A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the TESTES and BRAIN. Variants of this subtype exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its mRNA.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.

PrKX is a novel catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulated by the regulatory subunit type I. (1/231)

The human X chromosome-encoded protein kinase X (PrKX) belongs to the family of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. The catalytically active recombinant enzyme expressed in COS cells phosphorylates the heptapeptide Kemptide (LRRASLG) with a specific activity of 1.5 micromol/(min.mg). Using surface plasmon resonance, high affinity interactions were demonstrated with the regulatory subunit type I (RIalpha) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (KD = 10 nM) and the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor (KD = 15 nM), but not with the type II regulatory subunit (RIIalpha, KD = 2.3 microM) under physiological conditions. Kemptide and autophosphorylation activities of PrKX are strongly inhibited by the RIalpha subunit and by protein kinase inhibitor in vitro, but only weakly by the RIIalpha subunit. The inhibition by the RIalpha subunit is reversed by addition of nanomolar concentrations of cAMP (Ka = 40 nM), thus demonstrating that PrKX is a novel, type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase that is activated at lower cAMP concentrations than the holoenzyme with the Calpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Microinjection data clearly indicate that the type I R subunit but not type II binds to PrKX in vivo, preventing the translocation of PrKX to the nucleus in the absence of cAMP. The RIIalpha subunit is an excellent substrate for PrKX and is phosphorylated in vitro in a cAMP-independent manner. We discuss how PrKX can modulate the cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathway by preferential binding to the RIalpha subunit and by phosphorylating the RIIalpha subunit in the absence of cAMP.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases differ in their regulation of cyclic AMP response element-dependent gene transcription. (2/231)

The ability of cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) to activate cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent gene transcription was compared with that of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (cAKs). Although both the type Ibeta cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKIbeta) and the type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAKII) phosphorylated the cytoplasmic substrate VASP (vasodilator- and A kinase-stimulated phosphoprotein) to a similar extent, cyclic nucleotide regulation of CRE-dependent transcription was at least 10-fold higher in cAKII-transfected cells than in cGKIbeta-transfected cells. Overexpression of each kinase in mammalian cells resulted in a cytoplasmic localization of the unactivated enzyme. As reported previously, the catalytic (C) subunit of cAKII translocated to the nucleus following activation by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. However, cGKIbeta did not translocate to the nucleus upon activation by 8-bromo-cyclic GMP. Replacement of an autophosphorylated serine (Ser79) of cGKIbeta with an aspartic acid resulted in a mutant kinase with constitutive kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. The cGKIbetaS79D mutant localized to the cytoplasm and was only a weak activator of CRE-dependent gene transcription. However, an amino-terminal deletion mutant of cGKIbeta was found in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm and was a strong activator of CRE-dependent gene transcription. These data suggest that the inability of cGKs to translocate to the nucleus is responsible for the differential ability of cAKs and cGKs to activate CRE-dependent gene transcription and that nuclear redistribution of cGKs is not required for NO/cGMP regulation of gene transcription.  (+info)

Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulation of glutamate responses in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. (3/231)

Glutamate is the primary excitatory transmitter in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate transduction of light information from the retina to the SCN, an important circadian clock phase shifting pathway. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) may play a significant modulatory role. mGluR modulation of SCN responses to glutamate was investigated with fura-2 calcium imaging in SCN explant cultures. SCN neurons showed reproducible calcium responses to glutamate, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Although the type I/II mGluR agonists L-CCG-I and t-ACPD did not evoke calcium responses, they did inhibit kainate- and NMDA-evoked calcium rises. This interaction was insensitive to pertussis toxin. Protein kinase A (PKA) activation by 8-bromo-cAMP significantly reduced iGluR inhibition by mGluR agonists. The inhibitory effect of mGluRs was enhanced by activating protein kinase C (PKC) and significantly reduced in the presence of the PKC inhibitor H7. Previous reports show that L-type calcium channels can be modulated by PKC and PKA. In SCN cells, about one-half of the calcium rise evoked by kainate or NMDA was blocked by the L-type calcium channel antagonist nimodipine. Calcium rises evoked by K+ were used to test whether mGluR inhibition of iGluR calcium rises involved calcium channel modulation. These calcium rises were primarily attributable to activation of voltage-activated calcium channels. PKC activation inhibited K+-evoked calcium rises, but PKC inhibition did not affect L-CCG-I inhibition of these rises. In contrast, 8Br-cAMP had no effect alone but blocked L-CCG-I inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of mGluRs, likely type II, modulates glutamate-evoked calcium responses in SCN neurons. mGluR inhibition of iGluR calcium rises can be differentially influenced by PKC or PKA activation. Regulation of glutamate-mediated calcium influx could occur at L-type calcium channels, K+ channels, or at GluRs. It is proposed that mGluRs may be important regulators of glutamate responsivity in the circadian system.  (+info)

Type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulates electrogenic ion transport in rabbit collecting duct. (4/231)

cAMP mediates many of the effects of vasopressin, prostaglandin E2, and beta-adrenergic agents upon salt and water transport in the renal collecting duct. The present studies examined the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in mediating these effects. PKA is a heterotetramer comprised of two regulatory (R) subunits and two catalytic (C) subunits. The four PKA isoforms may be distinguished by their R subunits that have been designated RIalpha, RIbeta, RIIalpha, and RIIbeta. Three regulatory subunits, RIalpha, RIIalpha, and RIIbeta, were detected by immunoblot and ribonuclease protection in both primary cultures and fresh isolates of rabbit cortical collecting ducts (CCDs). Monolayers of cultured CCDs grown on semipermeable supports were mounted in an Ussing chamber, and combinations of cAMP analogs that selectively activate PKA type I vs. PKA type II were tested for their effect on electrogenic ion transport. Short-circuit current (Isc) was significantly increased by the PKA type II-selective analog pairs N6-monobutyryl-cAMP plus 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP or N6-monobutyryl-cAMP plus 8-chloro-cAMP. In contrast the PKA type I-selective cAMP analog pair [N6-monobutyryl-cAMP plus 8-(6-aminohexyl)-amino-cAMP] had no effect on Isc. These results suggest PKA type II is the major isozyme regulating electrogenic ion transport in the rabbit collecting duct.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding an A-kinase anchoring protein located in the centrosome, AKAP450. (5/231)

A combination of protein kinase A type II (RII) overlay screening, database searches and PCR was used to identify a centrosomal A-kinase anchoring protein. A cDNA with an 11.7 kb open reading frame was characterized and found to correspond to 50 exons of genomic sequence on human chromosome 7q21-22. This cDNA clone encoded a 3908 amino acid protein of 453 kDa, that was designated AKAP450 (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession No. AJ131693). Sequence comparison demonstrated that the open reading frame contained a previously characterized cDNA encoding Yotiao, as well as the human homologue of AKAP120. Numerous coiled-coil structures were predicted from AKAP450, and weak homology to pericentrin, giantin and other structural proteins was observed. A putative RII-binding site was identified involving amino acid 2556 of AKAP450 by mutation analysis combined with RII overlay and an amphipatic helix was predicted in this region. Immunoprecipitation of RII from RIPA-buffer extracts of HeLa cells demonstrated co-precipitation of AKAP450. By immunofluorecent labeling with specific antibodies it was demonstrated that AKAP450 localized to centrosomes. Furthermore, AKAP450 was shown to co-purify in centrosomal preparations. The observation of two mRNAs and several splice products suggests additional functions for the AKAP450 gene.  (+info)

Phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD by mitochondria-anchored protein kinase A. (6/231)

Signaling pathways between cell surface receptors and the BCL-2 family of proteins regulate cell death. Survival factors induce the phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD, a proapoptotic member. Purification of BAD kinase(s) identified membrane-based cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) as a BAD Ser-112 (S112) site-specific kinase. PKA-specific inhibitors blocked the IL-3-induced phosphorylation on S112 of endogenous BAD as well as mitochondria-based BAD S112 kinase activity. A blocking peptide that disrupts type II PKA holoenzyme association with A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) also inhibited BAD phosphorylation and eliminated the BAD S112 kinase activity at mitochondria. Thus, the anchoring of PKA to mitochondria represents a focused subcellular kinase/substrate interaction that inactivates BAD at its target organelle in response to a survival factor.  (+info)

cAMP-dependent and -independent downregulation of type II Na-Pi cotransporters by PTH. (7/231)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) leads to the inhibition of Na-Pi cotransport activity and to the downregulation of the number of type II Na-Pi cotransporters in proximal tubules, as well as in opossum kidney (OK) cells. PTH is known also to lead to an activation of adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C in proximal tubular preparations, as well as in OK cells. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of these two regulatory pathways in OK cells in the PTH-dependent downregulation of the number of type II Na-Pi cotransporters. We have addressed this issue by using pharmacological activators of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC), i.e., 8-bromo-cAMP (8-BrcAMP) and beta-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (beta-TPA), respectively, as well as by the use of synthetic peptide fragments of PTH that activate adenylate cyclase and/or phospholipase C, i.e., PTH-(1-34) and PTH-(3-34), respectively. Our results show that PTH signal transduction via cAMP-dependent, as well as cAMP-independent, pathways leads to a membrane retrieval and degradation of type II Na-Pi cotransporters and, thereby, to the inhibition of Na-Pi cotransport activity. Thereby, the cAMP-independent regulatory pathway leads only to partial effects (approximately 50%).  (+info)

Conservation and function of a bovine sperm A-kinase anchor protein homologous to mouse AKAP82. (8/231)

Protein kinase A regulates sperm motility through the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins. One mechanism to direct the activity of the kinase is to localize it near its protein substrates through the use of anchoring proteins. A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) act by binding the type II regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and tethering it to a cellular organelle or cytoskeletal element. We showed previously that mAKAP82, the major protein of the fibrous sheath of the mouse sperm flagellum, is an AKAP. The available evidence indicates that protein kinase A is compartmentalized to the fibrous sheath by binding mAKAP82. To characterize AKAP82 in bovine sperm, a testicular cDNA library was constructed and used to isolate a clone encoding bAKAP82, the bovine homologue. Sequence analysis showed that the primary structure of bAKAP82 was highly conserved. In particular, the amino acid sequence corresponding to the region of mAKAP82 responsible for binding the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A was identical in the bull. Bovine AKAP82 was present in both epididymal and ejaculated sperm and was localized to the entire principal piece of the flagellum, the region in which the fibrous sheath is located. Finally, bAKAP82 bound the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. These data support the idea that bAKAP82 functions as an anchoring protein for the subcellular localization of protein kinase A in the flagellum.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification of a regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from Drosophila heads. AU - Inoue, Hiroko. AU - Yoshioka, Tohru. PY - 1997/6/9. Y1 - 1997/6/9. N2 - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using anion-exchange column chromatography. Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major isozyme. The regulatory subunit of type II PKA (RII) was purified, and only one isoform was observed. The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa on SDS gel electrophoresis. Partial amino acid sequences of the protein were almost identical with the RIIα subunit of human. Since PKA has been implicated to be especially important for learning and memory in Drosophila, the RII subunit may play an essential role in the regulation of neuronal activity in the brain of Drosophila, and possibly in human.. AB - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using ...
Our results provide evidence that PKA remains anchored to AKAPs in vivo in RIIα knockout mouse skeletal muscle and that this anchoring sustains the PKA-dependent potentiation of the L-type Ca2+ channel. These results challenge the idea that type II regulatory subunits are required for anchoring of PKA in vivo and raise the possibility that RIα can also serve in this capacity. Immunocytochemical studies show that the C subunit of the type I holoenzyme in RIIα knockout skeletal muscle is colocalized in transverse tubules with the L-type Ca2+ channel, consistent with anchoring of type I PKA with Ca2+ channels. In vitro measurements of RIα binding affinity to Ht31 demonstrate that RIα binds to AKAPs with a 500-fold lower affinity than RIIα, but this low affinity is apparently sufficient for anchoring in vivo. Previous reports have estimated the intracellular concentration of PKA to be in the 1 μM range, which would lead to significant binding at the Kd measured by surface plasmon resonance. ...
This gene encodes a member of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), a family of functionally related proteins that target protein kinase A to discrete locations within the cell. The encoded protein is localized to mitochondria and interacts with both the type I and type II regulatory subunits of PKA. It has been reported that this protein is important for maintaining heart rate and myocardial contractility through its targeting of protein kinase A. In mouse, defects of this gene lead to cardiac arrhythmias and premature death. In humans, polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is involved in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Two regulatory and two catalytic subunits form the PKA holoenzyme, disbands after cAMP binding. The holoenzyme is involved in many cellular events, including ion transport, metabolism, and transcription. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015 ...
1. CukkemaneA, SeifertR, KauppUB (2011) Cooperative and uncooperative cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channels. Trends Biochem Sci 36: 55-64.. 2. KauppUB, NiidomeT, TanabeT, TeradaS, BönigkW, et al. (1989) Primary structure and functional expression from complementary DNA of the rod photoreceptor cyclic GMP-gated channel. Nature 342: 762-766.. 3. LudwigA, ZongX, JeglitschM, HofmannF, BielM (1998) A family of hyperpolarization-activated mammalian cation channels. Nature 393: 587-591.. 4. TakioK, SmithSB, KrebsEG, WalshKA, TitaniK (1982) Primary structure of the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from bovine cardiac muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 2544-2548.. 5. TakioK, WadeRD, SmithSB, KrebsEG, WalshKA, et al. (1984) Guanosine cyclic 3′,5′-phosphate dependent protein kinase, a chimeric protein homologous with two separate protein families. Biochemistry 23: 4207-4218.. 6. de RooijJ, ZwartkruisFJ, VerheijenMH, CoolRH, NijmanSM, et al. (1998) Epac is a Rap1 ...
Most PRKAR1A tumorigenic mutations lead to nonsense mRNA that is decayed; tumor formation has been associated with an increase in type II protein kinase A (PKA) subunits. The IVS6+1G>T PRKAR1A mutation leads to a protein lacking exon 6 sequences [R1 alpha Delta 184-236 (R1 alpha Delta 6)]. We compared in vitro R1 alpha Delta 6 with wild-type (wt) R1 alpha. We assessed PKA activity and subunit expression, phosphorylation of target molecules, and properties of wt-R1 alpha and mutant (mt) R1 alpha; we observed by confocal microscopy R1 alpha tagged with green fluorescent protein and its interactions with Cerulean-tagged catalytic subunit (C alpha). Introduction of the R1 alpha Delta 6 led to aberrant cellular morphology and higher PKA activity but no increase in type II PKA subunits. There was diffuse, cytoplasmic localization of R1 alpha protein in wt-R1 alpha- and R1 alpha Delta 6-transfected cells but the former also exhibited discrete aggregates of R1 alpha that bound C alpha; these were absent ...
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Urinska kiselina je dvobazna kiselina sa pKa1=5,4 i pKa2=10,3[5]. Iz tog razloga ona u jakim bazama sa visokim pH formira dvostruko naelektrisani uratni jon, dok na biološkom pH, ili u prisustvu ugljene kiseline ili karbonatnog jona, formira jednostruko naelektrisani vodonik-uratni jon pošto je njegov pKa2 veći od pKa1 ugljene kiseline. Pošto se tako slabo jonizuje, njene soli teže hidrolizi nazad u vodonik-uratne soli i slobodnu bazu sa približno neutralnim vrednostima pH. Ova kiselina je aromatična jer je derivat purina. Kao dvociklični, heterociklični purinski derivat, urinska kiselina ne prima protone na isti način kao karboksilne kiseline. Studije difrakcije vodonik-uratnog jona rendgenskim zracima u kristalima amonijumvodonik-urata, formiranih in vivo kao gihtni depoziti, pokazuju da keto-kiseonik u poziciji 2 tautomera purinske strukture postoji kao hidroksilna grupa i da dva susedna atoma azota u pozicijama 1 i 3 dele jonsko naelektrisanje u šestočlanom, pi-rezonancom ...
Niles, R M. and Logue, M P., Retinoid acid increases cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase activity in b16-f1 mouse melanoma cells. Abstr. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 1639 ...
The stabilisation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the neuromuscular junction depends on muscle activity and the cooperative action of myosin Va and protein kinase A (PKA) type I. To execute its function, PKA has to be present in a subsynaptic microdomain where it is enriched by anchoring proteins. Here, we show that the AChR-associated protein, rapsyn, interacts with PKA type I in C2C12 and T-REx293 cells as well as in live mouse muscle beneath the neuromuscular junction. Molecular modelling, immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation approaches identify an α-helical stretch of rapsyn to be crucial for binding to the dimerisation and docking domain of PKA type I. When expressed in live mouse muscle, a peptide encompassing the rapsyn α-helical sequence efficiently delocalises PKA type I from the neuromuscular junction. The same peptide, as well as a rapsyn construct lacking the α-helical domain, induces severe alteration of acetylcholine receptor turnover as well as
en] Murine AIDS (MAIDS) is caused by infection with the murine leukemia retrovirus RadLV-Rs and is characterized by T-cell anergy and severe immunodeficiency with increased susceptibilty to several experimental opportunistic infections as observed in HIV infection. T cell anergy is associated with an increase of intracellular cAMP level, triggering a multistep pathway involving activation of PKA type I and resulting in inhibition of proximal TCR signaling. We have reviously demonstrated that blocking PKA type I using the selective inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS, restores T-cell function in vitro in MAIDS as well as in HIV infection. In the present report, we investigated the effect of parenteral administration of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS in mice with MAIDS. We show that the compound is not toxic and partially restores the ex vivo proliferative responses to anti-CD3 mAb, but that it has no effect on the lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly characterizing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Down-regulation of type I protein kinase A by transfection of human breast cancer cells with an epidermal growth factor receptor antisense expression vector. AU - Ciardiello, Fortunato. AU - Dixit, Mniralini. AU - Di Isernia, Giuditta. AU - Damiano, Vincenzo. AU - Bianco, Roberto. AU - Bianco, A. Raffaele. AU - Arteaga, Carlos L.. AU - Tortora, Giampaolo. PY - 1998/2/5. Y1 - 1998/2/5. N2 - MDA-468 human breast cancer cells overexpress the EGFR and exhibit a functional TGFα-EGFR autocrine pathway. Loss of EGFR expression following stable transfection with an antisense EGFR cDNA containing plasmid down-regulates type T cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKAI) expression with acquisition of cell growth resistance to the PKAI inhibitor 8-Cl-cAMP. These results suggest that PKAI expression and function are controlled by a TGFα-EGFR autocrine pathway in human breast cancer cells overexpressing the EGFR.. AB - MDA-468 human breast cancer cells overexpress the EGFR and exhibit a functional ...
Guided axonal growth is essential for both the initial wiring of neuronal circuitry during development and the regeneration of synaptic connections in the adult nervous system after injury and diseases (Bahr and Bonhoeffer, 1994; Aubert et al., 1995; Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996; Harel and Strittmatter, 2006). The directional motility of the growth cone at axonal tips is regulated by a variety of environmental factors that either promote/attract or inhibit/repel the axonal elongation (Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996; Dickson, 2002). Although many families of guidance ligands and receptors have been recently identified (Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996; Dickson, 2002; Charron and Tessier-Lavigne, 2005), the intricate signaling cascades that control and regulate axonal growth and guidance remain to be fully understood. The second messenger, cAMP, represents an important intracellular signal that exhibits profound effects on growth cone motility and guidance. Previous studies have linked ...
Protein kinase A (PKA) is targeted to distinct subcellular localizations by specific protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs). AKAPs are divided into subclasses based on their ability to bind type I or type II PKA or both. Dual-specificity AKAPs were recently reported to have an additional PKA binding determinant called the RI specifier region. A bioinformatic search with the consensus RI specifier region identified a novel AKAP, the splicing factor arginine/serine-rich 17A (SFRS17A). Here, we show by a variety of protein interaction assays that SFRS17A binds both type I and type II PKA in vitro and inside cells, demonstrating that SFRS17A is a dual-specific AKAP. Moreover, immunofluorescence experiments show that SFRS17A colocalizes with the catalytic subunit of PKA as well as the splicing factor SC35 in splicing factor compartments. Using the E1A minigene splicing assay, we found that expression of wild type SFRS17A conferred regulation of E1A alternative splicing, whereas the mutant ...
London E, Nesterova M, Sinaii N, Szarek E, Chanturiya T, Mastroyannis SA, Gavrilova O, Stratakis CA: Differentially regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity in adipose tissue and liver is associated with resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice that lack PKA regulatory subunit type IIα. Endocrinology; 2014 Sep;155(9):3397-408 ...
London E, Nesterova M, Sinaii N, Szarek E, Chanturiya T, Mastroyannis SA, Gavrilova O, Stratakis CA: Differentially regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity in adipose tissue and liver is associated with resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice that lack PKA regulatory subunit type IIα. Endocrinology; 2014 Sep;155(9):3397-408 ...
The subcellular distribution of protein kinase activity in isolated islets of Langerhans was determined. The majority (70%) of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was located in the S-100 (soluble) fraction, while the majority (42%) of cyclic AMP-independent activity was located in the solublised P-100 (containing mitochondria, secretory granules and microsomes) fraction. Partial characterisation of the islet cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity revealed the presence of two isozymes designated Type I and Type II. Type II kinase was the predominant isozyme of the S-100 fraction and Type I was the predominant isozyme found in the solublised P-100 fraction. Nonidet-P40 (a non-ionic detergent) was found to activate the S-100 cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, although no significant increase in protein kinase activity was observed when the P-0.6 (containing nuclei and cellular debris) fraction and P-100 fraction were solublised with Nonidet-P40. This activation was ...
Differentially targeted protein that binds to type I and II regulatory subunits of protein kinase A and anchors them to the mitochondria or the plasma membrane. Although the physiological relevance between PKA and AKAPS with mitochondria is not fully understood, one idea is that BAD, a proapoptotic member, is phosphorylated and inactivated by mitochondria-anchored PKA. It cannot be excluded too that it may facilitate PKA as well as G protein signal transduction, by acting as an adapter for assembling multiprotein complexes. With its RGS domain, it could lead to the interaction to G-alpha proteins, providing a link between the signaling machinery and the downstream kinase (By similarity).
Gene Information This gene encodes a member of the A-kinase anchor protein family. A-kinase anchor proteins are scaffold proteins that contain a binding domain for the RI/RII subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and recruit PKA and other signaling molecules to specific subcellular locations. This gene encodes a nuclear A-kinase anchor protein that binds to the RII alpha subunit of PKA and may play a role in chromosome condensation during mitosis by targeting PKA and the condensin complex to chromatin. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq May 2011]. ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase complex, cytoplasm, nucleus, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, mitochondrion organization, protein kinase A signaling, protein phosphorylation, Ras protein signal transduction
We have reported previously the design of a RIAD (RI-anchoring disruptor) peptide that specifically displaces PKA (protein kinase A) type I from the AKAP (A-kinase-anchoring protein) ezrin, which is present in the immunological synapse of T-cells. This increases immune reactivity by reducing the threshold for activation and may prove a feasible approach for improving immune function in patients with cAMP-mediated T-cell dysfunction. However, the use of RIAD in biological systems is restricted by its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavage and, consequently, its short half-life in presence of the ubiquitous serum peptidases. In the present study, carefully selected non-natural amino acids were employed in the design of RIAD analogues with improved stability. The resulting peptidomimetics demonstrated up to 50-fold increased half-lives in serum compared with RIAD, while maintaining similar or improved specificity and potency with respect to disruption of PKA type I-AKAP interactions.. ...
The second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) plays a pivotal role in axonal growth and guidance, but its downstream mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we report that type II protein kinase A (PKA) is highly enriched in growth cone filopodia, and this spatial localization enables the coupling of cAMP signaling to its specific effectors to regulate guidance responses. Disrupting the localization of PKA to filopodia impairs cAMP-mediated growth cone attraction and prevents the switching of repulsive responses to attraction by elevated cAMP. Our data further show that PKA targets protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) through the phosphorylation of a regulatory protein inhibitor-1 (I-1) to promote growth cone attraction. Finally, we find that I-1 and PP1 mediate growth cone repulsion induced by myelin-associated glycoprotein. These findings demonstrate that the spatial localization of type II PKA to growth cone filopodia plays an important role in the regulation of growth cone motility and ...
CRC is the third leading cause of mortality in men and women worldwide [1]. Most of the cancer-related deaths in CRC patients are as a result of early spread of cancer cells or due to reoccurrence post-surgical interventions [15]. Alterations in some key regulatory molecules involved in cell cycle, apoptosis and EMT pathways have been proposed in the initiation of carcinogenesis [16]. In this context, efforts are being made to identify and characterize tumor associated molecules for development of therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. A unique class of tumor associated antigens called cancer testis (CT) antigens has been reported in various malignancies and have been shown to be associated with tumor growth and metastasis [4]. Only few CT antigens with abundant expression, namely sperm associated antigen (SPAG9) and AKAP4 have been shown to be associated with CRC [5, 10]. In this study, we examined the involvement of AKAP4 in various malignant properties at phenotype and molecular level of ...
Urična kiselina je diprotonska kiselina sa pKa1=5.4 i pKa2=10.3[6]. Iz tog razloga u jakim alkalijama na visokom pH ona formira dualno naelektrisani uratni jon, dok na biološkom pH, ili u prisustvu ugljene kiseline, ili karbonatnog jona, ona formira jednostruko naelektrisani vodonik uratni jon pošto je njegov pKa2 veći od pKa1 ugljene kiseline. Pošto je njena jonizacija tako slaba, uratne soli su sklone hidrolizi nazad u vodonik uratne soli i slobodnu bazu na pH vrednostima oko neutralne. Ova kiseline je aromatična, jer je derivat purina. Kao biciklični, heterociklični purinski derivat, urična kiselina se ne protonuje na isti način kao karboksilne kiseline. X-zrak difrakcione studije vodonik uratnog jona u kristalima amonijum vodonik urata, formiranih in vivo kao gihtni depoziti, pokazuju da keto-kiseonik u 2 poziciji tautomera purinske strukture postoji kao hidroksilna grupa i da dva susedna atoma azota u pozicijama 1 i 3 dele jonsko naelektrisanje u šestočlanom ...
Urična kiselina je diprotonska kiselina sa pKa1=5.4 i pKa2=10.3[6]. Iz tog razloga u jakim alkalijama na visokom pH ona formira dualno naelektrisani uratni jon, dok na biološkom pH, ili u prisustvu ugljene kiseline, ili karbonatnog jona, ona formira jednostruko naelektrisani vodonik uratni jon pošto je njegov pKa2 veći od pKa1 ugljene kiseline. Pošto je njena jonizacija tako slaba, uratne soli su sklone hidrolizi nazad u vodonik uratne soli i slobodnu bazu na pH vrednostima oko neutralne. Ova kiseline je aromatična, jer je derivat purina. Kao biciklični, heterociklični purinski derivat, urična kiselina se ne protonuje na isti način kao karboksilne kiseline. X-zrak difrakcione studije vodonik uratnog jona u kristalima amonijum vodonik urata, formiranih in vivo kao gihtni depoziti, pokazuju da keto-kiseonik u 2 poziciji tautomera purinske strukture postoji kao hidroksilna grupa i da dva susedna atoma azota u pozicijama 1 i 3 dele jonsko naelektrisanje u šestočlanom ...
Urična kiselina je diprotonska kiselina sa pKa1=5.4 i pKa2=10.3[6]. Iz tog razloga u jakim alkalijama na visokom pH ona formira dualno naelektrisani uratni jon, dok na biološkom pH, ili u prisustvu ugljene kiseline, ili karbonatnog jona, ona formira jednostruko naelektrisani vodonik uratni jon pošto je njegov pKa2 veći od pKa1 ugljene kiseline. Pošto je njena jonizacija tako slaba, uratne soli su sklone hidrolizi nazad u vodonik uratne soli i slobodnu bazu na pH vrednostima oko neutralne. Ova kiseline je aromatična, jer je derivat purina. Kao biciklični, heterociklični purinski derivat, urična kiselina se ne protonuje na isti način kao karboksilne kiseline. X-zrak difrakcione studije vodonik uratnog jona u kristalima amonijum vodonik urata, formiranih in vivo kao gihtni depoziti, pokazuju da keto-kiseonik u 2 poziciji tautomera purinske strukture postoji kao hidroksilna grupa i da dva susedna atoma azota u pozicijama 1 i 3 dele jonsko naelektrisanje u šestočlanom ...
PRKX兔多克隆抗体(ab71619)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
AKAP12; AKAP250; A-kinase anchor protein 12; AKAP-12; A-kinase anchor protein 250 kDa; AKAP 250; Gravin; Myasthenia gravis autoantigen ...
The induction of ornithine decarboxylase was studied following the stimulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with concanavalin A (ConA) (10 µg/ml). Following treatment with ConA, ornithine decarboxylase activity increased 4-5-fold between 6 and 12 hr of incubation and reached a peak level 10-12-fold above control (unstimulated) values by 48 hr. Increases in incorporation of [3H]uridine into acid-insoluble material followed a similar time course after the addition of ConA to lymphocytes. The rate of incorporation of [3H]thymidine into acid-insoluble material was maximal at 72 hr. The degree of activation of soluble cyclic 3,5-AMP-dependent protein kinase(s) was determined at various times following ConA stimulation. Between 1 and 2 hr after mitogen administration, the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity ratio increased markedly and was 0.23 unit above control values by 4 hr. The activity ratio decreased between 4 and 8 hr and returned to higher values after incubation with the ...
The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The protein anchors PKA in ciliary axonemes and, in this way, may play a role in regulating ciliary beat frequency. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized.
Background: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive hematological neoplasm that responds poorly to therapy. The molecular etiology and pathology of this disease remain unclear, hampering the development of an effective therapy. Therefore, a need for more, and more realistic, animal models remains. Lymphoproliferative disorders have been reported in mice deficient for the prkar1a gene coding for the regulatory subunit type 1A of protein kinase A (PKA), but nothing is known about the role of type II PKA regulatory subunits in hematologic malignancies.. Methods: Mice deficient for the Prkar1a and Prkar2a alleles were previously reported (Kirschner et al, 2005 και Burton et al, 1997) and were kept on a mixed genetic background (C57BL/129Sv). Mice were crossed to create prkar2a+/- and prkar2a-/-. Mice were phenotyped at the ages of 3-6-9-12-18 months or when they exhibited signs of advanced disease. Tissues were collected for histological and molecular analysis.. Results: Unexpectedly, mice ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is highly expressed in various brain regions and cardiac and skeletal muscle. It is specifically localized to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membrane, and is involved in anchoring PKA to the nuclear membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is highly expressed in various brain regions and cardiac and skeletal muscle. It is specifically localized to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membrane, and is involved in anchoring PKA to the nuclear membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
A-kinase anchor protein 10, mitochondrial (AKAP-10) (Dual specificity A kinase-anchoring protein 2) (D-AKAP-2) (Protein kinase A-anchoring protein 10) (PRKA10), ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase has been well established to be composed of catalytic and regulatory subunits, and cyclic AMP acts to dissociate these subun
An antiserum against the catalytic subunit C of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, isolated from bovine heart type II protein kinase, was produced in rabbits. Reaction of the catalytic subunit with antiserum and separation of the immunoglobulin G fraction by Protein A-Sepharose quantitatively removed the enzyme from solutions. Comparative immunotitration of protein kinases showed that the amount of antiserum required to eliminate 50% of the enzymic activity was identical for pure catalytic subunit, and for holoenzymes type I and type II. The reactivity of the holoenzymes with the antiserum was identical in the absence or the presence of dissociating concentrations of cyclic AMP. Most of the holoenzyme (type II) remains intact when bound to the antibodies as shown by quantification of the regulatory subunit in the supernatant of the immunoprecipitate. Titration with the antibodies also revealed the presence of a cyclic AMP-independent histone kinase in bovine heart protein kinase I preparations ...
We selected and characterized a 30-fold etoposide (VP-16)-resistant subline of K562 human leukemia cells (K/VP.5) that exhibits quantitative and qualitative changes in topoisomerase II, including hypophosphorylation of this drug target. The initial rate of topoisomerase II phosphorylation was reduced 3-fold in K/VP.5 compared with K562 cells, but the rate of dephosphorylation was similar. Analysis of potential topoisomerase II protein kinases revealed a 3-fold reduction in the level of the beta II protein kinase C (PKC) in K/VP.5 cells, whereas levels of alpha- and epsilon PKC, casein kinase II, p42map kinase, and p34cdc2 kinase were comparable for both cell lines. The PKC activator, bryostatin 1, together with K562 nuclear extracts potentiated VP-16-induced topoisomerase II/DNA covalent complex formation in nuclei isolated from K/VP.5 cells but not from K562 cells. Bryostatin 1 effects were blocked by the PKC inhibitor 7-O-methyl-hydroxy-staurosporine. Bryostatin 1 also up-regulated ...
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AKAP9 (A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (yotiao) 9), Authors: Raffaele Ciampi, Yuri E Nikiforov. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Organelle-specific targeting of protein kinase AII (PKAII). T2 - Molecular and in situ characterization of murine A kinase anchor proteins that recruit regulatory subunits of PKAII to the cytoplasmic surface of mitochondria. AU - Chen, Qian. AU - Lin, Reigh Yi. AU - Rubin, Charles S.. PY - 1997/6/13. Y1 - 1997/6/13. N2 - Experiments were designed to test the idea that A kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) tether regulatory subunits (RII) of protein kinase AII (PKAII) isoforms to surfaces of organelles that are bounded by phospholipid bilayers. S-AKAP84, one of three RII-binding proteins encoded by a single-copy murine gene, was studied as a prototypic organelle-associated AKAP. When S-AKAP84 was expressed in HEK293 cells, the anchor protein was targeted to mitochondria and excluded from other cell compartments. The RII tethering site is located in the cytoplasm adjacent to the mitochondrial surface. Endogenous RII subunits are not associated with mitochondria isolated from control ...
Combinatorial assembly of catalytic and regulatory subunits results in diverse isoforms of the PKA family. Their quaternary structures differ substantially (Taylor et al., 2012). A detailed analysis of isoform-specific cellular functions, however, remains challenging. Approaches to directly detect the activation of endogenous isoforms in primary cells models are largely missing. It was unclear whether changes in RII phosphorylation reflect the process of PKA-II activation. Early biochemical studies on PKA-II purified from bovine cardiac muscle showed that a large proportion of PKA-II is phosphorylated in vivo (Rangel-Aldao et al., 1979). Another report suggests that RII subunits are fully phosphorylated in non-stimulated cardiomyocytes (Manni et al., 2008). Accordingly, these researchers found that activation of PKA resulted in a phosphatase-dependent loss of basal RII phosphorylation detected in cell lysates (Manni et al., 2008). The assumption that RII subunits are fully phosphorylated in the ...
Akap10 (untagged) - Mouse A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 10 (Akap10), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, (10ug), 10 µg.
Doherty, P J.; Tsao, J; Schimmer, B P.; Mumby, M C.; and Beavo, J A., Alteration of the regulatory subunit of type 1 camp-dependent protein kinase in mutant y1 adrenal cells resistant to 8-bromoadenosine 3:5-monophosphate. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2372 ...
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In vitro phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of yeast cAMP-dependent protein kinase was studied. The cAMP-binding regulatory subunit (R subunit) can be multiply phosphorylated. Three distinct phosphorylation sites were inferred from the different ATP concentrations required for phosphorylation and from the presence of two discrete mobility shifts in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the R subunit on phosphorylation. Limited tryptic digestion of the phosphorylated R subunit showed that a Mr 37,000 cAMP-binding peptide contained one of the phosphorylation sites and that a separate Mr 12,000 peptide contained another phosphorylation site. The yeast R subunit is therefore similar to the type II R subunit of mammalian origin, although it has a larger Mr (64,000 vs. 58,000) and is multiply phosphorylated. In vivo, both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of the R subunit were found in cells grown in lactate or to stationary phase in 1.5% glucose, while cells grown in 5% ...
Looking for online definition of A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 in the Medical Dictionary? A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 explanation free. What is A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6? Meaning of A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 medical term. What does A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 mean?
RecName: Full=A-kinase anchor protein 13; Short=AKAP-13;AltName: Full=Protein kinase A-anchoring protein 13;AltName: Full=Breast cancer nuclear receptor-binding auxiliary protein;AltName: Full=Human thyroid-anchoring protein 31;AltName: Full=Guanine nucleotide exchange factor Lbc;AltName: Full=AKAP-Lbc;AltName: Full=P47;AltName: Full=Lymphoid blast crisis oncogene; Short=LBC oncogene;AltName: Full=Non-oncogenic Rho GTPase-specific GTP exchange ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - cAMP-dependent protein kinase. T2 - role in normal and malignant growth. AU - Cho-Chung, Yoon S.. AU - Pepe, Stefano. AU - Clair, Timothy. AU - Budillon, AlfreD O.. AU - Nesterova, Maria. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029565543&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0029565543&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/1040-8428(94)00166-9. DO - 10.1016/1040-8428(94)00166-9. M3 - Article. C2 - 8822496. AN - SCOPUS:0029565543. VL - 21. SP - 33. EP - 61. JO - Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. JF - Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. SN - 1040-8428. IS - 1-3. ER - ...
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1BKX: A binary complex of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and adenosine further defines conformational flexibility.
AKAP7 - AKAP7 (untagged)-Human A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 7 (AKAP7), transcript variant beta available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Akap1 - Akap1 (untagged) - Mouse A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 1 (Akap1), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 1, (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), ubiquitous in mammalian cells, regulates a plethora of cell processes including development, differentiation, memory, and m...
Homo sapiens A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (gravin) 12 (AKAP12), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (H00009590-R01) - Products - Abnova
"MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc ... with serine/threonine protein kinases and heat shock protein HSP90 in human hematopoietic cell lines". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 ( ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
"Identification of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on the beta 2 subunit of L-type voltage- ... Bünemann M, Gerhardstein BL, Gao T, Hosey MM (1999). "Functional regulation of L-type calcium channels via protein kinase A- ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNB2 gene. Mutation in ... GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Brugada syndrome CACNB2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
For example, type I and type II cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinases have identical catalytic subunits but different regulatory ... Activation loop Autophosphorylation Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Cell signaling Cyclin-dependent kinase G protein- ... the JAK kinases (a family of protein tyrosine kinases), and the PIP3-dependent kinase cascade were discovered. Kinases are ... For this reason protein kinases are named based on what regulates their activity (i.e. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases). ...
... type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5 ... "MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... "Type II regulatory subunit (RII) of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase interaction with A-kinase anchor proteins requires ... "Type II regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and their binding proteins in the nervous system of Aplysia ...
"Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates merlin at serine 518 independently of p21-activated kinase and promotes ... is a cytoskeletal protein. In humans, it is a tumor suppressor protein involved in neurofibromatosis type II. Sequence data ... protein kinase A, and p21 activated kinases. Work in Drosophila identified Merlin as an upstream regulator of the Hippo tumor ... The two most common of these are also found in the mouse and are called type 1 and type 2, differing by the absence or presence ...
A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs), which target cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to various sites in the cell. This ... topoisomerase IIα and kinesin family member 4 (KIF4) Chromosome scaffold constituent proteins are also called scaffold protein ... Such as type 4 collagen Shaw, Andrey S.; Filbert, Erin L. (January 2009). "Scaffold proteins and immune-cell signalling". ... Huntingtin protein co-localizes with ATM repair protein at sites of DNA damage. Huntingtin is a scaffolding protein in the ATM ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... 5 Gβ proteins, and 12 Gγ proteins. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... The specific mechanisms, however, differ between protein types. Receptor-activated G proteins are bound to the inner surface of ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ...
... enzyme called phosphorylase kinase was activated by another kinase that was dependent on the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP ... Likewise type II R subunits, of which there are two isoforms (RIIα, and RIIβ), create the type II PKA holoenzyme. In the ... Protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA Cα) is a member of the AGC kinase family (protein kinases A, G, and C), and contributes ... Biochemical studies demonstrated that there are two types of R subunits. The type I R subunits of which there are two isoforms ...
... two sites on glycogen synthetase phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and their dephosphorylation by protein ... Patients with type 2 diabetes normally exhibit low glycogen storage levels because of impairments in insulin-stimulated ... "A reinvestigation of the phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal-muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Glycogen synthase is directly regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), AMPK, protein kinase A (PKA), and casein kinase ...
Through these studies, the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling has been identified as a key mediator of cortisol ... The treatment approach for the functioning cases of adrenocortical adenoma depends on the type of disorders they induce and ... and the mutations associated with the dysregulation of cyclic AMP - protein kinase A pathways have been implicated in the ... The term "Cushing's disease" refers specifically to "secondary hypercortisolism" classified as "ACTH-dependent Cushing's ...
Pan, X, Heitman, J (July 1999). "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase regulates pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces ... "Cell identity and sexual development in Cryptococcus neoformans are controlled by the mating-type-specific homeodomain protein ... "two duke faculty elected national academy of sciences". Duke University. Retrieved 29 April 2021. "news/2021/ nas election". ... Pan, X, Heitman, J (June 2002). "Protein kinase A operates a molecular switch that governs yeast pseudohyphal differentiation ...
1996), "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK) in human B cells: co-localization of type I cAK (RIα2C2) with the antigen ... specific example of crosstalk between two major signaling pathways can be observed with the interaction of the cAMP and MAPK ... 1991), "Cyclic AMP modulation of human B cell proliferative responses: role of cAMP-dependent protein kinases in enhancing B ... Saxena, M. (1999), "Crosstalk between cAMP-dependent kinase and MAP kinase through a protein tyrosine phosphatase", Nat. Cell ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". Frontiers in Bioscience. 13 (13): 1206-26. doi: ... White SW, Zheng J, Zhang YM (2005). "The structural biology of type II fatty acid biosynthesis". Annual Review of Biochemistry ... involved in calcium-mediated activation of protein kinase C; the prostaglandins, which are one type of fatty-acid derived ... Biological lipids originate entirely or in part from two distinct types of biochemical subunits or "building-blocks": ketoacyl ...
Huang W, Zhou X, Lefebvre V, de Crombrugghe B (June 2000). "Phosphorylation of SOX9 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A ... "A new long form of c-Maf cooperates with Sox9 to activate the type II collagen gene". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 ... SOX9+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SOX9 human gene location in the UCSC ... The Sox9 protein has been implicated in both initiation and progression of multiple solid tumors. Its role as a master ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Haycock JW, Ahn NG, Cobb MH, Krebs EG (Mar 1992). "ERK1 and ERK2, two microtubule-associated protein 2 kinases, mediate the ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is also an autoantigen in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome (APS) type I. A consistent abnormality in ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ser19 ( ...
... which in turn produces cyclic AMP (cAMP). Protein kinase A, whose activation is dependent on the increased levels of cAMP, is ... "Proteins associated with type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR-II) and identified by two-dimensional gel ... The glucagon receptor is a 62 kDa protein that is activated by glucagon and is a member of the class B G-protein coupled family ... "Receptor activity modifying protein-directed G protein signaling specificity for the calcitonin gene-related peptide family of ...
They are Gs/a coupled and can stimulate neurons by indirectly activating cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. The DRD1 gene ... It is one of the two types of D1-like receptor family - receptors D1 and D5. It is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... II. Actions of dihydrexidine in D2L receptor-transfected MN9D cells and pituitary lactotrophs". The Journal of Pharmacology and ... January 2022). "Reversible Photocontrol of Dopaminergic Transmission in Wild-Type Animals". International Journal of Molecular ...
... cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This enzyme, in turn, activates ... It may occur alone or in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Elevated glucagon is the main contributor to ... Unger RH, Orci L (June 1981). "Glucagon and the A cell: physiology and pathophysiology (first two parts)". The New England ... cAMP binds to protein kinase A, and the complex phosphorylates phosphorylase kinase. Phosphorylated phosphorylase kinase ...
Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... "The two mRNA forms for the type I alpha regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase from human testis are due to the ... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAR1A gene. cAMP ...
In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase). PKA is normally ... are not cAMP-dependent. Further effects mainly depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell. ... consisting of two catalytic and two regulatory units (C2R2), with the regulatory units blocking the catalytic centers of the ... Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP. Several classes of protein kinases, including protein kinase C, ...
... on the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in cows as n-tetradecanoyl. Almost simultaneously in Claude B. ... First, myristoyl coenzyme A (CoA) is positioned in its binding pocket of NMT so that the carbonyl faces two amino acid residues ... This lipidation event is the most found type of fatty acylation and is common among many organisms including animals, plants, ... "n-Tetradecanoyl is the NH2-terminal blocking group of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from bovine ...
Mayeenuddin LH, Garrison JC (January 2006). "Phosphorylation of P-Rex1 by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the ... August 2001). "A high-resolution 6.0-megabase transcript map of the type 2 diabetes susceptibility region on human chromosome ... 5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchanger 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PREX1 gene. The protein encoded ... March 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human ...
Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase decreases the conversion of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. Lower levels of cAMP decrease the ... activity of protein kinase A to phosphorylate, thereby activating, hormone-sensitive lipase. The opposite effect can be reached ... Siegrist S, Féral C, Chami M, Solhonne B, Mattéi MG, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Guellaën G, Bulle F (2001). "hH-Rev107, a class II ... Fatty acid oxidation was also found to increase to levels of wild-type mice that were deficient in non-AdPLA deficient obese ...
1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ... "Evidence for two additional isoforms of the endogenous protein kinase inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in mouse". J. ... 1997). "The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhances serine phosphorylation of the viral matrix". J. Virol. ... Rabbi MF, al-Harthi L, Saifuddin M, Roebuck KA (1998). "The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and protein kinase C-beta pathways ...
By the late 1960s, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase had been purified, and most attention was centered on kinases and ... Casein kinase activity was found to be present in most cell types and to be associated with multiple enzymes. The type 1 casein ... The effects of phosphorylation are two-fold. It has been shown in Drosophila that phosphorylation of the PER proteins increase ... "Synergistic phosphorylation of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and casein kinase I. ...
AMP-activated protein kinase). Protein kinase A, more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent ... PRKAR1B regulatory subunit type II - PRKAR2A, PRKAR2B PKA is also commonly known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase, because it ... In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKA) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP ( ... Cyclic+AMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila cAMP- ...
Flanking rpoSp are two putative cAMP-CRP (cyclic AMP-cAMP receptor protein) binding sites that seem to control rpoS ... a barrel-shaped protease composed of two six-subunit rings of the ATP-dependent ClpX chaperone that surround two seven-subunit ... A third type of sRNA, OxyS, is regulated by OxyR, the primary sensor of oxidative shock. The mechanism by which OxyS interferes ... Another sRNA, RprA, stimulates rpoS translation in response to cell surface stress signaled via the RcsC sensor kinase. ...
... where it stimulates a protein kinase called cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. By phosphorylating proteins, cyclic AMP- ... By the end of the decade, the presence of two types of intramembrane receptors was understood: Rs (which stimulates cyclase) ... G proteins). The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) ... Eckly-Michel A, Martin V, Lugnier C (September 1997). "Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in cyclic AMP ...
Expression of the promoter is shown to be induce by phorbol esters and cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase signaling. The four ... There are two active pockets within iPFK2 for fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase which are structurally ... Circadian clocks dysregulation is associated with many types of cancer. PFKFB3 expression exhibits circadian rhythmicity that ... kinase) activity than other isoforms, due to phosphorylation of Ser-460 by PKA or AMP-dependent protein kinase. The high '2- ...
... encoding protein cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4 BCR (22q11) encoding breakpoint cluster region protein CARD10 ... encoding protein Nucleolar protein 12 PARVB PDGFB PI4KA: encoding enzyme Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase alpha PI4KAP2: ... Humans normally have two copies of chromosome 22 in each cell. Chromosome 22 is the second smallest human chromosome, spanning ... A rearrangement (translocation) of genetic material between chromosomes 9 and 22 is associated with several types of blood ...
The activated OR in turn activates the intracellular G-protein, GOLF (GNAL), adenylate cyclase and production of cyclic AMP ( ... "Phosphorylation and inhibition of olfactory adenylyl cyclase by CaM kinase II in Neurons: a mechanism for attenuation of ... a type of G protein-coupled receptor. Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of a calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase enriched in olfactory sensory neurons". Proc ...
... cyclic AMP receptor - cyclic AMP receptor protein - cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein - cyclic electron flow - cyclic ... interferon type I - interferon type II - interferon-alpha - interferon-beta - interleukin receptor - interleukin-1 receptor - ... nucleotide - cyclic peptide - cyclin - cyclin A - cyclin B - cyclin E - cyclin-dependent kinase - cycloleucine - cyclosporin - ... protein subunit - protein synthesis - protein targeting - protein translocation - protein-tyrosine kinase - protein-tyrosine- ...
This gene is a member of the type IV, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family. Cyclic ... Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ ... "The phosphodiesterase PDE4B limits cAMP-associated PI3K/AKT-dependent apoptosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma". Blood. 105 ( ... The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate the cellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides and thereby play a ...
Yang TT, Xiong Q, Enslen H, Davis RJ, Chow CW (Jun 2002). "Phosphorylation of NFATc4 by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases ... Chow CW, Davis RJ (Jan 2000). "Integration of calcium and cyclic AMP signaling pathways by 14-3-3". Molecular and Cellular ... "Isolation of two new members of the NF-AT gene family and functional characterization of the NF-AT proteins". Immunity. 2 (5): ... Vacca A, Farina M, Maroder M, Alesse E, Screpanti I, Frati L, Gulino A (Nov 1994). "Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 tat ...
July 2002). "Metformin increases AMP-activated protein kinase activity in skeletal muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes". ... February 2008). "Metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis through AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent regulation of the ... activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), inhibition of glucagon-induced elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate ( ... The logP of metformin is less than that of phenformin (−0.84) because two methyl substituents on metformin impart lesser ...
... neurite outgrowth and protein phosphorylation by a newly synthesized selective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... in fetal rat alveolar type II epithelium". Biochemical Pharmacology. 66 (6): 1083-9. doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(03)00456-8. PMID ... novel and potent inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C". Biochemistry. 23 (21): 5036- ... H-89 is a protein kinase inhibitor with greatest effect on protein kinase A (PKA). H-89, derived from H-8 (N-[2-(methylamino) ...
"Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP Receptor Protein Influence both Synthesis and Uptake of Extracellular Autoinducer 2 in Escherichia ... and is recognized by the two-component sensor kinase LuxPQ in Vibrionaceae. AI-2 is actively transported by the Lsr ABC-type ... species dependent), is a member of a family of signaling molecules used in quorum sensing. AI-2 is one of only a few known ... Doubts have been expressed regarding AI-2's status as a universal signal. Although the luxS gene, which encodes the protein ...
Reed B, Helal I, McFann K, Wang W, Yan XD, Schrier RW (July 2012). "The impact of type II diabetes mellitus in patients with ... September 2004). "Cyclic AMP promotes growth and secretion in human polycystic kidney epithelial cells". Kidney International. ... "Polycystin-1 activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and AP-1 is mediated by heterotrimeric G proteins". The Journal of ... March 2005). "Progressive loss of renal function is an age-dependent heritable trait in type 1 autosomal dominant polycystic ...
Protein kinase A (PKA) has been found to play an important role in learning and memory in Drosophila. When calcium enters a ... cAMP or cyclic AMP) is a second messenger that has been implicated in facilitating mushroom body calcium influx in Drosophila ... There are two main groups of projection neurons dividing the antennal lobe into two main regions, anterior and posterior. ... The intermediate term memory trace is dependent on expression of the amn gene located in dorsal paired medial neurons. An ...
Ikeda SR (March 1996). "Voltage-dependent modulation of N-type calcium channels by G-protein beta gamma subunits". Nature. 380 ... or inhibiting adenylyl cyclase leading to the intracellular increase or decrease of the secondary messenger cyclic AMP. For ... "Mechanism of assembly of G protein betagamma subunits by protein kinase CK2-phosphorylated phosducin-like protein and the ... It has two main states for which it performs different functions. When Gβγ is interacting with Gα it functions as a negative ...
Hoffmann R, Baillie GS, MacKenzie SJ, Yarwood SJ, Houslay MD (Feb 1999). "The MAP kinase ERK2 inhibits the cyclic AMP-specific ... "Phosphorylation and activation of a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Involvement of serine ... These proteins degrade the second messenger cAMP, which is a key signal transduction molecule in multiple cell types, including ... Le Jeune IR, Shepherd M, Van Heeke G, Houslay MD, Hall IP (Sep 2002). "Cyclic AMP-dependent transcriptional up-regulation of ...
... but has no effect on protein kinase C or cyclic AMP-dependent kinase. Mutagenicity does not appear to occur for purified toxins ... Microcystin-LR inhibits protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A) activities in the cytoplasm of liver cells. This ... microcystins contain two variable residues, which make the differentiation between variants of microcystins. These two variable ... In this way the protein phosphatase is inhibited and more phosphorylated proteins in the liver cells are left, which is ...
Nguyen, P. V., & Woo, N. H. (2003). Regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. ... Hippocampal synaptic metaplasticity requires inhibitory autophosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. The Journal ... This type of addition of spines occurs in a specific pattern, meaning that spines added after one task will not cluster with ... For example, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways appear to participate in neuronal ...
Then, it converts adenosine triphosphate into cyclic AMP, which activates Protein kinase A. PKA leads to protein tyrosine ... There are two main types of purinergic receptors, P1 binding to adenosine, and P2 binding to ATP or ADP, presenting different ... and IL-1-type cytokines involving STAT3 and its crosstalk with NF-κB-dependent signaling". European Journal of Cell Biology. 91 ... These proteins activate protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) that phosphorylates various proteins important for capacitation and ...
... and adenyl cyclase converts AMP into cyclic AMP (cAMP) thereby down-regulating cAMP-responsive proteins involved in cell ... DAG activates certain protein kinase C enzymes )PKCs) that phosphorylate and thereby regulate target proteins involved in cell ... It consists of two introns and three exons and codes for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) composed of 472 amino acids. DP2, ... mobilize one or more types of Heterotrimeric G proteins. DP2 is classified as a "contractile" prostanoid receptor in that it ...
... further effects depend mainly on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell. IP3/DAG pathway: PLC ... Some of them create second messengers such as cyclic AMP and IP3, the latter controlling the release of intracellular calcium ... Two combined receptor/ion channel proteins control the transport of calcium: the InsP3-receptor that transports calcium upon ... cAMP-dependent pathway: In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase) (see picture ...
... as a result of interference with activation of protein kinase A (PKA), a cAMP dependent protein. Other possible pathways ... Other, indirect effects may include increased norepinephrine output, increased neuronal cyclic AMP levels, and increased levels ... Only two SSRIs are licensed for use with children in the UK, sertraline (Zoloft) and fluvoxamine (Luvox), and only for the ... SSRIs can cause various types of sexual dysfunction such as anorgasmia, erectile dysfunction, diminished libido, genital ...
"Phosphorylation and inhibition of type III adenylyl cyclase by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in vivo". The Journal of ... Patrizio M, Colucci M, Levi G (Apr 2001). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein decreases cyclic AMP synthesis in ... kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". ... "Chromosomal mapping of human adenylyl cyclase genes type III, type V and type VI". Human Genetics. 94 (1): 69-73. doi:10.1007/ ...
Siess, Wolfgang; Eduardo, Lapetina (1990). "Functional relationship between cyclic AMP-dependent protein phosphorylation and ... phosphorylate messengers via protein kinase A (PKA). These signaling elements include thromboxane A2, receptor type α, ... ADP-dependent aggregation is mediated by two receptors: the purinergic P2Y1, coupled to Gαq, mediates the shape in the ... Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates cGMP production and therefore the activation cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G kinase). This kinase ...
As a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, caffeine raises intracellular cyclic AMP, activates protein kinase A ... Charles II of England tried to ban it in 1676, Frederick II of Prussia banned it in 1777, and coffee was banned in Sweden at ... Caffeine content in coffee varies widely depending on the type of coffee bean and the method of preparation used; even beans ... Caffeine in a dose dependent manner increases alertness in both fatigued and normal individuals. A systematic review and meta- ...
The human surfactant protein A, an innate immunity molecule (encoded by two genes SFTPA1 and SFTPA2) appears to be binding with ... Also, 14-3-3ζ can negatively regulate the G2-M phase checkpoint by binding and sequestering the cyclin-dependent kinases to the ... Chow CW, Davis RJ (January 2000). "Integration of calcium and cyclic AMP signaling pathways by 14-3-3". Molecular and Cellular ... Kino T, Pavlakis GN (April 2004). "Partner molecules of accessory protein Vpr of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1". DNA ...
"Cyclic AMP/GMP-dependent modulation of Ca2+ channels sets the polarity of nerve growth-cone turning". Nature. 423 (6943): 990-5 ... Overall, these studies show that regulating effects of netrin is dependent on the type of vascular tissue. Recently, netrin has ... DCC and UNC-5 proteins mediate netrin-1 responses. The UNC-5 protein is mainly involved in signaling repulsion. DCC, which is ... The two versions, netrin-G1 and netrin-G2, are found only in vertebrates. It is believed that they evolved independently of ...
... produces a monophasic rise in cyclic AMP that peaks at 15 s and a depletion of cycl ... There was a comparable percent activation of both types I and II mast cell cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase isoenzymes with ... produces a monophasic rise in cyclic AMP that peaks at 15 s and a depletion of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase that ... Mast cell mediator release as a function of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activation. C M Winslow, C M Winslow ...
The increase in synaptic currents is dependent upon an increase in newly synthesized cell surface synaptic GABAA receptors and ... and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. These kinases can subsequently phosphorylate γ-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase protein kinase C and Ca2+/calmodulin type II-dependent protein kinase. Neuropharmacol 36, 1377- ... dependent protein kinase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 18111-18117 (1994). ...
Cyclic AMP Dependent Protein Kinase Type II Protein Kinase A, Type II Protein Kinase Type II, Cyclic AMP Dependent Protein ... Cyclic AMP Dependent Protein Kinase Type II. Protein Kinase A, Type II. Protein Kinase Type II, Cyclic AMP Dependent. Protein ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II - Preferred Concept UI. M0026999. Scope note. A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases (1992-2007). Public MeSH Note:. 2008; for PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II, CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT see ...
... of Type I and Type II Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinases Using Cyclic Nucleotide Analogs" ... Spectrometry of Cyclic Nucleotide Analogues Used as Site-selective Activators of Cyclic Nucleotide-dependent Protein Kinases" ... "Evidence That Cyclic Nucleotides Activating Rabbit Muscle Protein Kinase I Interact with Both Types of cAMP Binding Sites ... Pharmacol., 59, 1187 - 1201 (2000), "Transport of Cyclic AMP and Synthetic Analogs in the Perfused Rat Liver" ...
... phosphorylates G protein coupled receptors in an agonist-dependent manner. Since the exact sites of receptor phosphorylation by ... beta-ARK are poorly defined, the identification of substrate amino acids that are critical to phosphorylation by the kinase a … ... Protein Kinases * Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases * G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1 ... Comparing a variety of kinases, only rhodopsin kinase and casein kinase II exhibited significant phosphorylation of the acidic ...
Phosphorylation of the type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and ... and inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from lactating rat mammary gland by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... Phosphorylation of DNA topoisomerase II by casein kinase II: modulation of eukaryotic topoisomerase II activity in vitro ... Synergistic phosphorylation and activation of ATP-Mg-dependent phosphoprotein phosphatase by F A/GSK-3 and casein kinase II ( ...
... the anti-inflammatory effects of the cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA); and 3) pro-inflammatory proteases as triggers ... airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 and IL-8 with sequential activation of the airway epithelial protein kinase C isoforms ( ... Aim 2: Determine how agents that augment PKA, especially therapeutic beta-adrenergic agonists, dampen dust extract-induced PKC ...
... cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), noradrenaline, adrenaline (components of SNS), type 1 angiotensin II receptors (AT1R ... caspase3/pS473 protein kinase B (Akt)).. Assuntos. Atenolol/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Cardiorrenal/tratamento farmacológico , ... Of beta-blocker types, Atenolol alone was associated with a 38% reduction in odds of incident CaP (P= 0.01), with a 40% and 54 ... Angiotensinogen/Ang II levels in heart were unaffected by renal I/R, but they were significantly decreased after treatment with ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases 84% * N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors 82% ... Photoaffinity labeling and binding studies reveal the existence of two types of phencyclidine receptors in the NCB-20 cell line ... Protein kinase C modulates NMDA receptor trafficking and gating. Lan, J. Y., Skeberdis, V. A., Jover, T., Grooms, S. Y., Lin, Y ... Protein kinase A regulates calcium permeability of NMDA receptors. Skeberdis, V. A., Chevaleyre, V., Lau, C. G., Goldberg, J. H ...
... responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) plays an important role in cognitive functions. In this study, we hypothesized ... gene locus is associated with PM in healthy individuals and contributes to knowledge on the genetics of this particular type of ... responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) plays an important role in cognitive functions. In this study, we hypothesized ... gene locus is associated with PM in healthy individuals and contributes to knowledge on the genetics of this particular type of ...
Tissue distribution of the AMP-activated protein kinase, and lack of activation by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase, studied ... Separation of two AMP-activated protein kinase kinase (AMPKK) activities by chromatography on Q-Sepharose, and their ... It was particularly intriguing that this cancer type, in which the gene encoding the downstream kinase, AMPK-α1, was often ... Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta is an alternative upstream kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases Grant support * 5RO1-HD-08700/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States ... Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt * Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Dialysis with the protein kinase A inhibitor 5-24 amide (2 microM) prevented relaxins effects, suggesting an obligatory role ... I. Inhibition of I(to) via PKA-dependent phosphorylation Am J Physiol. 1997 Apr;272(4 Pt 2):H1791-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart. ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases 9% * Exocytosis 32% * Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 78% ... Dive into the research topics of Synaptotagmin-7 phosphorylation mediates GLP-1-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion ... Synaptotagmin-7 phosphorylation mediates GLP-1-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion from β-cells. ...
Green Fluorescent Proteins 11% * Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases 11% * G-Protein-Coupled Receptors 10% ... Activity-dependent expression of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 in hippocampal neurons. ... Dive into the research topics of Activity-dependent expression of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 in hippocampal ...
Tissue distribution of the AMP-activated protein kinase, and lack of activation by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase, studied ... AMP-activated protein kinase, a metabolic master switch: possible roles in type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol 1999. 277:E1-E10. View ... Two effects, decreased hepatic glucose production (2, 5, 6) and increased skeletal myocyte glucose uptake (7, 8), have been ... Purification and characterization of the AMP-activated protein kinase. Copurification of acetyl-CoA carboxylase kinase and 3- ...
... and then activation of protein kinase A dependent (e.g., inhibition of calcium-dependent proteolysis) and independent ... Increase in S6K1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise occurs mainly in type II muscle fibers ... AMP] production, decreased intramuscular pH, and accumulation of lactate) has been suggested to be a key stimulator of ... which activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, an upstream regulator of the protein kinase B (Akt)/ mammalian target of ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases Medicine & Life Sciences 61% * Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Medicine & Life Sciences 61% ... IGF Type 1 Receptor Medicine & Life Sciences 60% * Leukocytes Medicine & Life Sciences 55% ... Tec kinase stimulates cell survival in transfected Hek293T cells and is regulated by the anti-apoptotic growth factor IGF-I in ... 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2-O-methyladenosine-3-5-cyclic monophosphate Medicine & Life Sciences 47% ...
Overexpression of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (PKA-C) in acaA− cells suppresses the aggregationless ... We found that the expression trajectory of the two genes was nearly identical in the two strains and the two genes remained co- ... 1 shows that the acaA− cells produced low but measurable levels of cAMP at ∼16% of the wild-type level. The acrA−acgA− cells ... and some of their functions can be suppressed by activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase PKA. Previous studies have ...
... dependent protein kinase (PKA). Most of the mutants were markedly defective in forming stalk cells in response to DIF-1 plus ... together with cyclic AMP, or (2) 8-Br-cAMP, which is believed to penetrate cell membrane and activate cAMP- ... In vitro stalk cell differentiation in wild-type and slugger mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum K. Inouye, K. Inouye ... K. Inouye, J. Gross; In vitro stalk cell differentiation in wild-type and slugger mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum. ...
Protein Kinase A, Type II BX - Protein Kinase Type II, Cyclic AMP-Dependent MH - Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIalpha ... Protein Kinase A, Type I BX - Protein Kinase Type I, Cyclic AMP-Dependent MH - Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic ... CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA. HN - 2008 MH ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 3 BX - Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase III MH - Cyclic AMP-Dependent ...
... of enrichment based on gene annotations from the GO and KEGG databases indicated that various structural and functional protein ... We evaluated the expression of >3,000 genes in the two respective growth stages and discovered that almost one-third of ... cyclic AMP (cAMP), cAMP-dependent protein kinase and Ras [45]. The homolog of Cryptococcus neoformans Gα protein Gpa1 and U. ... mated from two wild-type monokaryon strains J6;5-5 and J6;5-4 [82], was used in this study. The two monokaryotic strains were ...
Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase type II is associated with the Golgi complex and with centrosomes. Cell, Vol. 41, H. 3. pp ... Rapid and reversible translocation of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II from the Golgi complex to ... Ultrastructural localization of the regulatory (RII) subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase to subcellular compartments ... Regulation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) under physiological conditions. 2010, ...
Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase is involved in glass fiber-induced ... In inhalation studies in rats the preponderant form of lung cancer is bronchoalveolar in origin, arising from type II alveolar ... c-Jun which acts on the TNF-a gene promoter through the cyclic AMP response element and the AP-1 binding site. ... This study of luciginen-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) induced in vitro over a 2 h period found a strong correlation of ...
Protein kinase A (Mg2+). The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (or PKA) was the first protein kinase to be crystallized ( ... Like the majority of proteins in this family, it binds ATP in the central cleft, coordinated by two magnesium ions with ... When a single suitable ion type is determined for a water molecule, the atom type is converted internally; the occupancy is ... The small regulatory protein calmodulin binds four Ca2+ ions, which act as a switch for calmodulin binding to other proteins; ...
... channel and inhibiting the L-type Ca,sup,2+,/sup, channel. Furthermore, XAT exerts an inhibitory effect on vascular ... Removal of endothelium or pretreatment of aortic rings with L-NAME, 1 H -[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3- a ]-quinoxalin-1-one, and ... In addition, treatment with thapsigargin, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate, Gd,sup,3+,/sup,, and 4-aminopyridine markedly ... XAT induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in a concentration-dependent manner in the isolated rat thoracic aortas. ...
... and protein- (0.54) expression, which in turn reduced the TGFß1-dependent mRNA- (0.68) and protein- (0.5) expression of ... such as collagen type 10, A1 (1.50), osteopontin (1.50) and acellular communication network factor 3 (NOV) (1.45). In vitro ... mRNA- and protein-expressions were assessed during a time interval of 21 days and compared with expression data obtained from ... The initial proliferative phase was characterized by a constitutively high mRNA expression of extracellular matrix proteins. ...
... including cyclic-AMP- dependent protein kinase A, Ca2+/ calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), and mitogen-activated ... Histone modification involving acetylation is regulated by two types of enzymes-histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which add ... Pandey, S.C. The gene transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein: Role in positive and negative ... Chronic ethanol administration decreases phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein in granule cells of rat ...
Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases 8% * Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases 7% * Protease Inhibitors 7% ... Dive into the research topics of Studies on intracellular regulatory proteins of pancreatic exocrine secretion. Together they ... Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional 8% * Carbachol 8% * ... Proteins 21% * Type C Phospholipases 15% * Cholecystokinin ...
Cyclic AMP increases the mRNA levels for the regulatory subunit (R-II51) of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase in rat ... Hormonal regulation of mRNA for the regulatory subunit (R-II51) of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase in rat Sertoli cells. ... Cellular localization and age-dependent changes in mRNA for cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinases in ... Identification, Characterization, and Hormonal Regulation of 3′,5′-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Dependent Protein Kinases in ...
  • The increase in synaptic currents is dependent upon an increase in newly synthesized cell surface synaptic GABA A receptors and is abolished by preventing CaMKII phosphorylation of GABA A receptors. (nature.com)
  • Since the exact sites of receptor phosphorylation by beta-ARK are poorly defined, the identification of substrate amino acids that are critical to phosphorylation by the kinase are also unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Removal of the negatively charged amino acids surrounding a cluster of serines in this alpha 2-peptide resulted in a complete loss of phosphorylation by the kinase. (nih.gov)
  • Comparing a variety of kinases, only rhodopsin kinase and casein kinase II exhibited significant phosphorylation of the acidic peptides. (nih.gov)
  • Insulin and growth factors stimulate the phosphorylation of a Mr-22000 protein in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (wikidata.org)
  • Phosphorylation of the type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5. (wikidata.org)
  • A casual decision made one evening in 1976, in a bar near the Biochemistry Department at the University of Dundee, led me to start my personal research journey by following up a paper that suggested that acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (believed to be a key regulatory enzyme of fatty acid synthesis) was inactivated by phosphorylation by what appeared to be a novel, cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase. (portlandpress.com)
  • Cyclic AMP stimulates somatostatin gene transcription by phosphorylation of CREB at serine 133. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This then recruits AKT to phosphoinositide dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) to activate AKT via phosphorylation at two residues, Thr308 and Ser473. (bmj.com)
  • Moreover, the addition of Zn 2+ to capacitated sperm caused further stimulation of EGFR and phosphatydil-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylation, leading to the AR. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Once phosphorylated, P38 in cytoplasm translocates to the nucleus where the signal is cascaded by phosphorylation of protein kinases and transcription factors (TFs) [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta-ARK) phosphorylates G protein coupled receptors in an agonist-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • These receptors, known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are characterized by an extracellular ligand-binding domain, seven transmembrane α helices, and an intracellular domain that interacts with G proteins (Figure 8.6). (pharmacy180.com)
  • Upon methylmalonic colour, these types require distinct, having the form CRD and RBD to purchase p53 and receptors, expressing mTOR protein. (evakoch.com)
  • All of these MMPs will bring to the JAG's dependent receptors on injury strand to bind digital and with as electrogenic protein. (evakoch.com)
  • [ 40 , 47 ] Two recent studies identified STING and the cytoplasmic helicase DDX41 as host cell receptors for c-di-AMP and c-di-GMP. (medscape.com)
  • P. Banky, L. Huang, and S. S. Taylor , Dimerization/docking domain of the type Ia regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (inserm.fr)
  • The formation of translational inhibitor (active eIF-2 kinase) from proinhibitor (inactive eIF-2 kinase) in reticulocyte lysates, known to be controlled by hemin, can, as we recently reported, be induced by 3':5'-cyclic AMP(cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (ATP:protein phosphotransferase, EC or its catalytic subunit. (ias.ac.in)
  • We find that in crude preparations from rabbit reticulocyte lysates, hemin inhibits the conversion of proinhibitor to inhibitor catalyzed by endogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase upon addition of cAMP, but not that caused by the addition of free protein kinase catalytic subunit. (ias.ac.in)
  • Hemin prevents the binding of cAMP to the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and blocks the cAMP-induced dissociation of regulatory and catalytic subunits of the enzyme whereby the enzyme is inactivated. (ias.ac.in)
  • These proteins, referred to as G proteins because the α subunit binds guanine nucleotides (GTP and GDP), form a link in the chain of communication between the receptor and AC. (pharmacy180.com)
  • In the inactive form of a G protein, the a-subunit is bound to GDP (Figure 8.7). (pharmacy180.com)
  • rGβ 1 is one of the SDD products that encodes a rat G-protein β subunit. (jneurosci.org)
  • We now report that a strategy for identifying drug-regulated genes identifies a G-protein subunit whose full, regulated expression is necessary for the development of psychostimulant-induced sensitization, a key animal model adaptation to psychostimulants. (jneurosci.org)
  • Stereo-specific perturbation of the IgE-receptor (shown in previous studies) produces a monophasic rise in cyclic AMP that peaks at 15 s and a depletion of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase that plateaus at 30-60 s. (rupress.org)
  • The previously observed linear relationship between the attenuation in the monophasic rise in cyclic AMP and the quantity of mediator release in the presence of incremental concentrations of the adenosine analogue 2',5',-dideoxyadenosine, DDA, which is known to inhibit adenylate cyclase, indicated a direct relationship between receptor perturbation, transmembrane activation of adenylate cyclase, and granule secretion. (rupress.org)
  • Although these studies firmly link the activation of cytoplasmic cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase to the IgE receptor-initiated transmembrane activation of adenylate cyclase. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, a peptide whose sequence is present in a portion of the third intracellular loop region of the human platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptor is shown to serve as a substrate for beta-ARK. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanism of regulation of receptor histidine kinases. (embl.de)
  • The chemical signals are most often hormones or neurotransmitters, each of which binds to a unique type of membrane receptor. (pharmacy180.com)
  • Many molecules of active Gα protein are formed by one activated receptor. (pharmacy180.com)
  • Note: The ability of a hormone or neurotransmitter to stimulate or inhibit AC depends on the type of Gα protein that is linked to the receptor. (pharmacy180.com)
  • We previously demonstrated the presence of active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in sperm, its possible transactivation by direct activation of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), and its involvement in sperm capacitation and in the acrosome reaction (AR). (bgu.ac.il)
  • The AR stimulated by Zn 2+ is mediated by GPR39 receptor, PKA, Src and the EGFR, as well as the EGFR down-stream effectors PI3K, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC). (bgu.ac.il)
  • Educationarrow-forwardSystems engineeringSystems download England: The State wind gene various synthesis cosmological enzyme protein allosteric pre-mRNA mitochondrial interaction mammalian proline C-terminal site dorsal transport length P-TEFb different domain-containing Megakaryocytopoiesis and interaction is axonal yellow cluster non-receptor protein addition proliferation theoriesIceberg theoryWhat Systems Engineering Knowledge have neurotoxins severe? (evakoch.com)
  • Importantly, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor protein TRIF is required for both inflammasome activation and IFN-β production, indicating its central role in the detection of microbial viability. (medscape.com)
  • Kinases can cause posttranslational modifications of the progesterone receptor (PR) to influence cellular localization and protein stability. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Corticotroph pituitary adenomas often highly express the dopamine 2 receptor (D 2 R) and somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (sst 5 ). (webpediatrica.com)
  • This may explain why the sst 2 -preferring somatostatin analog octreotide, compared with the multi-receptor-targeting somatostatin analog pasireotide, is generally ineffective in Cushing's disease. (webpediatrica.com)
  • We evaluated receptor mRNA and protein expression levels and effects of octreotide, pasireotide, and cabergoline on ACTH secretion by cultured human corticotroph adenoma cells. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Patterns of enrichment based on gene annotations from the GO and KEGG databases indicated that various structural and functional protein families were uniquely employed in either stage and that during primordial growth, cellular metabolism is highly up-regulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two of the most widely recognized second messenger systems are the calcium/phosphatidylinositol system and the adenylyl cyclase (adenylate cyclase) system, which is particularly important in regulating the pathways of intermediary metabolism. (pharmacy180.com)
  • The strongest genetic risk factor is the presence of the epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene, which encodes a protein that has a crucial role in cholesterol metabolism. (lidsen.com)
  • The reporters localised into clearly distinct patterns within sarcomers, from where they could be displaced by means of AKAP disruptor peptides indicating the presence of disparate PKA type I and PKA type II anchor sites within skeletal muscle fibres. (ox.ac.uk)
  • P38 mitogen activated protein kinase is an intermediary signal transduction factor with context-specific roles in breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway has been shown to play an essential role in memory and cognitive abilities ( Kandel, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This led me to define and name the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway, on which I am still working 46 years later. (portlandpress.com)
  • AKT is a key player in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signalling pathway. (bmj.com)
  • Extracellular zinc regulates cell proliferation via the MAP1 kinase pathway in several cell types, and has been shown to act as a signaling molecule. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Our results demonstrate that AVP enhances AQP2 protein abundance by altering its proteasomal degradation through a PKA- and p38-MAPK-dependent pathway. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Responses to C(4)-dicarboxylates depend on typical two-component systems (TCS) consisting of a transmembrane sensor histidine kinase and a cytoplasmic response regulator. (embl.de)
  • Aug 02, 2017 · The butterfly-shaped protein , albumin, has many functions in the body including maintaining fluid and acid-base balance and transporting molecules. (app-sundream.de)
  • Every amino acid contains amine & carboxyl groups, a hydrogen atom, and side chain (R group) R groups distinguish different amino acids from one another and make them polar, nonpolar, charged or have special functions.Each organism has the ability to synthesize a large variety of proteins. (app-sundream.de)
  • For this, the proteins of food are digested and absorbed in the form of amino acids which are then assembled in a new …CCCH zinc finger proteins contain one to six tandem CCCH motifs composed of three cysteine and one histidine residues and have been widely found in eukaryotes. (app-sundream.de)
  • The building blocks of proteins (monomers) are amino acids.Biology is designed for multi-semester biology courses for science majors. (app-sundream.de)
  • Basidiocarps of A. hygrometricus are rich in proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, crude fibre and essential amino acids with lower concentration of fat. (fulltxt.org)
  • Basidiocarp of this macrofungi contains considerable amount of carbohydrate, protein, fibre, minerals, vitamins, essential amino acids and very minute concentration of fat. (fulltxt.org)
  • 4 Edible mushrooms are low calorie-low fat food supplement with generous amount of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals amino acids 5 and dietary fibre. (fulltxt.org)
  • To guarantee signal specificity, different PKA isoforms are compartmentalised by Akinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) into functional microdomains. (ox.ac.uk)
  • By using genetically encoded fluorescent reporters of cAMP concentration that are targeted to the intracellular sites where PKA type I and PKA type II isoforms normally reside, we directly show for the first time spatially and functionally separate PKA microdomains in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We show here that Zn 2+ activates the EGFR during sperm capacitation, which is mediated by activation of trans-membrane adenylyl cyclase (tmAC), protein kinase A (PKA), and the tyrosine kinase, Src. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Filamin A (FLNA) is a ubiquitously expressed actin-crosslinking protein that also serves as an intracellular signalling scaffold. (portlandpress.com)
  • Signalling through protein kinase A (PKA) triggers a multitude of intracellular effects in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. (ox.ac.uk)
  • An intracellular-signaling kinase that plays a role in regulating APOPTOSIS . (nih.gov)
  • Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) plays an important role in cognitive functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key regulator of Dictyostelium discoideum development ( Loomis, 2014 ). (biologists.com)
  • This is a membrane-bound enzyme that converts ATP to 3 I ,5 I -adenosine monophosphate (commonly called cyclic AMP, or cAMP). (pharmacy180.com)
  • Cancer cells respond to extracellular stimuli such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress via MAPK pathways mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 protein kinase activation [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hence, disruption of CK2-CFTR interaction by DeltaF508-CFTR might disrupt multiple, membrane-associated, CK2-dependent pathways, creating a new molecular disease paradigm for deleted F508 in CFTR. (edu.au)
  • The outward potassium current consisted of a transient component (I(to)) and a sustained component (I(S)). The addition of 100 ng/ml of relaxin inhibited the peak I(to) in a voltage-dependent manner (74% inhibition at a membrane potential of -10 mV to 30% inhibition at +70 mV). (nih.gov)
  • Here, we provide a focused minireview of recent progress in allosteric modulation of cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases, including protein kinases A and G. We show how apparently diverse emerging concepts, such as allosteric pluripotency, allosteric nonadditive binding, and uncompetitive allosteric inhibition, are all manifestations of complex conformational ensembles. (cdnsciencepub.com)
  • The inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) to reduce plasma LDL-cholesterol merges as effective therapeutic strategy to prevent cardiovascular (CV) events. (usda.gov)
  • RESULTS: Irrespective of PKA activation, CK2 inhibition (ducts, oocytes, cells) attenuates CFTR-dependent Cl(-) transport, closing wtCFTR in cell-attached membrane patches. (edu.au)
  • Inhibition of AKT or MEK1/2 increased total and nuclear PR protein in OSIS. (webpediatrica.com)
  • 41.9% ± 3.1%) with respect to inhibition of ACTH secretion by adenomas from group 2. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Allorecognition and tissue formation are interconnected processes that require signaling between matching pairs of the polymorphic transmembrane proteins TgrB1 and TgrC1 in Dictyostelium . (biologists.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Deletion of phenylalanine-508 (DeltaF508) from the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) in the wild-type cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane-conductance regulator (wtCFTR) causes CF. However, the mechanistic relationship between DeltaF508-CFTR and the diversity of CF disease is unexplained. (edu.au)
  • Mast cell mediator release as a function of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activation. (rupress.org)
  • The role of cyclic AMP as a second messenger in this sequence is now apparent from the linear relationship between net percent mediator release and net percent activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase isoenzyme when IgE-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase is suppressed by incremental quantities of DDA. (rupress.org)
  • There was a comparable percent activation of both types I and II mast cell cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase isoenzymes with anti-IgE-induced activation and secretion, and there was a parallel suppression of the activation of both isoenzymes in the presence of DDA. (rupress.org)
  • Aim 2: Determine how agents that augment PKA, especially therapeutic beta-adrenergic agonists, dampen dust extract-induced PKC isoform activation and attenuate lung inflammation in vitro and in vivo. (cdc.gov)
  • The three adenylate cyclase genes, acaA , acrA and acgA are required for aggregation, culmination and spore dormancy, respectively, and some of their functions can be suppressed by activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase PKA. (biologists.com)
  • Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by cilostazol via a cAMP/protein kinase A- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent mechanism. (scienceopen.com)
  • The nature of protein kinase c activation by physically defined phospholipid vesicle and diacylgly-cerols. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Activation of transcription factor IIIC by adenovirus E1A protein. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • signalling via hypokalemia has reviewed via lysosomal vesicle of increasing & that are to od protein patients on the represented activation and via not been recyling metals that have round outer in control to stoichiometry and be a disability with future arginine of consisting Women. (evakoch.com)
  • In IMCD cells, cAMP inhibited p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) via activation of protein kinase A (PKA). (mdc-berlin.de)
  • found that TRIF induces caspase-11 expression via auto/parakrine type-I IFN signaling, which leads to a noncanonical activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to live Gram-negative bacteria. (medscape.com)
  • Dialysis with the protein kinase A inhibitor 5-24 amide (2 microM) prevented relaxin's effects, suggesting an obligatory role for this kinase in the relaxin-dependent regulation of the potassium current. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanism by which hemin prevents the formation of the inhibitor and maintains protein synthesis in reticulocyte lysates is thus explained. (ias.ac.in)
  • Tofacitinib citrate, a Janus kinase inhibitor, is such a medication that has shown promise in the treatment of psoriasis. (medscape.com)
  • 3,000 genes in the two respective growth stages and discovered that almost one-third of these genes were preferentially expressed in either stage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genes are to the target of production, increase reviewed and regulatory with Type into a Energy-linked Insulin that is enzyme Ld, a reduction activated G1 cells. (evakoch.com)
  • The article is published in conjunction with the Sir Philip Randle Lecture of the Biochemical Society, which I gave in September 2022 at the European Workshop on AMPK and AMPK-related kinases in Clydebank, Scotland. (portlandpress.com)
  • Casein kinases--multipotential protein kinases. (wikidata.org)
  • Induction of casein kinase II during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. (wikidata.org)
  • A synthetic peptide substrate specific for casein kinase II. (wikidata.org)
  • It is often challenging to selectively inhibit one specific kinase but not another, because their active sites, where MgATP and substrates dock, are highly conserved ( Fig. 1 ). (cdnsciencepub.com)
  • 5 The conservation of kinase active sites is a response to evolutionary pressure to efficiently catalyze phosphoryl transfer from ATP to downstream protein substrates. (cdnsciencepub.com)
  • To meet the needs of today's instructors and students, some content has been strategically condensed while maintaining the overall scope …May 5, 2021 - Proteins perform a vast array of functions in the cell of every living organism with critical roles in biological processes. (app-sundream.de)
  • manuscripts are undertaken in 12 days from acceptance to publication (median values for papers published in this journal in 2021, 1-2 days of FREE language polishing time is also included in this period). (lidsen.com)
  • We now illustrate how these conformational changes are propagated to a downstream domain by fusing Af1503 HAMP variants to the DHp domain of EnvZ, a bacterial histidine kinase. (embl.de)
  • Integration of the cellular signal by downstream TFs such as cyclic-AMP dependent TF2 (ATF2) and TP53 determines gene expression programmes that ultimately dictate phenotypic response [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • these can be expressed in cells and endogenous cellular proteins that copurify with the bait can be identified as putative interacting proteins using mass spectrometry. (embl.de)
  • We have found that a combination of: 1) the variable sequence of the C-terminus of the bait with 2) a C-terminal valine "cloning scar" present in a commercially available ORF library, can in some cases create a peptide motif that results in the aberrant co-purification of endogenous cellular proteins. (embl.de)
  • AKT, also known as protein kinase B, is an oncoprotein involved in regulation of cellular proliferation, survival, motility and angiogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • PARP inhibitors (PARPi) are primarily effective against BRCA1/2-mutated breast and ovarian cancers, but resistance due to reversion of mutated BRCA1/2 and other mechanisms is common. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Comparing wild-type and DeltaF508CFTR expressing oocytes, only DeltaF508-CFTR Cl(-) currents were insensitive to two CK2 inhibitors. (edu.au)
  • Dans le présent article, nous proposons une minisynthèse ciblée des récentes avancées en modulation allostérique des kinases dépendantes de nucléotides cycliques, notamment les protéines kinases A et G. Nous montrons comment des concepts émergents en apparence divers, tels que la pluripotence allostérique, la liaison allostérique non additive et l'inhibition allostérique non compétitive, sont tous en réalité des manifestations d'ensembles conformationnels complexes. (cdnsciencepub.com)
  • We propose that altered recognition of the catalytic domain by DHp, rather than a shift in position of the phospho-accepting histidine, forms the basis for regulation of kinase activity. (embl.de)
  • A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether the increased AKT or MAPK kinase-1/2 (MEK1/2) activity observed in endometriotic stromal cells (OSIS) from ovarian endometriomas influences levels of PR protein. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Eucaryotic transcription complexes are specifically associated in large sedimentable structures: rapid isolation of polymerase I, II and III transcription factors. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • To fulfill those expectations, ESCs have to be directed at high efficiency to disease relevant cell types, either by the application of extracellular signals or direct programming by forced expression of transcription factors. (nyu.edu)
  • Therefore, our long term goal is to understand how extracellular signals and transcription factors control cell fate and apply that knowledge to differentiate ESC into disease relevant neuronal cell types. (nyu.edu)
  • We take advantage of sets of transcription factors that program mouse ESC to two types of human neurons with different sensitivities to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). (nyu.edu)
  • These results suggest that the rs2253206 polymorphism in the CREB1 gene locus is associated with PM in healthy individuals and contributes to knowledge on the genetics of this particular type of memory. (frontiersin.org)
  • NCU-G1 "knockout" musen ble skapt ved innsetting av en "gene-trap" i første intron som fører til stopp i transkripsjonen etter første ekson. (uio.no)
  • Specifically, the sensors targeted to the PKA type II compartment responded only to norepinephrine, whereas those targeted to the PKA type I compartment responded only to alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Phase I/II AAV-CFTR gene therapy trials. (stanford.edu)
  • Individuals who carry two mild mutations in the GJB2 gene possibly have an increased risk of developing early presbycusis. (stanford.edu)
  • The sst 2 expression is relatively low, likely resulting from downregulating effects of high cortisol levels. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Our objective was to compare sst and D 2 R expression levels between adenomas from patients with elevated and normalized preoperative urinary free cortisol excretion. (webpediatrica.com)
  • There were no statistically significant differences in sst 5 and D 2 R mRNA expression or in sst 2 , sst 5 , and D 2 R protein expression between both groups of corticotroph adenomas. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Whether sustained normocortisolism induced by medical therapy induces re-expression of functional sst 2 protein in corticotroph adenomas and whether this increases the ACTH-lowering potency of octreotide remains to be established. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to assess mRNA and protein expression of cartonectin. (webpediatrica.com)
  • P38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been proposed as a potential target for the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer, but its prognostic value in this context has yet to be defined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [ 43 ] Moreover, TRIF-dependent responses are crucial for host defense against systemic E. coli infections in mice, [ 40 ] which is further underscored by studies demonstrating protective effects of TRIF signaling during respiratory and intestinal Gram-negative bacterial infections. (medscape.com)
  • Cyclic dinucleotides are bacterial second messenger molecules, which were recently shown to activate innate immune responses. (medscape.com)
  • Dopamine and cyclic-AMP activated Mr32kDa phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) is a central signaling proteins in neurotransmission. (pp1a.com)
  • An insulin-stimulated ribosomal protein S6 kinase in 3T3-L1 cells. (wikidata.org)
  • Automated structure determination and analysis of metal-binding proteins or nucleic acids depends on reliable building of these sites, a task that is complicated by the similar chemical and scattering properties of different ions. (iucr.org)
  • Characterization of the phosphorylated form of the insulin-stimulated cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase from rat liver plasma membranes. (wikidata.org)
  • Insulin is one excellent …In Summary: Function of Proteins Proteins are a class of macromolecules that perform a diverse range of functions for the cell. (app-sundream.de)
  • Kinases include a wide variety of valuable drug targets, but full therapeutic exploitation requires a high degree of selectivity. (cdnsciencepub.com)
  • The kinase superfamily provides a multitude of drug targets for a variety of pathological conditions related to cancer, neurodegeneration, and infections, e.g., leukemia, Huntington's disease, as well as malaria and antibiotic resistance. (cdnsciencepub.com)
  • Additionally, mutations within pseudokinase domains are known to underlie human diseases, suggesting that these proteins may represent new and unexplored therapeutic targets. (embl.de)
  • A purified adenovirus 289-amino-acid E1A protein activates RNA polymerase III transcription in vitro and alters TFIIIC. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We dissociated anterior cells from slugs of the mutants and their parents and tested their ability to form stalk cells when incubated at low density in the presence of (1) the stalk cell morphogen Differentiation Inducing Factor-1 (DIF-1) together with cyclic AMP, or (2) 8-Br-cAMP, which is believed to penetrate cell membrane and activate cAMP- dependent protein kinase (PKA). (silverchair.com)
  • The functional relevance of such differential localisation was underscored by the finding of mutually exclusive and AKAP-dependent increases in [cAMP] in the PKA type I and PKA type II microdomains upon application of different cAMP agonists. (ox.ac.uk)
  • cAMP also increases AQP2 transcription, but whether altered degradation also modulates AQP2 protein levels is not well understood. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Here, elevation of cAMP increased AQP2 protein levels within 30 minutes in primary inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells, in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells ectopically expressing AQP2, and in mouse kidneys. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits. (bvsalud.org)
  • The effect of the activated, occupied GPCR on second messenger formation is not direct but, rather, is mediated by specialized trimeric proteins (α, β, and γ subunits) of the cell membrane. (pharmacy180.com)
  • This download England: The State has found as talking two ATPs, elsewhere, promoter - the impaired resulting to a collection, and often transcription - the end subunits( Savage & Cattaneo et al. (evakoch.com)
  • SOK2 may regulate cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-stimulated growth and pseudohyphal development by repressing transcription. (wikigenes.org)
  • Regulate Body …Proteins are a class of macromolecules that perform a diverse range of functions for the cell. (app-sundream.de)
  • Although biochemical mechanisms that underlie these manifestations currently remain largely unknown, new protein synthesis has been implicated in several of these neuroadaptive processes. (jneurosci.org)