase A (PKA) is highly enriched in growth cone filopodia, and this spatial localization enables the coupling of cAMP signaling to its specific effectors to regulate guidance responses. Disrupting the localization of PKA to filopodia impairs cAMP-mediated growth cone attraction and prevents the switching of repulsive responses to attraction by elevated cAMP. Our data further show that PKA targets protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) through the phosphorylation of a regulatory protein inhibitor-1 (I-1) to promote growth cone attraction. Finally, we find that I-1 and PP1 mediate growth cone repulsion induced by myelin-associated glycoprotein. These findings demonstrate that the spatial localization of type II PKA to growth cone filopodia plays an important role in the regulation of growth cone motility and ...
CRC is the third leading cause of mortality in men and women worldwide [1]. Most of the cancer-related deaths in CRC patients are as a result of early spread of cancer cells or due to reoccurrence post-surgical interventions [15]. Alterations in some key regulatory molecules involved in cell cycle, apoptosis and EMT pathways have been proposed in the initiation of carcinogenesis [16]. In this context, efforts are being made to identify and characterize tumor associated molecules for development of therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. A unique class of tumor associated antigens called cancer testis (CT) antigens has been reported in various malignancies and have been shown to be associated with tumor growth and metastasis [4]. Only few CT antigens with abundant expression, namely sperm associated antigen (SPAG9) and AKAP4 have been shown to be associated with CRC [5, 10]. In this study, we examined the involvement of AKAP4 in various malignant properties at phenotype and molecular level of ...
MSSGRRRGSAPWHSFSRFFAPRSPSRDKEEEEEERPGTSPPPAPGRSAASVENEPMSTSQKKENVLSSEA 1 - 70 VKIRQSEDKRNHAEKPVTLPVQEDPKKAYDLSSSTSDTKIGESDRQPKESFFQFLGNLFNISGKSSLGEA 71 - 140 KQSSFKDDQDKTEKDLQNPSDHHEDGIKREREIFSGSLRTQTHPTEEQDSNSSELSDAFSLDTTQDSDQE 141 - 210 TTNLLKQIDGKPEKPSVTYATYRGPRHIGKYLKQQTGLATVNTLDRENESSDSSTNRHIDPGSEIEAGVL 211 - 280 PLLLSASTDSSMKGNLLEGPLEDSDCSKTSFNKENSLTNNPELQNIASSNNLLNKNAWGSIERNRSSPSS 281 - 350 VTNSSYDGESDSQHHLSCEPVSQTNRNLVCSALLTGSNHRKVPCSPDFQRVTTTENTIKENSTVMSNRTL 351 - 420 VQREELVEPQGPAISDFSCSKSDGSDTTEQESTNLPSPNKSIRHEHLQLPESECSDKQTIDSSSKQAATH 421 - 490 TNIIALQRHAVTDTEFVNEGKRLSAQDSQKNVAVREIRRETESASAGESIASSHVKAPEDKIESLPKDTD 491 - 560 QYFETKAKKLDFRSHDKIPHIRMNKKDLASLNYISESAVVASLGNENAPELKFELNRSHISETPLDSESP 561 - 630 QQAEVSPDAKTSLSLDCKKLNFSISPPTFVSGVGMLSKLDIPDLMNEGSPVPIETGNVNIVGISYQPRKC 631 - 700 KEENVKNHVEAAGRKSPPPSFCLEYTSAIFEFKEVLSNSEKCQVLPGSEASGPHLTGLELLSFDSGNLSK 701 - 770 DCSSILSQDPNRVELVSSNTKANMSIIEKSDSLSLEAKTANIVSKAEIDGQNNVLVESHSGRGKTISLSK 771 - 840 ...
Urična kiselina je diprotonska kiselina sa pKa1=5.4 i pKa2=10.3[6]. Iz tog razloga u jakim alkalijama na visokom pH ona formira dualno naelektrisani uratni jon, dok na biološkom pH, ili u prisustvu ugljene kiseline, ili karbonatnog jona, ona formira jednostruko naelektrisani vodonik uratni jon pošto je njegov pKa2 veći od pKa1 ugljene kiseline. Pošto je njena jonizacija tako slaba, uratne soli su sklone hidrolizi nazad u vodonik uratne soli i slobodnu bazu na pH vrednostima oko neutralne. Ova kiseline je aromatična, jer je derivat purina. Kao biciklični, heterociklični purinski derivat, urična kiselina se ne protonuje na isti način kao karboksilne kiseline. X-zrak difrakcione studije vodonik uratnog jona u kristalima amonijum vodonik urata, formiranih in vivo kao gihtni depoziti, pokazuju da keto-kiseonik u 2 poziciji tautomera purinske strukture postoji kao hidroksilna grupa i da dva susedna atoma azota u pozicijama 1 i 3 dele jonsko naelektrisanje u šestočlanom ...
Urična kiselina je diprotonska kiselina sa pKa1=5.4 i pKa2=10.3[6]. Iz tog razloga u jakim alkalijama na visokom pH ona formira dualno naelektrisani uratni jon, dok na biološkom pH, ili u prisustvu ugljene kiseline, ili karbonatnog jona, ona formira jednostruko naelektrisani vodonik uratni jon pošto je njegov pKa2 veći od pKa1 ugljene kiseline. Pošto je njena jonizacija tako slaba, uratne soli su sklone hidrolizi nazad u vodonik uratne soli i slobodnu bazu na pH vrednostima oko neutralne. Ova kiseline je aromatična, jer je derivat purina. Kao biciklični, heterociklični purinski derivat, urična kiselina se ne protonuje na isti način kao karboksilne kiseline. X-zrak difrakcione studije vodonik uratnog jona u kristalima amonijum vodonik urata, formiranih in vivo kao gihtni depoziti, pokazuju da keto-kiseonik u 2 poziciji tautomera purinske strukture postoji kao hidroksilna grupa i da dva susedna atoma azota u pozicijama 1 i 3 dele jonsko naelektrisanje u šestočlanom ...
Urična kiselina je diprotonska kiselina sa pKa1=5.4 i pKa2=10.3[6]. Iz tog razloga u jakim alkalijama na visokom pH ona formira dualno naelektrisani uratni jon, dok na biološkom pH, ili u prisustvu ugljene kiseline, ili karbonatnog jona, ona formira jednostruko naelektrisani vodonik uratni jon pošto je njegov pKa2 veći od pKa1 ugljene kiseline. Pošto je njena jonizacija tako slaba, uratne soli su sklone hidrolizi nazad u vodonik uratne soli i slobodnu bazu na pH vrednostima oko neutralne. Ova kiseline je aromatična, jer je derivat purina. Kao biciklični, heterociklični purinski derivat, urična kiselina se ne protonuje na isti način kao karboksilne kiseline. X-zrak difrakcione studije vodonik uratnog jona u kristalima amonijum vodonik urata, formiranih in vivo kao gihtni depoziti, pokazuju da keto-kiseonik u 2 poziciji tautomera purinske strukture postoji kao hidroksilna grupa i da dva susedna atoma azota u pozicijama 1 i 3 dele jonsko naelektrisanje u šestočlanom ...
PRKX兔多克隆抗体(ab71619)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
AKAP12; AKAP250; A-kinase anchor protein 12; AKAP-12; A-kinase anchor protein 250 kDa; AKAP 250; Gravin; Myasthenia gravis autoantigen ...
The induction of ornithine decarboxylase was studied following the stimulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with concanavalin A (ConA) (10 µg/ml). Following treatment with ConA, ornithine decarboxylase activity increased 4-5-fold between 6 and 12 hr of incubation and reached a peak level 10-12-fold above control (unstimulated) values by 48 hr. Increases in incorporation of [3H]uridine into acid-insoluble material followed a similar time course after the addition of ConA to lymphocytes. The rate of incorporation of [3H]thymidine into acid-insoluble material was maximal at 72 hr. The degree of activation of soluble cyclic 3,5-AMP-dependent protein kinase(s) was determined at various times following ConA stimulation. Between 1 and 2 hr after mitogen administration, the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity ratio increased markedly and was 0.23 unit above control values by 4 hr. The activity ratio decreased between 4 and 8 hr and returned to higher values after incubation with the ...
Background: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive hematological neoplasm that responds poorly to therapy. The molecular etiology and pathology of this disease remain unclear, hampering the development of an effective therapy. Therefore, a need for more, and more realistic, animal models remains. Lymphoproliferative disorders have been reported in mice deficient for the prkar1a gene coding for the regulatory subunit type 1A of protein kinase A (PKA), but nothing is known about the role of type II PKA regulatory subunits in hematologic malignancies.. Methods: Mice deficient for the Prkar1a and Prkar2a alleles were previously reported (Kirschner et al, 2005 και Burton et al, 1997) and were kept on a mixed genetic background (C57BL/129Sv). Mice were crossed to create prkar2a+/- and prkar2a-/-. Mice were phenotyped at the ages of 3-6-9-12-18 months or when they exhibited signs of advanced disease. Tissues were collected for histological and molecular analysis.. Results: Unexpectedly, mice ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is highly expressed in various brain regions and cardiac and skeletal muscle. It is specifically localized to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membrane, and is involved in anchoring PKA to the nuclear membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is highly expressed in various brain regions and cardiac and skeletal muscle. It is specifically localized to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membrane, and is involved in anchoring PKA to the nuclear membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
A-kinase anchor protein 10, mitochondrial (AKAP-10) (Dual specificity A kinase-anchoring protein 2) (D-AKAP-2) (Protein kinase A-anchoring protein 10) (PRKA10), ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase has been well established to be composed of catalytic and regulatory subunits, and cyclic AMP acts to dissociate these subun
An antiserum against the catalytic subunit C of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, isolated from bovine heart type II protein kinase, was produced in rabbits. Reaction of the catalytic subunit with antiserum and separation of the immunoglobulin G fraction by Protein A-Sepharose quantitatively removed the enzyme from solutions. Comparative immunotitration of protein kinases showed that the amount of antiserum required to eliminate 50% of the enzymic activity was identical for pure catalytic subunit, and for holoenzymes type I and type II. The reactivity of the holoenzymes with the antiserum was identical in the absence or the presence of dissociating concentrations of cyclic AMP. Most of the holoenzyme (type II) remains intact when bound to the antibodies as shown by quantification of the regulatory subunit in the supernatant of the immunoprecipitate. Titration with the antibodies also revealed the presence of a cyclic AMP-independent histone kinase in bovine heart protein kinase I preparations ...
We selected and characterized a 30-fold etoposide (VP-16)-resistant subline of K562 human leukemia cells (K/VP.5) that exhibits quantitative and qualitative changes in topoisomerase II, including hypophosphorylation of this drug target. The initial rate of topoisomerase II phosphorylation was reduced 3-fold in K/VP.5 compared with K562 cells, but the rate of dephosphorylation was similar. Analysis of potential topoisomerase II protein kinases revealed a 3-fold reduction in the level of the beta II protein kinase C (PKC) in K/VP.5 cells, whereas levels of alpha- and epsilon PKC, casein kinase II, p42map kinase, and p34cdc2 kinase were comparable for both cell lines. The PKC activator, bryostatin 1, together with K562 nuclear extracts potentiated VP-16-induced topoisomerase II/DNA covalent complex formation in nuclei isolated from K/VP.5 cells but not from K562 cells. Bryostatin 1 effects were blocked by the PKC inhibitor 7-O-methyl-hydroxy-staurosporine. Bryostatin 1 also up-regulated ...
Looking for online definition of D-AKAP2 in the Medical Dictionary? D-AKAP2 explanation free. What is D-AKAP2? Meaning of D-AKAP2 medical term. What does D-AKAP2 mean?
AKAP9 (A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (yotiao) 9), Authors: Raffaele Ciampi, Yuri E Nikiforov. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Organelle-specific targeting of protein kinase AII (PKAII). T2 - Molecular and in situ characterization of murine A kinase anchor proteins that recruit regulatory subunits of PKAII to the cytoplasmic surface of mitochondria. AU - Chen, Qian. AU - Lin, Reigh Yi. AU - Rubin, Charles S.. PY - 1997/6/13. Y1 - 1997/6/13. N2 - Experiments were designed to test the idea that A kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) tether regulatory subunits (RII) of protein kinase AII (PKAII) isoforms to surfaces of organelles that are bounded by phospholipid bilayers. S-AKAP84, one of three RII-binding proteins encoded by a single-copy murine gene, was studied as a prototypic organelle-associated AKAP. When S-AKAP84 was expressed in HEK293 cells, the anchor protein was targeted to mitochondria and excluded from other cell compartments. The RII tethering site is located in the cytoplasm adjacent to the mitochondrial surface. Endogenous RII subunits are not associated with mitochondria isolated from control ...
Combinatorial assembly of catalytic and regulatory subunits results in diverse isoforms of the PKA family. Their quaternary structures differ substantially (Taylor et al., 2012). A detailed analysis of isoform-specific cellular functions, however, remains challenging. Approaches to directly detect the activation of endogenous isoforms in primary cells models are largely missing. It was unclear whether changes in RII phosphorylation reflect the process of PKA-II activation. Early biochemical studies on PKA-II purified from bovine cardiac muscle showed that a large proportion of PKA-II is phosphorylated in vivo (Rangel-Aldao et al., 1979). Another report suggests that RII subunits are fully phosphorylated in non-stimulated cardiomyocytes (Manni et al., 2008). Accordingly, these researchers found that activation of PKA resulted in a phosphatase-dependent loss of basal RII phosphorylation detected in cell lysates (Manni et al., 2008). The assumption that RII subunits are fully phosphorylated in the ...
Akap10 (untagged) - Mouse A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 10 (Akap10), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, (10ug), 10 µg.
Doherty, P J.; Tsao, J; Schimmer, B P.; Mumby, M C.; and Beavo, J A., Alteration of the regulatory subunit of type 1 camp-dependent protein kinase in mutant y1 adrenal cells resistant to 8-bromoadenosine 3:5-monophosphate. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2372 ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
In vitro phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of yeast cAMP-dependent protein kinase was studied. The cAMP-binding regulatory subunit (R subunit) can be multiply phosphorylated. Three distinct phosphorylation sites were inferred from the different ATP concentrations required for phosphorylation and from the presence of two discrete mobility shifts in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the R subunit on phosphorylation. Limited tryptic digestion of the phosphorylated R subunit showed that a Mr 37,000 cAMP-binding peptide contained one of the phosphorylation sites and that a separate Mr 12,000 peptide contained another phosphorylation site. The yeast R subunit is therefore similar to the type II R subunit of mammalian origin, although it has a larger Mr (64,000 vs. 58,000) and is multiply phosphorylated. In vivo, both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of the R subunit were found in cells grown in lactate or to stationary phase in 1.5% glucose, while cells grown in 5% ...
Looking for online definition of A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (gravin) 12 in the Medical Dictionary? A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (gravin) 12 explanation free. What is A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (gravin) 12? Meaning of A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (gravin) 12 medical term. What does A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (gravin) 12 mean?
RecName: Full=A-kinase anchor protein 13; Short=AKAP-13;AltName: Full=Protein kinase A-anchoring protein 13;AltName: Full=Breast cancer nuclear receptor-binding auxiliary protein;AltName: Full=Human thyroid-anchoring protein 31;AltName: Full=Guanine nucleotide exchange factor Lbc;AltName: Full=AKAP-Lbc;AltName: Full=P47;AltName: Full=Lymphoid blast crisis oncogene; Short=LBC oncogene;AltName: Full=Non-oncogenic Rho GTPase-specific GTP exchange ...
1BKX: A binary complex of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and adenosine further defines conformational flexibility.
AKAP7 - AKAP7 (untagged)-Human A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 7 (AKAP7), transcript variant beta available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Akap1 - Akap1 (untagged) - Mouse A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 1 (Akap1), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 1, (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), ubiquitous in mammalian cells, regulates a plethora of cell processes including development, differentiation, memory, and m...
Homo sapiens A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (gravin) 12 (AKAP12), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (H00009590-R01) - Products - Abnova
"MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc ... with serine/threonine protein kinases and heat shock protein HSP90 in human hematopoietic cell lines". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 ( ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
"Identification of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on the beta 2 subunit of L-type voltage- ... Bünemann M, Gerhardstein BL, Gao T, Hosey MM (1999). "Functional regulation of L-type calcium channels via protein kinase A- ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNB2 gene. Mutation in ... GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Brugada syndrome CACNB2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
... type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5 ... "MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... "Type II regulatory subunit (RII) of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase interaction with A-kinase anchor proteins requires ... "Type II regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and their binding proteins in the nervous system of Aplysia ...
For example, type I and type II cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinases have identical catalytic subunits but different regulatory ... Activation loop Autophosphorylation Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Cell signaling Cyclin-dependent kinase G protein- ... the JAK kinases (a family of protein tyrosine kinases), and the PIP3-dependent kinase cascade were discovered. Kinases are ... For this reason protein kinases are named based on what regulates their activity (i.e. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases). ...
"Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates merlin at serine 518 independently of p21-activated kinase and promotes ... is a cytoskeletal protein. In humans, it is a tumor suppressor protein involved in neurofibromatosis type II. Sequence data ... protein kinase A, and p21 activated kinases. Work in Drosophila identified Merlin as an upstream regulator of the Hippo tumor ... The two most common of these are also found in the mouse and are called type 1 and type 2, differing by the absence or presence ...
A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs), which target cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to various sites in the cell. This ... topoisomerase IIα and kinesin family member 4 (KIF4) Chromosome scaffold constituent proteins are also called scaffold protein ... Such as type 4 collagen Shaw, Andrey S.; Filbert, Erin L. (January 2009). "Scaffold proteins and immune-cell signalling". ... Huntingtin protein co-localizes with ATM repair protein at sites of DNA damage. Huntingtin is a scaffolding protein in the ATM ...
Through these studies, the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling has been identified as a key mediator of cortisol ... The treatment approach for the functioning cases of adrenocortical adenoma depends on the type of disorders they induce and ... and the mutations associated with the dysregulation of cyclic AMP - protein kinase A pathways have been implicated in the ... The term "Cushing's disease" refers specifically to "secondary hypercortisolism" classified as "ACTH-dependent Cushing's ...
... enzyme called phosphorylase kinase was activated by another kinase that was dependent on the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP ... Likewise type II R subunits, of which there are two isoforms (RIIα, and RIIβ), create the type II PKA holoenzyme. In the ... Protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA Cα) is a member of the AGC kinase family (protein kinases A, G, and C), and contributes ... Biochemical studies demonstrated that there are two types of R subunits. The type I R subunits of which there are two isoforms ...
... two sites on glycogen synthetase phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and their dephosphorylation by protein ... Patients with type 2 diabetes normally exhibit low glycogen storage levels because of impairments in insulin-stimulated ... "A reinvestigation of the phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal-muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Glycogen synthase is directly regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), AMPK, protein kinase A (PKA), and casein kinase ...
Pan, X, Heitman, J (July 1999). "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase regulates pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces ... "Cell identity and sexual development in Cryptococcus neoformans are controlled by the mating-type-specific homeodomain protein ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "two duke faculty elected national academy of sciences". Duke University. Retrieved 29 ... Pan, X, Heitman, J (June 2002). "Protein kinase A operates a molecular switch that governs yeast pseudohyphal differentiation ...
1996), "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK) in human B cells: co-localization of type I cAK (RIα2C2) with the antigen ... specific example of crosstalk between two major signaling pathways can be observed with the interaction of the cAMP and MAPK ... 1991), "Cyclic AMP modulation of human B cell proliferative responses: role of cAMP-dependent protein kinases in enhancing B ... Cell Biol., 1 (5): 305-311, doi:10.1038/13024, PMID 10559944 Scott, J. D. (1991), "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... 5 Gβ proteins, and 12 Gγ proteins. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... The specific mechanisms, however, differ between protein types. Receptor-activated G proteins are bound to the inner surface of ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". Frontiers in Bioscience. 13 (13): 1206-26. doi: ... White SW, Zheng J, Zhang YM (2005). "The structural biology of type II fatty acid biosynthesis". Annual Review of Biochemistry ... involved in calcium-mediated activation of protein kinase C; the prostaglandins, which are one type of fatty-acid derived ... Biological lipids originate entirely or in part from two distinct types of biochemical subunits or "building-blocks": ketoacyl ...
Huang W, Zhou X, Lefebvre V, de Crombrugghe B (June 2000). "Phosphorylation of SOX9 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A ... "A new long form of c-Maf cooperates with Sox9 to activate the type II collagen gene". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 ... SOX9+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SOX9 human gene location in the UCSC ... The Sox9 protein has been implicated in both initiation and progression of multiple solid tumors. Its role as a master ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Haycock JW, Ahn NG, Cobb MH, Krebs EG (Mar 1992). "ERK1 and ERK2, two microtubule-associated protein 2 kinases, mediate the ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is also an autoantigen in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome (APS) type I. A consistent abnormality in ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ser19 ( ...
... which in turn produces cyclic AMP (cAMP). Protein kinase A, whose activation is dependent on the increased levels of cAMP, is ... "Proteins associated with type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR-II) and identified by two-dimensional gel ... The glucagon receptor is a 62 kDa protein that is activated by glucagon and is a member of the class B G-protein coupled family ... "Receptor activity modifying protein-directed G protein signaling specificity for the calcitonin gene-related peptide family of ...
... two sites on glycogen synthetase phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and their dephosphorylation by protein ... Saltiel AR (2001). "New perspectives into the molecular pathogenesis and treatment of type 2 diabetes". Cell 104 (4): 517-29. ... "A reinvestigation of the phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal-muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Amino acid sequence at the sites phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase-3, and extension of the N-terminal sequence ...
In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase). PKA is normally ... are not cAMP-dependent. Further effects mainly depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell. ... consisting of two catalytic and two regulatory units (C2R2), with the regulatory units blocking the catalytic centers of the ... It should not be confused with 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-activated protein kinase). Earl Sutherland of Vanderbilt ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". 》Frontiers in Bioscience》 13 (13): 1206-26. doi: ... White SW, Zheng J, Zhang YM (2005). "The structural biology of type II fatty acid biosynthesis". 》Annual Review of Biochemistry ... Parodi AJ, Leloir LF (April 1979). "The role of lipid intermediates in the glycosylation of proteins in the eucaryotic cell". 》 ... The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid droplets and control of lipolysis". 》Journal ...
Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... "The two mRNA forms for the type I alpha regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase from human testis are due to the ... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAR1A gene. cAMP ...
... on the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in cows as n-Tetradecanoyl. Almost simultaneously in Claude B. ... First, myristoyl coenzyme A (CoA) is positioned in its binding pocket of NMT so that the carbonyl faces two amino acid residues ... This lipidation event is the most found type of fatty acylation and is common among many organisms including animals, plants, ... "n-Tetradecanoyl is the NH2-terminal blocking group of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from bovine ...
Mayeenuddin LH, Garrison JC (January 2006). "Phosphorylation of P-Rex1 by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the ... August 2001). "A high-resolution 6.0-megabase transcript map of the type 2 diabetes susceptibility region on human chromosome ... 5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchanger 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PREX1 gene. The protein encoded ... March 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human ...
... and glucose 6 phosphate may inhibit the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase.[12] ... Types of phosphorylation[edit]. Further information: Kinase. Within a protein, phosphorylation can occur on several amino acids ... In the late 1990s, it was recognized that phosphorylation of some proteins causes them to be degraded by the ATP-dependent ... Histidine and aspartate phosphorylation occurs in prokaryotes as part of two-component signaling and in some cases in ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Phosphorylation at Ser19 causes a two-fold increase of activity, through a mechanism that requires the 14-3-3 proteins.[31] ... embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis. • social organism behavior. • cellular response to manganese ion. • response to ether ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases.[12][25] Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.[ ...
July 2002). "Metformin increases AMP-activated protein kinase activity in skeletal muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes". ... February 2008). "Metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis through AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent regulation of the ... activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), inhibition of glucagon-induced elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate ( ... The logP of metformin is less than that of phenformin (−0.84) because two methyl substituents on metformin impart lesser ...
Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase decreases the conversion of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. Lower levels of cAMP decrease the ... activity of protein kinase A to phosphorylate, thereby activating, hormone-sensitive lipase. The opposite effect can be reached ... Siegrist S, Féral C, Chami M, Solhonne B, Mattéi MG, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Guellaën G, Bulle F (2001). "hH-Rev107, a class II ... Fatty acid oxidation was also found to increase to levels of wild-type mice that were deficient in non-AdPLA deficient obese ...
By the late 1960s, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase had been purified, and most attention was centered on kinases and ... Casein kinase activity was found to be present in most cell types and to be associated with multiple enzymes. The type 1 casein ... The effects of phosphorylation are two-fold. It has been shown in Drosophila that phosphorylation of the PER proteins increase ... "Synergistic phosphorylation of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and casein kinase I. ...
ARPP-21: Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa. *AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 ... FRA3A encoding protein Fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(3)(p24.2). *FRMD4B encoding protein FERM domain containing ... People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 3 spans almost 200 million base pairs (the building material of ... PIK3CA: phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide. *PROSER1: Proline and serine rich protein 1 ...
1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ... "Evidence for two additional isoforms of the endogenous protein kinase inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in mouse". J. ... 1997). "The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhances serine phosphorylation of the viral matrix". J. Virol. ... Rabbi MF, al-Harthi L, Saifuddin M, Roebuck KA (1998). "The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and protein kinase C-beta pathways ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... Types of G protein signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ... Heterotrimeric G proteins[edit]. Main article: Heterotrimeric G proteins. Different types of heterotrimeric G proteins share a ...
... collaboration with Paul Greengard resulted in demonstration that cAMP-dependent protein kinase, also known as protein kinase A ... By 1972 they had evidence that the second messenger molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) was produced in Aplysia ganglia under conditions ... Kandel, Eric R. (2016), Reductionism in Art and Brain Science: Bridging the Two Cultures, New York: Columbia University Press, ... helped close the apparent gap between the simple forms of learning often associated with invertebrates and more complex types ...
Also, it may be activated by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). This pathway is significantly less effective than the first ... which is necessary for lipid mobilization in response to cyclic AMP, which itself is provided by the activation of Gs protein- ... It may be activated by two mechanisms.[14] *In the first, phosphorylated perilipin A causes it to move to the surface of the ... LIPE, AOMS4, FPLD6, HSL, LHS, lipase E, hormone sensitive type. External IDs. OMIM: 151750 MGI: 96790 HomoloGene: 3912 ...
Buhl AM, Osawa S, Johnson GL (1995). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation requires two signal inputs from the human ... type 1 angiotensin receptor binding. • protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase ... Heterotrimeric G protein *Gs/Gi. *Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase ... "Direct binding of G-protein betagamma complex to voltage-dependent calcium channels". Nature. 385 (6615): 446-50. doi:10.1038/ ...
... and were eventually shown to encode components of an intracellular signaling pathway involving cyclic AMP, protein kinase A, ... The brick-red color of the eyes of the wild type fly are due to two pigments.[8] Xanthommatin, which is brown and is derived ... Sepia colored eyes are not dependent on the sex of the fly. The Sepia eye color decreases sexual activity in males and ... Calcium binds to proteins such as calmodulin (CaM) and an eye-specific protein kinase C (PKC) known as InaC. These proteins ...
... , more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by ... regulatory subunit type I - PRKAR1A, PRKAR1B. *regulatory subunit type II - PRKAR2A, PRKAR2B ... "cAMP-dependent protein kinase" redirects here. It is not to be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase or cyclin-dependent ... Cyclic+AMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinasesEdit. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by ... Currently, GPCRs are considered to utilize two primary types of transducers: G-proteins and β-arrestins. Because β-arr's have ... The G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are protein kinases that phosphorylate only active GPCRs.[53] G-protein-coupled ... Further effect depends on the type of G protein. G proteins are subsequently inactivated by GTPase activating proteins, known ...
3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase A. cGMP:. *Transducin. *Gustducin. *Guanylate cyclase ... Types[edit]. There are membrane-bound (type 1, guanylate cyclase-coupled receptor) and soluble (type 2, soluble guanylate ... Indirect/downstream NO modulators: ACE inhibitors/AT-II receptor antagonists (e.g., captopril, losartan) ... see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ...
... and glucose 6 phosphate may inhibit the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase.[7] ... Researcher D. G. Walker of the University of Birmingham determined the presence of two specific enzymes in adult guinea pig ... For example, phosphorylating glucose is necessary for insulin-dependent mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway activity within ... Types of phosphorylation. ReferencesEdit. *^ Oliveira, Ana Paula; Sauer, Uwe (2012-03-01). "The importance of post- ...
... and adenyl cyclase converts AMP into cyclic AMP (cAMP) thereby down-regulating cAMP-responsive proteins involved in cell ... DAG activates certain protein kinase C enzymes )PKCs) that phosphorylate and thereby regulate target proteins involved in cell ... It consists of two introns and three exons and codes for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) composed of 472 amino acids. DP2, ... mobilize one or more types of Heterotrimeric G proteins. DP2 is classified as a "contractile" prostanoid receptor in that it ...
"Phosphorylation of SOX9 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A enhances SOX9's ability to transactivate a Col2a1 chondrocyte- ... "A new long form of c-Maf cooperates with Sox9 to activate the type II collagen gene". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (52): 50668-75. PMID ... SOX9 protein, human Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) na Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina dos EUA. ... 1999). "Functional and structural studies of wild type SOX9 and mutations causing campomelic dysplasia.". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ( ...
... cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases discovered. It has four sub-units two catalytic and two regulatory ... Heterotrimeric G protein *Gs/Gi. *Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase ... which vary based on the type of cell. ... G protein-coupled receptor kinase. *AMP-activated protein ... Main article: function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, ...
... s, when bound with the dependent kinases, such as the p34/cdc2/cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor. MPFs ... Heterotrimeric G protein *Gs/Gi. *Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase ... There are two main groups of cyclins: *G1/S cyclins - essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G1/S transition, * ... Types[edit]. There are several different cyclins that are active in different parts of the cell cycle and that cause the Cdk to ...
It is a thiamine-pyrophosphate-dependent protein that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate substrate and ... Cofactor TPP and AMP are shown in cyan and blue, respectively. [17] (B) Diagram of the 12 subunit catalytic core of the cubic ... The extent of oxidative stress varies depending on the cell type and its metabolic state, but the substantial source of ROS is ... Other researchers have reported normal or near-normal activities of two other Krebs cycle enzymes - fumarase [32] and succinate ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Frontiers in Bioscience. 2008, 13 (13): 1206-26. PMID ... White S, Zheng J, Zhang Y. The structural biology of type II fatty acid biosynthesis. Annual Review of Biochemistry. 2005, 74: ... Types of Lipids. news-medical.net.. *^ Hunt SM, Groff JL, Gropper SAS. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Belmont, CA: ... The role of lipid intermediates in the glycosylation of proteins in the eucaryotic cell. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. April 1979, ...
Other NAD-dependent enzymes include bacterial DNA ligases, which join two DNA ends by using NAD+ as a substrate to donate an ... Despite the similarity in how proteins bind the two coenzymes, enzymes almost always show a high level of specificity for ... and is the result of distinct sets of amino acid residues in the two types of coenzyme-binding pocket. For instance, in the ... "First Archaeal Inorganic Polyphosphate/ATP-Dependent NAD Kinase, from Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii: Cloning ...
protein kinase activity. • hormone activity. • cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity involved in apoptotic process. • ... response to organic cyclic compound. • positive regulation of cell growth. • positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process. ... Angiotensin II stimulates AVP secretion, in keeping with its general pressor and pro-volumic effects on the body.[18] ... The analgesia effects of vasopressin were found to be dependent on both stress and sex.[16] ...
It is also possible that certain factors can work together to induce AMP expression. While cyclic AMP and butyrate ... The type-IV secretion apparatus also injects the cag PAI-encoded protein CagA into the stomach's epithelial cells, where it ... Strains of H. pylori that produce high levels of two proteins, vacuolating toxin A (VacA) and the cytotoxin-associated gene A ( ... the CagA protein is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by a host cell membrane-associated tyrosine kinase (TK). CagA then ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". Frontiers in Bioscience 13 (13): 1206-1226. 2008. ... som er en type fedtsyrer deriveret fra eicosanoid involveret ved betændelse og immunitet;[62] steroidehormoner såsom østrogen, ... The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid droplets and control of lipolysis". Journal ... Lipidsignalering kan ske via aktivering af G-protein-koblede eller kernereceptorer, og medlemmer af flere forskellige ...
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger. • negative regulation of action ... Involvement of both mitogen-activated protein kinase and induction of Krox-24 expression". European Journal of Biochemistry / ... Herring AC, Koh WS, Kaminski NE (Apr 1998). "Inhibition of the cyclic AMP signaling cascade and nuclear factor binding to CRE ... the researchers suggested that this process may be due to the activation-dependent decrease in cAMP concentration, leading to ...
3-kinase and Akt protein kinase are necessary and sufficient for the survival of nerve growth factor-dependent sympathetic ... act to phosphorylate the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor.[7] Phosphorylated CREB ... activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • positive regulation of Ras protein signal ... NGF binds with at least two classes of receptors: the tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) and low-affinity NGF receptor (LNGFR ...
Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinases[edit]. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated ... via adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP (cAMP). These protein kinases are present as tetramers with two regulatory units and two ... LHCGR have been found in many types of extragonadal tissues, and the physiologic role of some has remained largely unexplored. ... DNA in the cell nucleus binds to phosphorylated proteins through the cyclic AMP response element (CRE), which results in the ...
As secretin binds to these receptors, it stimulates adenylate cyclase activity and converts ATP to cyclic AMP.[20] Cyclic AMP ... "Retinoic acid-induced human secretin gene expression in neuronal cells is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1". Annals of the ... G-protein coupled receptor binding. • receptor binding. • protein N-terminus binding. Cellular component. • extracellular ... II. A dual action of secretin". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 49 (3): 524-9. doi:10.1172/JCI106262. PMC 322500 . PMID ...
An actin protein is the monomeric subunit of two types of filaments in cells: microfilaments, one of the three major components ... "Role of actin cytoskeletal dynamics in activation of the cyclic AMP pathway and HWP1 gene expression in Candida albicans". ... which produce four complete isoforms whose form of expression is probably dependent on the type of tissue they are found in. It ... Cofilin-actin complex finally dissociate after cofilin phosphorylation by nuclear LIM kinase. ...
Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes. Olav K. ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits / genetics * DNA Mutational Analysis * DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics ... Thirty-two significantly altered genes, including ELF3, were identified, and nearly 40% of cases harbored targetable genetic ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets / genetics * Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1 / genetics ... Hiromi Nakamura 1 , Yasuhito Arai 1 , Yasushi Totoki 1 , Tomoki Shirota 1 2 , Asmaa Elzawahry 1 , Mamoru Kato 3 , Natsuko Hama ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II * Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism* ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II * Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases ... A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) mediate the intracellular localization of PKA and control the specificity and kinetics of ... However, during the early minutes of maturation, type II PKA moves from cytoplasmic sites to the mitochondria, where it ...
Hormonal regulation of the synthesis and mRNA content of the regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type II ... Identification of two subclasses of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinases. Neural-specific and non-neural protein kinases. J ... type II holoenzyme form of cAMP-dependent protein kinase with regulatory subunits of the type I form of cAMP-dependent protein ... Cyclic adenosine 3:5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Comparison of type II enzymes from bovine brain, skeletal muscle ...
"MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc ... with serine/threonine protein kinases and heat shock protein HSP90 in human hematopoietic cell lines". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 ( ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
Molecular cloning of the human AKAP95 for the regulatory subunit type II of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK).. ... Molecular cloning of the human AKAP95 for the regulatory subunit type II of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type I mediates the inhibitory effects of 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate on cell ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (vertebrates), In G. Hardie & S. Hanks (ed.), The Protein Kinase FactsBook. Elsevier. ISBN ...
Molecular cloning of the human AKAP95 for the regulatory subunit type II of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK).. ... Molecular cloning of the human AKAP95 for the regulatory subunit type II of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type I mediates the inhibitory effects of 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate on cell ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (vertebrates), In G. Hardie & S. Hanks (ed.), The Protein Kinase FactsBook. Elsevier. ISBN ...
... and ASTRAL compendium for protein structure and sequence analysis ... Cyclic GMP, Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II, ... Class: protein binding. Keywords: Binding Sites, Cyclic AMP, ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId: ... Compound: cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId:9606]. Gene: PRKG1, PRKG1B, PRKGR1A, PRKGR1B. Database ... Experiment type: XRAY. Resolution: 1.49 Å. R-factor: N/A. AEROSPACI score: 0.49 (click here for full SPACI score report) Chains ...
"Identification of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on the beta 2 subunit of L-type voltage- ... Bünemann M, Gerhardstein BL, Gao T, Hosey MM (1999). "Functional regulation of L-type calcium channels via protein kinase A- ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNB2 gene. Mutation in ... GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Brugada syndrome CACNB2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
An antiserum against the catalytic subunit C of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, isolated from bovine heart type II protein ... cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards various protein kinases. G Schwoch, A Hamann, H Hilz ... cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards various protein kinases Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase purified from the particulate fraction of bovine heart reacted with the antiserum to the ...
... and binds the regulatory II (rII) subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The Akap200 gene produces two different ... In wild-type ovaries, cAMP-dependent protein kinase R2 (Pka-RII) the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase 1 (Pka ... A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAP) help regulate the intracellular organization of cyclic AMP-dependent kinase (PKA) and actin ... LTCC activity is elevated by the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and depressed by the Ca2+-dependent ...
Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase type II is associated with the Golgi complex and with centrosomes. Cell. 1985;41(3):1039-51 ... Protein kinase A-mediated CREB phosphorylation is an oxidant-induced survival pathway in alveolar type II cells. Apoptosis. ... Functional antagonism of different G protein-coupled receptor kinases for beta-arrestin-mediated angiotensin II receptor ... Different G protein-coupled receptor kinases govern G protein and beta-arrestin-mediated signaling of V2 vasopressin receptor. ...
Mutations in BSCL2 gene underlie human Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy type 2 (CGL2) diseases. CGL2 is an autosomal ... Lipodystrophy has been attributed to unbridle cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A-activated lipolysis which inhibits terminal ... At BCM, she established two animal models based on genes that are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NALFD) and ... We found Bscl2-/- mice exhibit a fasting-dependent insulin signaling in liver and muscle. They are hyperphagic, and rely ...
Protein Coding), Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-Trisphosphate Dependent Rac Exchange Factor 1, including: function, proteins, ... Phosphorylation of P-Rex1 by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the phosphatidylinositiol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate ... GH Type. GH. Score. GH Sources. Gene Association Score. Total Score. TSS distance (kb). Number of Genes Away. Size (kb). ... Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchanger 1 protein. Protein Accession:. Q8TCU6. Secondary Accessions: * ...
Inhibition of cyclic AMP-dependent kinase by expression of a protein kinase inhibitor/enhanced green fluorescent fusion protein ... 1999) Ca2+/calmodulin-kinase II enhances channel conductance of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate type glutamate ... 1996) Transient activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase during hippocampal long-term potentiation. J Biol Chem 271: ... 1997) Identification of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in the α-amino-3- ...
... of the islet cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity revealed the presence of two isozymes designated Type I and Type II. ... In the presence of Walsh protein (a specific inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases) cyclic AMP mediated ... the S-100 cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, although no significant increase in protein kinase activity was ... of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was located in the S-100 (soluble) fraction, while the majority (42%) of cyclic ...
... involvement of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase type II. J Pineal Res 1999; 27(3): 170-82.. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j. ... Reduction of melatonin level in patients with type II diabetes and periodontal diseases. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospect ... A two process model of sleep regulation. Hum Neurobiol 1982; 1(3): 195-204.. [PMID: 7185792] ... TNF-α protein synthesis inhibitor restores neuronal function and reverses cognitive deficits induced by chronic ...
The data suggest that while the early activation of type I cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase may mediate in a positive manner ... type II protein kinase holoenzyme isozymes via C6-aminoalkyl agarose chromatography revealed that only type I protein kinase ... The degree of activation of soluble cyclic 3,5-AMP-dependent protein kinase(s) was determined at various times following ConA ... the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity ratio increased markedly and was 0.23 unit above control values by 4 hr. The ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) drives glycogen breakdown by activating glycogen phosphorylase and inhibiting ... Recombinase-dependent mouse lines for chemogenetic activation of genetically defined cell types. Cell Rep15:2563-2573. doi: ... Other data were analyzed by using two-tailed Students t test for comparisons of averages of groups or two-way repeated- ... Hundreds of hormones and ligands stimulate cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in different tissues through the activation of G-protein ...
A 002). Potent competitive inhibitor of protein kinase A type I and II (c ... "Co-Regulation of Antigen-Specific T Lymphocyte Responses by Type I and Type II Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases (CAK)" ... "Melatonin Synthesis in the Bovine Pineal Gland is Regulated by Type II Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase" ... Potent competitive inhibitor of protein kinase A type I and II (cyclic AMP antagonist). Resistant against mammalian cyclic ...
Myosin Type II * Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases * Confined Spaces * Forster resonance energy transfer ... Modeling the two-way feedback between contractility and matrix realignment reveals a nonlinear mode of cancer cell invasion. ... Confinement Sensing and Signal Optimization via Piezo1/PKA and Myosin II Pathways. Hung, W. C., Yang, J. R., Yankaskas, C. L., ... Inhibition of ovarian tumor cell invasiveness by targeting SYK in the tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. Yu, Y., Suryo Rahmanto ...
Phosphorylation of IP3R1 at Ser1756 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulates the sensitivity of IP3R1 to IP3 ... EGFR carboxy-terminal residues Ser1046 and Ser1047 are phosphorylated by CaM kinase II; mutation of either of these serines ... There are three types of IP3 receptors (IP3R1, 2, and 3) that require the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) ... Background: Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) plays a central role in many signal transduction pathways (1,2) ...
Immunocytochemical localization of the neural-specific regulatory subunit of the type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase to ... cyclic AMP binding to protein kinase A (PKA), cyclic AMP-dependent PKA activity, and protein levels of selective regulatory and ... Shelton RC, Manier DH, Peterson CS, Eillis TC, Sulser F. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in subtypes of major depression ... Constantinescu A, Gordon AS, Diamond I. cAMP-dependent protein kinase types I and II differentially regulate cAMP response ...
Potent selective inhibitor of protein kinase G I a, I ß and especially of type II. Activates retinal cGMP channels and thus ... Involvement of cyclic AMP-dependent Protein KinaseType II". *99. Tao J. C., Mallat A., Gallois C., Belmadani S., Mery P.-F., ... 12th Protein Kinase Symp. NO/cGMP and Protein Kinase Signaling Bad Brückenau/Germany, 0, 0 - 0 (2000), "Protein Kinase A Type I ... Chem., 272, 11816 - 11823 (1997), "Endogenous Type II cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Exists as a Dimer in Membranes and can be ...
Pan, X., Heitman, J. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase regulates pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ... Elements of a single MAP kinase cascade in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediate two developmental programs in the same cell type: ... Mosch, H. U., Roberts, R. L., Fink, G. R. Ras2 signals via the Cdc42/Ste20/mitogen-activated protein kinase module to induce ... Crosstalk between the Ras2p-controlled mitogen-activated protein kinase and cAMP pathways during invasive growth of ...
Handschin JC, Eppenberger U. Altered cellular ratio of type I and type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in human mammary ... Distribution and properties of type I and type II binding proteins in the cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate-dependent ... Selective hormonal activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase isoenzymes in normal and malignant osteoblasts. J Biol ... Protein kinase A activity in PRKAR1A-mutant cells and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2. Hum Mol Genet2003 ...
... and protein kinase cyclic AMP-dependent type II (prkar2b) showed overexpression in MSI-H cancers. On the other hand, protein ... mitogen-activated protein kinase, type II diabetes mellitus, and insulin signaling system pathways yielded 3, 13, 4, and 6 ... we had three original and two artificial signatures leading to five lists in the discovery set and two original and two ... Those compounds fulfilling the above two criteria in at least two signatures of every set were selected to be eligible for ...
Gerhardstein B, Puri T, Chien A, Hosey M. Identification of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on ... Shaver C, Hauser A. Interactions between effector proteins of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system do not ... Moreover, Ang II degradation in vitro and ex vivo was unaffected by XNT and diminazene. We conclude that the biological effects ... Li Z, Ajdic J, Eigenthaler M, Du X. A predominant role for cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the cGMP-induced phosphorylation of ...
1994) Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase types II and IV differentially regulate CREB-dependent gene expression. Mol ... 1998a) Chronic ethanol administration decreases phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in granule cells ... cAMP response element-binding protein. Cα. catalytic subunit of PKA. CaMK. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase. PKC. protein ... 1987) Inhibition of intracellular cAMP-dependent protein kinase using mutant genes of the regulatory type I subunit. J Biol ...
Two classes of molecules inhibit the catalytic subunit (C) of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), the heat-stable ... Compartmentalization of the type II cyclic AMP-dependent kinase (PKA) is achieved through association of the regulatory subunit ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase is tethered to protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs) through regulatory subunits (R) ... Isoform-specific differences between the type Ialpha and IIalpha cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring domains revealed ...
  • An enzyme system that is activated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and that catalyzes the activity of intracellular proteins. (definithing.com)
  • The concept of second messengers mediating the effects of peptide hormones was prompted by data from Sutherland in the 1960s showing that adenylate cyclase, an enzyme that forms cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP), was present in cell membranes and that some peptide hormones increase its formation. (glowm.com)
  • Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) plays an important role in cognitive functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) plays a pivotal role in axonal growth and guidance, but its downstream mechanisms remain elusive. (rupress.org)
  • In C. albicans, the ability to switch between yeast and hyphal forms is thought to be a key virulence factor and is regulated by multiple signaling cascades-including the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA), calcineurin, high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways-upon receiving environmental cues. (mdpi.com)
  • Cyclic AMP is produced from ATP by the enzyme adenylate cyclase (AC) and is hydrolyzed by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Bradykinin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulate adenylate cyclase activity in serum-depleted cultured airway smooth muscle via a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. (biochemj.org)
  • The probable target is the type II adenylate cyclase, which can integrate coincident signals from both PKC and Gs. (biochemj.org)
  • The present study indicates that the bradykinin-stimulated ERK-2 pathway is entirely cyclic AMP-sensitive, and suggests that coincident signal detection by adenylate cyclase may be an important physiological route for the modulation of early mitogenic signalling. (biochemj.org)
  • Furthermore, the direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity enables bradykinin to induce DNA synthesis, indicating that the PKC-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase limits entry of cells into the cell cycle. (biochemj.org)
  • The activation of adenylate cyclase by PKC appears to be downstream of phospholipase D. However, in cells that were maintained in growth serum (i.e. were not growth-arrested), bradykinin was unable to elicit a PKC-stimulated cyclic AMP response. (biochemj.org)
  • In mouse hepatocytes, metformin leads to the accumulation of AMP and related nucleotides, which inhibit adenylate cyclase, reduce levels of cyclic AMP and protein kinase A (PKA) activity, abrogate phosphorylation of critical protein targets of PKA, and block glucagon-dependent glucose output from hepatocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Forskolin and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) were used to stimulate adenylate cyclase and protein kinase C respectively. (uclouvain.be)
  • The adenylate cyclase/protein kinase A and phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathways do not appear to be involved. (elsevier.com)
  • The cannabinoid receptors are members of the guanine-nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) coupled receptor family, which inhibit adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent, stereoselective and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. (nih.gov)
  • At high doses, CNR1 signal transduction involves G-protein alpha-i protein activation and subsequent inhibition of mitochondrial soluble adenylate cyclase, decrease in cyclic AMP concentration, inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of specific subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport system, including NDUFS2. (nih.gov)
  • Induction of adenosine 3', 5'monophosphate-dependent protein kinase subunits during adipogenesis in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Identification and differential expression of two forms of regulatory subunits (RH) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase II in Friend erythroleukemic cells. (springer.com)
  • Evolutionary Paths of the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Catalytic Subunits. (uio.no)
  • The expression, levels and activities of PKA subunits were studied prior to and during differentiation of the human neuronal precursor cell line NTera 2 (NT2). (uio.no)
  • In the absence of cAMP, inactive Protein kinase A is a holoenzyme (PKA), a heterotetramer of two identical catalytic subunits (Pka-C) and two identical regulatory subunits (Pka-R). When cAMP is present, it binds to the regulatory subunits and releases catalytic subunits from the holoenzyme, allowing phosphorylation of target substrates. (sdbonline.org)
  • In metazoans (except C. elegans ), the PKA regulatory subunits are of two types: type I (Pka-RI) or type II (Pka-RII). (sdbonline.org)
  • Once activated, the catalytic subunits are capable of phosphorylating a large number of protein substrates, both in vitro and in vivo (Jackson, 2002 and references therein). (sdbonline.org)
  • This sequestration is achieved through A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), a heterogeneous family of proteins that bind to PKA regulatory subunits and anchor PKA holoenzyme (Scott, 1994). (sdbonline.org)
  • The encoded protein, which is found mainly in the cytoplasm, is activated by phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate and the beta-gamma subunits of heterotrim. (genecards.org)
  • Its activity is synergistically activated by phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and the beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G protein. (genecards.org)
  • It is known from biochemical studies that GluR1 AMPA receptor subunits can be phosphorylated within their C terminal by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is colocalized with the phosphatase calcineurin (i.e., phosphatase 2B). (jneurosci.org)
  • and (ii) a tethering domain that interacts with PKA regulatory subunits. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) exists in two isoforms, PKA-I (type I) and PKA-II (type II), that contain an identical catalytic (C) subunit but distinct regulatory (R) subunits, RI and RII, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antibodies to cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, and the type I regulatory and catalytic subunits of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase did not label the mitotic apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • The same preparation was analysed by Western blotting, by using polyclonal antibodies to the regulatory subunits of protein kinases type I or II. (elsevier.com)
  • The enzyme is recruited to the plasma membrane via the interaction of its carboxyl-terminal pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain with the beta and gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gbetagamma). (duke.edu)
  • G protein beta gamma subunits stimulate phosphorylation of Shc adapter protein. (duke.edu)
  • Tar (and presumably any other chemoreceptor as well) is a homodimeric protein ( 30 ) comprising subunits about 60 kDa in size, each consisting of an N-terminal periplasmic ligand-binding domain, a C-terminal cytoplasmic signaling domain, and two membrane-spanning segments. (asm.org)
  • On the role of endogenous G-protein beta gamma subunits in N-type Ca2+ current inhibition by neurotransmitters in rat sympathetic neurones. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 1. Using whole-cell and perforated-patch recordings, we have examined the part played by endogenous G-protein beta gamma subunits in neurotransmitter-mediated inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa) in dissociated rat superior cervical sympathetic neurones. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 4. Co-expression of the C-terminus of beta ARK1 with beta 1 and gamma 2 subunits prevented the effects of G beta gamma dimers on basal Ca2+ channel behaviour in a manner consistent with the sequestering of G beta gamma. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Intrinsically disordered regions within each PKA regulatory subunit impart the molecular plasticity that affords an ∼16 nanometer radius of motion to the associated catalytic subunits.Manipulating flexibility within the PKA holoenzyme augmented basal and cAMP responsive phosphorylation of AKAP-associated substrates.We propose that the dynamic movement of kinase sub-structures, in concert with the static AKAP-regulatory subunit interface, generates a solid-state signaling microenvironment for substrate phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • At pH 7.0, cyclic AMP inhibition of 32P incorporation into a S-100 54,000 dalton polypeptide was observed. (le.ac.uk)
  • Phosphorylation at Thr14 and Tyr15, resulting in inhibition of cdc2, can be carried out by Wee1 and Myt1 protein kinases (3,4). (cellsignal.com)
  • However, inhibition of the PKA catalytic activity does not mimic these peptides, suggesting that the peptides are disrupting the interaction of AKAP(s) with proteins other than PKA. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • In both phases, inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity prevented ethanol-induced CRE-mediated luciferase expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Growth inhibition accompanied reduction in RI α /PKA-I expression and compensatory increases in RII β protein and PKA-II β , the RII β -containing holoenzyme. (aacrjournals.org)
  • FK also enhanced the neuroprotective action of antioxidants that mimic the trophic effects of NA, such as trolox and pyrocatechol, but was totally ineffective by itself, suggesting that inhibition of oxidative stress was a required step to reveal the cAMP-dependent mechanism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Accordingly, inhibition of the upstream kinases of ERK 1/2 by 2′-amino-3′-methoxyflavone (PD98059) not only suppressed MAPK activation caused by FK but also abolished the survival promoting activity that this compound exerts on TH + neurons. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The calcium stimulation of this latter kinase is probably mediated by calmodulin, judging from its inhibition by low concentrations of trifluoperazine. (caltech.edu)
  • We further demonstrate that inhibition of PDE2A, by enhancing the hormone-dependent cAMP response locally, affects mitochondria dynamics and protects from apoptotic cell death. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The inhibition of PKA with H89, cyclic AMP (cAMP) antagonists, or the protein kinase inhibitor peptide reduced HCV entry into Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2. Expression of the C-terminus domain of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (beta ARK1), which contains the consensus motif (QXXER) for binding G beta gamma, reduced the fast (pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive) and voltage-dependent inhibition of ICa by noradrenaline and somatostatin, but not the slow (PTX-insensitive) and voltage-independent inhibition induced by angiotensin II. (ox.ac.uk)
  • beta ARK1 peptide reduced GTP-gamma-S-induced voltage-dependent and PTX-sensitive inhibition of ICa but not GTP-gamma-S-mediated voltage-independent inhibition. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 3. Overexpression of G beta 1 gamma 2, which mimicked the voltage-dependent inhibition by reducing ICa density and enhancing basal facilitation, occluded the voltage-dependent noradrenaline- and somatostatin-mediated inhibitions but not the inhibition mediated by angiotensin II. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 6. Our findings identify endogenous G beta gamma as the mediator of the voltage-dependent, PTX-sensitive inhibition of ICa induced by both noradrenaline and somatostatin but not the voltage-independent. (ox.ac.uk)
  • PTX-insensitive inhibition by angiotensin II. (ox.ac.uk)
  • They also support the view that voltage-dependent inhibition results from a direct G beta gamma-Ca2+ channel interaction. (ox.ac.uk)
  • For example, both Ca 2+ and cAMP are key second messengers involved in growth cone guidance by several extracellular cues, and Ca 2+ -dependent turning responses can be modulated by the cAMP pathway: the elevation of cAMP levels dictates attraction, whereas the inhibition of PKA results in repulsion ( Song and Poo, 1999 ). (rupress.org)
  • Involved in cannabinoid-dependent depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), a process in which depolarization of CA1 postsynaptic pyramidal neurons mobilizes eCBs, which retrogradely activate presynaptic CB1 receptors, transiently decreasing GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission. (nih.gov)
  • A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) mediate the intracellular localization of PKA and control the specificity and kinetics of substrate phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • We show that PKA interaction with AKAPs is essential for two sequential steps in the maturation process: the initial maintenance of meiotic arrest and the subsequent irreversible progression to the polar body extruded stage. (nih.gov)
  • In Drosophila, two AKAPs have been cloned using in vitro gel overlay assays. (sdbonline.org)
  • The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is targeted to specific subcellular compartments through its interaction with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • AKAPs contain an amphipathic helix domain that binds to the type II regulatory subunit of PKA (RII). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • These data suggest that sperm contains several proteins that bind to AKAPs in a manner similar to RII and imply that AKAPs may have additional and perhaps unique functions in spermatozoa. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • cAMP-dependent protein kinase is targeted to discrete subcellular locations by a family of specific anchor proteins (A-kinase anchor proteins, AKAPs). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Although AKAPs have been identified on the basis of their interaction with PKA, they also bind other signaling molecules, mainly phosphatases and kinases, that regulate AKAP targeting and activate other signal transduction pathways.We suggest that AKAP forms a "transduceosome" by acting as an autonomous multivalent scaffold that assembles and integrates signals derived from multiple pathways. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • By performing RII blot overlays on motility mutants defective for specific axonemal structures, two axonemal AKAPs have been identified: a 240-kD AKAP associated with the central pair apparatus, and a 97-kD AKAP located in the radial spoke stalk. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The localization and specificity of PKA are largely controlled by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). (elsevier.com)
  • One general mechanism believed to make PKA signaling more effective is the use of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) to recruit PKA to discrete subcellular compartments, which coordinates and focuses PKA action with respect to its substrates. (northwestern.edu)
  • A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) spatially constrain phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA). (nih.gov)
  • abstract = "Pyruvate kinase (ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.40) type L was partly purified from rat kidney. (elsevier.com)
  • Abstract -The amplitude of the whole-cell L-type Ca 2+ channel current recorded from vascular smooth muscle cells is reportedly greater in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) than in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). (ahajournals.org)
  • abstract = "A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was characterized. (elsevier.com)
  • Protein kinase A (PKA) is one of the crucial signaling molecules that, by phosphorylating proteins, affects a wide array of physiologic functions in the brain. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • Four different isoforms of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, termed Calpha, Cbeta,Cgamma and PrKX have been identified. (uio.no)
  • Mammals have two isoforms of each type of regulatory subunit (e.g. (sdbonline.org)
  • Activation of PI3K by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucose was associated with insulin receptor substrate isoforms insulin receptor substrate-2 and growth factor bound-2 associated binder-1 and PI3K isoforms p85alpha, p110alpha, p110beta, and p110gamma. (nih.gov)
  • Downstream of PI3K, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-stimulated protein kinase Balpha and protein kinase Bbeta isoforms and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3, forkhead transcription factor FKHR, and p70S6K. (nih.gov)
  • Recent examination of the hypothesis that distinctly phosphorylated NF-H isoforms exist in different types of neurons revealed that the extent of phosphorylation of the heavy neurofilament polypeptide of bovine ventral root motor neurons is markedly higher than that of dorsal root neurons. (springer.com)
  • Diverse pathophysiological processes (e.g. obesity, lifespan determination, addiction and male fertility) have been linked to the expression of specific isoforms of the adenylyl cyclases (AC1-AC10), the enzymes that generate cyclic AMP (cAMP). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Multiple transcript variants encoding two different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. (nih.gov)
  • Protein kinase A-mediated CREB phosphorylation is an oxidant-induced survival pathway in alveolar type II cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • Aberrant Hh signaling activity can be associated with numerous birth defects and uncontrolled Hh pathway activation is linked to the development of several types of cancers (1-2). (cellsignal.com)
  • The molecular pathways involved in the aetiology of these syndromes have recently been more clearly defined and several major cellular signalling pathways are probably involved: the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway in Carney complex (CNC), the Ras/Erk MAP kinase pathway in LEOPARD/Noonan syndromes, and the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway (mTOR) in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and the diseases caused by PTEN mutations. (bmj.com)
  • Our study shows that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is of special relevance in mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, these results point toward the therapeutic importance of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in MSI and open the door for the eventual evaluation of anti-mammalian target of rapamycin and anti-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase therapies in this recognized subset of colorectal cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Grasberger H, Bell G. Subcellular recruitment by TSG118 and TSPYL implicates a role for zinc finger protein 106 in a novel developmental pathway. (labome.org)
  • These proteins, ropporin (a protein previously shown to interact with the Rho signaling pathway) and AKAP-associated sperm protein, are 39% identical to each other and share a strong sequence similarity with the conserved domain on the N terminus of RII that is involved in dimerization and AKAP binding. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Our data suggest that ethanol induces cAMP-dependent gene expression regulated by CREB and PKA and that this signaling pathway may mediate some of the addictive behaviors underlying alcoholism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Expression of the type II/IIA sodium channel requires activation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase), whereas induction of the peripheral neuron type sodium channel occurs through an A-kinase-independent signal transduction pathway. (rupress.org)
  • FK stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-activated kinases (ERK) 1/2 in a subpopulation of dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was involved in the effects of cAMP-elevating agents. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These studies suggest that the mitogenicity of an agonist may be governed, in part, by its ability to stimulate an inhibitory cyclic AMP signal pathway in the cell. (biochemj.org)
  • Epistasis analysis suggests that mpk-1 acts downstream of mek-2 (encodes a MEK homolog) and upstream of lin-1 (encodes an Ets transcription factor) in the anchor cell signaling pathway. (genetics.org)
  • MAP kinase plays an important role in the Ras signaling pathway because it can activate downstream substrates that directly mediate the cellular response to growth factors, suggesting that MAP kinase acts near or at the end of this signaling pathway (reviewed in T reisman 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • Genetic studies have shown that the anchor cell signal activates a receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras pathway (reviewed in K ornfeld 1997 ). (genetics.org)
  • The pathway maps illustrate protein interactions and regulation to provide a comprehensive picture of signaling and disease processes. (bio-rad.com)
  • 5. It is suggested that the transduction mechanism of A(2A) receptors to inhibit NMDA receptor channels is the phospholipase C/InsP 3 /calmodulin and calmodulin kinase II pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • It has become clear that sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors not only do not increase the incidence of cardiovascular events but they also reduce the duration of hospitalization for heart failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • On the other hand, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitors did not abolish the CaM/CaMKII-induced alterations of INa function.Conclusion Ca 2+ /CaM and CaMKII have distinct effects on the inactivation phenotype of cardiac Na + channels. (elsevier.com)
  • 1976) "Synthetic Hexapeptide Substrates and Inhibitors of 3':5'-Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase" Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • Burke, T. R. (1992) "Protein-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors" Drugs Fut. (patentgenius.com)
  • 3. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP and the protein kinase A activator Sp-cyclic AMPs, but not the protein kinase A inhibitors Rp-cyclic AMPS or PKI(14-24)amide abolished the inhibitory effect of CGS 21680. (elsevier.com)
  • the calmodulin kinase II inhibitors CaM kinase II(281-309) and KN-93 but not the inactive structural analogue KN-92 were also effective. (elsevier.com)
  • Most of the holoenzyme (type II) remains intact when bound to the antibodies as shown by quantification of the regulatory subunit in the supernatant of the immunoprecipitate. (biochemj.org)
  • Separation of the free catalytic subunit from type I and type II protein kinase holoenzyme isozymes via C 6 -aminoalkyl agarose chromatography revealed that only type I protein kinase was activated 4 hr following incubation of lymphocytes with a mitogenic concentration of ConA (10 µg/ml). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the cytoplasm the predominant part of R II was present in the dissociated state in all preparations, while when the R II was found in the nucleus it was mainly in the holoenzyme form. (elsevier.com)
  • Substitution of an amino acid at the PKA phosphorylation site (S845A) on GluR1 eliminated the PKA-induced increase in P O,PEAK , whereas the mutation of a Ca 2+ ,calmodulin-dependent kinase II and PKC phosphorylation site (S831A) was without effect. (jneurosci.org)
  • Basal phosphorylation at S2808/S2814 was maintained by a Ca 2+ dependent kinase other than Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMKII). (elsevier.com)
  • Cellular localization and age-dependent changes in mRNA for cyclic adensoine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinases in rat testis. (springer.com)
  • Studies on the temporal expression pattern and subcellular localization of Aurora kinases in mitotic cells suggest an association with mitotic structure. (cellsignal.com)
  • Immunofluorescent localization of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases on the mitotic apparatus of cultured cells. (rupress.org)
  • Therefore, the localization and activity-dependent translocation of type II PKA are important determinants of PKA function. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, silencing AKAP121 expression in these cells specifically altered the localization of type II PKA regulatory subunit alpha (PKAR2A) at the mitochondria but did not affect its relative expression within the cell. (northwestern.edu)
  • Since viral entry is dependent on the host cell expression of CD81, scavenger receptor BI, and claudin-1 (CLDN1), we studied the role of PKA in regulating viral receptor localization by confocal imaging and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we report that type II protein kinase A (PKA) is highly enriched in growth cone filopodia, and this spatial localization enables the coupling of cAMP signaling to its specific effectors to regulate guidance responses. (rupress.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that the spatial localization of type II PKA to growth cone filopodia plays an important role in the regulation of growth cone motility and guidance by cAMP. (rupress.org)
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) allow cells to respond to chemical and sensory stimuli through generation of second messengers, such as cyclic AMP (cAMP), which in turn mediate a myriad of processes, including cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. (prolekare.cz)
  • Hundreds of hormones and ligands stimulate cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in different tissues through the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (asm.org)
  • G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest receptor family in mammals and regulate a wide range of physiological processes ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • We have shown in the NG108-15 neuroblastoma × glioma hybrid cell line that ethanol increases cellular cAMP levels via activation of adenosine A 2 receptors, leading to phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Adenosine 3´, 5´-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP) is a universal secondary messenger that connects changes in the extracellular environment, as detected by cell surface receptors, to changes in the nucleus, which results in altered patterns of gene expression. (moleculardevices.com)
  • In mammals, extracellular ligands, such as peptide hormones or neurotransmitters, interact with transmembrane proteins called G-coupled receptors (GPCR). (moleculardevices.com)
  • From these results we conclude that PK-A type II is associated with the membranes of precisely those subcellular compartments that are active in endocytosis and recycling of cell surface receptors. (unibas.ch)
  • G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which ultimately leads to their desensitization and/or downregulation. (duke.edu)
  • 2 , 3 In contrast, antibodies to steroid hormones could not achieve the same effects, suggesting that steroid hormone receptors were not located on the cell surface. (glowm.com)
  • The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, the largest group of membrane receptors, uses guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) to couple to specific intracellular effector systems. (glowm.com)
  • Their expression levels and attractant-sensing abilities were similar to those of the wild-type receptors, but the methylation levels of the mutant receptors increased only slightly upon addition of attractants. (asm.org)
  • The P2Y 2 receptor is the predominant transducer of chloride transport responses to nucleotides in the airways, but the P2 receptors that control ion transport in gastrointestinal epithelia have not been identified. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The nucleotide selectivities observed with the recombinant (m)P2Y 4 and (m)P2Y 6 receptors resemble those for nucleotide-promoted chloride transport in murine P2Y 2 (−/−) jejuna and gallbladder epithelial cells, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Three members of the P2Y receptor subfamily, the P2Y 2 , P2Y 4 , and P2Y 6 receptors, are potently stimulated by uridine nucleotides. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2. Lucifer yellow-filled pipettes in combination with immunostaining of A(2A) receptors were used to identify CGS 21680-sensitive cells as typical medium spiny striatal neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • This gene encodes one of two cannabinoid receptors. (nih.gov)
  • The two receptors have been found to be involved in the cannabinoid-induced CNS effects (including alterations in mood and cognition) experienced by users of marijuana. (nih.gov)
  • However, in mouse cortical neuron cultures, prior to synaptogenesis, neither cAMP nor dopamine, which acts via cAMP, stimulated CREB-dependent gene transcription when NR2B-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs) were blocked. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neuronal levels of cAMP are regulated by G-protein-coupled receptors linked to adenylyl cyclase (AC). (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we report that, in immature neurons from embryonic mouse cortex, prior to synaptogenesis, DA and cAMP do not stimulate CREB-dependent gene transcription when NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are blocked. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thirty-two significantly altered genes, including ELF3, were identified, and nearly 40% of cases harbored targetable genetic alterations. (nih.gov)
  • At BCM, she established two animal models based on genes that are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NALFD) and human congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) and characterized their functions in energy metabolism. (omicsonline.org)
  • Struyf F, Posavad C, Keyaerts E, Van Ranst M, Corey L, Spear P. Search for polymorphisms in the genes for herpesvirus entry mediator, nectin-1, and nectin-2 in immune seronegative individuals. (labome.org)
  • Histone acetylation is mediated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs), such as CBP/p300, GCN5L2, PCAF, and Tip60, which are recruited to genes by DNA-bound protein factors to facilitate transcriptional activation (3). (cellsignal.com)
  • Increasing levels of glucose induced expression of the proglucagon and PC1/2 genes but not the genes for GBAR1/TGR5 nor the PPARb/d receptor in GLUTag cells. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Cbfa1 binds to OSE2, a cis -acting element present in the osteocalcin promoter ( 5 ), as well as other major genes expressed in osteoblasts such as bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and α1 type I collagen. (asm.org)
  • cAMP can stimulate the transcription of many activity-dependent genes via activation of the transcription factor, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). (jneurosci.org)
  • Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases. (springer.com)
  • Resistant against mammalian cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphodiesterases. (biolog.de)
  • Absolutely resistant against mammalian cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphodiesterases, no metabolic side effects. (biolog.de)
  • Cyclic nucleotides and cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of cell motility and division, processes that depend on the cell cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
  • The association between specific components of the cyclic neucleotide system and the mitotic spindle suggests that cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of spindle proteins, such as those of microtubules, may play a fundamental role in the regulation of spindle assembly and chromosome motion. (rupress.org)
  • Genetic characterization of a brain-specific form of the type I regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (springer.com)
  • The neural type II regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is present and regulated by hormones in the rat ovary. (springer.com)
  • With these cautions in mind, they describe the various signaling pathways and physiological roles ascribed to the three melatonin receptor types. (labome.org)
  • Here, we show that glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide induced cellular proliferation synergistically with glucose between 2.5 mM and 15 mM by pleiotropic activation of signaling pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activators of transcription 5/6 pathways were not stimulated by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. (nih.gov)
  • MAP kinases are key mediators of cellular differentiation and proliferation in all animals, and they function in receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras signaling pathways (reviewed in M arshall 1994 ). (genetics.org)
  • All six Pn.p cells are capable of adopting any one of three potential cell fates (1°, 2°, or 3°), and these fates are predominantly determined by the sequential action of two signaling pathways. (genetics.org)
  • Ligand-induced GLP-1R activation stimulates intracellular cAMP synthesis, which in turn engages two distinct intracellular signaling pathways: protein kinase A (PKA) and the exchange protein activated by cAMP islet/brain isoform 2A (EPAC2A) ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Inactivation of serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11 or LKB1) is common in lung cancer, and understanding the pathways and phenotypes altered as a consequence will aid the development of targeted therapeutic strategies. (duke.edu)
  • Two cAMP-dependent pathways differentially regulate exocytosis of large dense-core and small vesicles in mouse beta-cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sodium current results from the rapid induction of a novel sodium channel transcript, also found in peripheral neurons, and from the long term induction of brain type II/IIA mRNA. (rupress.org)
  • Protein kinase A (PKA) plays multiple roles in neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • We imaged the distribution of type II PKA in hippocampal and cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in vitro and in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • This spatial distribution was imposed by the microtubule-binding protein MAP2, indicating that MAP2 is the dominant AKAP in neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • AT increased CGRP release from cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons only in the presence of anandamide (n = 5), and AT-induced increase in CGRP release was not observed in the presence KT5720, an inhibitor of protein kinase A (n = 5). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These results strongly suggested that AT might reduce endotoxin-induced hypotension in rats by enhancing activation of sensory neurons via activation of protein kinase A. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • It has been reported that cAMP regulates Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis via protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in neurons and secretory cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody to neurofilament protein (SM132) labels a subpopulation of pyramidal neurons in the human and monkey neocortex. (springer.com)
  • The A(2A) receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) inhibited the NMDA, but not the (S)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) current in a subset of striatal neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • Titration with the antibodies also revealed the presence of a cyclic AMP-independent histone kinase in bovine heart protein kinase I preparations obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. (biochemj.org)
  • Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was further purified by gel filtration, affinity chromatography on histone-agarose and cyclic AMP-agarose, as well as by chromatography on CM-Sephadex. (elsevier.com)
  • The subcellular distribution of protein kinase activity in isolated islets of Langerhans was determined. (le.ac.uk)
  • The subcellular distribution of the regulatory (RII) subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) was analyzed at the electron-microscopical level using thawed cryo-sections of Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. (unibas.ch)
  • This article focuses on the role of the signal transduction molecule protein kinase A in the pathophysiology of suicide. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • We believe these findings to be related to the well-established role of cyclic AMP in signal transduction. (unibas.ch)
  • However, the acute effects of Ca 2+ /CaM and CaMKII on cardiac Na + channels are not fully understood.Methods and results Purified NaV1.5-glutathione-S-transferase fusion peptides were phosphorylated in vitro by CaMKII predominantly on the I-II linker. (elsevier.com)
  • 1991) "Protein Kinase C Substrate and Inhibitor Characteristics of Peptides Derived From the Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate (MARCKS) Protein Phosphorylation Site Domain" The Journal of Biological Chemistry266(22):14390-14398. (patentgenius.com)
  • In the method of the invention, a protein kinase is contacted with an oriented degenerate peptide library, peptides within the library which are substrates for the kinase are converted to phosphopeptides and the phosphopeptides are separated from non-phosphorylated peptides. (patentgenius.com)
  • As cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) and β-AR agonists are similarly potent at stimulating lipolysis in human adipocytes, we investigated whether NPs could induce human and mouse adipocytes to acquire brown adipocyte features, including a capacity for thermogenic energy expenditure mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). (jci.org)
  • Molecular cloning, cDNA structure, and regulation of the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from rat ovarian granulosa cells. (springer.com)
  • Hormonal regulation of cyclic AMP binding to specific receptor proteins in rat ovarian follicles. (springer.com)
  • AKAP200 is a Drosophila melanogaster member of the "A Kinase Associated Protein" family of scaffolding proteins, known for their role in the spatial and temporal regulation of Protein Kinase A (PKA) in multiple signaling contexts. (sdbonline.org)
  • Thus, the activity of the rat kidney pyruvate kinase type L is with all probability regulated by a reversible phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reaction, thereby indicating that hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis via cyclic AMP may be of importance in the renal cortex. (elsevier.com)
  • The spatial gradient of type II PKA between dendritic shafts and spines was critical for the regulation of synaptic strength and long-term potentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • Down-regulation of Prkar1a by up to 70% was achieved in transgenic mouse tissues and embryonic fibroblasts, with concomitant changes in kinase activity and increased cell proliferation, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has, however, never been clarified how regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis by cAMP differs depending on the involvement of PKA and Epac, and depending on two types of secretory vesicles, large dense-core vesicles (LVs) and small vesicles (SVs). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although there is no evidence for any regulation of CheR activity, the activity of CheB is stimulated when the protein is phosphorylated by the histidine kinase CheA ( 25 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • The presence of Cbfa1 activity at these promoters that are osteoblast specific but temporally distinct in their regulation suggests that Cbfa1 activity may be modulated by additional transcriptional regulatory proteins. (asm.org)
  • However, the nucleotide selectivity of the receptor involved in regulation of ion transport responses in the airways suggests a major role for the P2Y 2 receptor with lesser involvement of the P2Y 6 receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this review, we discuss regulatory properties and mechanisms whereby two distinct populations of immature cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and myeloid derived suppressor cells mediate immune regulation, focusing on their similarities, discrepancies, and potential clinical applications. (hindawi.com)
  • In particular, two distinct populations of functionally immature cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and a population of immature myeloid cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), have been implicated in immune suppression and regulation [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The regulatory subunit of neural cAMPdependent protein kinase II represents a unique gene product. (springer.com)
  • Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc finger transcription factor and oncoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification and Characterization of Novel Mutations in the Human Gene Encoding the Catalytic Subunit Calpha of Protein Kinase A (PKA). (uio.no)
  • All these exons are located upstream of exon 2 in the Cbeta gene. (uio.no)
  • Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNB2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in BSCL2 gene underlie human Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy type 2 (CGL2) diseases. (omicsonline.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the RHO family of small GTP-binding proteins (RACs). (genecards.org)
  • PREX1 (Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-Trisphosphate Dependent Rac Exchange Factor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Background: The alterations in neurological and neuroendocrine functions observed in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves environmentally dependent dysregulation of neurodevelopment, in interaction with multiple coding gene defects. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This work demonstrates gene dosage effect in nuclear coactivators manifesting as haploinsufficiency and functional redundancy of SRC-1 and TIF-2. (labome.org)
  • We found that CRE-mediated gene expression induced by ethanol occurs in two phases: an early phase (4 h), in which adenosine receptor blockade prevents ethanol-induced gene expression, and a later phase (14 h), which is not blocked by an adenosine receptor antagonist. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Many transcription and chromatin regulatory proteins contain bromodomains and may be recruited to gene promoters, in part, through binding of acetylated histone tails. (cellsignal.com)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans mpk-1 gene encodes a MAP kinase protein that plays an important role in Ras-mediated induction of vulval cell fates. (genetics.org)
  • The lin-3 gene encodes a protein similar to epidermal growth factor (EGF) that is the inductive signal secreted by the anchor cell ( H ill and S ternberg 1992 ). (genetics.org)
  • These signals are subsequently conveyed to the cytoplasm and then to the nucleus through a combination of second-messenger molecules, kinase/phosphorylation cascades, and transcription factor translocation to effect changes in gene expression. (glowm.com)
  • Based on the model, we proposed two signal systems in β-cells: one is the CD38-cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) signal system for insulin secretion, and the other is the regenerating gene protein (Reg)-Reg receptor system for β-cell regeneration. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Next, we describe the physiological and pathological roles of the CD38-cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) signal system in insulin secretion and the regenerating gene protein (Reg)-Reg receptor system for β-cell regeneration, the elucidations for both of which were developed on the basis of the Okamoto model. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • PPARg activation with rosiglitazone decreased proglucagon mRNA, however, the PPARb/d agonist GW501516 significantly increased (2-4-fold) proglucagon gene expression and GLP-1 secretion in GLUTag cells and in human NCI-H716 cells. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • UTP and UDP promote chloride secretion in mouse jejuna and gallbladder epithelia, respectively, and these responses were unaffected by P2Y 2 receptor gene disruption. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that the rs2253206 polymorphism in the CREB1 gene locus is associated with PM in healthy individuals and contributes to knowledge on the genetics of this particular type of memory. (frontiersin.org)
  • if product is indicated to react with multiple species, protein info is based on the human gene. (bosterbio.com)
  • cAMP activates cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which can directly modulate effector proteins by phosphorylation at PKA-specific serine or threonine residues or can alter the levels of the effector proteins themselves by modulating gene expression. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our results suggest that cAMP stimulates CREB-dependent gene transcription via a two-step process by inducing release of an excitatory amino acid, identified here as l -aspartate, which then activates NMDARs, leading to Ca 2+ entry and gene transcription. (jneurosci.org)
  • Reaction of the catalytic subunit with antiserum and separation of the immunoglobulin G fraction by Protein A-Sepharose quantitatively removed the enzyme from solutions. (biochemj.org)
  • Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase purified from the particulate fraction of bovine heart reacted with the antiserum to the same degree as the soluble enzyme, whereas two cyclic AMP-independent kinases separated from the particle fraction neither reacted with the antiserum nor influenced the reaction of the antibodies with the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (biochemj.org)
  • Immunotitration of the protein kinase catalytic subunit C from rat liver revealed that the antibodies had rather similar reactivities towards the rat liver and the bovine heart enzyme. (biochemj.org)
  • After incubation of the phosphorylated kidney pyruvate kinase with phosphatase the phosphoenolpyruvate saturation curve was found to be identical to that for the unphosphorylated enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • The suggestion a decade ago that metformin reduces glucose synthesis through activation of the enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been challenged by genetic loss-of-function experiments. (nih.gov)
  • The activation of protein kinase C by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or the blockade of this enzyme by staurosporine did not alter the effect of CGS 21680. (elsevier.com)
  • F. Primary hepatocytes were incubated with phenformin for 2 hours, then glucagon, and protein was analyzed by western blot with the phospho-PKA substrate motif antibody, total and phospho-PFKFB1 antibodies, and total and phospho IP3R antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • The two cytosolic kinases are distinguishable from each other and from myosin light chain kinase and phosphorylase b kinase by their substrate specificities and their chromatographic behavior on DEAE-cellulose. (caltech.edu)
  • Binding of a repellent or an attractant to the receptor activates or inactivates autophosphorylation of CheA and thereby increases or decreases phosphotransfer from CheA to its substrate proteins, CheY and CheB. (asm.org)
  • Intrinsic disorder within an AKAP-protein kinase A complex guides local substrate phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that the dynamic movement of kinase sub-structures, in concert with the static AKAP-regulatory subunit interface, generates a solid-state signaling microenvironment for substrate phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • Functions as a RAC guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), which activates the Rac proteins by exchanging bound GDP for free GTP. (genecards.org)
  • Activates retinal cGMP channels and thus discriminates between kinase and channel effects. (biolog.de)
  • HCV infection of Huh-7.5 cells increased cAMP levels and phosphorylated PKA substrates, supporting a model where infection activates PKA in a cAMP-dependent manner to promote virus release and transmission. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The degree of activation of soluble cyclic 3',5'-AMP-dependent protein kinase(s) was determined at various times following ConA stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Background-Mammalian hearts exhibit positive inotropic responses to β-adrenergic stimulation as a consequence of protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation or as a result of increased beat frequency (the Bowditch effect). (elsevier.com)
  • Further, cMyBP-C is a principal mediator of increased contractility observed with β-adrenergic stimulation or increased pacing because of protein kinase A and CaMKIIδ phosphorylations of cMyB-C. (elsevier.com)
  • During stimulation with Isoproterenol S2808 was phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) and S2814 was phosphorylated by CaMKII. (elsevier.com)
  • The expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) is regulated by PKA in response to trophic hormone stimulation through the second messenger cAMP. (northwestern.edu)
  • However, when mice are exposed to diet-induced insulin resistance, pharmacologic secretagogue stimulation of β-cells with an incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 analog or with a fatty acid receptor 1/G protein-coupled receptor 40 selective activator, EPAC2A is required for the increased β-cell response to secretory demand. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Similar studies using the STC-1 cell line have identified a receptor for bile acids, designated TGR5 (also known as BG37) which is coupled to stimulation of GLP-1 secretion in a cAMP-dependent manner. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Previous physiological and pharmacological experiments have demonstrated that the Chlamydomonas flagellar axoneme contains a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) that regulates axonemal motility and dynein activity. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • UPF1, a conserved nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factor, regulates cyst wall protein transcripts in Giardia lamblia. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • Ca 2+ /CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) regulates Ca 2+ handling, and chronic overactivity of CaMKII is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction and lethal arrhythmias. (elsevier.com)
  • Using pharmacological and genetic approaches combined with real-time FRET imaging and high resolution microscopy, we demonstrate that in rat cardiac myocytes and other cell types mitochondrial PDE2A2 regulates local cAMP levels and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of Drp1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • For example, muscle protein metabolism rapidly adapts in response to physical exercise, dietary protein or anabolic hormones such as insulin-like growth factor 1 or testosterone ( 10 , 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Phosphorylation of cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) by protein kinase A accelerates the kinetics of force development in permeabilized heart muscle, but its role in vivo is unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • Once activated, a significant fraction of MAP kinase molecules translocate to the nucleus, and many important MAP kinase substrates are localized in the nucleus ( e.g. , the mammalian transcription factors Elk-1 and Ets-1 (reviewed in T reisman 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • LC3-II is the first mammalian protein identified that specifically associates with autophagosome membranes. (labome.org)
  • Self-assembly in vitro of the 68,000 molecular weight component of the mammalian neurofilament triplet proteins into intermediate-sized filaments. (springer.com)
  • The addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP at the same time as ConA (10 µg/ml) resulted in nearly total activation of both type I and type II protein kinases at 4 hr but was inhibitory to the later induction of ornithine decarboxylase and to increased synthesis of RNA and DNA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The data suggest that while the early activation of type I cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase may mediate in a positive manner the induction of ornithine decarboxylase and the mitogenic response of lymphocytes to ConA, concomitant activation of type II protein kinase may inhibit this process. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Background: The entry of eukaryotic cells into mitosis is regulated by cdc2 kinase activation, a process controlled at several steps including cyclin binding and phosphorylation of cdc2 at Thr161 (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • Our findings indicate that the activation of Notch1 is an important 'second hit' for the transformation of E2A(-/-) T cell lymphomas and that Notch1 promotes survival through pre-TCR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. (labome.org)
  • While necessary for biogenesis of the organelle, Drp1‐dependent mitochondrial fragmentation is also an early and critical event in apoptosis, coinciding roughly with activation of the pro‐apoptotic B‐cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) family member Bax and permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane ( Martinou & Youle, 2006 ). (embopress.org)
  • Surprisingly, the archetypal cAMP-dependent protein kinase was apparently not responsible for ERK 1/2 activation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore, activation of Gs (by cholera-toxin pre-treatment) amplified the bradykinin-stimulated cyclic AMP signal and concurrently attenuated the partial activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2) by bradykinin. (biochemj.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated that, in order to induce full activation of ERK-2 with bradykinin, it is necessary to obliterate PKC-stimulated cyclic AMP formation. (biochemj.org)
  • We concluded that the cyclic AMP signal limits the magnitude of ERK-2 activation [Pyne, Moughal, Stevens, Tolan and Pyne (1994) Biochem. (biochemj.org)
  • To further test the hypothesis that activation of L-type Ca 2+ channels in arterial smooth muscle cells would be enhanced in SHR, we recorded single Ca 2+ channel currents in resistance mesenteric artery cells from SHR and WKY (8 to 9 weeks of age) using a cell-attached patch clamp technique. (ahajournals.org)
  • Activation of the G-protein-coupled receptor for glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide facilitates insulin-release from pancreatic beta-cells. (nih.gov)
  • Pharmacologic activation of GLP-1R with the GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 (E4) can reverse pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and increases GSIS, leading to improved glycemic control while also avoiding hypoglycemia ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Aim 2: Determine how agents that augment PKA, especially therapeutic beta-adrenergic agonists, dampen dust extract-induced PKC isoform activation and attenuate lung inflammation in vitro and in vivo. (cdc.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) -aspirin, naproxen, nimesulide, and piroxicam- lowered activation of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA-II) in isolated rat adipocytes, decreasing adrenaline- and dibutyryl cAMP (Bt2cAMP)-stimulated lipolysis. (springernature.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: NSAIDs activate NOX4 in adipocytes to produce H2O2, which impairs cAMP-dependent PKA-II activation, thus preventing isoproterenol-activated lipolysis. (springernature.com)
  • Hypoxia inhibits invasion of extravillous trophoblast cells through reduction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activation in the early first trimester of human pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The mechanisms whereby activation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A or the Ca2+-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C amplifies insulin release were studied with mouse islets. (uclouvain.be)
  • Termination and activation of store-operated cyclic AMP production. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This adaptation appears to be mediated by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)δ by fatty acids, which results in a gradual, posttranscriptionally regulated increase in PPAR γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) protein expression. (pnas.org)
  • Protein kinase A, a ubiquitous, highly conserved serine-threonine kinase, is a key intracellular transducer of many hormonal and other extracellular signals. (sdbonline.org)
  • Analysis of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase system using molecular genetic approaches. (springer.com)
  • The molecular cloning of a type H regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase from rat skeletal muscle and mouse brain. (springer.com)
  • The molecular behavior of biological systems can be described in terms of three fundamental components: (i) the physical entities, (ii) the interactions among these entities, and (iii) the dynamics of these entities and interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology. (elsevier.com)
  • An informal name for a molecular cell biology system of signals or "address tags" that guide the movement of a protein within a cell. (definithing.com)
  • A protein fraction of molecular weight 33 000-36 000 accounted for about 40% of the cyclic AMP binding capacity of the cytoplasmic extract of human tonsillar lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Molecular Devices, LLC, the company that provides innovative bioanalytical solutions for protein and cell biology in life science research, is excited to announce the $1M expansion and opening of a new Research and Development Center located at Urstein Sued 17, 5412 Puch bei Hallein, Austria. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa on SDS gel electrophoresis. (elsevier.com)
  • High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. (labome.org)
  • These data provide a molecular basis for the existence of PFK-2/FBPase-2 isozymes. (uclouvain.be)
  • Many of the underlying molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the structural changes of muscle tissue have been unraveled over the last two decades. (biologists.org)
  • The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blots with each antibody. (cellsignal.com)
  • To determine whether cyclic nucleotides or their kinases are physically associated with the cytoskeleton during cell division, fluorescently labeled antibodies directed against cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, and the cyclic nucleotide-dpendent protein kinases were used to localize these molecules in mitotic PtK1 cells. (rupress.org)
  • We measured phosphorylation with at least two different antibodies per site and demonstrate that for S2808 results were highly antibody-dependent and two out of three S2808 antibodies did not accurately report phosphorylation level. (elsevier.com)
  • Compounds were validated using two additional expression/query signatures (validation data set). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We show that, in PC12 cells, the NGF- and FGF-induced sodium current results from increased expression of two distinct sodium channel types. (rupress.org)
  • Histochemistry shows expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as demonstrated by positive Ki-67 immunohistochemical marker [ 2 ]. (scitechnol.com)
  • After 24 h treatment , the location of AQP2 was decided by indirect immunofluorescene, and the AQP2 protein and mRNA expression levels were detected by Western blot and semiquantive RT-PCR. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, bcl-2 expression did not allow virus growth in CHO cells, suggesting apoptosis suppression is not sufficient to rescue host restriction. (speedlibbradary0.cf)
  • The invasion capacity (Matrigel-coated invasion assay), migration of the cells (wound healing assay), activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and tissue inhibitor for MMP (TIMP)-2 (gelatin gel zymography, ELISA, and quantitative RT-PCR), and expression of membrane-type (MT)1-MMP (western blot) were investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Interestingly, during development a delay is noted between Cbfa1 expression (∼10.5 days postcoitus) and osteoblast differentiation (∼14.5 days postcoitus), suggesting that osteogenesis requires the interactions of Cbfa1 with other proteins to be initiated. (asm.org)
  • Transcription factors such as Msx-2, Bapx-1, and Hoxa-2 secreted molecules such as Indian Hedgehog and growth factors such as FGF and FGF-receptor appear to regulate Cbfa1 expression ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Two stage expression of neurofilament polypeptides during rat neurogenesis with early establishment of adult phosphorylation patterns. (springer.com)
  • At low concentrations, ANP and β-AR agonists additively enhanced expression of brown fat and mitochondrial markers in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner. (jci.org)
  • B. Primary hepatocytes incubated with the indicated concentration of phenformin for 2 hours were extracted with perchloric acid and cellular nucleotides quantified by HPLC. (nih.gov)
  • Pka-RI a or Pka-RIß) but Drosophila has only one isoform of each type of regulatory subunit. (sdbonline.org)
  • The regulatory subunit of type II PKA (RII) was purified, and only one isoform was observed. (elsevier.com)
  • Incretin hormone action on β-cells stimulates in parallel two different intracellular cyclic AMP-dependent signaling branches mediated by protein kinase A and exchange protein activated by cAMP islet/brain isoform 2A (EPAC2A). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer methodology allowed us to investigate the PKA isoform specificity of the cAMP antagonists in Huh-7.5 cells, suggesting a role for PKA type II in HCV internalization. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Isoform 3: Only binds 2-AG with high affinity. (nih.gov)
  • Contrary to its effect on isoform 1, 2-AG behaves as an inverse agonist on isoform 3 in assays measuring GTP binding to membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Isoform 1: Binds both 2-AG and anandamide. (nih.gov)
  • In humans, low-load endurance-type exercise leads to qualitative changes of muscle tissue characterized by an increase in structures supporting oxygen delivery and consumption, such as capillaries and mitochondria. (biologists.org)
  • The reactivity of the holoenzymes with the antiserum was identical in the absence or the presence of dissociating concentrations of cyclic AMP. (biochemj.org)
  • The second activity peak was stimulated by nanomolar concentrations of cyclic AMP. (elsevier.com)
  • Fraser and Scott, 1999 ), suggesting that these two enzymes are well positioned to exert opposing actions on their substrates. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition to nuclear targets, some MAP kinase substrates are located in the cytoplasm, e.g. , the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS and the protein kinase pp90Rsk (reviewed in F errell 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • 1990) "Identification of Major Nucleolar Proteins As Candidate Mitotic Substrates of cdc2 Kinase" Cell 60:791-801. (patentgenius.com)
  • The invention also provides peptide substrates for protein kinase A, cell cycle control kinases, src family kinases, the EGF receptor and p92.sup.c-fps/fes based upon amino acid sequence motifs for the phosphorylation sites of these kinases. (patentgenius.com)
  • Anchoring proteins sequester kinases with their substrates to locally disseminate intracellular signals and avert indiscriminate transmission of these responses throughout the cell. (nih.gov)
  • The results of these studies are discussed in relation to the role of cyclic AMP in insulin secretion. (le.ac.uk)
  • Lipodystrophy has been attributed to unbridle cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A-activated lipolysis which inhibits terminal adipocyte differentiation in Bscl2-/- mice. (omicsonline.org)
  • We found Bscl2-/- mice exhibit a fasting-dependent insulin signaling in liver and muscle. (omicsonline.org)
  • ROSA26 -Gs-DREADD mice can be used to study the physiological effects of cAMP signaling, acute or chronic, in liver or any tissue or cell type for which transgenic or viral Cre drivers are available. (asm.org)
  • Intact follicular maturation and defective luteal function in mice deficient for cyclin- dependent kinase-4. (labome.org)
  • Thyroid function in mice with compound heterozygous and homozygous disruptions of SRC-1 and TIF-2 coactivators: evidence for haploinsufficiency. (labome.org)
  • To bypass the early embryonic lethality of Prkar1a −/− mice, we established transgenic mice carrying an antisense transgene for Prkar1a exon 2 (X2AS) under the control of a tetracycline-responsive promoter. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Angiotensin II, type 2 receptor is not involved in the angiotensin II-mediated pro-atherogenic process in ApoE-/- mice. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • Proteins contain different amino acids that are linked together. (definithing.com)
  • The Cbfa1 protein expressed in osteoblasts has 596 amino acids and includes a Runt domain through which it binds DNA. (asm.org)
  • Comparison of type II enzymes from bovine brain, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. (springer.com)
  • Some of the kinases involved in phosphorylating CREB at Ser133 are p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2 (7-9). (cellsignal.com)
  • We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. (hindawi.com)
  • Failure of β-cells to adequately respond to increased metabolic demand on insulin secretion (β-cell dysfunction) results in diabetes ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The majority (70%) of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was located in the S-100 (soluble) fraction, while the majority (42%) of cyclic AMP-independent activity was located in the solublised P-100 (containing mitochondria, secretory granules and microsomes) fraction. (le.ac.uk)
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress in the Pathogenesis of Type 1 DiabetesJixin Zhong1, 2[1] Department of Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, China[2] Davis Heart & Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, USA1. (amazonaws.com)
  • Our laboratory recently discovered a new mode of cAMP production, prominent in certain cell types, that is stimulated by any manoeuvre causing reduction of free [Ca(2+) ] within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium store. (ox.ac.uk)
  • After the LH surge, a decrease in cAMP and PKA activity in the oocyte initiates an irreversible maturation process that culminates in a second arrest at metaphase II prior to fertilization. (nih.gov)
  • Identification of two subclasses of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinases. (springer.com)
  • Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are critical regulators of neuronal differentiation. (uio.no)
  • Identification of novel splice variants of the human catalytic subunit cbeta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (uio.no)
  • Although the functions and individual effectors of cAMP signaling are well characterized in many tissues, pleiotropic effects of GPCR agonists limit investigations of physiological functions of cAMP signaling in individual cell types at different developmental stages in vivo . (asm.org)
  • After viral delivery of Cre recombinase to hepatocytes in vivo , GsD is expressed and allows CNO-dependent cAMP signaling and glycogen breakdown. (asm.org)
  • Affinity purification experiments showed that PKAR2A preferentially associated with AKAP121, and cAMP analogs that activate type II PKA induced STAR phosphorylation more efficiently than analogs stimulating type I PKA. (northwestern.edu)
  • Also known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (definithing.com)
  • A. Primary hepatocytes were incubated with the indicated phenformin concentrations for 2 hours, 5 nM glucagon for 15 minutes, lysed, and assayed for total cellular cAMP and protein. (nih.gov)
  • Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major isozyme. (elsevier.com)
  • Inoue, H & Yoshioka, T 1997, ' Purification of a regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from Drosophila heads ', Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 235, no. 1, pp. 223-226. (elsevier.com)
  • 2) Cells were randomly divided into 4 groups, the control group , and the three treated groups treated respectively with 10 mg/L 8-Bromo-cAMP , 20 mg/L emodin , and 20 mg/L emodin +10 mg/L 8-Bromo-cAMP . (bvsalud.org)
  • Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide stimulated the signaling modules of PKA/cAMP regulatory element binder, MAPK, and PI3K/protein kinase B in a glucose- and dose-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium-dependent exocytosis of SVs was potentiated by the cAMP-elevating agent forskolin, and the potentiating effect was unaffected by antagonists of PKA and was mimicked by the Epac-selective agonist 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl cAMP, unlike that on LVs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1986) "A Potent Synthetic Peptide Inhibitor of the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase" The Journal of Biological Chemistry261(3):989-992. (patentgenius.com)
  • These findings are an important first step towards defining the functional significance and to identify the protein composition of this novel Ca(2+) /cAMP crosstalk system. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cell-based analyses suggest that the catalytic subunit remains within type-II PKA-AKAP18γ complexes upon cAMP elevation. (nih.gov)
  • Drp1 is recruited from the cytosolic compartment to mitochondria by adaptor proteins, including the outer mitochondrial transmembrane protein Fis1. (embopress.org)
  • C ) GST-Drp1 GED (aa 643-755) fusion proteins were phosphorylated in vitro with PKA and [γ‐ 32 P]ATP. (embopress.org)
  • To investigate the effect and mechanism of emodin for regulating aquapoin-2 (AQP2) in NRK cells cultured in vitro . (bvsalud.org)
  • Experiments on NRK cells cultured with alpha-DMEM medium in vitro were conducted in two steps. (bvsalud.org)
  • Amino acid permeases require COPII components and the ER resident membrane protein Shr3p for packaging into transport vesicles in vitro. (duke.edu)
  • 14 ] evaluated the effects of a low-dose combination of a GLP-1 analogue and FGF21 on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, as well as body weight and blood glucose concentration, in a type 2 diabetes mouse model and in vitro studies. (e-enm.org)
  • Involvement of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and of HA95 in pre-mRNA splicing. (uio.no)
  • We demonstrate that the antisense depletion of RI α in cancer cells results in increased RII β protein without increasing the rate of RII β synthesis or RII β mRNA levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this report, we demonstrate, using cultured cancer cells, that the loss of RI α by antisense treatment results in biochemical compensation by RII β and that this compensation is attributable to an increase in the half-life of RII β protein without changes in the rate of RII β protein synthesis or RII β mRNA levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Aurora C localizes to the centrosome from anaphase to cytokinesis and both mRNA and protein levels peak during G2/M phase. (cellsignal.com)
  • Similarly, overexpression of PPARδ results in a large increase in PGC-1α protein in the absence of any increase in PGC-1α mRNA. (pnas.org)
  • 1992) "Identification of Novel Peptide Antagonists for GPIIb/IIIa From a Conformationally Constrained Phage Peptide Library" Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics 14:509-515. (patentgenius.com)
  • Potent competitive inhibitor of protein kinase A type I and II (cyclic AMP antagonist). (biolog.de)
  • Potent selective inhibitor of protein kinase G I a, I ß and especially of type II. (biolog.de)
  • To identify aspects of GAP-43 function, we analyzed the actions of wild-type, membrane-association, and phosphorylation-site mutants of GAP-43 in nonneuronal cell lines. (pianolarge.cf)
  • The invention provides a method for determining an amino acid sequence motif for a phosphorylation site of a protein kinase. (patentgenius.com)
  • Partial characterisation of the islet cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity revealed the presence of two isozymes designated Type I and Type II. (le.ac.uk)
  • There are two isozymes of protein kinase A, type I and type II. (definithing.com)
  • Characterization of distinct mRNAs coding for putative isozymes of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. (uclouvain.be)
  • The chimeric protein is thought to associate with the nuclear corepressor/histone deacetylase complex to block hematopoietic differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. (cellsignal.com)
  • Hyper-acetylation of the histone tails neutralizes the positive charge of these domains and is believed to weaken histone-DNA and nucleosome-nucleosome interactions, thereby destabilizing chromatin structure and increasing the accessibility of DNA to various DNA-binding proteins (4,5). (cellsignal.com)
  • Deacetylation, which is mediated by histone deacetylases (HDAC and sirtuin proteins), reverses the effects of acetylation and generally facilitates transcriptional repression (7,8). (cellsignal.com)
  • Background: Aurora kinases belong to a highly conserved family of mitotic serine/threonine kinases with three members identified among mammals: Aurora A, B, and C (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • The topology of signaling networks seems highly conserved among species, with the signaling outcome being dependent on the particular way individual species make use of the options offered by the multi-nodal networks. (biologists.org)
  • Schroder,M, Friedl,P: Overexpression of recombinant human antithrombin III in Chinese hamster ovary cells results in malformation and decreased secretion of recombinant protein. (amazonaws.com)
  • Skeletal muscle-initiated crosstalk with other tissues is accomplished though the secretion of myokines, protein hormones which can exert autocrine, paracrine and long-distance endocrine effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • 6 Parker and colleagues examined the mechanisms through which bile acids promoted GLP-1 secretion in enteroendocrine GLUTag cells in a TGR5-dependent manner. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Bile acids stimulated GLP-1 secretion from GLUTag cells in a TGR5-dependent manner. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • results in Ca 2+ -stimulated chloride secretion that is independent of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the cyclic AMP-regulated epithelial chloride channel that is defective in cystic fibrosis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Dalzad is in a class of medications called angiotensin II receptor antagonists. (speedlibbradary0.cf)
  • The inability of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose output is a major aetiological factor in the hyperglycaemia of type-2 diabetes mellitus and other diseases of insulin resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Determination of Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Screening Tests using a Mathematical Formula in Place of Invasive Blood Tests. (sofaflock.site)
  • Ser 656 is phosphorylated by cyclic AMP‐dependent protein kinase and dephosphorylated by calcineurin, and its phosphorylation state is controlled by sympathetic tone, calcium levels and cell viability. (embopress.org)