A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the TESTES and BRAIN. Variants of this subtype exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its mRNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.
A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).

Inhibition of T cell activation by cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate requires lipid raft targeting of protein kinase A type I by the A-kinase anchoring protein ezrin. (1/23)

cAMP negatively regulates T cell immune responses by activation of type I protein kinase A (PKA), which in turn phosphorylates and activates C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) in T cell lipid rafts. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, far-Western blot, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescense analyses, and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown, we identified Ezrin as the A-kinase anchoring protein that targets PKA type I to lipid rafts. Furthermore, Ezrin brings PKA in proximity to its downstream substrate Csk in lipid rafts by forming a multiprotein complex consisting of PKA/Ezrin/Ezrin-binding protein 50, Csk, and Csk-binding protein/phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains. The complex is initially present in immunological synapses when T cells contact APCs and subsequently exits to the distal pole. Introduction of an anchoring disruptor peptide (Ht31) into T cells competes with Ezrin binding to PKA and thereby releases the cAMP/PKA type I-mediated inhibition of T cell proliferation. Finally, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Ezrin abrogates cAMP regulation of IL-2. We propose that Ezrin is essential in the assembly of the cAMP-mediated regulatory pathway that modulates T cell immune responses.  (+info)

Prostaglandin E2 inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha RNA through PKA type I. (2/23)

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine that may contribute to the pathogenesis of septic shock, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and diabetes. Prostaglandins endogenously produced by macrophages act in an autocrine fashion to limit TNF-alpha production. We investigated the timing and signaling pathway of prostaglandin-mediated inhibition of TNF-alpha production in Raw 264.7 and J774 macrophages. TNF-alpha mRNA levels were rapidly modulated by PGE(2) or carbaprostacylin. PGE(2) or carbaprostacyclin prevented and rapidly terminated on-going TNF-alpha gene transcription within 15 min of prostaglandin treatment. Selective activation of PKA type I, but not PKA type II or Epac, with chemical analogs of cAMP was sufficient to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-alpha mRNA levels. The mechanisms by which prostaglandins limit TNF-alpha mRNA levels may underlie endogenous regulatory mechanisms that limit inflammation, and may have important implications for understanding chronic inflammatory disease pathogenesis.  (+info)

Protein kinase A RI-alpha predicts for prostate cancer outcome: analysis of radiation therapy oncology group trial 86-10. (3/23)

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Protein kinase A type I and type II define distinct intracellular signaling compartments. (4/23)

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Dual specificity A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) contain an additional binding region that enhances targeting of protein kinase A type I. (5/23)

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The differential regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-mediated steroidogenesis by type I and type II PKA in MA-10 cells. (6/23)

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Protein expression in salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin diabetes. (7/23)

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The importance of protein kinase A in prostate cancer: relationship to patient outcome in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 92-02. (8/23)

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The stabilisation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the neuromuscular junction depends on muscle activity and the cooperative action of myosin Va and protein kinase A (PKA) type I. To execute its function, PKA has to be present in a subsynaptic microdomain where it is enriched by anchoring proteins. Here, we show that the AChR-associated protein, rapsyn, interacts with PKA type I in C2C12 and T-REx293 cells as well as in live mouse muscle beneath the neuromuscular junction. Molecular modelling, immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation approaches identify an α-helical stretch of rapsyn to be crucial for binding to the dimerisation and docking domain of PKA type I. When expressed in live mouse muscle, a peptide encompassing the rapsyn α-helical sequence efficiently delocalises PKA type I from the neuromuscular junction. The same peptide, as well as a rapsyn construct lacking the α-helical domain, induces severe alteration of acetylcholine receptor turnover as well as
en] Murine AIDS (MAIDS) is caused by infection with the murine leukemia retrovirus RadLV-Rs and is characterized by T-cell anergy and severe immunodeficiency with increased susceptibilty to several experimental opportunistic infections as observed in HIV infection. T cell anergy is associated with an increase of intracellular cAMP level, triggering a multistep pathway involving activation of PKA type I and resulting in inhibition of proximal TCR signaling. We have reviously demonstrated that blocking PKA type I using the selective inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS, restores T-cell function in vitro in MAIDS as well as in HIV infection. In the present report, we investigated the effect of parenteral administration of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS in mice with MAIDS. We show that the compound is not toxic and partially restores the ex vivo proliferative responses to anti-CD3 mAb, but that it has no effect on the lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly characterizing ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase R2. (Aliases: BcDNA:GM01761,pkA,Cos,PKA RII,cos1,Pka-RII,Dmel\CG15862,CG15862,pka-RII,PKa-R2,PKA,Cos1,RII,RII[[DR]],PKA-R2,PKA-RII,Cos-1,Epa) ...
Preliminary results of a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial (RTOG) 9705, a phase II study of postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with completely reseted stage II and stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer ...
Figure 3: Levels of PKA-RII and PKA-C mRNA in DRG. (a) Representative bands showing levels of PKA-RII and PKA-C mRNA analyzed by RT-PCR. (b and c) Data quantification. Four samples were used for each group with two ganglia in each sample ...
n For my wedding,i nak pkai tudung yg ada awning but in the same time ,i nak nyorok my fluffy cheek ni ~_~ ada sape2 ada tips yg bole kuruskan my fluffy cheek ke or tekik pkai tudung awning but xnmpk fluffy cheek..Hope all of u can help me ...
Combinatorial assembly of catalytic and regulatory subunits results in diverse isoforms of the PKA family. Their quaternary structures differ substantially (Taylor et al., 2012). A detailed analysis of isoform-specific cellular functions, however, remains challenging. Approaches to directly detect the activation of endogenous isoforms in primary cells models are largely missing. It was unclear whether changes in RII phosphorylation reflect the process of PKA-II activation. Early biochemical studies on PKA-II purified from bovine cardiac muscle showed that a large proportion of PKA-II is phosphorylated in vivo (Rangel-Aldao et al., 1979). Another report suggests that RII subunits are fully phosphorylated in non-stimulated cardiomyocytes (Manni et al., 2008). Accordingly, these researchers found that activation of PKA resulted in a phosphatase-dependent loss of basal RII phosphorylation detected in cell lysates (Manni et al., 2008). The assumption that RII subunits are fully phosphorylated in the ...
Tibe-tibe....jeng,jeng,jeng..2 org lelaki berbadan tegap tegur kitaorg,Excuse me,wait please.Kitaorg da gelabah dh mse tu,nampak muka mcm penyamun jer..so,kitorg wat2 xdgr jer dan makin laju berjalan.Then salah sorg lelaki td ckp why r u running,wanna run from cops?.Ooooppss!cops ker?pkai jacket n jeans Levis jer,pahtu pkai anting2,ssh nk percaya.Last2 dia tunjuk badge polis dia SEKALI lalu jer,aku nk tgk pon xsempat...biar btol ni! Tp kitaorg xbrani nk lari lagi.kot2 la ni Interpol. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cellular histone modification patterns predict prognosis and treatment response in resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. T2 - Results from RTOG 9704. AU - Manuyakorn, Ananya. AU - Paulus, Rebecca. AU - Farrell, James. AU - Dawson, Nicole A.. AU - Tze, Sheila. AU - Cheung-Lau, Gardenia. AU - Hines, Oscar Joe. AU - Reber, Howard. AU - Seligson, David B.. AU - Horvath, Steve. AU - Kurdistani, Siavash K.. AU - Guha, Chandhan. AU - Dawson, David W.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2010/3/10. Y1 - 2010/3/10. N2 - Purpose: Differences in cellular levels of histone modifications have predicted clinical outcome in certain cancers. Here, we studied the prognostic and predictive value of three histone modifications in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods: Tissue microarrays (TMAs) from two pancreatic adenocarcinoma cohorts were examined, including those from a 195-patient cohort from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial RTOG 9704, a multicenter, ...
Looking for online definition of D-AKAP2 in the Medical Dictionary? D-AKAP2 explanation free. What is D-AKAP2? Meaning of D-AKAP2 medical term. What does D-AKAP2 mean?
Assalam kak . Thanks sbb bg info mmng sngt mmbntu. Dan yg pling utama kelakar la kak ni . Saya ni msih diawal remaja jd fasa jerawat ni mmng naik la .. cuma sikit n bnyak. Msa sya skolah dulu jerawat naik sikit tp confident tu mmng kurang la . Jd msa saya umur 18 saya ada pegi facial d wangsa maju .. lepas pda facial dalam dua hri mcmtu hbis stu muka saya, naik jerawat .mcam2 jenis jerawat yg naik . Msa tu memang sedih sngt mmng down gila bila kawan ajak keluar memang mlas nk kluar . Malas sbb jerawat bnyak :( Dulu kt dahi lincin skrg penuh mcm dah kembar jerawat tu bercamtum :(( . Sya dh tnya kt semua org tntng ubat yg mereka pkai dan mcm jenis produk sya beli tp still xbrkesan. Dan dlm beberapa hri ni saya trbukak blog akak dan trtarik dgn kisah kak . Saya ikut mcm kak buat pergi jmpa doc.Doc kasi ubat tu memang ok la dia mcm kering tp bru try dua hri haha . Tp xsama ubat yg kak tunjuk tu . Nama pon lain .Doc sarankan sya ulang selama 6 bulan. Sya rsa nk beli cethapil yg kak tnjuk tu tp doc ...
Assalam kak . Thanks sbb bg info mmng sngt mmbntu. Dan yg pling utama kelakar la kak ni . Saya ni msih diawal remaja jd fasa jerawat ni mmng naik la .. cuma sikit n bnyak. Msa sya skolah dulu jerawat naik sikit tp confident tu mmng kurang la . Jd msa saya umur 18 saya ada pegi facial d wangsa maju .. lepas pda facial dalam dua hri mcmtu hbis stu muka saya, naik jerawat .mcam2 jenis jerawat yg naik . Msa tu memang sedih sngt mmng down gila bila kawan ajak keluar memang mlas nk kluar . Malas sbb jerawat bnyak :( Dulu kt dahi lincin skrg penuh mcm dah kembar jerawat tu bercamtum :(( . Sya dh tnya kt semua org tntng ubat yg mereka pkai dan mcm jenis produk sya beli tp still xbrkesan. Dan dlm beberapa hri ni saya trbukak blog akak dan trtarik dgn kisah kak . Saya ikut mcm kak buat pergi jmpa doc.Doc kasi ubat tu memang ok la dia mcm kering tp bru try dua hri haha . Tp xsama ubat yg kak tunjuk tu . Nama pon lain .Doc sarankan sya ulang selama 6 bulan. Sya rsa nk beli cethapil yg kak tnjuk tu tp doc ...
4.45pm:arrived Queensbay....jln2...survey adiah bday for me...msuk Guess...mcm nk watch ag...tp pattern dia mcm yg aku pkai skrg...so i say No to him...stick wif my decision....nk jugak yg org kt amir hr tuh..hehehe....mula2 tu kunun nk makan ice cream la kat Hagen Dazs(betoi ka spelling dia mcm ni..tp mcm mbzir ja), i msuk la stage, usha kabuki brush dia...erkkk...mahai...xdak duet..duet mara x msuk ag...so kuaq la blik dgn muka hampa..haha ...
sy nak ckp kat dokter tue org yg pregnant cpt tu gemuk, minum alkohol, hisap rokok, minum air gas, suka mkn fast food & junk food....nape die boleh pregnant....kenape yer dokter?? aku yg sgt lah berpantang makannye lambat dpt baby???....ape jer yg rase tak elok dimkn, mmg aku tak mkn....so, teori dokter tu mcm tak leh pkai jer kan ...
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Huang W, Zhou X, Lefebvre V, de Crombrugghe B (June 2000). "Phosphorylation of SOX9 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A ... August 1999). "Functional and structural studies of wild type SOX9 and mutations causing campomelic dysplasia". The Journal of ... SOX9+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SOX9 human gene location in the UCSC ... The Sox9 protein has been implicated in both initiation and progression of multiple solid tumors. Its role as a master ...
"MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc ... with serine/threonine protein kinases and heat shock protein HSP90 in human hematopoietic cell lines". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 ( ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
... of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on the beta 2 subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNB2 gene. Mutation in ... Bünemann M, Gerhardstein BL, Gao T, Hosey MM (1999). "Functional regulation of L-type calcium channels via protein kinase A- ... GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Brugada syndrome CACNB2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
1996), "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK) in human B cells: co-localization of type I cAK (RIα2C2) with the antigen ... 1991), "Cyclic AMP modulation of human B cell proliferative responses: role of cAMP-dependent protein kinases in enhancing B ... Cell Biol., 1 (5): 305-311, doi:10.1038/13024, PMID 10559944 Scott, J. D. (1991), "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases ... Saxena, M. (1999), "Crosstalk between cAMP-dependent kinase and MAP kinase through a protein tyrosine phosphatase", Nat. ...
... type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5 ... "MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... "Ezrin is a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring protein". The EMBO Journal. 16 (1): 35-43. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.1.35. ... "A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220 binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta ) and mediates protein kinase A-dependent ...
For example, type I and type II cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinases have identical catalytic subunits but different regulatory ... Activation loop Autophosphorylation Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Cell signaling Cyclin-dependent kinase G protein- ... the JAK kinases (a family of protein tyrosine kinases), and the PIP3-dependent kinase cascade were discovered. Kinases are ... For this reason protein kinases are named based on what regulates their activity (i.e. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases). ...
"Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates merlin at serine 518 independently of p21-activated kinase and promotes ... it is a tumor suppressor protein involved in neurofibromatosis type II. Sequence data reveal its similarity to the ERM protein ... protein kinase A, and p21 activated kinases. Work in Drosophila identified Merlin as an upstream regulator of the Hippo tumor ... Merlin is a member of the ERM family of proteins including ezrin, moesin, and radixin, which are in the protein 4.1 superfamily ...
... two sites on glycogen synthetase phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and their dephosphorylation by protein ... Patients with type 2 diabetes normally exhibit low glycogen storage levels because of impairments in insulin-stimulated ... "A reinvestigation of the phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal-muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... protein kinase A (PKA), and casein kinase 2 (CK2). Each of these protein kinases lead to phosphorylated and catalytically ...
"Phosphorylation of SOX9 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A enhances SOX9's ability to transactivate a Col2a1 chondrocyte- ... 1999). "Functional and structural studies of wild type SOX9 and mutations causing campomelic dysplasia.". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ( ... SOX9 protein, human Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) na Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina dos EUA. ... "A new long form of c-Maf cooperates with Sox9 to activate the type II collagen gene". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (52): 50668-75. PMID ...
Pan, X, Heitman, J (July 1999). "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase regulates pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces ... "Cell identity and sexual development in Cryptococcus neoformans are controlled by the mating-type-specific homeodomain protein ... Pan, X, Heitman, J (June 2002). "Protein kinase A operates a molecular switch that governs yeast pseudohyphal differentiation ... Lorenz, MC, Pan, X, Harashima, T, Cardenas, ME, Xue, Y, Hirsch, JP, Heitman, J (February 2000). "The G protein-coupled receptor ...
In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase). PKA is normally ... are not cAMP-dependent. Further effects mainly depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell. ... It should not be confused with 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-activated protein kinase). Earl Sutherland of Vanderbilt ... Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP. Several classes of protein kinases, including protein kinase C, ...
... two sites on glycogen synthetase phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and their dephosphorylation by protein ... Saltiel AR (2001). "New perspectives into the molecular pathogenesis and treatment of type 2 diabetes". Cell 104 (4): 517-29. ... "A reinvestigation of the phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal-muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Amino acid sequence at the sites phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase-3, and extension of the N-terminal sequence ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is also an autoantigen in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome (APS) type I. A consistent abnormality in ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ser19 ( ... is phosphorylated by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. MAPKAPK2 (mitogen-activated-protein kinase-activating ...
A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs), which target cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to various sites in the cell. This ... Such as type 4 collagen Shaw, Andrey S.; Filbert, Erin L. (January 2009). "Scaffold proteins and immune-cell signalling". ... Huntingtin protein co-localizes with ATM repair protein at sites of DNA damage. Huntingtin is a scaffolding protein in the ATM ... In three-kinase signaling cascades, scaffolds bind all three kinases, enhancing kinase specificity and restricting signal ...
... enzyme called phosphorylase kinase was activated by another kinase that was dependent on the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP ... Protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA Cα) is a member of the AGC kinase family (protein kinases A, G, and C), and contributes ... The type I R subunits of which there are two isoforms (RIα, and RIβ) bind the catalytic subunits to create the type I PKA ... "Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ...
Through these studies, the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling has been identified as a key mediator of cortisol ... The treatment approach for the functioning cases of adrenocortical adenoma depends on the type of disorders they induce and ... and the mutations associated with the dysregulation of cyclic AMP - protein kinase A pathways have been implicated in the ... The term "Cushing's disease" refers specifically to "secondary hypercortisolism" classified as "ACTH-dependent Cushing's ...
... which in turn produces cyclic AMP (cAMP). Protein kinase A, whose activation is dependent on the increased levels of cAMP, is ... "Proteins associated with type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR-II) and identified by two-dimensional gel ... The glucagon receptor is a 62 kDa protein that is activated by glucagon and is a member of the class B G-protein coupled family ... "Receptor activity modifying protein-directed G protein signaling specificity for the calcitonin gene-related peptide family of ...
By the late 1960s, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase had been purified, and most attention was centered on kinases and ... Casein kinase activity was found to be present in most cell types and to be associated with multiple enzymes. The type 1 casein ... "Synergistic phosphorylation of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and casein kinase I. ... Hanks SK, Hunter T (May 1995). "Protein kinases 6. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain ...
Expression of the promoter is shown to be induce by phorbol esters and cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase signaling. The four ... Circadian clocks dysregulation is associated with many types of cancer. PFKFB3 expression exhibits circadian rhythmicity that ... due to phosphorylation of Ser-460 by PKA or AMP-dependent protein kinase. The high '2-Kase' activity of PFKFB3 is also due to ... September 2009). "Nuclear targeting of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3) increases proliferation via cyclin-dependent kinases ...
... , more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, abbreviated to ... As protein expression varies from cell type to cell type, the proteins that are available for phosphorylation will depend upon ... In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKA) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP ( ... Cyclic+AMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila cAMP- ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis. • social organism behavior. • cellular response to manganese ion. • response to ether ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases.[12][25] Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.[ ... is phosphorylated by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase.[27] MAPKAPK2 (mitogen-activated-protein kinase-activating ...
... , more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by ... activating the proteins. As protein expression varies from cell type to cell type, the proteins that are available for ... "cAMP-dependent protein kinase" redirects here. It is not to be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase or cyclin-dependent ... Cyclic+AMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... The specific mechanisms, however, differ between protein types. Receptor-activated G proteins are bound to the inner surface of ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ... 5 Gβ proteins, and 12 Gγ proteins. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ...
Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAR1A gene. cAMP ... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... "Entrez Gene: PRKAR1A protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha (tissue specific extinguisher 1)". Huang LJ, ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACG gene. Cyclic AMP- ... 1997). "The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhances serine phosphorylation of the viral matrix". J. Virol. ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ... "Characterization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Cgamma expressed and purified from sf9 cells". Protein ...
... and glucose 6 phosphate may inhibit the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase. ... For example, phosphorylating glucose is necessary for insulin-dependent mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway activity within ... Moiety conservation Phosida Phosphoamino acid analysis RegPhos Types of phosphorylation Oliveira, Ana Paula; Sauer, Uwe (2012- ... Many proteins (between 1/3 to 2/3 of the proteome in eukaryotes) are phosphorylated temporarily, as are many sugars, lipids, ...
Mayeenuddin LH, Garrison JC (January 2006). "Phosphorylation of P-Rex1 by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the ... August 2001). "A high-resolution 6.0-megabase transcript map of the type 2 diabetes susceptibility region on human chromosome ... 5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchanger 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PREX1 gene. The protein encoded ... March 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human ...
... where it stimulates a protein kinase called cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. By phosphorylating proteins, cyclic AMP- ... Cyclic nucleotides can be found in many different types of eukaryotic cells, including photo-receptor rods and cones, smooth ... Eckly-Michel A, Martin V, Lugnier C (September 1997). "Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in cyclic AMP ... G proteins). The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". Frontiers in Bioscience. 13 (13): 1206-26. doi: ... involved in calcium-mediated activation of protein kinase C; the prostaglandins, which are one type of fatty-acid derived ... Many polyketides are cyclic molecules whose backbones are often further modified by glycosylation, methylation, hydroxylation, ... Parodi AJ, Leloir LF (April 1979). "The role of lipid intermediates in the glycosylation of proteins in the eucaryotic cell". ...
... cyclic AMP receptor - cyclic AMP receptor protein - cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein - cyclic electron flow - Cyclic ... nucleotide - cyclic peptide - cyclin - cyclin A - cyclin B - cyclin E - cyclin-dependent kinase - cycloleucine - cyclosporin - ... IGF type 1 receptor - IGF type 2 receptor - IgG - IgM - immediate-early protein - immune cell - immune system - immunoglobulin ... protein subunit - protein synthesis - protein targeting - protein translocation - protein-tyrosine kinase - protein-tyrosine- ...
... collaboration with Paul Greengard resulted in demonstration that cAMP-dependent protein kinase, also known as protein kinase A ... By 1972 they had evidence that the second messenger molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) was produced in Aplysia ganglia under conditions ... helped close the apparent gap between the simple forms of learning often associated with invertebrates and more complex types ... "Genetic evidence for a protein-kinase-A-mediated presynaptic component in NMDA-receptor-dependent forms of long-term synaptic ...
Also, it may be activated by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). This pathway is significantly less effective than the first ... which is necessary for lipid mobilization in response to cyclic AMP, which itself is provided by the activation of Gs protein- ... LIPE, AOMS4, FPLD6, HSL, LHS, lipase E, hormone sensitive type. External IDs. OMIM: 151750 MGI: 96790 HomoloGene: 3912 ... protein binding. • hydrolase activity. • protein kinase binding. • serine hydrolase activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. ...
3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase A. cGMP:. *Transducin. *Gustducin. *Guanylate cyclase ... type 1 angiotensin receptor binding. • protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase ... "Direct binding of G-protein betagamma complex to voltage-dependent calcium channels". Nature. 385 (6615): 446-50. doi:10.1038/ ... phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • retina development in camera-type eye. • Ras protein ...
ARPP-21: Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa. *AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 ... FRA3A encoding protein Fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(3)(p24.2). *FRMD4B encoding protein FERM domain containing ... PIK3CA: phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide. *PROSER1: Proline and serine rich protein 1 ... CACNA2D3: calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3. *CCR5: chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". 》Frontiers in Bioscience》 13 (13): 1206-26. doi: ... White SW, Zheng J, Zhang YM (2005). "The structural biology of type II fatty acid biosynthesis". 》Annual Review of Biochemistry ... Parodi AJ, Leloir LF (April 1979). "The role of lipid intermediates in the glycosylation of proteins in the eucaryotic cell". 》 ... The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid droplets and control of lipolysis". 》Journal ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... Types of G protein signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ... Heterotrimeric G proteins[edit]. Main article: Heterotrimeric G proteins. Different types of heterotrimeric G proteins share a ...
... and were eventually shown to encode components of an intracellular signaling pathway involving cyclic AMP, protein kinase A, ... y-type) and other mutants that show a mosaic pigment pattern with some regions of the cuticle (wild type, y2-type).[69] The ... Sepia colored eyes are not dependent on the sex of the fly. The Sepia eye color decreases sexual activity in males and ... Calcium binds to proteins such as calmodulin (CaM) and an eye-specific protein kinase C (PKC) known as InaC. These proteins ...
Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinasesEdit. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by ... Further effect depends on the type of G protein. G proteins are subsequently inactivated by GTPase activating proteins, known ... The G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are protein kinases that phosphorylate only active GPCRs.[53] G-protein-coupled ... or RGS proteins, which are a type of GTPase-Activating Protein, or GAP. In fact, many of the primary effector proteins (e.g., ...
3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase A. cGMP:. *Transducin. *Gustducin. *Guanylate cyclase ... Types[edit]. There are membrane-bound (type 1, guanylate cyclase-coupled receptor) and soluble (type 2, soluble guanylate ... see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Depending on cell type, it can drive adaptive/developmental changes requiring protein synthesis. In smooth muscle, cGMP is the ...
... and glucose 6 phosphate may inhibit the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase.[7] ... For example, phosphorylating glucose is necessary for insulin-dependent mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway activity within ... Types of phosphorylation. ReferencesEdit. *^ Oliveira, Ana Paula; Sauer, Uwe (2012-03-01). "The importance of post- ... Protein phosphorylationEdit. Main article: Protein phosphorylation. Protein phosphorylation is considered the most abundant ...
... and adenyl cyclase converts AMP into cyclic AMP (cAMP) thereby down-regulating cAMP-responsive proteins involved in cell ... DAG activates certain protein kinase C enzymes )PKCs) that phosphorylate and thereby regulate target proteins involved in cell ... mobilize one or more types of Heterotrimeric G proteins. DP2 is classified as a "contractile" prostanoid receptor in that it ... This control involves, at least in part, the DP2-dependent activation of the male germ cell marker Nanos2 and the inhibition of ...
3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase A. cGMP:. *Transducin. *Gustducin. *Guanylate cyclase ... which vary based on the type of cell. ... G protein-coupled receptor kinase. *AMP-activated protein ... function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein ... an enzyme called protein kinase A (PKA).[12]. The PKA enzyme is also known as cAMP-dependent enzyme because it gets activated ...
... s, when bound with the dependent kinases, such as the p34/cdc2/cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor. MPFs ... Heterotrimeric G protein *Gs/Gi. *Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase ... Types[edit]. There are several different cyclins that are active in different parts of the cell cycle and that cause the Cdk to ... is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK ...
It is a thiamine-pyrophosphate-dependent protein that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate substrate and ... Cofactor TPP and AMP are shown in cyan and blue, respectively. [17] (B) Diagram of the 12 subunit catalytic core of the cubic ... The extent of oxidative stress varies depending on the cell type and its metabolic state, but the substantial source of ROS is ... The citric acid cycle is a cyclic metabolic pathway involved in cellular respiration, which eventually converts carbohydrates, ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Frontiers in Bioscience. 2008, 13 (13): 1206-26. PMID ... Types of Lipids. news-medical.net.. *^ Hunt SM, Groff JL, Gropper SAS. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Belmont, CA: ... White S, Zheng J, Zhang Y. The structural biology of type II fatty acid biosynthesis. Annual Review of Biochemistry. 2005, 74: ... The role of lipid intermediates in the glycosylation of proteins in the eucaryotic cell. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. April 1979, ...
Carugo O, Argos P (1997). "NADP-dependent enzymes. I: Conserved stereochemistry of cofactor binding". Proteins. 28 (1): 10-28. ... "First Archaeal Inorganic Polyphosphate/ATP-Dependent NAD Kinase, from Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii: Cloning ... Lee HC (2002). Cyclic ADP-Ribose and NAADP: Structure, Metabolism and Functions. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 1-4020-7281-3 ... Reactions of this type are catalyzed by a large group of enzymes called oxidoreductases. The correct names for these enzymes ...
protein kinase activity. • hormone activity. • cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity involved in apoptotic process. • ... response to organic cyclic compound. • positive regulation of cell growth. • positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process. ... The analgesia effects of vasopressin were found to be dependent on both stress and sex.[16] ... protein kinase C signaling. • generation of precursor metabolites and energy. • positive regulation of peptidyl-serine ...
It is also possible that certain factors can work together to induce AMP expression. While cyclic AMP and butyrate ... The type-IV secretion apparatus also injects the cag PAI-encoded protein CagA into the stomach's epithelial cells, where it ... the CagA protein is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by a host cell membrane-associated tyrosine kinase (TK). CagA then ... inhibitors is cell dependent. Trichostatin and sodium butyrate increased the peptide expression in human NCI-H292 airway ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". Frontiers in Bioscience 13 (13): 1206-1226. 2008. ... som er en type fedtsyrer deriveret fra eicosanoid involveret ved betændelse og immunitet;[62] steroidehormoner såsom østrogen, ... The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid droplets and control of lipolysis". Journal ... Lipidsignalering kan ske via aktivering af G-protein-koblede eller kernereceptorer, og medlemmer af flere forskellige ...
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger. • negative regulation of action ... Involvement of both mitogen-activated protein kinase and induction of Krox-24 expression". European Journal of Biochemistry / ... Herring AC, Koh WS, Kaminski NE (Apr 1998). "Inhibition of the cyclic AMP signaling cascade and nuclear factor binding to CRE ... the researchers suggested that this process may be due to the activation-dependent decrease in cAMP concentration, leading to ...
3-kinase and Akt protein kinase are necessary and sufficient for the survival of nerve growth factor-dependent sympathetic ... act to phosphorylate the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor.[7] Phosphorylated CREB ... activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • positive regulation of Ras protein signal ... The active Ras protein phosphorylates several proteins, along with the serine/threonine kinase, Raf.[7] Raf in turn activates ...
Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinases[edit]. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated ... LHCGR have been found in many types of extragonadal tissues, and the physiologic role of some has remained largely unexplored. ... via adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP (cAMP). These protein kinases are present as tetramers with two regulatory units and two ... DNA in the cell nucleus binds to phosphorylated proteins through the cyclic AMP response element (CRE), which results in the ...
As secretin binds to these receptors, it stimulates adenylate cyclase activity and converts ATP to cyclic AMP.[20] Cyclic AMP ... "Retinoic acid-induced human secretin gene expression in neuronal cells is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1". Annals of the ... G-protein coupled receptor binding. • receptor binding. • protein N-terminus binding. Cellular component. • extracellular ... This type of substance is now called a hormone, a term coined by Bayliss in 1905.[12] ...
Examples of this type of protein are CapZ, which binds the (+) ends depending on a cell's levels of Ca2+/calmodulin. These ... "Role of actin cytoskeletal dynamics in activation of the cyclic AMP pathway and HWP1 gene expression in Candida albicans". ... which produce four complete isoforms whose form of expression is probably dependent on the type of tissue they are found in. It ... Cofilin-actin complex finally dissociate after cofilin phosphorylation by nuclear LIM kinase. ...
Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes. Olav K. ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ...
These peptides bind to cell surface receptors to activate the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway leading to an increase of ... Cyclic AMP stimulates SF-1-dependent CYP11A1 expression through homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 3-mediated Jun N- ... Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt MeSH terms * Animals * Cell Line ... These peptides bind to cell surface receptors to activate the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway leading to an increase of ...
Type. Formula. 2D Diagram. Parent. SEP. Query on SEP. A,B,E. L-PEPTIDE LINKING. C3 H8 N O6 P. SER. ... Human cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase PKA inhibitor complex. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3MVJ/pdb ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha. A, B, E. 371. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: PKA, PKACA, ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor alpha. I, J, K. 20. N/A. Mutation(s): 0 ...
Measurement of the mRNA levels for the type I regulatory subunit (R{dollar}\sb{lcub}\rm I{rcub}{dollar}) of cAMP-dependent ... The regulation of the levels of cAMP-dependent protein kinases during myogenesis in L6 was studied, as these enzymes have been ... Studies on the regulation of the catalytic subunit (C) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase showed that the increase in this ... protein kinase, and studies on the rates of transcription from the gene coding for this protein, showed that the increase in R{ ...
Berglund, L. (1978). Phosphorylation of rat kidney pyruvate kinase type L by cyclic 3′,5′-amp-dependent protein kinase. BBA - ... Berglund, L 1978, Phosphorylation of rat kidney pyruvate kinase type L by cyclic 3′,5′-amp-dependent protein kinase, BBA - ... Phosphorylation of rat kidney pyruvate kinase type L by cyclic 3′,5′-amp-dependent protein kinase. BBA - Enzymology. 1978 May ... Phosphorylation of rat kidney pyruvate kinase type L by cyclic 3′,5′-amp-dependent protein kinase. In: BBA - Enzymology. 1978 ...
extracellular signal-regulated kinase. PKA. cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. WT. wild-type. CGP-12177. 4-[3-[(1,1- ... β2-Adrenergic Receptor Lacking the Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Consensus Sites Fully Activates Extracellular Signal- ... β2-Adrenergic Receptor Lacking the Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Consensus Sites Fully Activates Extracellular Signal- ... β2-Adrenergic Receptor Lacking the Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Consensus Sites Fully Activates Extracellular Signal- ...
The hydrolysis of cyclic nucleotide second messengers takes place through multiple cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism * Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 3 * Cyclic Nucleotide ... Reciprocal regulation of calcium dependent and calcium independent cyclic AMP hydrolysis by protein phosphorylation J Neurochem ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors * ...
These results suggest that both protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase are involved in melanin production by cyclic AMP-dependent ... Melanin production and tyrosinase activity by MSH are significantly inhibited by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor), PD098059 (mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, MAPKK) and worthmannin ... KT5720) and protein kinase C down-regulation treated with PMA. Bisindolmaleimide (1,TEX,$\mu$,/TEX,M), protein kinase C ...
Huang W, Zhou X, Lefebvre V, de Crombrugghe B (June 2000). "Phosphorylation of SOX9 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A ... August 1999). "Functional and structural studies of wild type SOX9 and mutations causing campomelic dysplasia". The Journal of ... SOX9+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SOX9 human gene location in the UCSC ... The Sox9 protein has been implicated in both initiation and progression of multiple solid tumors. Its role as a master ...
"MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc ... with serine/threonine protein kinases and heat shock protein HSP90 in human hematopoietic cell lines". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 ( ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type I mediates the inhibitory effects of 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate on cell ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (vertebrates), In G. Hardie & S. Hanks (ed.), The Protein Kinase FactsBook. Elsevier. ISBN ... and regulation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. * Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen & Jahnsen, Tore (1993). Isozymes of cyclic AMP- ... Solberg, Rigmor & Jahnsen, Tore (1994). Human type I regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. Structure, ...
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are critical regulators of neuronal differentiation. The expression, ... Protein kinase A type I activates a CRE-element more efficiently than protein kinase A type II regardless of C subunit isoform ... Hansson, Vidar; Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen & Tasken, Kjetil (1999). Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in testicular cells. ... LH and FSH regulate via cyclic adenosine 35 cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), steroid ...
An antiserum against the catalytic subunit C of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, isolated from bovine heart type II protein ... cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards various protein kinases. G Schwoch, A Hamann, H Hilz ... cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards various protein kinases Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase purified from the particulate fraction of bovine heart reacted with the antiserum to the ...
Evidence for cyclic AMP-dependent and protein kinase C-dependent pathways. Circ Res 72:330-340. ... protein kinase C. ON. oligonucleotide. PMA. phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. u-PA. urokinase-type plasminogen activator. u-PAR ... such as focal adhesion kinase,11 protein kinase C (PKC),8extracellular signal regulated kinase,11 12 Janus associated kinases, ... protein kinase C. The urokinase system comprises several components. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) is secreted as ...
Retinoid acid increases cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase activity in b16-f1 mouse melanoma cells. Abstr. ... Niles, R M. and Logue, M P., "Retinoid acid increases cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase activity in b16-f1 mouse melanoma ... Biochemistry, Metabolism:, Neoplasm:, Tissue Culture:, Types of Tumors:, Transplantable Tumors:. JAX Source. Proc Amer Assoc ...
Implicating the calcium‐dependent phosphatase calcineurin in the regulation of Drp1, activation of l‐type calcium channels by ... dependent kinase and phosphatase, cyclic AMPdependent protein kinase (PKA) and calcineurin (also called protein phosphatase 2B ... Ser 656 is phosphorylated by cyclic AMPdependent protein kinase and dephosphorylated by calcineurin, and its phosphorylation ... Reversible phosphorylation of Drp1 by cyclic AMPdependent protein kinase and calcineurin regulates mitochondrial fission and ...
... of the islet cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity revealed the presence of two isozymes designated Type I and Type II. ... In the presence of Walsh protein (a specific inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases) cyclic AMP mediated ... the S-100 cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, although no significant increase in protein kinase activity was ... of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was located in the S-100 (soluble) fraction, while the majority (42%) of cyclic ...
... cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase; cADPR, cyclic ADPR; CaM, calmodulin; CaM kinase II, CaM-dependent protein kinase II; FKBP ... Type I (and type II) Reg proteins are expressed in regenerating islets (66). Type III Reg proteins have been suggested to be ... We also found that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) activates the cADPR-mediated Ca2+ release from islet ... Requirement of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in cyclic ADP-ribose-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. J Biol ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation of Drp1 regulates its GTPase activity and mitochondrial morphology. Chuang ... Differences in the expression and regulation of plus-end proteins in different cell types may underlie previously noted ... You are here: Research Topics , chemicals and drugs , and proteins peptides amino acids , proteins , nerve tissue proteins , ... Kinesin-dependent axonal transport is mediated by the sunday driver (SYD) protein. A B Bowman. Howard Hughes Medical Institute ...
Mutations of the human type Iα regulatory subunit (RIα) of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA; PRKAR1A) lead to altered ... Scott JD Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases. Pharmacol Ther 1991; 50: 123-145. ... Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast, Tissue Immunoblotting, and AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Assays.. Cell lysates were obtained when ... Stratakis CA Protein kinase-A activity in PRKAR1A-mutant cells, and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2. Hum ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) drives glycogen breakdown by activating glycogen phosphorylase and inhibiting ... Recombinase-dependent mouse lines for chemogenetic activation of genetically defined cell types. Cell Rep15:2563-2573. doi: ... Hundreds of hormones and ligands stimulate cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in different tissues through the activation of G-protein ... AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP signalling via phosphorylation-induced activation of cyclic nucleotide ...
Dependence of urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator induction on cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activation in LLC-PK 1 ... Modulation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase by vasopressin and calcitonin in cultured porcine renal LLC-PK 1 cells ... Utilization of gluconate by Escherichia coli . A role of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate in the induction of gluconate ...
Dependence of urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator induction on cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activation in LLC-PK 1 ... Phosphorylation of the purified cardiac ryanodine receptor by exogenous and endogenous protein kinases Biochem J (December, ... Three spinach leaf nitrate reductase-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase kinases that are regulated by reversible ...
Hormonal regulation of the synthesis and mRNA content of the regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type II ... Identification of two subclasses of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinases. Neural-specific and non-neural protein kinases. J ... type II holoenzyme form of cAMP-dependent protein kinase with regulatory subunits of the type I form of cAMP-dependent protein ... Cyclic adenosine 3:5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Comparison of type II enzymes from bovine brain, skeletal muscle ...
Regulation of the cloned L-type cardiac calcium channel by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. FEBS Lett. 1994;342:119-123. ... Regulation of cardiac L-type calcium channels by protein kinase A and protein kinase C. Circ Res. 2000;87:1095-1102. ... voltage-dependent calcium channels. CFP. cyan fluorescent protein. ICa,L. L-type calcium current. IKS. slow component of the ... Moreover, Rem-inhibited CaV1.2 channels can be selectively rescued by BAY K 8644 but not protein kinase A-dependent ...
Moreover, the ginsenoside Rd effectively induced collagen type 1 and down-regulated matrix metalloprotinase-1 (MMP-1) in a dose ... Wound-healing effect of ginsenoside Rd from leaves of Panax ginseng via cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase pathway. In: ... Wound-healing effect of ginsenoside Rd from leaves of Panax ginseng via cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase pathway. European ... Wound-healing effect of ginsenoside Rd from leaves of Panax ginseng via cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase pathway. / Kim, ...
... and ASTRAL compendium for protein structure and sequence analysis ... Cyclic AMP, Cyclic GMP, Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase ... Experiment type: XRAY. Resolution: 1.49 Å. R-factor: N/A. AEROSPACI score: 0.49 (click here for full SPACI score report) Chains ... Compound: cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId:9606]. Gene: PRKG1, PRKG1B, PRKGR1A, PRKGR1B. Database ... Compound: cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId:9606]. Gene: PRKG1, PRKG1B, PRKGR1A, PRKGR1B. Database ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type I mediates the inhibitory effects of 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate on cell ... Protein kinase A-dependent activation of PDE4 (cAMP-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase) in cultured bovine vascular ... Cyclic AMP-specific PDE4 phosphodiesterases as critical components of cyclic AMP signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 5493-5496. ... 3 Abbreviations used in this paper: PKA, protein kinase A; PDE, phosphodiesterase; PDE4, type 4 PDE; siRNA, small-interfering ...
Publication type:. article Reference: MacDonald LJ et al.(2012) Coxiella burnetii alters cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... The phosphorylation levels of the proteins CREB and GSK-3-beta did not change compared to uninfected cells. ... burnetii regulates PKA signaling for distinct purposes during infection and does not alter all PKA-dependent responses. The ...
Regulation of the cloned L-type cardiac calcium channel by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. FEBS Lett. 342:119-123. doi: ... Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase I; CAMKII, Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II; CAMKL, Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase- ... Modulation of the cloned skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel by anchored cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J. Neurosci. 17:1243- ... Protein kinase D regulates the human cardiac L-type voltage-gated calcium channel through serine 1884. FEBS Lett. 585:3903-3906 ...
  • Thus, the activity of the rat kidney pyruvate kinase type L is with all probability regulated by a reversible phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reaction, thereby indicating that hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis via cyclic AMP may be of importance in the renal cortex. (elsevier.com)
  • Berglund, L 1978, ' Phosphorylation of rat kidney pyruvate kinase type L by cyclic 3′,5′-amp-dependent protein kinase ', BBA - Enzymology , vol. 524, no. 1, pp. 68-77. (elsevier.com)
  • To examine these phenomena, we characterized agonist activation of ERK1/2 in HEK293 cells by the endogenous β 2 AR and in HEK293 cells stably overexpressing either the wild-type β 2 AR or a substitution mutant β 2 AR (PKA − ) that lacks the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consensus phosphorylation sites (S261A, S262A and S345A, S346A). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here we report the differential regulation of low K(m) Ca2+-activated (PDE1C) and Ca2+-independent, rolipram-sensitive (PDE4) PDEs by protein phosphorylation in the neuroendocrine cell line AtT20. (nih.gov)
  • Ser 656 is phosphorylated by cyclic AMP‐dependent protein kinase and dephosphorylated by calcineurin, and its phosphorylation state is controlled by sympathetic tone, calcium levels and cell viability. (embopress.org)
  • The phosphorylation of islet cell proteins by islet cell protein kinases has been studied, using a cell free system. (le.ac.uk)
  • In the presence of Walsh protein (a specific inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases) cyclic AMP mediated phosphorylation of four polypeptides was demonstrated at pH 6.0. (le.ac.uk)
  • This protein was tentatively identified as an ATPase whose activity was modulated by its phosphorylation state. (le.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, Rem-inhibited Ca V 1.2 channels can be selectively rescued by BAY K 8644 but not protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The phosphorylation levels of the proteins CREB and GSK-3-beta did not change compared to uninfected cells. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • Together, our findings indicate that ATP promotes phosphorylation of either the channel or an associated protein, whereas dephosphorylation during cell dialysis results in run-down. (rupress.org)
  • We conclude that protein phosphorylation is required for Ca v 2.3 channel function and could directly influence the normal features of current carried by these channels. (rupress.org)
  • Protein kinase A-mediated CREB phosphorylation is an oxidant-induced survival pathway in alveolar type II cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • Substitution of an amino acid at the PKA phosphorylation site (S845A) on GluR1 eliminated the PKA-induced increase in P O,PEAK , whereas the mutation of a Ca 2+ ,calmodulin-dependent kinase II and PKC phosphorylation site (S831A) was without effect. (jneurosci.org)
  • It encodes a protein with 23 predicted cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylation sequences. (pnas.org)
  • The association between specific components of the cyclic neucleotide system and the mitotic spindle suggests that cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of spindle proteins, such as those of microtubules, may play a fundamental role in the regulation of spindle assembly and chromosome motion. (rupress.org)
  • Compartmentalized phosphorylation of IAP by protein kinase A regulates" by Takehiko Dohi, Fang Xia et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • and Altieri, Dario C., "Compartmentalized phosphorylation of IAP by protein kinase A regulates cytoprotection" (2007). (umassmed.edu)
  • Background: The entry of eukaryotic cells into mitosis is regulated by cdc2 kinase activation, a process controlled at several steps including cyclin binding and phosphorylation of cdc2 at Thr161 (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • Phosphorylation at Thr14 and Tyr15, resulting in inhibition of cdc2, can be carried out by Wee1 and Myt1 protein kinases (3,4). (cellsignal.com)
  • Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • Phosphorylation of Aurora A at Thr288 in its catalytic domain increases kinase activity. (cellsignal.com)
  • The effect of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein phosphorylation on gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor function was examined using isolated brain membrane vesicles (microsacs). (muscimol.xyz)
  • Data from such experiments show that PKA increases the phosphorylation of several microsac proteins, including a 66-kDa polypeptide specifically immunoprecipitated with the GABAA receptor anti-alpha 1 subunit antibody. (muscimol.xyz)
  • These results provide evidence that the catalytic subunit of PKA inhibits the function of brain GABAA receptors and demonstrate that this functional change is concomitant with an increase in protein phosphorylation. (muscimol.xyz)
  • We have shown in the NG108-15 neuroblastoma × glioma hybrid cell line that ethanol increases cellular cAMP levels via activation of adenosine A 2 receptors, leading to phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Activation of adenosine A2A and dopamine D1 receptors stimulates cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation of DARPP-32 in distinct populations of striat. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of adenosine A2A and dopamine D1 receptors stimulates cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation of DARPP-32 in distinct populations of striatal projection neurons. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we have examined the effects of activating adenosine A2A and dopamine D1 receptors on the state of phosphorylation of DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of mol. (nih.gov)
  • When striatal slices were incubated with a combination of CGS 21680 and SKF 81297, the effects of the two agonists on both DARPP-32 phosphorylation and cyclic AMP formation were additive. (nih.gov)
  • The maximal effects of SKF 81297 and CGS 21680 on DARPP-32 phosphorylation were of similar magnitude, and were completely abolished by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, Rp-cAMPS. (nih.gov)
  • The present results show that DARPP-32 phosphorylation in the striatum is stimulated by adenosine, acting on A2A receptors, and dopamine, acting on D1 receptors, and that cyclic AMP is the mediator in both cases. (nih.gov)
  • Background-Mammalian hearts exhibit positive inotropic responses to β-adrenergic stimulation as a consequence of protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation or as a result of increased beat frequency (the Bowditch effect). (elsevier.com)
  • Phosphorylation of cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) by protein kinase A accelerates the kinetics of force development in permeabilized heart muscle, but its role in vivo is unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • Phosphorylation of substrate proteins leads to control of enzyme activity and/or gene expression. (yu.edu)
  • We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII) in both juveniles and adults. (hindawi.com)
  • Mechanistically, this effect is mediated by parallel signaling via either calcium or protein kinase C. Furthermore, multiple Gαq-coupled receptors modulate phosphorylation by PKA, a classical Gαs/Gαi effector. (elsevier.com)
  • Chronic ethanol feeding also decreased beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated protein kinase A activation and phosphorylation of its downstream proteins, perilipin A and hormone-sensitive lipase, the primary lipase-mediating lipolysis. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Through phosphorylation of target proteins, PKA controls many biochemical events in the cell including regulation of metabolism, ion transport, and gene transcription. (abnova.com)
  • We measured phosphorylation with at least two different antibodies per site and demonstrate that for S2808 results were highly antibody-dependent and two out of three S2808 antibodies did not accurately report phosphorylation level. (elsevier.com)
  • Basal phosphorylation at S2808/S2814 was maintained by a Ca 2+ dependent kinase other than Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMKII). (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Pyruvate kinase (ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.40) type L was partly purified from rat kidney. (elsevier.com)
  • Abstract -The amplitude of the whole-cell L-type Ca 2+ channel current recorded from vascular smooth muscle cells is reportedly greater in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) than in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). (ahajournals.org)
  • The hydrolysis of cyclic nucleotide second messengers takes place through multiple cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). (nih.gov)
  • Type 4 phosphodiesterases (PDE4) are critical regulators in TCR signaling by attenuating the negative constraint of cAMP. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cyclic nucleotide hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which comprise a large superfamily of 11 families termed PDE1-PDE11 ( 13 , 14 ), play a fundamental role in regulating T cell signaling. (jimmunol.org)
  • Absolutely resistant against mammalian cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphodiesterases, no metabolic side effects. (biolog.de)
  • Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a superfamily of enzymes that are involved in the regulation of the intracellular second messengers cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) by controlling their rates of hydrolysis. (springer.com)
  • Baillie GS, MacKenzie SJ, McPhee I, Houslay MD (2000) Sub-family selective actions in the ability of Erk2 MAP kinase to phosphorylate and regulate the activity of PDE4 cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterases. (springer.com)
  • Bender AT, Beavo JA (2006) Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use. (springer.com)
  • Cyclic AMP is produced from ATP by the enzyme adenylate cyclase (AC) and is hydrolyzed by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases. (moleculardevices.com)
  • 2,3 Cyclic GMP is degraded by cGMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Measurement of the mRNA levels for the type I regulatory subunit (R{dollar}\sb{lcub}\rm I{rcub}{dollar}) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and studies on the rates of transcription from the gene coding for this protein, showed that the increase in R{dollar}\sb{lcub}\rm I{rcub}{dollar} which occurs during myogenesis is is not regulated transcriptionally. (uwo.ca)
  • Undifferentiated NT2 cells expressed mainly cytoplasmic PKA type I, consisting of the regulatory subunit RIalpha and the catalytic subunit Calpha. (uio.no)
  • Most of the holoenzyme (type II) remains intact when bound to the antibodies as shown by quantification of the regulatory subunit in the supernatant of the immunoprecipitate. (biochemj.org)
  • Amino acid sequence of the regulatory subunit of bovine type I adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate dependent protein kinase. (springer.com)
  • Genetic characterization of a brain-specific form of the type I regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (springer.com)
  • Takio K, Smith SB, Krebs EG, Walsh KA, Titani K. Amino acid sequence of the regulatory subunit of bovine type II adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate dependent protein kinase. (springer.com)
  • The molecular cloning of a type H regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase from rat skeletal muscle and mouse brain. (springer.com)
  • Molecular cloning, cDNA structure, and regulation of the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from rat ovarian granulosa cells. (springer.com)
  • The neural type II regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is present and regulated by hormones in the rat ovary. (springer.com)
  • The regulatory subunit of neural cAMPdependent protein kinase II represents a unique gene product. (springer.com)
  • Isolation and sequence of a tryptic peptide containing the autophosphorylation site of the regulatory subunit of bovine brain protein kinase II. (springer.com)
  • Identification and differential expression of two forms of regulatory subunits (RH) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase II in Friend erythroleukemic cells. (springer.com)
  • Identification of sperm-specific proteins that interact with A-kinase anchoring proteins in a manner similar to the type II regulatory subunit of PKA. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • AKAPs contain an amphipathic helix domain that binds to the type II regulatory subunit of PKA (RII). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Both the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase and the type II regulatory subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase were localized on the mitotic spindle. (rupress.org)
  • Antibodies to cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, and the type I regulatory and catalytic subunits of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase did not label the mitotic apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • The subcellular distribution of the regulatory (RII) subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) was analyzed at the electron-microscopical level using thawed cryo-sections of Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. (unibas.ch)
  • We now show that hemin blocks cyclic AMP binding because it itself binds specifically to the regulatory subunit. (ias.ac.in)
  • Cyclic AMP binds to specific locations on the regulatory units of the protein kinase, and causes dissociation between the regulatory and catalytic subunits, thus activating the catalytic units and enabling them to phosphorylate substrate proteins. (wikidoc.org)
  • A co-crystal structure of trypanosome PKA with 7-cyano-7-deazainosine and molecular docking show how substitution of key amino acids in both CNB domains of the regulatory subunit and its unique C-terminal αD helix account for this ligand swap between trypanosome PKA and canonical cAMP-dependent PKAs. (nature.com)
  • The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) exists in two isoforms, PKA-I (type I) and PKA-II (type II), that contain an identical catalytic (C) subunit but distinct regulatory (R) subunits, RI and RII, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Many transcription and chromatin regulatory proteins contain bromodomains and may be recruited to gene promoters, in part, through binding of acetylated histone tails. (cellsignal.com)
  • The regulatory (R) subunit of protein kinase A serves to modulate the activity of protein kinase A in a cAMP-dependent manner and exists in two distinct and structurally dissimilar, end point cAMP-bound "B" and C-subunit-bound "H"-conformations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CNBs function as regulatory modules in different classes of proteins, such as catabolite activator protein, cyclic nucleotide gated channels, Epac proteins, and guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors, where effector protein and domain activity is controlled by cAMP binding to CNB ( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In eukaryotes, one of the principal targets of cAMP is the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase A (PKA), whose regulatory subunit (R-subunit) contains two tandem CNBs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Polysulfides, including those formed from H2S, were shown to induce oxidation of glutathione and oxidant-sensitive kinases, such as cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) Iα or cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulatory RIα subunits. (bl.uk)
  • The "complex of myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation, and endocrine overactivity," or "Carney complex" (CNC), is caused by inactivating mutations of the regulatory subunit type 1A of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKAR1A) gene and as yet unknown defect(s) in other gene(s). (cdc.gov)
  • Ret/ptc2, encoded by one of the fusion genes, contains 596 residues, with the N-terminal 239 residues derived from the type Iα regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (RIα) and the C terminus derived from the Ret tyrosine kinase domain. (asm.org)
  • The cyclic-AMP binding moiety is the cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Ligand binding leads to a conformational change in the receptor that allows its association with a GTP-binding regulatory protein (Gprotein). (moleculardevices.com)
  • and moreover, based on the biological annotation of each type of dysregulated interaction gives clues about the regulatory logic governing the systems level perturbation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This cyclic AMP binding fraction (designated as R′ protein [10]) proved to be a proteolytic fragment of the regulatory subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (elsevier.com)
  • The cytoplasm of cells contained a higher amount of type II than type I regulatory subunit. (elsevier.com)
  • The R′ protein derived presumably from the dissociated type II regulatory subunit. (elsevier.com)
  • These peptides bind to cell surface receptors to activate the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway leading to an increase of steroidogenic gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Hundreds of hormones and ligands stimulate cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in different tissues through the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (asm.org)
  • G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest receptor family in mammals and regulate a wide range of physiological processes ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) allow cells to respond to chemical and sensory stimuli through generation of second messengers, such as cyclic AMP (cAMP), which in turn mediate a myriad of processes, including cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. (prolekare.cz)
  • Greater than 90% of striatal neurons are GABAergic spiny projection neurons (SPNs) of two main subtypes: those expressing predominantly D1-type dopamine receptors that project to the direct pathway [D1-SPNs (dSPNs)] involved in facilitating movement, and those expressing mainly D2-type dopamine receptors that form the indirect pathway [D2-SPNs (iSPNs)] involved in suppressing movement. (jneurosci.org)
  • From these results we conclude that PK-A type II is associated with the membranes of precisely those subcellular compartments that are active in endocytosis and recycling of cell surface receptors. (unibas.ch)
  • Adenylate cyclase is activated by the hormones glucagon and epinepherine through the activation of adenylate cyclase stimulatory G ( G s )-coupled receptors and inhibited by agonists of adenylate cyclase inhibitory G (G i )-protein coupled receptors. (wikidoc.org)
  • Adenosine 3´, 5´-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP) is a universal secondary messenger that connects changes in the extracellular environment, as detected by cell surface receptors, to changes in the nucleus, which results in altered patterns of gene expression. (moleculardevices.com)
  • In mammals, extracellular ligands, such as peptide hormones or neurotransmitters, interact with transmembrane proteins called G-coupled receptors (GPCR). (moleculardevices.com)
  • Protein kinase A (PKA) integrates inputs from G-protein-coupled neuromodulator receptors to modulate synaptic and cellular function. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, these results highlight PKA as a biochemical integrator of three major types of GPCRs and necessitate reconsideration of classic models used to predict neuronal signaling in response to the large family of Gαq-coupled receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Endogenous Gαq-Coupled Neuromodulator Receptors Activate Protein Kinase A'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevier.com)
  • Endogenous Gαq-Coupled Neuromodulator Receptors Activate Protein Kinase A . Neuron , 96 (5), 1070-1083.e5. (elsevier.com)
  • The heterotrimeric G proteins mediate a variety of cellular processes by coupling transmembrane receptors to different effector molecules, including adenylyl cyclases and inositol-phospholipid-specific phospholipase C (PLC). (caltech.edu)
  • The various PLC isoforms appear to be activated by different receptors, and in some cases by different G-protein components. (caltech.edu)
  • Evolutionary Paths of the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Catalytic Subunits. (uio.no)
  • Induction of adenosine 3', 5'monophosphate-dependent protein kinase subunits during adipogenesis in vitro. (springer.com)
  • 8 , - , 11 All 4 RGK proteins potently inhibit high-voltage-activated Ca V channels by associating with auxiliary Ca V β subunits. (ahajournals.org)
  • We show that the decline of currents carried by human Ca v 2.3+β 3 channel subunits during run-down is related to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion, which reduces the number of functional channels and leads to a progressive shift of voltage-dependent gating to more negative potentials. (rupress.org)
  • The encoded protein, which is found mainly in the cytoplasm, is activated by phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate and the beta-gamma subunits of heterotrim. (genecards.org)
  • Its activity is synergistically activated by phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and the beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G protein. (genecards.org)
  • It is known from biochemical studies that GluR1 AMPA receptor subunits can be phosphorylated within their C terminal by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is colocalized with the phosphatase calcineurin (i.e., phosphatase 2B). (jneurosci.org)
  • G-protein βγ subunits has also been reported. (caltech.edu)
  • Histone acetylation is mediated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs), such as CBP/p300, GCN5L2, PCAF, and Tip60, which are recruited to genes by DNA-bound protein factors to facilitate transcriptional activation (3). (cellsignal.com)
  • The regulation of the levels of cAMP-dependent protein kinases during myogenesis in L6 was studied, as these enzymes have been proposed to be involved in the control of this process. (uwo.ca)
  • Studies on the regulation of the catalytic subunit (C) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase showed that the increase in this subunit, which also occurs during myogenesis, is probably regulated at the level of transcription, and not by a change in its rate of degradation. (uwo.ca)
  • This type of mechanism may have relevance to the regulation of increases in other multisubunit complexes during differentiation. (uwo.ca)
  • Melanin production and tyrosinase activity by MSH are significantly inhibited by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (KT5720) and protein kinase C down-regulation treated with PMA. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Down-regulation of Prkar1a by up to 70% was achieved in transgenic mouse tissues and embryonic fibroblasts, with concomitant changes in kinase activity and increased cell proliferation, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hormonal regulation of cyclic AMP binding to specific receptor proteins in rat ovarian follicles. (springer.com)
  • As such, the present study provides a reliable baseline for further studies on Ca v 2.3 channel regulation by protein kinases, phosphatases, and possibly proteases. (rupress.org)
  • Cyclic nucleotides and cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of cell motility and division, processes that depend on the cell cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
  • EC 2.7.1.37), and (b) hemin prevents this conversion by blocking the interaction of cyclic AMP with the kinase's regulation subunit, thereby rendering the enzyme inactive. (ias.ac.in)
  • These effects depend on the type of cell, but includes regulation of glycogen , sugar , and lipid metabolism . (wikidoc.org)
  • Recent research may indicate that cAMP affects the function of higher order thinking in the prefrontal cortex through its regulation of ion channels called hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCN). (wikidoc.org)
  • The pathway maps illustrate protein interactions and regulation to provide a comprehensive picture of signaling and disease processes. (bio-rad.com)
  • Protein kinase A (PKA), the main effector of cAMP in eukaryotes, is a paradigm for the mechanisms of ligand-dependent and allosteric regulation in signalling. (nature.com)
  • 7500 members that confers ligand-dependent allosteric regulation to a diverse range of proteins 2 . (nature.com)
  • Thus, it may reduce oxidised proteins (e.g., disulfides) back to a thiol state, thereby changing enzyme activity to achieve regulation. (bl.uk)
  • Liu, Mingyao and Simon, Melvin I. (1996) Regulation by cAMP-dependent protein kinease of a G-protein-mediated phospholipase C. Nature, 382 (6586). (caltech.edu)
  • However, Rem prevented protein kinase A-mediated upregulation of I Ca,L , an effect achieved without disrupting the sympathetic signaling cascade because protein kinase A modulation of I KS (slow component of the delayed rectifier potassium current) remained intact. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 , 4 Cardiac Ca V 1.2 channels are subject to pharmacological and physiological modulation by various drugs and intracellular proteins, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • Stimulation of the β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells causes a transient activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) 1/2. (aspetjournals.org)
  • While necessary for biogenesis of the organelle, Drp1‐dependent mitochondrial fragmentation is also an early and critical event in apoptosis, coinciding roughly with activation of the pro‐apoptotic B‐cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) family member Bax and permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane ( Martinou & Youle, 2006 ). (embopress.org)
  • The second messenger cAMP has been recognized as an important mediator of such inhibitory signaling mechanisms by activation of the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA), 3 with PKA functioning as a gatekeeper of tonic inhibition in T cells ( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: The role of diacylglycerol in the phosphatidylinositol-signaling pathway is to activate protein kinase C. In the myometrium, protein kinase C activation leads to inhibition of phasic contractions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These studies are designed to determine why stimulation of the phosphatidylinositol-signaling pathway caused by oxytocin does not cause a paradoxical suppression of contractions through diacylglycerol production and protein kinase C activation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Specifically, these studies were performed to test the hypothesis that diacylglycerol catabolism is significant in myometrial tissue, thereby precluding its availability for the activation of protein kinase C. STUDY DESIGN: For these studies, uterine tissue was obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats both nonpregnant and with timed gestations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These observations support the hypothesis that, when its catabolism is prevented, diacylglycerol produced in response to stimulation of the phosphatidylinositol-signaling pathway by oxytocin becomes available for protein kinase C activation, resulting in inhibition of myometrial contractile activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our experiments show metabotropic glutamate receptor and endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol-dependent plasticity, as well as direct CB1 activation by agonists, was similar in YAC128 and FVB/N wild-type SPNs suggesting that presynaptic CB1 is functioning normally. (jneurosci.org)
  • The degree of activation of soluble cyclic 3',5'-AMP-dependent protein kinase(s) was determined at various times following ConA stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP at the same time as ConA (10 µg/ml) resulted in nearly total activation of both type I and type II protein kinases at 4 hr but was inhibitory to the later induction of ornithine decarboxylase and to increased synthesis of RNA and DNA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The data suggest that while the early activation of type I cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase may mediate in a positive manner the induction of ornithine decarboxylase and the mitogenic response of lymphocytes to ConA, concomitant activation of type II protein kinase may inhibit this process. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Its purposes include the activation of protein kinases and regulating the effects of adrenaline and glucagon. (wikidoc.org)
  • Aberrant Hh signaling activity can be associated with numerous birth defects and uncontrolled Hh pathway activation is linked to the development of several types of cancers (1-2). (cellsignal.com)
  • Ideal inhibitors such as Rp-cAMPS are those that preferentially "select" inactive conformations of target proteins by satisfying all "binding" constraints alone without inducing conformational changes necessary for activation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The physiological significance of the ability of H2S to oxidise PKG was investigated using a Cys42Ser PKG knock-in (KI) mouse line that expresses only a mutant form of kinase that cannot undergo disulfide activation. (bl.uk)
  • Our findings indicate that the activation of Notch1 is an important 'second hit' for the transformation of E2A(-/-) T cell lymphomas and that Notch1 promotes survival through pre-TCR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. (labome.org)
  • To further test the hypothesis that activation of L-type Ca 2+ channels in arterial smooth muscle cells would be enhanced in SHR, we recorded single Ca 2+ channel currents in resistance mesenteric artery cells from SHR and WKY (8 to 9 weeks of age) using a cell-attached patch clamp technique. (ahajournals.org)
  • Expression of the type II/IIA sodium channel requires activation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase), whereas induction of the peripheral neuron type sodium channel occurs through an A-kinase-independent signal transduction pathway. (rupress.org)
  • Potentiators are pharmacological agents that increase the chloride ion transport properties of the channel in the presence of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Activation of adenylyl cyclases results in the production of cyclic AMP and activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). (caltech.edu)
  • Phospholipase C catalyses the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP_2) to generate diacylglycerol and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP^3), leading to the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and the mobilization of intracellular calcium. (caltech.edu)
  • These results indicate that the response to mGluR activation is G protein mediated. (uthscsa.edu)
  • 7. Activation of PLC can also lead to the production of diacyl glycerol and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). (uthscsa.edu)
  • Separation of the free catalytic subunit from type I and type II protein kinase holoenzyme isozymes via C 6 -aminoalkyl agarose chromatography revealed that only type I protein kinase was activated 4 hr following incubation of lymphocytes with a mitogenic concentration of ConA (10 µg/ml). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The resulting holoenzyme isoforms differ in cell type-specificity, developmental expression, sub-cellular localization, and affinity to cAMP, thereby accounting for the pleiotropic functions of cAMP signalling. (nature.com)
  • Growth inhibition accompanied reduction in RI α /PKA-I expression and compensatory increases in RII β protein and PKA-II β , the RII β -containing holoenzyme. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although AKAPs have been identified on the basis of their interaction with PKA, they also bind other signaling molecules, mainly phosphatases and kinases, that regulate AKAP targeting and activate other signal transduction pathways.We suggest that AKAP forms a "transduceosome" by acting as an autonomous multivalent scaffold that assembles and integrates signals derived from multiple pathways. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • MAP kinases are key mediators of cellular differentiation and proliferation in all animals, and they function in receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras signaling pathways (reviewed in M arshall 1994 ). (genetics.org)
  • The molecular pathways involved in the aetiology of these syndromes have recently been more clearly defined and several major cellular signalling pathways are probably involved: the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway in Carney complex (CNC), the Ras/Erk MAP kinase pathway in LEOPARD/Noonan syndromes, and the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway (mTOR) in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and the diseases caused by PTEN mutations. (bmj.com)
  • With these cautions in mind, they describe the various signaling pathways and physiological roles ascribed to the three melatonin receptor types. (labome.org)
  • 6 Like NO, cGMP can affect multiple signaling pathways ( Figure 1 A). 1,5,6 To date, three classes of cGMP receptor proteins have been identified: cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) cation channels, cGMP-regulated PDEs, which hydrolyze cAMP and/or cGMP, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Chronic ethanol consumption disrupts G protein-dependent signaling pathways in rat adipocytes. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Our results provide an insight into the specificity and nature of the crosstalk between the two G-protein-coupled signal transduction pathways. (caltech.edu)
  • Investigating the factors participating in SF-1 action, we found that c-Jun and homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 3 (HIPK3) were required for basal and cAMP-stimulated expression of one major steroidogenic gene, CYP11A1. (nih.gov)
  • Transcription factor SOX-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOX9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc finger transcription factor and oncoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification and Characterization of Novel Mutations in the Human Gene Encoding the Catalytic Subunit Calpha of Protein Kinase A (PKA). (uio.no)
  • Based on the model, we proposed two signal systems in β-cells: one is the CD38-cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) signal system for insulin secretion, and the other is the regenerating gene protein (Reg)-Reg receptor system for β-cell regeneration. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Next, we describe the physiological and pathological roles of the CD38-cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) signal system in insulin secretion and the regenerating gene protein (Reg)-Reg receptor system for β-cell regeneration, the elucidations for both of which were developed on the basis of the Okamoto model. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In heart, Ca 2+ influx via L-type (Ca V 1.2) calcium channels links electric excitation to contraction (excitation-contraction coupling), controls the action potential duration (APD) and myocyte excitability, and regulates gene expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mutations in BSCL2 gene underlie human Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy type 2 (CGL2) diseases. (omicsonline.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the RHO family of small GTP-binding proteins (RACs). (genecards.org)
  • PREX1 (Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-Trisphosphate Dependent Rac Exchange Factor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans mpk-1 gene encodes a MAP kinase protein that plays an important role in Ras-mediated induction of vulval cell fates. (genetics.org)
  • The lin-3 gene encodes a protein similar to epidermal growth factor (EGF) that is the inductive signal secreted by the anchor cell ( H ill and S ternberg 1992 ). (genetics.org)
  • Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG expansion mutation in the gene that encodes huntingtin protein (mHtt). (jneurosci.org)
  • Background: The alterations in neurological and neuroendocrine functions observed in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves environmentally dependent dysregulation of neurodevelopment, in interaction with multiple coding gene defects. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP) also called: CAP (Catabolite gene Activator Protein) forms a complex with cAMP and thereby is activated to bind to DNA. (wikidoc.org)
  • Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Our data suggest that ethanol induces cAMP-dependent gene expression regulated by CREB and PKA and that this signaling pathway may mediate some of the addictive behaviors underlying alcoholism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • β2-Adrenergic Receptor Lacking the Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Consensus Sites Fully Activates Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cells: Lack of Evidence for Gs/Gi Switching. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Incubation of cells with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cyclic AMP (CPT-cAMP) enhanced PDE4 and reduced PDE1C activity. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the effect of protein kinase on melanin production via cAMP-dependent pathway, we measured the melanin amount and tyrosinase activity in B16 melanoma cells stimulated by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein and DHC, significantly inhibited both, but the inhibitory effect was more potent in 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated B16 cells than MSH-stimulated cells. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • These results suggest that both protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase are involved in melanin production by cyclic AMP-dependent pathway and NFkB pathway may play an important role in cyclic AMP-dependent melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • v.13 Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and AP-1 are activated during cAMP-induced melanogenesis in B-16 melanoma cells Englaro, W.;Rezzonico, R.;Durand-Clement, M.;Lallemand, D.;Ortinne, J. P.;Ballotti, R. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • v.13 Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/p70(S6)-kinase pathway induces B16 melanoma cells differentiation Busca, R.;Bertolotto, C.;Ortonne, J. P.;Ballotti, R. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Induction of Cbeta splice variants and formation of novel forms of protein kinase A type II holoenzymes during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human NT2 cells. (uio.no)
  • Retinoid acid increases cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase activity in b16-f1 mouse melanoma cells. (jax.org)
  • D ) GFP and 3 × haemagglutinin (HA)‐tagged wild‐type (WT) and Ser656Ala Drp1 were expressed in COS cells metabolically labelled with 32 P and then immunoprecipitated with a Drp1 antibody. (embopress.org)
  • Our results indicate the important role of autophagy in starvation response and the quality control of proteins and organelles in quiescent cells. (labome.org)
  • Overexpressing Rem in adult guinea pig heart cells dramatically depresses L-type calcium current ( I Ca,L ) (≈90% inhibition) and moderately reduces maximum gating charge ( Q max ) (33%), without appreciably diminishing the physical number of channels in the membrane. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we show that anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation of human primary CD4 + T cells increases the expression of the PDE4 subtypes PDE4A, PDE4B, and PDE4D in a specific and time-dependent manner. (jimmunol.org)
  • Protein kinase inhibition also mimics the effects of run-down in intact cells, reduces the peak current density, and hyperpolarizes the voltage dependence of gating. (rupress.org)
  • Electrophysiological recordings from excised cell patches or dialyzed cells are almost invariably hampered by time-dependent changes in voltage-gated ion channel function. (rupress.org)
  • Immunofluorescent localization of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases on the mitotic apparatus of cultured cells. (rupress.org)
  • To determine whether cyclic nucleotides or their kinases are physically associated with the cytoskeleton during cell division, fluorescently labeled antibodies directed against cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, and the cyclic nucleotide-dpendent protein kinases were used to localize these molecules in mitotic PtK1 cells. (rupress.org)
  • We demonstrate that the antisense depletion of RI α in cancer cells results in increased RII β protein without increasing the rate of RII β synthesis or RII β mRNA levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pulse-chase experiments revealed a 3-6-fold increase in the half-life of RII β protein in antisense-treated colon and prostate carcinoma cells with little or no change in the half-lives of RI α , RII α , and C α proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this report, we demonstrate, using cultured cancer cells, that the loss of RI α by antisense treatment results in biochemical compensation by RII β and that this compensation is attributable to an increase in the half-life of RII β protein without changes in the rate of RII β protein synthesis or RII β mRNA levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies on the temporal expression pattern and subcellular localization of Aurora kinases in mitotic cells suggest an association with mitotic structure. (cellsignal.com)
  • Thus, Cdk4 is critical for luteal function, and some redundant protein(s) can compensate for the absence of Cdk4 in proliferation of granulosa cells. (labome.org)
  • Under such conditions, homothallic wild-type cells will normally mate and undergo sporulation. (asm.org)
  • 2. A study was made of adenylate cyclase in red blood cells and of the cyclic-AMP binding proteins of the bovine adrenal cortex. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • We show that, in PC12 cells, the NGF- and FGF-induced sodium current results from increased expression of two distinct sodium channel types. (rupress.org)
  • ROSA26 -Gs-DREADD mice can be used to study the physiological effects of cAMP signaling, acute or chronic, in liver or any tissue or cell type for which transgenic or viral Cre drivers are available. (asm.org)
  • Lipodystrophy has been attributed to unbridle cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A-activated lipolysis which inhibits terminal adipocyte differentiation in Bscl2-/- mice. (omicsonline.org)
  • We found Bscl2-/- mice exhibit a fasting-dependent insulin signaling in liver and muscle. (omicsonline.org)
  • cAMP-response element-binding protein is involved in long-term memory in Drosophila , Aplysia , and mice ( 6 , 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • CaMKIV(-/-) exhibited a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in both the elevated plus maze and dark-light emergence tests when compared to wild-type mice. (nih.gov)
  • 0.001) compared with wild-type mice (n = 19 mice) in the elevated plus-maze. (nih.gov)
  • 0.001) when compared to wild-type mice (n = 19 mice). (nih.gov)
  • b, In the light/dark box, no difference was seen between CaMKIV -/- and wild-type mice in the time spent in the light compartment. (nih.gov)
  • Tissue excised from KI mice showed impaired relaxation to H2S compared with that from their wild-type littermates. (bl.uk)
  • These KI mice express a 'trapping mutant' form of Trx that becomes covalently linked to proteins with oxidised thiol after H2O2 or H2S treatment. (bl.uk)
  • Intact follicular maturation and defective luteal function in mice deficient for cyclin- dependent kinase-4. (labome.org)
  • Research in animals has shown impressive results with studies in mice and rats showing chronic caloric restriction able to extend lifespan by up to 40%, showing the ability in some animal studies to virtually eliminate type 2 diabetes, and dramatically reduce cancer incidence. (foundmyfitness.com)
  • Both effects can be counteracted by hydrolysable ATP, whose protective action is almost completely prevented by inhibition of serine/threonine but not tyrosine or lipid kinases. (rupress.org)
  • Background: Aurora kinases belong to a highly conserved family of mitotic serine/threonine kinases with three members identified among mammals: Aurora A, B, and C (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • Furthermore, we show that PKA directly phosphorylates serine residues of the PLC-β2 protein both in vivo and in vitro. (caltech.edu)
  • We believe these findings to be related to the well-established role of cyclic AMP in signal transduction. (unibas.ch)
  • This article focuses on the role of the signal transduction molecule protein kinase A in the pathophysiology of suicide. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • Because lipolysis in adipocytes is regulated by G protein-mediated cAMP signal transduction, we hypothesized that cAMP-regulated lipolysis may be vulnerable to long-term ethanol exposure. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Calyculin A, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2 A, stimulated PDE4 and enhanced the inhibitory effect of CPT-cAMP on PDE1C. (nih.gov)
  • Cellular localization and age-dependent changes in mRNA for cyclic adensoine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinases in rat testis. (springer.com)
  • The R 2 homodimer is formed by an N-terminal dimerization/docking (DD) domain that also mediates sub-cellular localization via A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). (nature.com)
  • Coexpression of chimeric proteins demonstrated that mitogenic signaling from Ret/ptc2 required both recruitment of Shc and subcellular localization by Enigma. (asm.org)
  • Here we report that cAMP-dependent protein kinase specifically inhibits Gβγ-activated PLC-β2 activity but not that of the Gα-activated PLC isoforms, and that the effect of PKA is not mimicked by PKC isozymes. (caltech.edu)
  • However, the inhibitory action of ACPD on I(AHP), was not affected by staurosporine at a concentration (1 μM) that inhibits both protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC and blocks the action of 5-HT to inhibit I(AHP). (uthscsa.edu)
  • Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) phosphorylates the major transcription factor cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB), which plays a role in emotional behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Some of the kinases involved in phosphorylating CREB at Ser133 are p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2 (7-9). (cellsignal.com)
  • Kandel then identified the critical substrates for this protein kinase including the S-type K+ channel and CREB-like transcription factors. (wolffund.org.il)
  • The short term to long term memory switch depends upon translocation of the protein kinase A catalytic subunit into the nucleus and phosphorylated CREB mediated transcription. (wolffund.org.il)
  • The urokinase (u-PA) system regulates migration in other cell types. (bmj.com)
  • The results suggest that C. burnetii regulates PKA signaling for distinct purposes during infection and does not alter all PKA-dependent responses. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • Previous physiological and pharmacological experiments have demonstrated that the Chlamydomonas flagellar axoneme contains a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) that regulates axonemal motility and dynein activity. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates numerous cellular processes in eukaryotes in response to extracellular and intracellular signals, via a flexible post-translational modification system. (yu.edu)
  • In humans, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, also known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase ). (wikidoc.org)
  • 7-10 Several studies have indicated that u-PA binding activates several signalling molecules implicated in the control of cell migration, such as focal adhesion kinase, 11 protein kinase C (PKC), 8 extracellular signal regulated kinase, 11 12 Janus associated kinases, 13 14 src family tyrosine kinases, 15 and G proteins. (bmj.com)
  • The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is targeted to specific subcellular compartments through its interaction with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • These data suggest that sperm contains several proteins that bind to AKAPs in a manner similar to RII and imply that AKAPs may have additional and perhaps unique functions in spermatozoa. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • cAMP-dependent protein kinase is targeted to discrete subcellular locations by a family of specific anchor proteins (A-kinase anchor proteins, AKAPs). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The two most successful approaches for the treatment of cancer patients have been thus far the anti-EGFR-blocking monoclonal antibodies (MAb), such as Cetuximab, and the selective EGFR small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as Gefitinib and Erlotinib (3-5) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has become clear that sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors not only do not increase the incidence of cardiovascular events but they also reduce the duration of hospitalization for heart failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. (curehunter.com)
  • Once activated, a significant fraction of MAP kinase molecules translocate to the nucleus, and many important MAP kinase substrates are localized in the nucleus ( e.g. , the mammalian transcription factors Elk-1 and Ets-1 (reviewed in T reisman 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • Anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) is deficient in the memory mutant radish , whereas long-lasting protein-synthesis-dependent memory is eliminated by overexpressing the blocking form of the transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein or by feeding cycloheximide ( 4 , 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • In an environment of a low glucose concentration, cAMP accumulates and binds to the allosteric site on CRP ( cAMP receptor protein ), a transcription activator protein. (wikidoc.org)
  • The protein assumes its active shape and binds to a specific site beside the lac promoter, making it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to the adjacent promoter to start transcription of the lac operon, increasing the rate of lac operon transcription. (wikidoc.org)
  • Comparison of type II enzymes from bovine brain, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. (springer.com)
  • The c-Ret protein, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family of enzymes, was first discovered as the product of a proto-oncogene ( 51 ). (asm.org)
  • Protein kinase A (PKA) is one of the crucial signaling molecules that, by phosphorylating proteins, affects a wide array of physiologic functions in the brain. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • After incubation of the phosphorylated kidney pyruvate kinase with phosphatase the phosphoenolpyruvate saturation curve was found to be identical to that for the unphosphorylated enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • Reaction of the catalytic subunit with antiserum and separation of the immunoglobulin G fraction by Protein A-Sepharose quantitatively removed the enzyme from solutions. (biochemj.org)
  • Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase purified from the particulate fraction of bovine heart reacted with the antiserum to the same degree as the soluble enzyme, whereas two cyclic AMP-independent kinases separated from the particle fraction neither reacted with the antiserum nor influenced the reaction of the antibodies with the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (biochemj.org)
  • Immunotitration of the protein kinase catalytic subunit C from rat liver revealed that the antibodies had rather similar reactivities towards the rat liver and the bovine heart enzyme. (biochemj.org)
  • cAMP decomposition into AMP is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphodiesterase . (wikidoc.org)
  • Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is an essential enzyme in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. (abnova.com)
  • High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. (labome.org)
  • Analysis of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase system using molecular genetic approaches. (springer.com)
  • Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Molecular Devices, LLC, the company that provides innovative bioanalytical solutions for protein and cell biology in life science research, is excited to announce the $1M expansion and opening of a new Research and Development Center located at Urstein Sued 17, 5412 Puch bei Hallein, Austria. (moleculardevices.com)
  • A protein fraction of molecular weight 33 000-36 000 accounted for about 40% of the cyclic AMP binding capacity of the cytoplasmic extract of human tonsillar lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Involvement of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and of HA95 in pre-mRNA splicing. (uio.no)
  • This suggests that cyclic AMP and hemin bind to different sites on the protein and that hemin binding affects cyclic AMP binding in an allosteric manner. (ias.ac.in)
  • Two C-terminal cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB) domains cooperatively bind two molecules of cAMP, resulting in a conformational change of the R subunit that releases the active catalytic kinase subunit(s) from the inhibitory pseudo-substrate or substrate site of PKAR. (nature.com)
  • All of these beneficial effects are associated with an induction of intracellular cAMP levels and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein expression in nucleus, which both attenuated by adenine 9-β-d-arabinofuranoside, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor. (elsevier.com)
  • The results indicate that either rapamycin did not suppress the derepression of sexual development of strains in which adenylate cyclase was deleted or the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase encoded by pka1 was mutated. (asm.org)
  • The results of these studies are discussed in relation to the role of cyclic AMP in insulin secretion. (le.ac.uk)
  • LC3-II is the first mammalian protein identified that specifically associates with autophagosome membranes. (labome.org)
  • cAMP-dependent protein kinase has a central role in the control of mammalian sperm capacitation and motility. (umassmed.edu)
  • Genetic studies have shown that the anchor cell signal activates a receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras pathway (reviewed in K ornfeld 1997 ). (genetics.org)
  • Ret/ptc2 is a constitutively active, oncogenic form of the c-Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, after cAMP stimulation, both c-Jun and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were phosphorylated through HIPK3. (nih.gov)
  • v.25 Alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone-induced pigmentation is blocked by depletion of protein kinase Park, H. Y.;Russakovsky, V.;Ao, Y.;Fernandez, E.;Gilchrest, B. A. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • He demonstrated that release of serotonin and the peptide SCP by presynaptic neurons results in increased levels of cyclic AMP and the stimulation of the cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase in the sensory neurons. (wolffund.org.il)
  • Further, cMyBP-C is a principal mediator of increased contractility observed with β-adrenergic stimulation or increased pacing because of protein kinase A and CaMKIIδ phosphorylations of cMyB-C. (elsevier.com)
  • During stimulation with Isoproterenol S2808 was phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) and S2814 was phosphorylated by CaMKII. (elsevier.com)
  • Nonidet-P40 (a non-ionic detergent) was found to 'activate' the S-100 cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, although no significant increase in protein kinase activity was observed when the P-0.6 (containing nuclei and cellular debris) fraction and P-100 fraction were solublised with Nonidet-P40. (le.ac.uk)
  • MAP kinase plays an important role in the Ras signaling pathway because it can activate downstream substrates that directly mediate the cellular response to growth factors, suggesting that MAP kinase acts near or at the end of this signaling pathway (reviewed in T reisman 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • Anjum R, Blenis J (2008) The RSK family of kinases: emerging roles in cellular signaling. (springer.com)
  • Although it is generally accepted that many NO effects are mediated via elevation of intracellular cGMP, one should keep in mind that NO can exert effects independent of cGMP production, for instance via modification of cellular proteins by S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues. (ahajournals.org)
  • Not to mention being notoriously hard to practice with long-term human caloric restricters inadequately restricting protein and ultimately failing at reproducing some of the cellular signaling changes that seem to be important: namely, reductions in an important growth factor known as IGF-1. (foundmyfitness.com)
  • ZD6474 is an orally available, small molecule, dual VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Like the other papillary thyroid carcinoma forms of Ret, Ret/ptc2 is activated through fusion of the Ret tyrosine kinase domain to the dimerization domain of another protein. (asm.org)
  • Antiserum against the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. (biochemj.org)
  • The distribution and dissociation of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinases in adipose, cardiac, and other tissues. (springer.com)
  • Hartl FT, Roskoski R, Jr. Cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. (springer.com)
  • Aurora C localizes to the centrosome from anaphase to cytokinesis and both mRNA and protein levels peak during G2/M phase. (cellsignal.com)
  • Moreover, the mRNA and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor type 2 in the cerebral cortices of older SAMP8 were down-regulated by aging, but these levels were reversed by KK. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Most PRKAR1A mutations (82%) led to lack of detectable mutant protein (nonexpressed mutations) because of nonsense mRNA mediated decay. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium current results from the rapid induction of a novel sodium channel transcript, also found in peripheral neurons, and from the long term induction of brain type II/IIA mRNA. (rupress.org)
  • Potent selective inhibitor of protein kinase G I a, I ß and especially of type II. (biolog.de)
  • This mutation converts a glutamine codon in the wild-type ORF into an amber stop codon in the mutant radish DNA. (pnas.org)
  • A ) Identification of an amber mutation by comparing wild-type and mutant radish genomic DNA. (pnas.org)
  • The chimeric protein is thought to associate with the nuclear corepressor/histone deacetylase complex to block hematopoietic differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titration with the antibodies also revealed the presence of a cyclic AMP-independent histone kinase in bovine heart protein kinase I preparations obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. (biochemj.org)
  • Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. (cellsignal.com)
  • Hyper-acetylation of the histone tails neutralizes the positive charge of these domains and is believed to weaken histone-DNA and nucleosome-nucleosome interactions, thereby destabilizing chromatin structure and increasing the accessibility of DNA to various DNA-binding proteins (4,5). (cellsignal.com)
  • Deacetylation, which is mediated by histone deacetylases (HDAC and sirtuin proteins), reverses the effects of acetylation and generally facilitates transcriptional repression (7,8). (cellsignal.com)
  • In addition, acetylation of specific lysine residues creates docking sites for a protein module called the bromodomain, which binds to acetylated lysine residues (6). (cellsignal.com)
  • At pH 7.0, cyclic AMP inhibition of 32P incorporation into a S-100 54,000 dalton polypeptide was observed. (le.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These studies have demonstrated that prevention of diacylglycerol degradation, especially in response to inhibition of myometrial diacylglycerol kinase, results in the paradoxic oxytocin-mediated suppression of total myometrial contractile activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, inhibition of the PKA catalytic activity does not mimic these peptides, suggesting that the peptides are disrupting the interaction of AKAP(s) with proteins other than PKA. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • In both phases, inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity prevented ethanol-induced CRE-mediated luciferase expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Immunological identity was found between the liver and kidney pyruvate kinases type L. By autoradiography of high-voltage electropherograms after partial acid hydrolysis of the phosphorylated rat liver and kidney pyruvate kinases type L, identical results were obtained. (elsevier.com)
  • Dynamin‐related protein 1 (Drp1) is an ancient mechanoenzyme that uses GTP hydrolysis to power the constriction and division of mitochondria. (embopress.org)
  • In a manner similar to the endocytosis motor dynamin, Drp1 is thought to polymerize into ring‐ or spiral‐shaped superstructures that constrict and eventually sever mitochondria by a GTP hydrolysis‐dependent mechanism ( Hoppins et al , 2007 ). (embopress.org)
  • However, these proteins also have unique features including long N- and C-terminal extensions and nonconservative substitutions of residues important for nucleotide binding and hydrolysis compared to Ras. (ahajournals.org)
  • In particular, serum amino acids metabolism showed six-fold reduction in phenylalanine, lysine, and arginine levels and upregulation of tyrosine and hydroxyproline reflecting perturbations in gluconeogenesis and protein catabolism which together lead to weight loss and abnormal bone metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Measurement of R{dollar}\sb{lcub}\rm I{rcub}{dollar} degradation rates in this cell line showed that R{dollar}\sb{lcub}\rm I{rcub}{dollar} proteolysis is altered in the presence of certain types of cAMP analogues. (uwo.ca)
  • These effects were blocked by H89 indicating mediation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), furthermore in broken cell preparations PKA produced the same reciprocal changes of PDE activities. (nih.gov)
  • Bisindolmaleimide (1 $\mu$ M), protein kinase C inhibitor, significantly inhibited melanin production and tyrosinase activity stimulated by MSH, forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP with the following order of potency: MSH>forskolin>8-Br-cAMP. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Neither melanin production nor tyrosinase activity induced by MSH, forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP were affected by KN-62 (calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor), PD098059 (mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, MAPKK) and worthmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor). (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are critical regulators of neuronal differentiation. (uio.no)
  • Identification of novel splice variants of the human catalytic subunit cbeta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (uio.no)
  • Four different isoforms of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, termed Calpha, Cbeta,Cgamma and PrKX have been identified. (uio.no)
  • Evolution of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) catalytic subunit isoforms.Søberg K, Moen LV, Skålhegg BS, Laerdahl JK. (uio.no)
  • Although the functions and individual effectors of cAMP signaling are well characterized in many tissues, pleiotropic effects of GPCR agonists limit investigations of physiological functions of cAMP signaling in individual cell types at different developmental stages in vivo . (asm.org)
  • After viral delivery of Cre recombinase to hepatocytes in vivo , GsD is expressed and allows CNO-dependent cAMP signaling and glycogen breakdown. (asm.org)
  • Identification of two subclasses of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinases. (springer.com)
  • Further effects thus depends on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which are found in function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase . (wikidoc.org)
  • Hence, the synonym cAMP-dependent protein kinase is commonly used. (nature.com)
  • The extracellular receptor stimulated kinase ERK2 (p42(MAPK))-phosphorylated human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 at Ser579 and profoundly reduced ( approximately 75%) its activity. (hw.ac.uk)
  • Muscimol-stimulated 36Cl- uptake was studied in mouse brain microsacs permeabilized to introduce the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). (muscimol.xyz)
  • The unique catalytic subunit of sperm cAMP-dependent protein kinase is" by Jovenal T. San Agustin, Curtis G. Wilkerson et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Previous protein biochemical studies indicated that the only cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (C) in ovine sperm is an unusual isoform, termed C(s), whose amino terminus differs from those of published C isoforms of other species. (umassmed.edu)
  • No. C 071) preferentially activates type I, while e.g. with 6-MBC-cAMP (Cat. (biolog.de)
  • Barad M, Bourtchouladze R, Winder DG, Golan H, Kandel E (1998) Rolipram, a type IV-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, facilitates the establishment of long-lasting long-term potentiation and improves memory. (springer.com)
  • Activates retinal cGMP channels and thus discriminates between kinase and channel effects. (biolog.de)
  • Recent in vitro and in vivo evidence identifies cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) as major mediators of cGMP signaling in the cardiovascular system. (ahajournals.org)
  • B, Selected properties of cGMP-dependent protein kinases. (ahajournals.org)