Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Paramecium tetraurelia: A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits: Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Nucleotides, CyclicMitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Phosphoproteins8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Receptors, Cyclic AMP: Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4: A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the TESTES and BRAIN. Variants of this subtype exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its mRNA.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESProteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Sirtuins: A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein: A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.DiglyceridesImmunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Sirtuin 1: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Phorbol Esters: Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.MaleimidesFibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Mice, Inbred C57BLGlycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.DNA-Activated Protein Kinase: A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Talin: A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases: Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).

Inhibition of T cell activation by cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate requires lipid raft targeting of protein kinase A type I by the A-kinase anchoring protein ezrin. (1/23)

cAMP negatively regulates T cell immune responses by activation of type I protein kinase A (PKA), which in turn phosphorylates and activates C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) in T cell lipid rafts. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, far-Western blot, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescense analyses, and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown, we identified Ezrin as the A-kinase anchoring protein that targets PKA type I to lipid rafts. Furthermore, Ezrin brings PKA in proximity to its downstream substrate Csk in lipid rafts by forming a multiprotein complex consisting of PKA/Ezrin/Ezrin-binding protein 50, Csk, and Csk-binding protein/phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains. The complex is initially present in immunological synapses when T cells contact APCs and subsequently exits to the distal pole. Introduction of an anchoring disruptor peptide (Ht31) into T cells competes with Ezrin binding to PKA and thereby releases the cAMP/PKA type I-mediated inhibition of T cell proliferation. Finally, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Ezrin abrogates cAMP regulation of IL-2. We propose that Ezrin is essential in the assembly of the cAMP-mediated regulatory pathway that modulates T cell immune responses.  (+info)

Prostaglandin E2 inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha RNA through PKA type I. (2/23)

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine that may contribute to the pathogenesis of septic shock, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and diabetes. Prostaglandins endogenously produced by macrophages act in an autocrine fashion to limit TNF-alpha production. We investigated the timing and signaling pathway of prostaglandin-mediated inhibition of TNF-alpha production in Raw 264.7 and J774 macrophages. TNF-alpha mRNA levels were rapidly modulated by PGE(2) or carbaprostacylin. PGE(2) or carbaprostacyclin prevented and rapidly terminated on-going TNF-alpha gene transcription within 15 min of prostaglandin treatment. Selective activation of PKA type I, but not PKA type II or Epac, with chemical analogs of cAMP was sufficient to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-alpha mRNA levels. The mechanisms by which prostaglandins limit TNF-alpha mRNA levels may underlie endogenous regulatory mechanisms that limit inflammation, and may have important implications for understanding chronic inflammatory disease pathogenesis.  (+info)

Protein kinase A RI-alpha predicts for prostate cancer outcome: analysis of radiation therapy oncology group trial 86-10. (3/23)

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Protein kinase A type I and type II define distinct intracellular signaling compartments. (4/23)

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Dual specificity A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) contain an additional binding region that enhances targeting of protein kinase A type I. (5/23)

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The differential regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-mediated steroidogenesis by type I and type II PKA in MA-10 cells. (6/23)

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Protein expression in salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin diabetes. (7/23)

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The importance of protein kinase A in prostate cancer: relationship to patient outcome in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 92-02. (8/23)

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*RUNX1T1

"MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc ... with serine/threonine protein kinases and heat shock protein HSP90 in human hematopoietic cell lines". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 ( ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...

*CACNB2

... of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on the beta 2 subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNB2 gene. Mutation in ... Bünemann M, Gerhardstein BL, Gao T, Hosey MM (1999). "Functional regulation of L-type calcium channels via protein kinase A- ... GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Brugada syndrome CACNB2 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...

*PRKAR2A

... type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5 ... "MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... "Ezrin is a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring protein". The EMBO Journal. 16 (1): 35-43. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.1.35. ... "A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220 binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta ) and mediates protein kinase A-dependent ...

*Crosstalk (biology)

1996), "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK) in human B cells: co-localization of type I cAK (RIα2C2) with the antigen ... 1991), "Cyclic AMP modulation of human B cell proliferative responses: role of cAMP-dependent protein kinases in enhancing B ... Cell Biol., 1: 305-311., doi:10.1038/13024, PMID 10559944 Scott, J. D. (1991), "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases", ... Saxena, M. (1999), "Crosstalk between cAMP-dependent kinase and MAP kinase through a protein tyrosine phosphatase", Nat. ...

*Kinase

For example, type I and type II cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinases have identical catalytic subunits but different regulatory ... Activation loop Autophosphorylation Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Cell signaling Cyclin-dependent kinase G protein- ... the JAK kinases (a family of protein tyrosine kinases), and the PIP3-dependent kinase cascade were discovered. Kinases are ... For this reason protein kinases are named based on what regulates their activity (i.e. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases). ...

*SOX9

Huang W, Zhou X, Lefebvre V, de Crombrugghe B (2000). "Phosphorylation of SOX9 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A ... 1999). "Functional and structural studies of wild type SOX9 and mutations causing campomelic dysplasia". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (34 ... SOX9 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SOX9 human gene location in the UCSC ... Transcription factor SOX-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOX9 gene. SOX-9 recognizes the sequence CCTTGAG along ...

*CAMK2A

Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylates various types of non-epithelial intermediate filament proteins". Biochem ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha chain (CAMKIIα) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2A ... The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinases family, and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ...

*Merlin (protein)

"Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates merlin at serine 518 independently of p21-activated kinase and promotes ... it is a tumor suppressor protein involved in Neurofibromatosis type II. Sequence data reveal its similarity to the ERM protein ... protein kinase A, and p21 activated kinases. Work in Drosophila identified Merlin as an upstream regulator of the Hippo tumor ... Merlin is a member of the ERM family of proteins including ezrin, moesin, and radixin, which are in the protein 4.1 superfamily ...

*Glycogen synthase

... two sites on glycogen synthetase phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and their dephosphorylation by protein ... Patients with type 2 diabetes normally exhibit low glycogen storage levels because of impairments in insulin-stimulated ... "A reinvestigation of the phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal-muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... protein kinase A (PKA), and casein kinase 2 (CK2). Each of these protein kinases lead to phosphorylated and catalytically ...

*Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase). PKA is normally ... are not cAMP-dependent. Further effects mainly depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell. ... It should not be confused with 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-activated protein kinase). Earl Sutherland of Vanderbilt ... Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP. Several classes of protein kinases, including protein kinase C, ...

*Tyrosine hydroxylase

"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is also an autoantigen in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome (APS) type I. A consistent abnormality in ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ser19 ( ... is phosphorylated by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. MAPKAPK2 (mitogen-activated-protein kinase-activating ...

*PFKFB3

Expression of the promoter is shown to be induce by phorbol esters and cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase signaling. The four ... Circadian clocks dysregulation is associated with many types of cancer. PFKFB3 expression exhibits circadian rhythmicity that ... due to phosphorylation of Ser-460 by PKA or AMP-dependent protein kinase. The high '2-Kase' activity of PFKFB3 is also due to ... "Nuclear Targeting of 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3) Increases Proliferation via Cyclin-dependent Kinases". Journal of ...

*PRKACA

... enzyme called phosphorylase kinase was activated by another kinase that was dependent on the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP ... "Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ... The type I R subunits of which there are two isoforms (RIα, and RIβ) bind the catalytic subunits to create the type I PKA ... and their counterparts the protein phosphatases. Today, this cAMP-dependent protein kinase is more simply noted as PKA. Another ...

*Glucagon

... cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This enzyme, in turn, activates ... It may occur alone or in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. In the 1920s, Kimball and Murlin studied ... The enzyme protein kinase A that was stimulated by the cascade initiated by glucagon will also phosphorylate a single serine ... The conformation change in the receptor activates G proteins, a heterotrimeric protein with α, β, and γ subunits. When the G ...

*Casein kinase 1

By the late 1960s, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase had been purified, and most attention was centered on kinases and ... Casein kinase activity was found to be present in most cell types and to be associated with multiple enzymes. The type 1 casein ... "Synergistic phosphorylation of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and casein kinase I. ... Hanks SK, Hunter T (1995). "Protein kinases 6. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: Kinase (catalytic) domain structure ...

*PREX1

Mayeenuddin LH, Garrison JC (Jan 2006). "Phosphorylation of P-Rex1 by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the ... 2001). "A high-resolution 6.0-megabase transcript map of the type 2 diabetes susceptibility region on human chromosome 20". ... 5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchanger 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PREX1 gene. The protein encoded ... 2007). "Membrane translocation of P-Rex1 is mediated by G protein betagamma subunits and phosphoinositide 3-kinase". J. Biol. ...

*Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ... LHCGR have been found in many types of extragonadal tissues, and the physiologic role of some has remained largely unexplored. ... via adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP (cAMP). These protein kinases are present as tetramers with two regulatory units and two ... DNA in the cell nucleus binds to phosphorylated proteins through the cyclic AMP response element (CRE), which results in the ...

*G protein

Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... The specific mechanisms, however, differ between protein types. Receptor-activated G proteins are bound to the inner surface of ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ... turning the G protein on). RGS proteins stimulate GTP hydrolysis (creating GDP, thus turning the G protein off). G protein can ...

*PRKACG

cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACG gene. Cyclic AMP- ... 1997). "The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhances serine phosphorylation of the viral matrix". J. Virol. ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ... "Characterization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Cgamma expressed and purified from sf9 cells". Protein ...

*Cyclic nucleotide

... where it stimulates a protein kinase called cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. By phosphorylating proteins, cyclic AMP- ... Cyclic nucleotides can be found in many different types of eukaryotic cells, including photo-receptor rods and cones, smooth ... Eckly-Michel A, Martin V, Lugnier C (September 1997). "Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in cyclic AMP ... G proteins). The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) ...

*Index of biochemistry articles

... cyclic AMP receptor - cyclic AMP receptor protein - cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein - cyclic electron flow - Cyclic ... nucleotide - cyclic peptide - cyclin - cyclin A - cyclin B - cyclin E - cyclin-dependent kinase - cycloleucine - cyclosporin - ... IGF type 1 receptor - IGF type 2 receptor - IgG - IgM - immediate-early protein - immune cell - immune system - immunoglobulin ... protein subunit - protein synthesis - protein targeting - protein translocation - protein-tyrosine kinase - protein-tyrosine- ...

*PRKAR1A

Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAR1A gene. cAMP ... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... "Entrez Gene: PRKAR1A protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha (tissue specific extinguisher 1)". Huang LJ, ...

*CAMK4

Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... "A unique phosphorylation-dependent mechanism for the activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV/GR". J. ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... and activation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. ...

*Protein kinase A

... , more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by ... activating the proteins. As protein expression varies from cell type to cell type, the proteins that are available for ... In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKA) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP ( ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila cAMP- ...

*Scaffold protein

A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs), which target cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to various sites in the cell. This ... Human homologue of the Drosophila discs large tumor suppressor binds to p56lck tyrosine kinase and Shaker type Kv1.3 potassium ... Locasale, J.W., A.S. Shaw, and A.K. Chakraborty, Scaffold proteins confer diverse regulatory properties to protein kinase ... In three-kinase signaling cascades, scaffolds bind all three kinases, enhancing kinase specificity and restricting signal ...

*Olfactory receptor neuron

The activated OR in turn activates the intracellular G-protein, GOLF (GNAL), adenylate cyclase and production of cyclic AMP ( ... a type of G protein-coupled receptor. Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many ... "Phosphorylation and inhibition of olfactory adenylyl cyclase by CaM kinase II in Neurons: a mechanism for attenuation of ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of a calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase enriched in olfactory sensory neurons". Proc ...
The stabilisation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the neuromuscular junction depends on muscle activity and the cooperative action of myosin Va and protein kinase A (PKA) type I. To execute its function, PKA has to be present in a subsynaptic microdomain where it is enriched by anchoring proteins. Here, we show that the AChR-associated protein, rapsyn, interacts with PKA type I in C2C12 and T-REx293 cells as well as in live mouse muscle beneath the neuromuscular junction. Molecular modelling, immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation approaches identify an α-helical stretch of rapsyn to be crucial for binding to the dimerisation and docking domain of PKA type I. When expressed in live mouse muscle, a peptide encompassing the rapsyn α-helical sequence efficiently delocalises PKA type I from the neuromuscular junction. The same peptide, as well as a rapsyn construct lacking the α-helical domain, induces severe alteration of acetylcholine receptor turnover as well as
en] Murine AIDS (MAIDS) is caused by infection with the murine leukemia retrovirus RadLV-Rs and is characterized by T-cell anergy and severe immunodeficiency with increased susceptibilty to several experimental opportunistic infections as observed in HIV infection. T cell anergy is associated with an increase of intracellular cAMP level, triggering a multistep pathway involving activation of PKA type I and resulting in inhibition of proximal TCR signaling. We have reviously demonstrated that blocking PKA type I using the selective inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS, restores T-cell function in vitro in MAIDS as well as in HIV infection. In the present report, we investigated the effect of parenteral administration of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS in mice with MAIDS. We show that the compound is not toxic and partially restores the ex vivo proliferative responses to anti-CD3 mAb, but that it has no effect on the lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly characterizing ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase R2. (Aliases: BcDNA:GM01761,pkA,Cos,PKA RII,cos1,Pka-RII,Dmel\CG15862,CG15862,pka-RII,PKa-R2,PKA,Cos1,RII,RII[[DR]],PKA-R2,PKA-RII,Cos-1,Epa) ...
Preliminary results of a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial (RTOG) 9705, a phase II study of postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with completely reseted stage II and stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer ...
Figure 3: Levels of PKA-RII and PKA-C mRNA in DRG. (a) Representative bands showing levels of PKA-RII and PKA-C mRNA analyzed by RT-PCR. (b and c) Data quantification. Four samples were used for each group with two ganglia in each sample ...
n For my wedding,i nak pkai tudung yg ada awning but in the same time ,i nak nyorok my fluffy cheek ni ~_~ ada sape2 ada tips yg bole kuruskan my fluffy cheek ke or tekik pkai tudung awning but xnmpk fluffy cheek..Hope all of u can help me ...
Combinatorial assembly of catalytic and regulatory subunits results in diverse isoforms of the PKA family. Their quaternary structures differ substantially (Taylor et al., 2012). A detailed analysis of isoform-specific cellular functions, however, remains challenging. Approaches to directly detect the activation of endogenous isoforms in primary cells models are largely missing. It was unclear whether changes in RII phosphorylation reflect the process of PKA-II activation. Early biochemical studies on PKA-II purified from bovine cardiac muscle showed that a large proportion of PKA-II is phosphorylated in vivo (Rangel-Aldao et al., 1979). Another report suggests that RII subunits are fully phosphorylated in non-stimulated cardiomyocytes (Manni et al., 2008). Accordingly, these researchers found that activation of PKA resulted in a phosphatase-dependent loss of basal RII phosphorylation detected in cell lysates (Manni et al., 2008). The assumption that RII subunits are fully phosphorylated in the ...
Tibe-tibe....jeng,jeng,jeng..2 org lelaki berbadan tegap tegur kitaorg,Excuse me,wait please".Kitaorg da gelabah dh mse tu,nampak muka mcm penyamun jer..so,kitorg wat2 xdgr jer dan makin laju berjalan.Then salah sorg lelaki td ckp "why r u running,wanna run from cops?".Ooooppss!cops ker?pkai jacket n jeans Levis jer,pahtu pkai anting2,ssh nk percaya.Last2 dia tunjuk badge polis dia SEKALI lalu jer,aku nk tgk pon xsempat...biar btol ni! Tp kitaorg xbrani nk lari lagi.kot2 la ni Interpol. ...
Looking for online definition of D-AKAP2 in the Medical Dictionary? D-AKAP2 explanation free. What is D-AKAP2? Meaning of D-AKAP2 medical term. What does D-AKAP2 mean?
Assalam kak . Thanks sbb bg info mmng sngt mmbntu. Dan yg pling utama kelakar la kak ni . Saya ni msih diawal remaja jd fasa jerawat ni mmng naik la .. cuma sikit n bnyak. Msa sya skolah dulu jerawat naik sikit tp confident tu mmng kurang la . Jd msa saya umur 18 saya ada pegi facial d wangsa maju .. lepas pda facial dalam dua hri mcmtu hbis stu muka saya, naik jerawat .mcam2 jenis jerawat yg naik . Msa tu memang sedih sngt mmng down gila bila kawan ajak keluar memang mlas nk kluar . Malas sbb jerawat bnyak :( Dulu kt dahi lincin skrg penuh mcm dah kembar jerawat tu bercamtum :(( . Sya dh tnya kt semua org tntng ubat yg mereka pkai dan mcm jenis produk sya beli tp still xbrkesan. Dan dlm beberapa hri ni saya trbukak blog akak dan trtarik dgn kisah kak . Saya ikut mcm kak buat pergi jmpa doc.Doc kasi ubat tu memang ok la dia mcm kering tp bru try dua hri haha . Tp xsama ubat yg kak tunjuk tu . Nama pon lain .Doc sarankan sya ulang selama 6 bulan. Sya rsa nk beli cethapil yg kak tnjuk tu tp doc ...
Assalam kak . Thanks sbb bg info mmng sngt mmbntu. Dan yg pling utama kelakar la kak ni . Saya ni msih diawal remaja jd fasa jerawat ni mmng naik la .. cuma sikit n bnyak. Msa sya skolah dulu jerawat naik sikit tp confident tu mmng kurang la . Jd msa saya umur 18 saya ada pegi facial d wangsa maju .. lepas pda facial dalam dua hri mcmtu hbis stu muka saya, naik jerawat .mcam2 jenis jerawat yg naik . Msa tu memang sedih sngt mmng down gila bila kawan ajak keluar memang mlas nk kluar . Malas sbb jerawat bnyak :( Dulu kt dahi lincin skrg penuh mcm dah kembar jerawat tu bercamtum :(( . Sya dh tnya kt semua org tntng ubat yg mereka pkai dan mcm jenis produk sya beli tp still xbrkesan. Dan dlm beberapa hri ni saya trbukak blog akak dan trtarik dgn kisah kak . Saya ikut mcm kak buat pergi jmpa doc.Doc kasi ubat tu memang ok la dia mcm kering tp bru try dua hri haha . Tp xsama ubat yg kak tunjuk tu . Nama pon lain .Doc sarankan sya ulang selama 6 bulan. Sya rsa nk beli cethapil yg kak tnjuk tu tp doc ...
4.45pm:arrived Queensbay....jln2...survey adiah bday for me...msuk Guess...mcm nk watch ag...tp pattern dia mcm yg aku pkai skrg...so i say No to him...stick wif my decision....nk jugak yg org kt amir hr tuh..hehehe....mula2 tu kunun nk makan ice cream la kat Hagen Dazs(betoi ka spelling dia mcm ni..tp mcm mbzir ja), i msuk la stage, usha kabuki brush dia...erkkk...mahai...xdak duet..duet mara x msuk ag...so kuaq la blik dgn muka hampa..haha ...
sy nak ckp kat dokter tue org yg pregnant cpt tu gemuk, minum alkohol, hisap rokok, minum air gas, suka mkn fast food & junk food....nape die boleh pregnant....kenape yer dokter?? aku yg sgt lah berpantang makannye lambat dpt baby???....ape jer yg rase tak elok dimkn, mmg aku tak mkn....so, teori dokter tu mcm tak leh pkai jer kan ...
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.

Purification of a regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from Drosophila heads<...Purification of a regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from Drosophila heads<...

Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major ... Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major ... Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major ... Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major ...
more infohttps://waseda.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/purification-of-a-regulatory-subunit-of-type-ii-camp-dependent-pr

Creb1 - Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Creb1 gene & proteinCreb1 - Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Creb1 gene & protein

Phosphorylation-dependent transcription factor that stimulates transcription upon binding to the DNA cAMP response element (CRE ... "Differential activation of CREB by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases type II and type IV involves phosphorylation of a ... "Differential activation of CREB by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases type II and type IV involves phosphorylation of a ... "Differential activation of CREB by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases type II and type IV involves phosphorylation of a ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P15337

Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes | Biochemical...Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes | Biochemical...

Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes. Olav K. ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ... Restricted efflux of the type II isoform of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in permeabilized rat hepatocytes ...
more infohttp://www.biochemsoctrans.org/content/19/4/1161

Differential Expression and Function of Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) Subtypes in Human Primary CD4+ T Cells: Predominant Role of...Differential Expression and Function of Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) Subtypes in Human Primary CD4+ T Cells: Predominant Role of...

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type I mediates the inhibitory effects of 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate on cell ... Protein kinase A-dependent activation of PDE4 (cAMP-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase) in cultured bovine vascular ... Cyclic AMP-specific PDE4 phosphodiesterases as critical components of cyclic AMP signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 5493-5496. ... 3 Abbreviations used in this paper: PKA, protein kinase A; PDE, phosphodiesterase; PDE4, type 4 PDE; siRNA, small-interfering ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/178/8/4820?ijkey=c45254ef78bf5d5695841fb800dce630000cc3c8&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Differential Expression and Function of Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) Subtypes in Human Primary CD4+ T Cells: Predominant Role of...Differential Expression and Function of Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) Subtypes in Human Primary CD4+ T Cells: Predominant Role of...

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type I mediates the inhibitory effects of 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate on cell ... Protein kinase A-dependent activation of PDE4 (cAMP-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase) in cultured bovine vascular ... Cyclic AMP-specific PDE4 phosphodiesterases as critical components of cyclic AMP signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 5493-5496. ... 3 Abbreviations used in this paper: PKA, protein kinase A; PDE, phosphodiesterase; PDE4, type 4 PDE; siRNA, small-interfering ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/178/8/4820?ijkey=afdbb5b1739c18794ab9ee9f615cc01b14b4e0cb&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Molecular Mechanisms, and Selective Pharmacological Rescue, of Rem-Inhibited CaV1.2 Channels in HeartNovelty and Significance |...Molecular Mechanisms, and Selective Pharmacological Rescue, of Rem-Inhibited CaV1.2 Channels in HeartNovelty and Significance |...

Regulation of the cloned L-type cardiac calcium channel by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. FEBS Lett. 1994;342:119-123. ... Regulation of cardiac L-type calcium channels by protein kinase A and protein kinase C. Circ Res. 2000;87:1095-1102. ... voltage-dependent calcium channels. CFP. cyan fluorescent protein. ICa,L. L-type calcium current. IKS. slow component of the ... Moreover, Rem-inhibited CaV1.2 channels can be selectively rescued by BAY K 8644 but not protein kinase A-dependent ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/107/5/620

RUNX1T1 - WikipediaRUNX1T1 - Wikipedia

"MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc ... with serine/threonine protein kinases and heat shock protein HSP90 in human hematopoietic cell lines". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 ( ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RUNX1T1

FSH Regulation of cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Regulatory Subunits in Rat and Porcine Ovarian Tissues | SpringerLinkFSH Regulation of cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Regulatory Subunits in Rat and Porcine Ovarian Tissues | SpringerLink

Hormonal regulation of the synthesis and mRNA content of the regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type II ... Identification of two subclasses of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinases. Neural-specific and non-neural protein kinases. J ... type II holoenzyme form of cAMP-dependent protein kinase with regulatory subunits of the type I form of cAMP-dependent protein ... Cyclic adenosine 3:5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Comparison of type II enzymes from bovine brain, skeletal muscle ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-7103-8_12

Antitumor Activity of ZD6474, a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-2 and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Small Molecule...Antitumor Activity of ZD6474, a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-2 and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Small Molecule...

... type I cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and bcl-2/bcl-xL (57) or EGFR, type I cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, and COX-2 ... These include inhibitors of the type I cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, VEGF antisense oligonucleotides, endostatin, and ... Combined targeted inhibition of bcl-2, bcl-xL, epidermal growth factor receptor, and protein kinase A type I causes potent ... Antitumor activity of combined blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor and protein kinase A. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88: ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/11/3/1268

Role of Protein Kinase A in the Etiology of Suicide: Evidence from Human Postmortem Brain and Preclinical Studies « Hacked by...Role of Protein Kinase A in the Etiology of Suicide: Evidence from Human Postmortem Brain and Preclinical Studies « Hacked by...

Immunocytochemical localization of the neural-specific regulatory subunit of the type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase to ... cyclic AMP binding to protein kinase A (PKA), cyclic AMP-dependent PKA activity, and protein levels of selective regulatory and ... Shelton RC, Manier DH, Peterson CS, Eillis TC, Sulser F. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in subtypes of major depression ... Constantinescu A, Gordon AS, Diamond I. cAMP-dependent protein kinase types I and II differentially regulate cAMP response ...
more infohttp://primarypsychiatry.com/role-of-protein-kinase-a-in-the-etiology-of-suicide-evidence-from-human-postmortem-brain-and-preclinical-studies/

Ornithine Decarboxylase Induction in Mitogen-Stimulated Lymphocytes is Related to the Specific Activation of Type I Adenosine...Ornithine Decarboxylase Induction in Mitogen-Stimulated Lymphocytes is Related to the Specific Activation of Type I Adenosine...

The data suggest that while the early activation of type I cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase may mediate in a positive manner ... The degree of activation of soluble cyclic 3,5-AMP-dependent protein kinase(s) was determined at various times following ConA ... Between 1 and 2 hr after mitogen administration, the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity ratio increased markedly and ... type II protein kinase holoenzyme isozymes via C6-aminoalkyl agarose chromatography revealed that only type I protein kinase ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/14/3/431

SMART: Secondary literature for RIIa domainSMART: Secondary literature for RIIa domain

Isoform-specific differences between the type Ialpha and IIalpha cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring domains revealed ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase is tethered to protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs) through regulatory subunits (R) ... of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) and the regulatory (R) ... which contains the active site of the inhibitor protein of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase [Cheng, Van Pattern, Smith ...
more infohttp://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/show_secondary.cgi?domain=RIIa

Role of urokinase and its receptor in basal and stimulated colonic epithelial cell migration in vitro | GutRole of urokinase and its receptor in basal and stimulated colonic epithelial cell migration in vitro | Gut

Evidence for cyclic AMP-dependent and protein kinase C-dependent pathways. Circ Res 72:330-340. ... protein kinase C. ON. oligonucleotide. PMA. phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. u-PA. urokinase-type plasminogen activator. u-PAR ... such as focal adhesion kinase,11 protein kinase C (PKC),8extracellular signal regulated kinase,11 12 Janus associated kinases, ... protein kinase C. The urokinase system comprises several components. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) is secreted as ...
more infohttp://gut.bmj.com/content/47/1/105

CACNB2 - WikipediaCACNB2 - Wikipedia

... of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on the beta 2 subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNB2 gene. Mutation in ... Bünemann M, Gerhardstein BL, Gao T, Hosey MM (1999). "Functional regulation of L-type calcium channels via protein kinase A- ... GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Brugada syndrome CACNB2 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CACNB2

Peripheral-type Benzodiazepine Receptor-Mediated Action of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein on Cholesterol Entry Into...Peripheral-type Benzodiazepine Receptor-Mediated Action of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein on Cholesterol Entry Into...

Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) have been implicated in this ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Acute stimulation of cholesterol transport into mitochondria involves the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), peripheral-type ... Translocator Protein (TSPO): The New Story of the Old Protein in Neuroinflammation Y Lee et al. BMB Rep 53 (1), 20-27. Jan 2020 ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15498831/

Antiserum against the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards...Antiserum against the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards...

An antiserum against the catalytic subunit C of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, isolated from bovine heart type II protein ... cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards various protein kinases. G Schwoch, A Hamann, H Hilz ... cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards various protein kinases Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase purified from the particulate fraction of bovine heart reacted with the antiserum to the ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/192/1/223

Leicester Research Archive: Studies on the mode of action of cyclic AMP in regulating the release of insulin from islets of...Leicester Research Archive: Studies on the mode of action of cyclic AMP in regulating the release of insulin from islets of...

... of the islet cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity revealed the presence of two isozymes designated Type I and Type II. ... In the presence of Walsh protein (a specific inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases) cyclic AMP mediated ... the S-100 cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, although no significant increase in protein kinase activity was ... of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was located in the S-100 (soluble) fraction, while the majority (42%) of cyclic ...
more infohttps://lra.le.ac.uk/handle/2381/35159

JCI -
Cardiac CaV1.2 channels require β subunits for β-adrenergic-mediated modulation but not traffickingJCI - Cardiac CaV1.2 channels require β subunits for β-adrenergic-mediated modulation but not trafficking

Identification of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on the beta 2 subunit of L-type voltage- ... Regulation of cardiac L-type calcium channels by protein kinase A and protein kinase C. Circ Res. 2000;87(12):1095-1102.. View ... Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation regulates the cardiac ryanodine receptor. Circ Res. 2004;94(6):e61- ... Neuberger G, Schneider G, Eisenhaber F. pkaPS: prediction of protein kinase A phosphorylation sites with the simplified kinase- ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/123878

8-N₃-cAMP BIOLOG Life Science Institute8-N₃-cAMP BIOLOG Life Science Institute

Analogue for photoaffinity labelling of cAMP binding proteins. Detailed technical information available. Reference: Haley, ,em, ... "Activation of Type I and Type II Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinases by 2,8-disubstituted Derivatives of Cyclic AMP" ... of Type I and Type II Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinases Using Cyclic Nucleotide Analogs" ... Chem., 267, 15707 - 15714 (1992), "Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase Type I Mediates the Inhibitory Effects of 3, 5-Cyclic ...
more infohttps://www.biolog.de/8-n-camp

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Animals, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases, physiology, Dexamethasone, ... 5 Untranslated Regions, genetics, Bone Marrow Cells, metabolism, Cell Line, Cyclic AMP, Cytokines, pharmacology, DNA, ... Animals, Feeding Behavior, drug effects, Injections, Male, Motor Activity, Nerve Tissue Proteins, administration & dosage, ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Neuropeptides+36%EA%B6%8C+1%ED%98%B8

Plus itPlus it

... involving cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase A and the inhibition of P/Q-type Ca2+ channels to reduce glutamate release in the ... 2013) Neuron-type specific cannabinoid-mediated G protein signalling in mouse hippocampus. J Neurochem 124:795-807. doi:10.1111 ... 2015) Input- and cell-type-specific endocannabinoid-dependent LTD in the striatum. Cell Rep 10:75-87. doi:10.1016/j.celrep. ... HFS-LTD in the striatum is dependent on mGluR5 as well as depolarization-induced stimulation of L-type calcium channels (L-VGCC ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/38/3/544

Metabolic Complications In An Animal Model Of Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy Type 2Metabolic Complications In An Animal Model Of Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy Type 2

Mutations in BSCL2 gene underlie human Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy type 2 (CGL2) diseases. CGL2 is an autosomal ... Lipodystrophy has been attributed to unbridle cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A-activated lipolysis which inhibits terminal ... We found Bscl2-/- mice exhibit a fasting-dependent insulin signaling in liver and muscle. They are hyperphagic, and rely ... Mutations in BSCL2 gene underlie human Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy type 2 (CGL2) diseases. CGL2 is an autosomal ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/proceedings/metabolic-complications-in-an-animal-model-of-congenital-generalized-lipodystrophy-type-2-61292.html

NAVER 학술정보 >...NAVER 학술정보 >...

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases, Cytoplasm, Enzyme Activation,... ... Induction of lipid-protein mismatch by xenobiotics: kinetic cooperativity.. 1996 H Jr Sandermann 외 1 명 Biochimica et Biophysica ... Escherichia coli Proteins, Guanidine, Guanidines, Kidney, Kinetics,... ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Biochimica+et+Biophysica+Acta+1300%EA%B6%8C+3%ED%98%B8

6-Cl-cPuMP BIOLOG Life Science Institute6-Cl-cPuMP BIOLOG Life Science Institute

Analogue of cyclic AMP showing better membrane permeability and higher stability against phosphodiesterases. Suitable for ... of Type I and Type II Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinases Using Cyclic Nucleotide Analogs" ... "Cyclic AMP Derivatives as Tools for Mapping Cyclic AMP Binding Sites of Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinases I and II" ... cAMP-Binding Site in the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I". *32. Miller J. P., Adv. Cyclic Nucl. Res., 14, 335 - 344 (1981 ...
more infohttps://www.biolog.de/6-cl-cpump

Experts and Doctors on animals in Chicago, Illinois, United StatesExperts and Doctors on animals in Chicago, Illinois, United States

... of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on the beta 2 subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium ... Li Z, Ajdic J, Eigenthaler M, Du X. A predominant role for cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the cGMP-induced phosphorylation of ... Cooperative role of caveolin-1 and C-terminal Src kinase binding protein in C-terminal Src kinase-mediated negative regulation ... myosin light chain kinase*desmosomes*adherens junctions*hartmannella*g12 g13 gtp binding protein alpha subunits*desmoplakins* ...
more infohttp://www.labome.org/locale/united/illinois/experts-and-doctors-on-animals-in-chicago--illinois--united-states-12007.html
  • Cyclic nucleotide hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which comprise a large superfamily of 11 families termed PDE1-PDE11 ( 13 , 14 ), play a fundamental role in regulating T cell signaling. (jimmunol.org)
  • 3 , 4 Cardiac Ca V 1.2 channels are subject to pharmacological and physiological modulation by various drugs and intracellular proteins, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • All of these beneficial effects are associated with an induction of intracellular cAMP levels and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein expression in nucleus, which both attenuated by adenine 9-β-d-arabinofuranoside, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor. (elsevier.com)
  • Models simulations suggest that, although the negative feedback loop formed by cAMP, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and type 4 phosphodiesterase may be involved in attenuating the cAMP response to NMDA, it is insufficient to explain the range of experimental observations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Greater than 90% of striatal neurons are GABAergic spiny projection neurons (SPNs) of two main subtypes: those expressing predominantly D1-type dopamine receptors that project to the direct pathway [D1-SPNs (dSPNs)] involved in facilitating movement, and those expressing mainly D2-type dopamine receptors that form the indirect pathway [D2-SPNs (iSPNs)] involved in suppressing movement. (jneurosci.org)
  • This suggests that signaling by β-adrenergic receptors depends on temporal pattern of stimulation, and that switching may represent a novel mechanism for recruiting kinases involved in synaptic plasticity and memory. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The stabilisation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the neuromuscular junction depends on muscle activity and the cooperative action of myosin Va and protein kinase A (PKA) type I. To execute its function, PKA has to be present in a subsynaptic microdomain where it is enriched by anchoring proteins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • MAP kinase plays an important role in the Ras signaling pathway because it can activate downstream substrates that directly mediate the cellular response to growth factors, suggesting that MAP kinase acts near or at the end of this signaling pathway (reviewed in T reisman 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • Once activated, a significant fraction of MAP kinase molecules translocate to the nucleus, and many important MAP kinase substrates are localized in the nucleus ( e.g. , the mammalian transcription factors Elk-1 and Ets-1 (reviewed in T reisman 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • In addition to nuclear targets, some MAP kinase substrates are located in the cytoplasm, e.g. , the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS and the protein kinase pp90Rsk (reviewed in F errell 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • The reactivity of the holoenzymes with the antiserum was identical in the absence or the presence of dissociating concentrations of cyclic AMP. (biochemj.org)
  • Nonidet-P40 (a non-ionic detergent) was found to 'activate' the S-100 cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, although no significant increase in protein kinase activity was observed when the P-0.6 (containing nuclei and cellular debris) fraction and P-100 fraction were solublised with Nonidet-P40. (le.ac.uk)
  • Type II kinase was the predominant isozyme of the S-100 fraction and Type I was the predominant isozyme found in the solublised P-100 fraction. (le.ac.uk)
  • In a manner similar to the endocytosis motor dynamin, Drp1 is thought to polymerize into ring‐ or spiral‐shaped superstructures that constrict and eventually sever mitochondria by a GTP hydrolysis‐dependent mechanism ( Hoppins et al , 2007 ). (embopress.org)
  • Drp1 is recruited from the cytosolic compartment to mitochondria by adaptor proteins, including the outer mitochondrial transmembrane protein Fis1. (embopress.org)
  • Mitochondria isolated from cells treated with ODNs antisense, but not missense, to PBR failed to form pregnenolone and respond to either StAR or Tom/StAR proteins. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that both StAR and PBR proteins are indispensable elements of the steroidogenic machinery and function in a coordinated manner to transfer cholesterol into mitochondria. (nih.gov)
  • Dynamin‐related protein 1 (Drp1) is an ancient mechanoenzyme that uses GTP hydrolysis to power the constriction and division of mitochondria. (embopress.org)
  • In summary, individual PDE4 subtypes have overall nonredundant, but complementary, time-dependent roles in propagating various T cell functions and PDE4D is the form likely playing a predominant role. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we show that anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation of human primary CD4 + T cells increases the expression of the PDE4 subtypes PDE4A, PDE4B, and PDE4D in a specific and time-dependent manner. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, these proteins also have unique features including long N- and C-terminal extensions and nonconservative substitutions of residues important for nucleotide binding and hydrolysis compared to Ras. (ahajournals.org)