Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Paramecium tetraurelia: A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits: Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Nucleotides, CyclicMitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Phosphoproteins1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Receptors, Cyclic AMP: Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4: A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the TESTES and BRAIN. Variants of this subtype exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its mRNA.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESProteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.

PrKX is a novel catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulated by the regulatory subunit type I. (1/231)

The human X chromosome-encoded protein kinase X (PrKX) belongs to the family of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. The catalytically active recombinant enzyme expressed in COS cells phosphorylates the heptapeptide Kemptide (LRRASLG) with a specific activity of 1.5 micromol/(min.mg). Using surface plasmon resonance, high affinity interactions were demonstrated with the regulatory subunit type I (RIalpha) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (KD = 10 nM) and the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor (KD = 15 nM), but not with the type II regulatory subunit (RIIalpha, KD = 2.3 microM) under physiological conditions. Kemptide and autophosphorylation activities of PrKX are strongly inhibited by the RIalpha subunit and by protein kinase inhibitor in vitro, but only weakly by the RIIalpha subunit. The inhibition by the RIalpha subunit is reversed by addition of nanomolar concentrations of cAMP (Ka = 40 nM), thus demonstrating that PrKX is a novel, type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase that is activated at lower cAMP concentrations than the holoenzyme with the Calpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Microinjection data clearly indicate that the type I R subunit but not type II binds to PrKX in vivo, preventing the translocation of PrKX to the nucleus in the absence of cAMP. The RIIalpha subunit is an excellent substrate for PrKX and is phosphorylated in vitro in a cAMP-independent manner. We discuss how PrKX can modulate the cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathway by preferential binding to the RIalpha subunit and by phosphorylating the RIIalpha subunit in the absence of cAMP.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases differ in their regulation of cyclic AMP response element-dependent gene transcription. (2/231)

The ability of cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) to activate cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent gene transcription was compared with that of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (cAKs). Although both the type Ibeta cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKIbeta) and the type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAKII) phosphorylated the cytoplasmic substrate VASP (vasodilator- and A kinase-stimulated phosphoprotein) to a similar extent, cyclic nucleotide regulation of CRE-dependent transcription was at least 10-fold higher in cAKII-transfected cells than in cGKIbeta-transfected cells. Overexpression of each kinase in mammalian cells resulted in a cytoplasmic localization of the unactivated enzyme. As reported previously, the catalytic (C) subunit of cAKII translocated to the nucleus following activation by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. However, cGKIbeta did not translocate to the nucleus upon activation by 8-bromo-cyclic GMP. Replacement of an autophosphorylated serine (Ser79) of cGKIbeta with an aspartic acid resulted in a mutant kinase with constitutive kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. The cGKIbetaS79D mutant localized to the cytoplasm and was only a weak activator of CRE-dependent gene transcription. However, an amino-terminal deletion mutant of cGKIbeta was found in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm and was a strong activator of CRE-dependent gene transcription. These data suggest that the inability of cGKs to translocate to the nucleus is responsible for the differential ability of cAKs and cGKs to activate CRE-dependent gene transcription and that nuclear redistribution of cGKs is not required for NO/cGMP regulation of gene transcription.  (+info)

Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulation of glutamate responses in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. (3/231)

Glutamate is the primary excitatory transmitter in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate transduction of light information from the retina to the SCN, an important circadian clock phase shifting pathway. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) may play a significant modulatory role. mGluR modulation of SCN responses to glutamate was investigated with fura-2 calcium imaging in SCN explant cultures. SCN neurons showed reproducible calcium responses to glutamate, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Although the type I/II mGluR agonists L-CCG-I and t-ACPD did not evoke calcium responses, they did inhibit kainate- and NMDA-evoked calcium rises. This interaction was insensitive to pertussis toxin. Protein kinase A (PKA) activation by 8-bromo-cAMP significantly reduced iGluR inhibition by mGluR agonists. The inhibitory effect of mGluRs was enhanced by activating protein kinase C (PKC) and significantly reduced in the presence of the PKC inhibitor H7. Previous reports show that L-type calcium channels can be modulated by PKC and PKA. In SCN cells, about one-half of the calcium rise evoked by kainate or NMDA was blocked by the L-type calcium channel antagonist nimodipine. Calcium rises evoked by K+ were used to test whether mGluR inhibition of iGluR calcium rises involved calcium channel modulation. These calcium rises were primarily attributable to activation of voltage-activated calcium channels. PKC activation inhibited K+-evoked calcium rises, but PKC inhibition did not affect L-CCG-I inhibition of these rises. In contrast, 8Br-cAMP had no effect alone but blocked L-CCG-I inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of mGluRs, likely type II, modulates glutamate-evoked calcium responses in SCN neurons. mGluR inhibition of iGluR calcium rises can be differentially influenced by PKC or PKA activation. Regulation of glutamate-mediated calcium influx could occur at L-type calcium channels, K+ channels, or at GluRs. It is proposed that mGluRs may be important regulators of glutamate responsivity in the circadian system.  (+info)

Type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulates electrogenic ion transport in rabbit collecting duct. (4/231)

cAMP mediates many of the effects of vasopressin, prostaglandin E2, and beta-adrenergic agents upon salt and water transport in the renal collecting duct. The present studies examined the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in mediating these effects. PKA is a heterotetramer comprised of two regulatory (R) subunits and two catalytic (C) subunits. The four PKA isoforms may be distinguished by their R subunits that have been designated RIalpha, RIbeta, RIIalpha, and RIIbeta. Three regulatory subunits, RIalpha, RIIalpha, and RIIbeta, were detected by immunoblot and ribonuclease protection in both primary cultures and fresh isolates of rabbit cortical collecting ducts (CCDs). Monolayers of cultured CCDs grown on semipermeable supports were mounted in an Ussing chamber, and combinations of cAMP analogs that selectively activate PKA type I vs. PKA type II were tested for their effect on electrogenic ion transport. Short-circuit current (Isc) was significantly increased by the PKA type II-selective analog pairs N6-monobutyryl-cAMP plus 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP or N6-monobutyryl-cAMP plus 8-chloro-cAMP. In contrast the PKA type I-selective cAMP analog pair [N6-monobutyryl-cAMP plus 8-(6-aminohexyl)-amino-cAMP] had no effect on Isc. These results suggest PKA type II is the major isozyme regulating electrogenic ion transport in the rabbit collecting duct.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding an A-kinase anchoring protein located in the centrosome, AKAP450. (5/231)

A combination of protein kinase A type II (RII) overlay screening, database searches and PCR was used to identify a centrosomal A-kinase anchoring protein. A cDNA with an 11.7 kb open reading frame was characterized and found to correspond to 50 exons of genomic sequence on human chromosome 7q21-22. This cDNA clone encoded a 3908 amino acid protein of 453 kDa, that was designated AKAP450 (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession No. AJ131693). Sequence comparison demonstrated that the open reading frame contained a previously characterized cDNA encoding Yotiao, as well as the human homologue of AKAP120. Numerous coiled-coil structures were predicted from AKAP450, and weak homology to pericentrin, giantin and other structural proteins was observed. A putative RII-binding site was identified involving amino acid 2556 of AKAP450 by mutation analysis combined with RII overlay and an amphipatic helix was predicted in this region. Immunoprecipitation of RII from RIPA-buffer extracts of HeLa cells demonstrated co-precipitation of AKAP450. By immunofluorecent labeling with specific antibodies it was demonstrated that AKAP450 localized to centrosomes. Furthermore, AKAP450 was shown to co-purify in centrosomal preparations. The observation of two mRNAs and several splice products suggests additional functions for the AKAP450 gene.  (+info)

Phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD by mitochondria-anchored protein kinase A. (6/231)

Signaling pathways between cell surface receptors and the BCL-2 family of proteins regulate cell death. Survival factors induce the phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD, a proapoptotic member. Purification of BAD kinase(s) identified membrane-based cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) as a BAD Ser-112 (S112) site-specific kinase. PKA-specific inhibitors blocked the IL-3-induced phosphorylation on S112 of endogenous BAD as well as mitochondria-based BAD S112 kinase activity. A blocking peptide that disrupts type II PKA holoenzyme association with A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) also inhibited BAD phosphorylation and eliminated the BAD S112 kinase activity at mitochondria. Thus, the anchoring of PKA to mitochondria represents a focused subcellular kinase/substrate interaction that inactivates BAD at its target organelle in response to a survival factor.  (+info)

cAMP-dependent and -independent downregulation of type II Na-Pi cotransporters by PTH. (7/231)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) leads to the inhibition of Na-Pi cotransport activity and to the downregulation of the number of type II Na-Pi cotransporters in proximal tubules, as well as in opossum kidney (OK) cells. PTH is known also to lead to an activation of adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C in proximal tubular preparations, as well as in OK cells. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of these two regulatory pathways in OK cells in the PTH-dependent downregulation of the number of type II Na-Pi cotransporters. We have addressed this issue by using pharmacological activators of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC), i.e., 8-bromo-cAMP (8-BrcAMP) and beta-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (beta-TPA), respectively, as well as by the use of synthetic peptide fragments of PTH that activate adenylate cyclase and/or phospholipase C, i.e., PTH-(1-34) and PTH-(3-34), respectively. Our results show that PTH signal transduction via cAMP-dependent, as well as cAMP-independent, pathways leads to a membrane retrieval and degradation of type II Na-Pi cotransporters and, thereby, to the inhibition of Na-Pi cotransport activity. Thereby, the cAMP-independent regulatory pathway leads only to partial effects (approximately 50%).  (+info)

Conservation and function of a bovine sperm A-kinase anchor protein homologous to mouse AKAP82. (8/231)

Protein kinase A regulates sperm motility through the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins. One mechanism to direct the activity of the kinase is to localize it near its protein substrates through the use of anchoring proteins. A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) act by binding the type II regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and tethering it to a cellular organelle or cytoskeletal element. We showed previously that mAKAP82, the major protein of the fibrous sheath of the mouse sperm flagellum, is an AKAP. The available evidence indicates that protein kinase A is compartmentalized to the fibrous sheath by binding mAKAP82. To characterize AKAP82 in bovine sperm, a testicular cDNA library was constructed and used to isolate a clone encoding bAKAP82, the bovine homologue. Sequence analysis showed that the primary structure of bAKAP82 was highly conserved. In particular, the amino acid sequence corresponding to the region of mAKAP82 responsible for binding the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A was identical in the bull. Bovine AKAP82 was present in both epididymal and ejaculated sperm and was localized to the entire principal piece of the flagellum, the region in which the fibrous sheath is located. Finally, bAKAP82 bound the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. These data support the idea that bAKAP82 functions as an anchoring protein for the subcellular localization of protein kinase A in the flagellum.  (+info)

*RUNX1T1

"MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc ... with serine/threonine protein kinases and heat shock protein HSP90 in human hematopoietic cell lines". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 ( ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...

*PRKAR2A

... type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5 ... "MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... "Type II regulatory subunit (RII) of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase interaction with A-kinase anchor proteins requires ... "Type II regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and their binding proteins in the nervous system of Aplysia ...

*CACNB2

"Identification of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on the beta 2 subunit of L-type voltage- ... Bünemann M, Gerhardstein BL, Gao T, Hosey MM (1999). "Functional regulation of L-type calcium channels via protein kinase A- ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNB2 gene. Mutation in ... GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Brugada syndrome CACNB2 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...

*Kinase

For example, type I and type II cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinases have identical catalytic subunits but different regulatory ... Activation loop Autophosphorylation Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Cell signaling Cyclin-dependent kinase G protein- ... the JAK kinases (a family of protein tyrosine kinases), and the PIP3-dependent kinase cascade were discovered. Kinases are ... For this reason protein kinases are named based on what regulates their activity (i.e. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases). ...

*CAMK2A

Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylates various types of non-epithelial intermediate filament proteins". Biochem ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha chain (CAMKIIα) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2A ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2A calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II alpha". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, ...

*Merlin (protein)

"Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates merlin at serine 518 independently of p21-activated kinase and promotes ... is a cytoskeletal protein. In humans, it is a tumor suppressor protein involved in Neurofibromatosis type II. Sequence data ... protein kinase A, and p21 activated kinases. Work in Drosophila identified Merlin as an upstream regulator of the Hippo tumor ... The two most common these are also found in the mouse and are called type 1 and type 2, differing by the absence or presence of ...

*Crosstalk (biology)

1996), "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK) in human B cells: co-localization of type I cAK (RIα2C2) with the antigen ... specific example of crosstalk between two major signaling pathways can be observed with the interaction of the cAMP and MAPK ... 1991), "Cyclic AMP modulation of human B cell proliferative responses: role of cAMP-dependent protein kinases in enhancing B ... Cell Biol., 1: 305-311., doi:10.1038/13024, PMID 10559944 Scott, J. D. (1991), "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases", ...

*Glycogen synthase

... two sites on glycogen synthetase phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and their dephosphorylation by protein ... Patients with type 2 diabetes normally exhibit low glycogen storage levels because of impairments in insulin-stimulated ... "A reinvestigation of the phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal-muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Glycogen synthase is directly regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), AMPK, protein kinase A (PKA), and casein kinase ...

*PRKACA

... enzyme called phosphorylase kinase was activated by another kinase that was dependent on the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP ... Likewise type II R subunits, of which there are two isoforms (RIIα, and RIIβ), create the type II PKA holoenzyme. In the ... "Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ... Biochemical studies demonstrated that there are two types of R subunits. The type I R subunits of which there are two isoforms ...

*G protein

Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... thus turning the G protein off). G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes ... The specific mechanisms, however, differ between protein types. Receptor-activated G proteins are bound to the inner surface of ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ...

*PRKAR1A

Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... "The two mRNA forms for the type I alpha regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase from human testis are due to the ... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAR1A gene. cAMP ...

*Tyrosine hydroxylase

"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Haycock JW, Ahn NG, Cobb MH, Krebs EG (Mar 1992). "ERK1 and ERK2, two microtubule-associated protein 2 kinases, mediate the ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is also an autoantigen in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome (APS) type I. A consistent abnormality in ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ser19 ( ...

*SOX9

Huang W, Zhou X, Lefebvre V, de Crombrugghe B (2000). "Phosphorylation of SOX9 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A ... "A new long form of c-Maf cooperates with Sox9 to activate the type II collagen gene". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (52): 50668-75. doi: ... SOX9 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SOX9 human gene location in the UCSC ... Transcription factor SOX-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOX9 gene. SOX-9 recognizes the sequence CCTTGAG along ...

*Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase). PKA is normally ... are not cAMP-dependent. Further effects mainly depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell. ... consisting of two catalytic and two regulatory units (C2R2), with the regulatory units blocking the catalytic centers of the ... It should not be confused with 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-activated protein kinase). Earl Sutherland of Vanderbilt ...

*PREX1

Mayeenuddin LH, Garrison JC (Jan 2006). "Phosphorylation of P-Rex1 by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the ... 2001). "A high-resolution 6.0-megabase transcript map of the type 2 diabetes susceptibility region on human chromosome 20". ... 5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchanger 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PREX1 gene. The protein encoded ... 2007). "Membrane translocation of P-Rex1 is mediated by G protein betagamma subunits and phosphoinositide 3-kinase". J. Biol. ...

*Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ... via adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP (cAMP). These protein kinases are present as tetramers with two regulatory units and two ... LHCGR have been found in many types of extragonadal tissues, and the physiologic role of some has remained largely unexplored. ... DNA in the cell nucleus binds to phosphorylated proteins through the cyclic AMP response element (CRE), which results in the ...

*HRASLS3

Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase decreases the conversion of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. Lower levels of cAMP decrease the ... activity of protein kinase A to phosphorylate, thereby activating, hormone-sensitive lipase. The opposite effect can be reached ... Siegrist S, Féral C, Chami M, Solhonne B, Mattéi MG, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Guellaën G, Bulle F (2001). "hH-Rev107, a class II ... Fatty acid oxidation was also found to increase to levels of wild-type mice that were deficient in non-AdPLA deficient obese ...

*Glucagon

... cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This enzyme, in turn, activates ... It may occur alone or in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. In the 1920s, Kimball and Murlin studied ... first two parts)". The New England Journal of Medicine. 304 (25): 1518-24. doi:10.1056/NEJM198106183042504. PMID 7015132. ... The enzyme protein kinase A that was stimulated by the cascade initiated by glucagon will also phosphorylate a single serine ...

*Casein kinase 1

By the late 1960s, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase had been purified, and most attention was centered on kinases and ... Casein kinase activity was found to be present in most cell types and to be associated with multiple enzymes. The type 1 casein ... The effects of phosphorylation are two-fold. It has been shown in Drosophila that phosphorylation of the PER proteins increase ... "Synergistic phosphorylation of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and casein kinase I. ...

*PFKFB3

Expression of the promoter is shown to be induce by phorbol esters and cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase signaling. The four ... There are two active pockets within iPFK2 for fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase which are structurally ... Circadian clocks dysregulation is associated with many types of cancer. PFKFB3 expression exhibits circadian rhythmicity that ... kinase) activity than other isoforms, due to phosphorylation of Ser-460 by PKA or AMP-dependent protein kinase. The high '2- ...

*Metformin

2002). "Metformin increases AMP-activated protein kinase activity in skeletal muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes". ... 2008). "Metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis through AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent regulation of the orphan ... activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), inhibition of glucagon-induced elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate ( ... No difference in effectiveness exists between the two preparations. When used for type 2 diabetes, metformin is often ...

*CAMK4

Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... "A unique phosphorylation-dependent mechanism for the activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV/GR". J. ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... and activation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. ...

*CAMK1

Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK1 gene. Calcium/calmodulin ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... dependent protein kinase I is expressed in many tissues and is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade. ...

*Chromosome 3 (human)

Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 BRK1: SCAR/WAVE actin ... Forkhead Box Protein P1 FRA3A encoding protein Fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(3)(p24.2) FRMD4B encoding protein ... phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide PROSER1: Proline and serine rich protein 1 RAB7: RAB7, member RAS ... People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 3 spans almost 200 million base pairs (the building material of ...

*Scaffold protein

A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs), which target cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to various sites in the cell. This ... Human homologue of the Drosophila discs large tumor suppressor binds to p56lck tyrosine kinase and Shaker type Kv1.3 potassium ... Claperon, A. and M. Therrien, KSR and CNK: two scaffolds regulating RAS-mediated RAF activation. Oncogene, 2007. 26(22): p. ... Locasale, J.W., A.S. Shaw, and A.K. Chakraborty, Scaffold proteins confer diverse regulatory properties to protein kinase ...

*Olfactory receptor neuron

The activated OR in turn activates the intracellular G-protein, GOLF (GNAL), adenylate cyclase and production of cyclic AMP ( ... "Phosphorylation and inhibition of olfactory adenylyl cyclase by CaM kinase II in Neurons: a mechanism for attenuation of ... a type of G protein-coupled receptor. Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of a calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase enriched in olfactory sensory neurons". Proc ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification of a regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from Drosophila heads. AU - Inoue, Hiroko. AU - Yoshioka, Tohru. PY - 1997/6/9. Y1 - 1997/6/9. N2 - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using anion-exchange column chromatography. Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major isozyme. The regulatory subunit of type II PKA (RII) was purified, and only one isoform was observed. The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa on SDS gel electrophoresis. Partial amino acid sequences of the protein were almost identical with the RIIα subunit of human. Since PKA has been implicated to be especially important for learning and memory in Drosophila, the RII subunit may play an essential role in the regulation of neuronal activity in the brain of Drosophila, and possibly in human.. AB - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using ...
Our results provide evidence that PKA remains anchored to AKAPs in vivo in RIIα knockout mouse skeletal muscle and that this anchoring sustains the PKA-dependent potentiation of the L-type Ca2+ channel. These results challenge the idea that type II regulatory subunits are required for anchoring of PKA in vivo and raise the possibility that RIα can also serve in this capacity. Immunocytochemical studies show that the C subunit of the type I holoenzyme in RIIα knockout skeletal muscle is colocalized in transverse tubules with the L-type Ca2+ channel, consistent with anchoring of type I PKA with Ca2+ channels. In vitro measurements of RIα binding affinity to Ht31 demonstrate that RIα binds to AKAPs with a 500-fold lower affinity than RIIα, but this low affinity is apparently sufficient for anchoring in vivo. Previous reports have estimated the intracellular concentration of PKA to be in the 1 μM range, which would lead to significant binding at the Kd measured by surface plasmon resonance. ...
This gene encodes a member of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), a family of functionally related proteins that target protein kinase A to discrete locations within the cell. The encoded protein is localized to mitochondria and interacts with both the type I and type II regulatory subunits of PKA. It has been reported that this protein is important for maintaining heart rate and myocardial contractility through its targeting of protein kinase A. In mouse, defects of this gene lead to cardiac arrhythmias and premature death. In humans, polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is involved in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Two regulatory and two catalytic subunits form the PKA holoenzyme, disbands after cAMP binding. The holoenzyme is involved in many cellular events, including ion transport, metabolism, and transcription. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015 ...
1. CukkemaneA, SeifertR, KauppUB (2011) Cooperative and uncooperative cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channels. Trends Biochem Sci 36: 55-64.. 2. KauppUB, NiidomeT, TanabeT, TeradaS, BönigkW, et al. (1989) Primary structure and functional expression from complementary DNA of the rod photoreceptor cyclic GMP-gated channel. Nature 342: 762-766.. 3. LudwigA, ZongX, JeglitschM, HofmannF, BielM (1998) A family of hyperpolarization-activated mammalian cation channels. Nature 393: 587-591.. 4. TakioK, SmithSB, KrebsEG, WalshKA, TitaniK (1982) Primary structure of the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from bovine cardiac muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 2544-2548.. 5. TakioK, WadeRD, SmithSB, KrebsEG, WalshKA, et al. (1984) Guanosine cyclic 3′,5′-phosphate dependent protein kinase, a chimeric protein homologous with two separate protein families. Biochemistry 23: 4207-4218.. 6. de RooijJ, ZwartkruisFJ, VerheijenMH, CoolRH, NijmanSM, et al. (1998) Epac is a Rap1 ...
Most PRKAR1A tumorigenic mutations lead to nonsense mRNA that is decayed; tumor formation has been associated with an increase in type II protein kinase A (PKA) subunits. The IVS6+1G>T PRKAR1A mutation leads to a protein lacking exon 6 sequences [R1 alpha Delta 184-236 (R1 alpha Delta 6)]. We compared in vitro R1 alpha Delta 6 with wild-type (wt) R1 alpha. We assessed PKA activity and subunit expression, phosphorylation of target molecules, and properties of wt-R1 alpha and mutant (mt) R1 alpha; we observed by confocal microscopy R1 alpha tagged with green fluorescent protein and its interactions with Cerulean-tagged catalytic subunit (C alpha). Introduction of the R1 alpha Delta 6 led to aberrant cellular morphology and higher PKA activity but no increase in type II PKA subunits. There was diffuse, cytoplasmic localization of R1 alpha protein in wt-R1 alpha- and R1 alpha Delta 6-transfected cells but the former also exhibited discrete aggregates of R1 alpha that bound C alpha; these were absent ...
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Niles, R M. and Logue, M P., "Retinoid acid increases cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase activity in b16-f1 mouse melanoma cells. Abstr." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 1639 ...
The stabilisation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the neuromuscular junction depends on muscle activity and the cooperative action of myosin Va and protein kinase A (PKA) type I. To execute its function, PKA has to be present in a subsynaptic microdomain where it is enriched by anchoring proteins. Here, we show that the AChR-associated protein, rapsyn, interacts with PKA type I in C2C12 and T-REx293 cells as well as in live mouse muscle beneath the neuromuscular junction. Molecular modelling, immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation approaches identify an α-helical stretch of rapsyn to be crucial for binding to the dimerisation and docking domain of PKA type I. When expressed in live mouse muscle, a peptide encompassing the rapsyn α-helical sequence efficiently delocalises PKA type I from the neuromuscular junction. The same peptide, as well as a rapsyn construct lacking the α-helical domain, induces severe alteration of acetylcholine receptor turnover as well as
en] Murine AIDS (MAIDS) is caused by infection with the murine leukemia retrovirus RadLV-Rs and is characterized by T-cell anergy and severe immunodeficiency with increased susceptibilty to several experimental opportunistic infections as observed in HIV infection. T cell anergy is associated with an increase of intracellular cAMP level, triggering a multistep pathway involving activation of PKA type I and resulting in inhibition of proximal TCR signaling. We have reviously demonstrated that blocking PKA type I using the selective inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS, restores T-cell function in vitro in MAIDS as well as in HIV infection. In the present report, we investigated the effect of parenteral administration of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS in mice with MAIDS. We show that the compound is not toxic and partially restores the ex vivo proliferative responses to anti-CD3 mAb, but that it has no effect on the lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly characterizing ...
Guided axonal growth is essential for both the initial wiring of neuronal circuitry during development and the regeneration of synaptic connections in the adult nervous system after injury and diseases (Bahr and Bonhoeffer, 1994; Aubert et al., 1995; Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996; Harel and Strittmatter, 2006). The directional motility of the growth cone at axonal tips is regulated by a variety of environmental factors that either promote/attract or inhibit/repel the axonal elongation (Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996; Dickson, 2002). Although many families of guidance ligands and receptors have been recently identified (Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996; Dickson, 2002; Charron and Tessier-Lavigne, 2005), the intricate signaling cascades that control and regulate axonal growth and guidance remain to be fully understood. The second messenger, cAMP, represents an important intracellular signal that exhibits profound effects on growth cone motility and guidance. Previous studies have linked ...
Protein kinase A (PKA) is targeted to distinct subcellular localizations by specific protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs). AKAPs are divided into subclasses based on their ability to bind type I or type II PKA or both. Dual-specificity AKAPs were recently reported to have an additional PKA binding determinant called the RI specifier region. A bioinformatic search with the consensus RI specifier region identified a novel AKAP, the splicing factor arginine/serine-rich 17A (SFRS17A). Here, we show by a variety of protein interaction assays that SFRS17A binds both type I and type II PKA in vitro and inside cells, demonstrating that SFRS17A is a dual-specific AKAP. Moreover, immunofluorescence experiments show that SFRS17A colocalizes with the catalytic subunit of PKA as well as the splicing factor SC35 in splicing factor compartments. Using the E1A minigene splicing assay, we found that expression of wild type SFRS17A conferred regulation of E1A alternative splicing, whereas the mutant ...
London E, Nesterova M, Sinaii N, Szarek E, Chanturiya T, Mastroyannis SA, Gavrilova O, Stratakis CA: Differentially regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity in adipose tissue and liver is associated with resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice that lack PKA regulatory subunit type IIα. Endocrinology; 2014 Sep;155(9):3397-408 ...
The subcellular distribution of protein kinase activity in isolated islets of Langerhans was determined. The majority (70%) of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was located in the S-100 (soluble) fraction, while the majority (42%) of cyclic AMP-independent activity was located in the solublised P-100 (containing mitochondria, secretory granules and microsomes) fraction. Partial characterisation of the islet cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity revealed the presence of two isozymes designated Type I and Type II. Type II kinase was the predominant isozyme of the S-100 fraction and Type I was the predominant isozyme found in the solublised P-100 fraction. Nonidet-P40 (a non-ionic detergent) was found to activate the S-100 cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, although no significant increase in protein kinase activity was observed when the P-0.6 (containing nuclei and cellular debris) fraction and P-100 fraction were solublised with Nonidet-P40. This activation was ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase complex, cytoplasm, nucleus, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, mitochondrion organization, protein kinase A signaling, protein phosphorylation, Ras protein signal transduction
We have reported previously the design of a RIAD (RI-anchoring disruptor) peptide that specifically displaces PKA (protein kinase A) type I from the AKAP (A-kinase-anchoring protein) ezrin, which is present in the immunological synapse of T-cells. This increases immune reactivity by reducing the threshold for activation and may prove a feasible approach for improving immune function in patients with cAMP-mediated T-cell dysfunction. However, the use of RIAD in biological systems is restricted by its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavage and, consequently, its short half-life in presence of the ubiquitous serum peptidases. In the present study, carefully selected non-natural amino acids were employed in the design of RIAD analogues with improved stability. The resulting peptidomimetics demonstrated up to 50-fold increased half-lives in serum compared with RIAD, while maintaining similar or improved specificity and potency with respect to disruption of PKA type I-AKAP interactions.. ...
The second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) plays a pivotal role in axonal growth and guidance, but its downstream mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we report that type II protein kinase A (PKA) is highly enriched in growth cone filopodia, and this spatial localization enables the coupling of cAMP signaling to its specific effectors to regulate guidance responses. Disrupting the localization of PKA to filopodia impairs cAMP-mediated growth cone attraction and prevents the switching of repulsive responses to attraction by elevated cAMP. Our data further show that PKA targets protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) through the phosphorylation of a regulatory protein inhibitor-1 (I-1) to promote growth cone attraction. Finally, we find that I-1 and PP1 mediate growth cone repulsion induced by myelin-associated glycoprotein. These findings demonstrate that the spatial localization of type II PKA to growth cone filopodia plays an important role in the regulation of growth cone motility and ...
CRC is the third leading cause of mortality in men and women worldwide [1]. Most of the cancer-related deaths in CRC patients are as a result of early spread of cancer cells or due to reoccurrence post-surgical interventions [15]. Alterations in some key regulatory molecules involved in cell cycle, apoptosis and EMT pathways have been proposed in the initiation of carcinogenesis [16]. In this context, efforts are being made to identify and characterize tumor associated molecules for development of therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. A unique class of tumor associated antigens called cancer testis (CT) antigens has been reported in various malignancies and have been shown to be associated with tumor growth and metastasis [4]. Only few CT antigens with abundant expression, namely sperm associated antigen (SPAG9) and AKAP4 have been shown to be associated with CRC [5, 10]. In this study, we examined the involvement of AKAP4 in various malignant properties at phenotype and molecular level of ...
MSSGRRRGSAPWHSFSRFFAPRSPSRDKEEEEEERPGTSPPPAPGRSAASVENEPMSTSQKKENVLSSEA 1 - 70 VKIRQSEDKRNHAEKPVTLPVQEDPKKAYDLSSSTSDTKIGESDRQPKESFFQFLGNLFNISGKSSLGEA 71 - 140 KQSSFKDDQDKTEKDLQNPSDHHEDGIKREREIFSGSLRTQTHPTEEQDSNSSELSDAFSLDTTQDSDQE 141 - 210 TTNLLKQIDGKPEKPSVTYATYRGPRHIGKYLKQQTGLATVNTLDRENESSDSSTNRHIDPGSEIEAGVL 211 - 280 PLLLSASTDSSMKGNLLEGPLEDSDCSKTSFNKENSLTNNPELQNIASSNNLLNKNAWGSIERNRSSPSS 281 - 350 VTNSSYDGESDSQHHLSCEPVSQTNRNLVCSALLTGSNHRKVPCSPDFQRVTTTENTIKENSTVMSNRTL 351 - 420 VQREELVEPQGPAISDFSCSKSDGSDTTEQESTNLPSPNKSIRHEHLQLPESECSDKQTIDSSSKQAATH 421 - 490 TNIIALQRHAVTDTEFVNEGKRLSAQDSQKNVAVREIRRETESASAGESIASSHVKAPEDKIESLPKDTD 491 - 560 QYFETKAKKLDFRSHDKIPHIRMNKKDLASLNYISESAVVASLGNENAPELKFELNRSHISETPLDSESP 561 - 630 QQAEVSPDAKTSLSLDCKKLNFSISPPTFVSGVGMLSKLDIPDLMNEGSPVPIETGNVNIVGISYQPRKC 631 - 700 KEENVKNHVEAAGRKSPPPSFCLEYTSAIFEFKEVLSNSEKCQVLPGSEASGPHLTGLELLSFDSGNLSK 701 - 770 DCSSILSQDPNRVELVSSNTKANMSIIEKSDSLSLEAKTANIVSKAEIDGQNNVLVESHSGRGKTISLSK 771 - 840 ...
Urična kiselina je diprotonska kiselina sa pKa1=5.4 i pKa2=10.3[6]. Iz tog razloga u jakim alkalijama na visokom pH ona formira dualno naelektrisani uratni jon, dok na biološkom pH, ili u prisustvu ugljene kiseline, ili karbonatnog jona, ona formira jednostruko naelektrisani vodonik uratni jon pošto je njegov pKa2 veći od pKa1 ugljene kiseline. Pošto je njena jonizacija tako slaba, uratne soli su sklone hidrolizi nazad u vodonik uratne soli i slobodnu bazu na pH vrednostima oko neutralne. Ova kiseline je aromatična, jer je derivat purina. Kao biciklični, heterociklični purinski derivat, urična kiselina se ne protonuje na isti način kao karboksilne kiseline. X-zrak difrakcione studije vodonik uratnog jona u kristalima amonijum vodonik urata, formiranih in vivo kao gihtni depoziti, pokazuju da keto-kiseonik u 2 poziciji tautomera purinske strukture postoji kao hidroksilna grupa i da dva susedna atoma azota u pozicijama 1 i 3 dele jonsko naelektrisanje u šestočlanom ...
PRKX兔多克隆抗体(ab71619)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
The induction of ornithine decarboxylase was studied following the stimulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with concanavalin A (ConA) (10 µg/ml). Following treatment with ConA, ornithine decarboxylase activity increased 4-5-fold between 6 and 12 hr of incubation and reached a peak level 10-12-fold above control (unstimulated) values by 48 hr. Increases in incorporation of [3H]uridine into acid-insoluble material followed a similar time course after the addition of ConA to lymphocytes. The rate of incorporation of [3H]thymidine into acid-insoluble material was maximal at 72 hr. The degree of activation of soluble cyclic 3,5-AMP-dependent protein kinase(s) was determined at various times following ConA stimulation. Between 1 and 2 hr after mitogen administration, the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity ratio increased markedly and was 0.23 unit above control values by 4 hr. The activity ratio decreased between 4 and 8 hr and returned to higher values after incubation with the ...
Background: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive hematological neoplasm that responds poorly to therapy. The molecular etiology and pathology of this disease remain unclear, hampering the development of an effective therapy. Therefore, a need for more, and more realistic, animal models remains. Lymphoproliferative disorders have been reported in mice deficient for the prkar1a gene coding for the regulatory subunit type 1A of protein kinase A (PKA), but nothing is known about the role of type II PKA regulatory subunits in hematologic malignancies.. Methods: Mice deficient for the Prkar1a and Prkar2a alleles were previously reported (Kirschner et al, 2005 και Burton et al, 1997) and were kept on a mixed genetic background (C57BL/129Sv). Mice were crossed to create prkar2a+/- and prkar2a-/-. Mice were phenotyped at the ages of 3-6-9-12-18 months or when they exhibited signs of advanced disease. Tissues were collected for histological and molecular analysis.. Results: Unexpectedly, mice ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
An antiserum against the catalytic subunit C of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, isolated from bovine heart type II protein kinase, was produced in rabbits. Reaction of the catalytic subunit with antiserum and separation of the immunoglobulin G fraction by Protein A-Sepharose quantitatively removed the enzyme from solutions. Comparative immunotitration of protein kinases showed that the amount of antiserum required to eliminate 50% of the enzymic activity was identical for pure catalytic subunit, and for holoenzymes type I and type II. The reactivity of the holoenzymes with the antiserum was identical in the absence or the presence of dissociating concentrations of cyclic AMP. Most of the holoenzyme (type II) remains intact when bound to the antibodies as shown by quantification of the regulatory subunit in the supernatant of the immunoprecipitate. Titration with the antibodies also revealed the presence of a cyclic AMP-independent histone kinase in bovine heart protein kinase I preparations ...
We selected and characterized a 30-fold etoposide (VP-16)-resistant subline of K562 human leukemia cells (K/VP.5) that exhibits quantitative and qualitative changes in topoisomerase II, including hypophosphorylation of this drug target. The initial rate of topoisomerase II phosphorylation was reduced 3-fold in K/VP.5 compared with K562 cells, but the rate of dephosphorylation was similar. Analysis of potential topoisomerase II protein kinases revealed a 3-fold reduction in the level of the beta II protein kinase C (PKC) in K/VP.5 cells, whereas levels of alpha- and epsilon PKC, casein kinase II, p42map kinase, and p34cdc2 kinase were comparable for both cell lines. The PKC activator, bryostatin 1, together with K562 nuclear extracts potentiated VP-16-induced topoisomerase II/DNA covalent complex formation in nuclei isolated from K/VP.5 cells but not from K562 cells. Bryostatin 1 effects were blocked by the PKC inhibitor 7-O-methyl-hydroxy-staurosporine. Bryostatin 1 also up-regulated ...
Looking for online definition of D-AKAP2 in the Medical Dictionary? D-AKAP2 explanation free. What is D-AKAP2? Meaning of D-AKAP2 medical term. What does D-AKAP2 mean?
Combinatorial assembly of catalytic and regulatory subunits results in diverse isoforms of the PKA family. Their quaternary structures differ substantially (Taylor et al., 2012). A detailed analysis of isoform-specific cellular functions, however, remains challenging. Approaches to directly detect the activation of endogenous isoforms in primary cells models are largely missing. It was unclear whether changes in RII phosphorylation reflect the process of PKA-II activation. Early biochemical studies on PKA-II purified from bovine cardiac muscle showed that a large proportion of PKA-II is phosphorylated in vivo (Rangel-Aldao et al., 1979). Another report suggests that RII subunits are fully phosphorylated in non-stimulated cardiomyocytes (Manni et al., 2008). Accordingly, these researchers found that activation of PKA resulted in a phosphatase-dependent loss of basal RII phosphorylation detected in cell lysates (Manni et al., 2008). The assumption that RII subunits are fully phosphorylated in the ...
Doherty, P J.; Tsao, J; Schimmer, B P.; Mumby, M C.; and Beavo, J A., "Alteration of the regulatory subunit of type 1 camp-dependent protein kinase in mutant y1 adrenal cells resistant to 8-bromoadenosine 3:5-monophosphate." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2372 ...
In vitro phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of yeast cAMP-dependent protein kinase was studied. The cAMP-binding regulatory subunit (R subunit) can be multiply phosphorylated. Three distinct phosphorylation sites were inferred from the different ATP concentrations required for phosphorylation and from the presence of two discrete mobility shifts in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the R subunit on phosphorylation. Limited tryptic digestion of the phosphorylated R subunit showed that a Mr 37,000 cAMP-binding peptide contained one of the phosphorylation sites and that a separate Mr 12,000 peptide contained another phosphorylation site. The yeast R subunit is therefore similar to the type II R subunit of mammalian origin, although it has a larger Mr (64,000 vs. 58,000) and is multiply phosphorylated. In vivo, both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of the R subunit were found in cells grown in lactate or to stationary phase in 1.5% glucose, while cells grown in 5% ...
Looking for online definition of A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 in the Medical Dictionary? A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 explanation free. What is A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6? Meaning of A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 medical term. What does A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 mean?
RecName: Full=A-kinase anchor protein 13; Short=AKAP-13;AltName: Full=Protein kinase A-anchoring protein 13;AltName: Full=Breast cancer nuclear receptor-binding auxiliary protein;AltName: Full=Human thyroid-anchoring protein 31;AltName: Full=Guanine nucleotide exchange factor Lbc;AltName: Full=AKAP-Lbc;AltName: Full=P47;AltName: Full=Lymphoid blast crisis oncogene; Short=LBC oncogene;AltName: Full=Non-oncogenic Rho GTPase-specific GTP exchange ...
1BKX: A binary complex of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and adenosine further defines conformational flexibility.
AKAP7 - AKAP7 (untagged)-Human A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 7 (AKAP7), transcript variant beta available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Akap1 - Akap1 (untagged) - Mouse A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 1 (Akap1), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 1, (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), ubiquitous in mammalian cells, regulates a plethora of cell processes including development, differentiation, memory, and m...
Homo sapiens A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (gravin) 12 (AKAP12), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (H00009590-R01) - Products - Abnova
Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase with multiple cellular functions in vertebrates including apoptosis, differentiation, proliferation, survival, tumorigenesis, signal transduction, immune regulation and inflammation. In the current study, the catalytic and regulatory subunit homologs of Litopenaeus vannamei protein kinase CK2 (LvCK2α and LvCK2ß) were cloned and characterized. LvCK2α has a full-length cDNA sequence of 1764 bp with a 1053 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 351 amino acids, which contains a typical serine/threonine kinase domain. On the other hand, LvCK2ß has a 1394 bp full-length cDNA with an ORF of 663 bp encoding a protein with 221 amino acids, which contains a Casein kinase II regulatory subunit domain. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that LvCK2 was evolutionary related with the CK2 of invertebrates. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that LvCK2α and LvCK2ß transcripts were ...
Author Summary Body weight and energy balance are under very complex neural, endocrine, and metabolic control. Correspondingly, recent research suggests that hundreds of genes contribute to human obesity and that only a small proportion of them have as yet been identified. Neurobeachin (Nbea) is a protein specifically expressed in nerve and endocrine cells and is important for neurotransmission, apparently by influencing the synaptic targeting of membrane proteins. Here, we show that heterozygous knockout mice, expressing Nbea at 50% of normal levels, display increased adipose tissue mass, abnormal feeding behavior, and modified expression of specific genes in the brainstem and hypothalamus known to be important for body weight control. Moreover, we find that NBEA gene polymorphisms are associated with body-mass index in adult and juvenile human cohorts. Our results demonstrate that variation of Nbea activity critically affects body weight, presumably by influencing the activity of feeding-related
Evidence for the involvement of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the exocytosis of amylase from parotid acinar cells.: To determine the role of cAMP-dependent p
cAMP-dependent protein kinase R2. (Aliases: BcDNA:GM01761,pkA,Cos,PKA RII,cos1,Pka-RII,Dmel\CG15862,CG15862,pka-RII,PKa-R2,PKA,Cos1,RII,RII[[DR]],PKA-R2,PKA-RII,Cos-1,Epa) ...
Buy our Recombinant Human PRKX protein. Ab114807 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides…
高い抗原親和性、特異性と安定した品質を兼ね備えたアブカムのウサギ・モノクローナル抗体 RabMAb® ab75993 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,Flow Cyt,ICC/IF
TY - JOUR. T1 - Single nucleotide polymorphisms alter kinase anchoring and the subcellular targeting of A-kinase anchoring proteins. AU - Donelson Smith, F.. AU - Omar, Mitchell H.. AU - Nygren, Patrick J.. AU - Soughayer, Joseph. AU - Hoshi, Naoto. AU - Lau, Ho Tak. AU - Snyder, Calvin G.. AU - Branon, Tess C.. AU - Ghosh, Debapriya. AU - Langeberg, Lorene K.. AU - Ting, Alice Y.. AU - Santana, Luis Fernando. AU - Ong, Shao En. AU - Navedo, Manuel F. AU - Scott, John D.. PY - 2018/12/4. Y1 - 2018/12/4. N2 - A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) shape second-messenger signaling responses by constraining protein kinase A (PKA) at precise intracellular locations. A defining feature of AKAPs is a helical region that binds to regulatory subunits (RII) of PKA. Mining patient-derived databases has identified 42 nonsynonymous SNPs in the PKA-anchoring helices of five AKAPs. Solid-phase RII binding assays confirmed that 21 of these amino acid substitutions disrupt PKA anchoring. The most deleterious ...
Skålhegg BS, Landmark B, Foss KB, Lohmann SM, Hansson V, Lea T and Jahnsen T. Institute of Pathology, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.. We have previously identified and characterized regulatory (R) subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, particularly the RII subunits in rat tissues (Jahnsen, T., Lohmann, S. M., Walter, U., Hedin, L., and Richards, J. S. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 15980-15987; Jahnsen, T., Hedin, L., Lohmann, S. M., Walter, U., and Richards, J. S. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 6637-6639; Jahnsen, T., Hedin, L., Kidd, V. J., Beattie, W. G., Lohmann, S. M., Walter, U., Durica, J., Schulz, T. Z., Schiltz, E., Browner, M., Lawrence, C. B., Goldman, D., Ratoosh, S. L., and Richards, J. S. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12352-12361). These studies showed that rat RII alpha and RII beta had apparent molecular masses of 54 and 52 kDa, respectively. The aim of the present study was to purify and characterize cAMP-dependent protein kinase R subunits in human testis and to examine which of ...
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) plays an important role in the defence of the gastrointestinal tract. The level of faecal SIgA antibody is associated with increased neutralization and clearance of viruses. Formula-fed infants who lack the transfer of protective maternal SIgA from breast milk may benefit from strategies to support maturation of humoral immunity and endogenous production of SIgA. We aimed at studying the effects of standard, prebiotic and probiotic infant formulas on the faecal SIgA levels. At birth, infants of whom the mother had decided not to breastfeed were allocated to one of three formula groups in a randomized, double-blind fashion. Nineteen infants received standard infant formula; 19 received prebiotic formula containing a specific mixture of 0.6 g galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)/fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)/100 ml formula and 19 received probiotic formula containing 6.0 × 109 cfu Bifidobacterium animalis/100 ml formula. Faecal samples were taken on postnatal day 5, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning, characterization, and expression of the gene for the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in Caenorhabditis elegans. T2 - Identification of highly conserved and unique isoforms generated by alternative splicing. AU - Gross, Robert E.. AU - Bagchi, Srilata. AU - Lu, Xiangyi. AU - Rubin, Charles S.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans expresses substantial amounts of several forms (Mr values = 39,000-41,000) of the catalytic subunit (C) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Approximately 65% of the total cAMP-dependent phosphotransferase activity is recovered in particulate fractions of homogenates prepared from asynchronous populations of C. elegans. The C subunit is expressed at a low level in cytosolic and particulate compartments during embryogenesis. As the nematodes progress from late embryonic stages to the newly hatched, first larval (L1) stage, C subunit content increases 15-fold. High levels of C subunits are observed in ...
n For my wedding,i nak pkai tudung yg ada awning but in the same time ,i nak nyorok my fluffy cheek ni ~_~ ada sape2 ada tips yg bole kuruskan my fluffy cheek ke or tekik pkai tudung awning but xnmpk fluffy cheek..Hope all of u can help me ...

Purification of a regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from Drosophila heads<...Purification of a regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from Drosophila heads<...

Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major ... Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major ... Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major ... Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major ...
more infohttps://waseda.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/purification-of-a-regulatory-subunit-of-type-ii-camp-dependent-pr

Identification of cGMP-Dependent protein kinase anchoring proteins (GKAPs)<...Identification of cGMP-Dependent protein kinase anchoring proteins (GKAPs)<...

In this study, we describe a new class of proteins, called GKAPS, that specifically bind the Type II cGMP-dependent protein ... Carrier Proteins Mutagenesis Nucleic Acid Regulatory Sequences Phosphoprotein Phosphatases Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases ... In this study, we describe a new class of proteins, called GKAPS, that specifically bind the Type II cGMP-dependent protein ... In this study, we describe a new class of proteins, called GKAPS, that specifically bind the Type II cGMP-dependent protein ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/identification-of-cgmp-dependent-protein-kinase-anchoring-protein-2

Creb1 - Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Creb1 gene & proteinCreb1 - Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Creb1 gene & protein

Phosphorylation-dependent transcription factor that stimulates transcription upon binding to the DNA cAMP response element (CRE ... "Differential activation of CREB by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases type II and type IV involves phosphorylation of a ... "Differential activation of CREB by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases type II and type IV involves phosphorylation of a ... "Differential activation of CREB by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases type II and type IV involves phosphorylation of a ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P15337

KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Tupaia chinensis (Chinese tree shrew)KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Tupaia chinensis (Chinese tree shrew)

... protein kinase D [EC:2.7.11.13] K05870 CREB1; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 K04450 ATF2; cyclic AMP-dependent ... 102469571 AGTR1; angiotensin II receptor type 1 102468263 GNAQ; G protein subunit alpha q 102479071 GNA11; G protein subunit ... calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II gamma 102472689 CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II beta ... calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta 102494625 CAMK2A; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II alpha ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?tup00001+102491327

Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes | Biochemical...Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes | Biochemical...

Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes. Olav K. ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ...
more infohttp://www.biochemsoctrans.org/content/19/4/1161

RUNX1T1 - WikipediaRUNX1T1 - Wikipedia

"MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc ... with serine/threonine protein kinases and heat shock protein HSP90 in human hematopoietic cell lines". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 ( ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RUNX1T1

FSH Regulation of cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Regulatory Subunits in Rat and Porcine Ovarian Tissues | SpringerLinkFSH Regulation of cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Regulatory Subunits in Rat and Porcine Ovarian Tissues | SpringerLink

Hormonal regulation of the synthesis and mRNA content of the regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type II ... Identification of two subclasses of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinases. Neural-specific and non-neural protein kinases. J ... type II holoenzyme form of cAMP-dependent protein kinase with regulatory subunits of the type I form of cAMP-dependent protein ... Cyclic adenosine 3:5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Comparison of type II enzymes from bovine brain, skeletal muscle ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-7103-8_12

Role of Protein Kinase A in the Etiology of Suicide: Evidence from Human Postmortem Brain and Preclinical Studies « Hacked by...Role of Protein Kinase A in the Etiology of Suicide: Evidence from Human Postmortem Brain and Preclinical Studies « Hacked by...

Immunocytochemical localization of the neural-specific regulatory subunit of the type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase to ... cyclic AMP binding to protein kinase A (PKA), cyclic AMP-dependent PKA activity, and protein levels of selective regulatory and ... Shelton RC, Manier DH, Peterson CS, Eillis TC, Sulser F. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in subtypes of major depression ... Constantinescu A, Gordon AS, Diamond I. cAMP-dependent protein kinase types I and II differentially regulate cAMP response ...
more infohttp://primarypsychiatry.com/role-of-protein-kinase-a-in-the-etiology-of-suicide-evidence-from-human-postmortem-brain-and-preclinical-studies/

PRKAR2A - WikipediaPRKAR2A - Wikipedia

... type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5 ... "MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... "Type II regulatory subunit (RII) of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase interaction with A-kinase anchor proteins requires ... "Type II regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and their binding proteins in the nervous system of Aplysia ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PRKAR2A

Antiserum against the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards...Antiserum against the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards...

An antiserum against the catalytic subunit C of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, isolated from bovine heart type II protein ... cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards various protein kinases. G Schwoch, A Hamann, H Hilz ... cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards various protein kinases Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase purified from the particulate fraction of bovine heart reacted with the antiserum to the ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/192/1/223

8-N₃-cAMP BIOLOG Life Science Institute8-N₃-cAMP BIOLOG Life Science Institute

Analogue for photoaffinity labelling of cAMP binding proteins. Detailed technical information available. Reference: Haley, ,em, ... of Type I and Type II Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinases Using Cyclic Nucleotide Analogs" ... Acta, 630, 463 - 467 (1980), "Activation of Type I and Type II Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinases by 2,8-disubstituted ... Chem., 267, 15707 - 15714 (1992), "Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase Type I Mediates the Inhibitory Effects of 3, 5-Cyclic ...
more infohttps://www.biolog.de/8-n-camp

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Animals, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases, physiology, Dexamethasone, ... 5 Untranslated Regions, genetics, Bone Marrow Cells, metabolism, Cell Line, Cyclic AMP, Cytokines, pharmacology, DNA, ... Animals, Feeding Behavior, drug effects, Injections, Male, Motor Activity, Nerve Tissue Proteins, administration & dosage, ... K Miyauchi et al. Neuropeptides cited 2 times Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Base Sequence, COS Cells, metabolism, Calcitonin ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Neuropeptides+36%EA%B6%8C+1%ED%98%B8

Metabolic Complications In An Animal Model Of Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy Type 2Metabolic Complications In An Animal Model Of Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy Type 2

Mutations in BSCL2 gene underlie human Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy type 2 (CGL2) diseases. CGL2 is an autosomal ... Lipodystrophy has been attributed to unbridle cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A-activated lipolysis which inhibits terminal ... At BCM, she established two animal models based on genes that are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NALFD) and ... We found Bscl2-/- mice exhibit a fasting-dependent insulin signaling in liver and muscle. They are hyperphagic, and rely ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/proceedings/metabolic-complications-in-an-animal-model-of-congenital-generalized-lipodystrophy-type-2-61292.html

NAVER 학술정보 >...NAVER 학술정보 >...

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases, Cytoplasm, Enzyme Activation,... ... Induction of lipid-protein mismatch by xenobiotics: kinetic cooperativity.. 1996 H Jr Sandermann 외 1 명 Biochimica et Biophysica ... The role of ceramides 1 and 2 in the stratum corneum lipid organisation.. 1996 J A Bouwstra 외 4 명 Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ... 1996 M M Jensen 외 2 명 Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 24회 피인용 ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Biochimica+et+Biophysica+Acta+1300%EA%B6%8C+3%ED%98%B8

6-Cl-cPuMP BIOLOG Life Science Institute6-Cl-cPuMP BIOLOG Life Science Institute

Analogue of cyclic AMP showing better membrane permeability and higher stability against phosphodiesterases. Suitable for ... of Type I and Type II Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinases Using Cyclic Nucleotide Analogs" ... "Cyclic AMP Derivatives as Tools for Mapping Cyclic AMP Binding Sites of Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinases I and II" ... cAMP-Binding Site in the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I". *32. Miller J. P., Adv. Cyclic Nucl. Res., 14, 335 - 344 (1981 ...
more infohttps://www.biolog.de/6-cl-cpump

Gene interaction enrichment and network analysis to identify dysregulated pathways and their interactions in complex diseases |...Gene interaction enrichment and network analysis to identify dysregulated pathways and their interactions in complex diseases |...

... properties of components ii and iii). Here, we present a novel method called Gene Interaction Enrichment and Network Analysis ( ... based on the biological annotation of each type of dysregulated interaction gives clues about the regulatory logic governing ... ii) the interactions among these entities, and (iii) the dynamics of these entities and interactions. The mechanisms that drive ... cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase gamma catalytic subunit and type-II alpha regulatory subunit) ligand-receptor interactions ...
more infohttps://bmcsystbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1752-0509-6-65

Leicester Research Archive: Studies on the mode of action of cyclic AMP in regulating the release of insulin from islets of...Leicester Research Archive: Studies on the mode of action of cyclic AMP in regulating the release of insulin from islets of...

... of the islet cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity revealed the presence of two isozymes designated Type I and Type II. ... In the presence of Walsh protein (a specific inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases) cyclic AMP mediated ... the S-100 cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, although no significant increase in protein kinase activity was ... of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was located in the S-100 (soluble) fraction, while the majority (42%) of cyclic ...
more infohttps://lra.le.ac.uk/handle/2381/35159

SCOPe 2.06: Structural Classification of Proteins - extendedSCOPe 2.06: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended

... and ASTRAL compendium for protein structure and sequence analysis ... Cyclic GMP, Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II, ... Class: protein binding. Keywords: Binding Sites, Cyclic AMP, ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId: ... Compound: cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId:9606]. Gene: PRKG1, PRKG1B, PRKGR1A, PRKGR1B. Database ... Experiment type: XRAY. Resolution: 1.49 Å. R-factor: N/A. AEROSPACI score: 0.49 (click here for full SPACI score report) Chains ...
more infohttps://scop.berkeley.edu/pdb/code=5j48&ver=2.06

Tore Jahnsen
       - Institutt for medisinske basalfagTore Jahnsen - Institutt for medisinske basalfag

Molecular cloning of the human AKAP95 for the regulatory subunit type II of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK).. ... Molecular cloning of the human AKAP95 for the regulatory subunit type II of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type I mediates the inhibitory effects of 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate on cell ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (vertebrates), In G. Hardie & S. Hanks (ed.), The Protein Kinase FactsBook. Elsevier. ISBN ...
more infohttps://www.med.uio.no/imb/personer/vit/torej/index.html

Ornithine Decarboxylase Induction in Mitogen-Stimulated Lymphocytes is Related to the Specific Activation of Type I Adenosine...Ornithine Decarboxylase Induction in Mitogen-Stimulated Lymphocytes is Related to the Specific Activation of Type I Adenosine...

The data suggest that while the early activation of type I cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase may mediate in a positive manner ... type II protein kinase holoenzyme isozymes via C6-aminoalkyl agarose chromatography revealed that only type I protein kinase ... The degree of activation of soluble cyclic 3,5-AMP-dependent protein kinase(s) was determined at various times following ConA ... the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity ratio increased markedly and was 0.23 unit above control values by 4 hr. The ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/14/3/431

Experts and Doctors on animals in Chicago, Illinois, United StatesExperts and Doctors on animals in Chicago, Illinois, United States

Gerhardstein B, Puri T, Chien A, Hosey M. Identification of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on ... Shaver C, Hauser A. Interactions between effector proteins of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system do not ... Moreover, Ang II degradation in vitro and ex vivo was unaffected by XNT and diminazene. We conclude that the biological effects ... Li Z, Ajdic J, Eigenthaler M, Du X. A predominant role for cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the cGMP-induced phosphorylation of ...
more infohttp://www.labome.org/locale/united/illinois/experts-and-doctors-on-animals-in-chicago--illinois--united-states-12007.html

Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVSPesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS

... cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), noradrenaline, adrenaline (components of SNS), type 1 angiotensin II receptors (AT1R ... Assays exist for B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and midregional pro- ... Angiotensinogen/Ang II levels in heart were unaffected by renal I/R, but they were significantly decreased after treatment with ... AC could significantly reverse the increase of total protein content in H9 c2 cells induced by Ang â ¡; qRT-PCR results showed ...
more infohttps://pesquisa.bvsalud.org/portal/?lang=pt&q=mh:%22Fator%20Natriur%C3%A9tico%20Atrial%22

Compensatory Stabilization of RIIβ Protein, Cell Cycle Deregulation, and Growth Arrest in Colon and Prostate Carcinoma Cells by...Compensatory Stabilization of RIIβ Protein, Cell Cycle Deregulation, and Growth Arrest in Colon and Prostate Carcinoma Cells by...

The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) exists in two isoforms, PKA-I (type I) and PKA-II (type II), that contain an ... 1 The abbreviations used are: cAMP, cyclic AMP; PKA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase; PKA-I, type I PKA; PKA-II, type II PKA; R, ... Handschin J. S., Eppenberger U. Altered cellular ratio of type I and type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in human ... Overexpression of the type II regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase eliminates the type I holoenzyme in mouse ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/6/9/3434

SMART: Secondary literature for RIIa domainSMART: Secondary literature for RIIa domain

Two classes of molecules inhibit the catalytic subunit (C) of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), the heat-stable ... Compartmentalization of the type II cyclic AMP-dependent kinase (PKA) is achieved through association of the regulatory subunit ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase is tethered to protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs) through regulatory subunits (R) ... Isoform-specific differences between the type Ialpha and IIalpha cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring domains revealed ...
more infohttp://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/show_secondary.cgi?domain=RIIa

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide is a growth factor for beta (INS-1) cells by pleiotropic signaling.  - PubMed -...Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide is a growth factor for beta (INS-1) cells by pleiotropic signaling. - PubMed -...

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II. *Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II. *Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases ... Downstream of PI3K, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-stimulated protein kinase Balpha and protein kinase Bbeta ... and PI3K/protein kinase B in a glucose- and dose-dependent manner. Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activators of ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11518806?dopt=Abstract
  • To promote both efficiency and selectivity, many protein kinases and phosphatases are maintained in specific subcellular microenvironments through their association with anchoring proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa on SDS gel electrophoresis. (elsevier.com)
  • Analysis of myosin fragments revealed that PKG binds within Subfragment 2. (elsevier.com)
  • GKAPs were detected in rat aorta, brain, and intestine using a protein overlay technique. (elsevier.com)
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