A type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA SUBUNIT. Binding of this subunit by A KINASE ANCHOR PROTEINS may play a role in the cellular localization of type II protein kinase A.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
A group of antigens consisting principally of Jk(a) and Jk(b), determined by allelic genes. Amorphs are encountered. Antibodies of these substances are usually weak and quite labile, stimulated by erythrocytes.
Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the state government.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cyclic N-oxide radical functioning as a spin label and radiation-sensitizing agent.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.
The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
Images seen by one eye.
A specific stage in animal and human development during which certain types of behavior normally are shaped and molded for life.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a short replication cycle. The genera include: SIMPLEXVIRUS; VARICELLOVIRUS; MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES; and ILTOVIRUS.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.

Generation of a novel A kinase anchor protein and a myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate-like analog from a single gene. (1/56)

A unique Drosophila gene encodes two novel signaling proteins. Drosophila A kinase anchor protein 200 (DAKAP200) (753 amino acids) binds regulatory subunits of protein kinase AII (PKAII) isoforms in vitro and in intact cells. The acidic DAKAP200 polypeptide (pI approximately 3.8) contains an optimal N-terminal myristoylation site and a positively charged domain that resembles the multifunctional phosphorylation site domain of vertebrate myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate proteins. The 15-kilobase pair DAKAP200 gene contains six exons and encodes a second protein, DeltaDAKAP200. DeltaDAKAP200 is derived from DAKAP200 transcripts by excision of exon 5 (381 codons), which encodes the PKAII binding region and a Pro-rich sequence. DeltaDAKAP200 appears to be a myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate analog. DAKAP200 and DeltaDAKAP200 are evident in vivo at all stages of Drosophila development. Thus, both proteins may play important physiological roles throughout the life span of the organism. Nevertheless, DAKAP200 gene expression is regulated. Maximal levels of DAKAP200 are detected in the pupal phase of development; DeltaDAKAP200 content is elevated 7-fold in adult head (brain) relative to other body parts. Enhancement or suppression of exon 5 excision during DAKAP200 pre-mRNA processing provides potential mechanisms for regulating anchoring of PKAII and targeting of cAMP signals to effector sites in cytoskeleton and/or organelles.  (+info)

Mutation of the RIIbeta subunit of protein kinase A differentially affects lipolysis but not gene induction in white adipose tissue. (2/56)

Targeted disruption of the RIIbeta subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) produces lean mice that resist diet-induced obesity. In this report we examine the effects of the RIIbeta knockout on white adipose tissue physiology. Loss of RIIbeta is compensated by an increase in the RIalpha isoform, generating an isoform switch from a type II to a type I PKA. Type I holoenzyme binds cAMP more avidly and is more easily activated than the type II enzyme. These alterations are associated with increases in both basal kinase activity and the basal rate of lipolysis, possibly contributing to the lean phenotype. However, the ability of both beta(3)-selective and nonspecific beta-adrenergic agonists to stimulate lipolysis is markedly compromised in mutant white adipose tissue. This defect was found in vitro and in vivo and does not result from reduced expression of beta-adrenergic receptor or hormone-sensitive lipase genes. In contrast, beta-adrenergic stimulated gene transcription remains intact, and the expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism is normal under both fasted and fed conditions. We suggest that the R subunit isoform switch disrupts the subcellular localization of PKA that is required for efficient transduction of signals that modulate lipolysis but not for those that mediate gene expression.  (+info)

High ethanol consumption and low sensitivity to ethanol-induced sedation in protein kinase A-mutant mice. (3/56)

Both in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) mediates some of the acute and chronic cellular responses to alcohol. However, it is unclear whether PKA regulates voluntary alcohol consumption. We therefore studied alcohol consumption by mice that completely lack the regulatory IIbeta (RIIbeta) subunit of PKA as a result of targeted gene disruption. Here we report that RIIbeta knockout mice (RIIbeta-/-) showed incr eased consumption of solutions containing 6, 10, and 20% (v/v) ethanol when compared with wild-type mice (RIIbeta+/+). On the other hand, RIIbeta-/- mice showed normal consumption of solutions containing either sucrose or quinine. When compared with wild-type mice, the RIIbeta-/- mice were found to be less sensitive to the sedative effects of ethanol as measured by more rapid recovery from ethanol-induced sleep, even though plasma ethanol concentrations did not differ significantly from those of controls. Finally, both RIbeta- and catylatic subunit beta1-deficient mice showed normal voluntary consumption of ethanol, indicating that increased ethanol consumption is not a general characteristic associated with deletion of PKA subunits. These data demonstrate a role for the RIIbeta subunit of PKA in regulating voluntary consumption of alcohol and sensitivity to the intoxication effects that are produced by this drug.  (+info)

8-chloro-cAMP inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro and neointima formation induced by balloon injury in vivo. (4/56)

OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to assess 1) the effect of 8-C1-cAMP (cyclic-3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate) on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in vitro and 2) the efficacy of systemic administration of 8-C1-cAMP on neointimal formation after balloon injury in vivo. BACKGROUND: Neointimal formation after vascular injury is responsible for restenosis after arterial stenting. Recently, 8-C1-cAMP, a cAMP analogue that induces growth arrest, has been safely administered in phase I studies in humans. METHODS: The effect of 8-C1-cAMP on cell proliferation was first assessed on SMCs in vitro. To study the effects of cAMP in vivo, balloon injury was performed in 67 rats using a 2F Fogarty balloon catheter. RESULTS: The 8-C1-cAMP markedly inhibited VSMC proliferation in vitro, reduced protein kinase A (PKA) RIalpha subunit expression, and induced PKA RIIbeta subunit expression. In addition, 8-C1-cAMP reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, neointimal area and neointima/media ratio after balloon injury. The proliferative activity, assessed by proliferating nuclear cell antigen immunostaining, revealed a reduction of proliferative activity of VSMCs in vivo in the 8-C1-cAMP group. Moreover, the systemic administration of 8-C1-cAMP did not affect renal function, blood pressure and heart rate. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 8-C1-cAMP potently inhibits VSMC proliferation in vitro and reduces neointima formation by balloon injury in vivo after systemic administration. These data may have a clinical relevance in designing future strategies to prevent restenosis after arterial stenting and perhaps after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.  (+info)

Association of deficient type II protein kinase A activity with aberrant nuclear translocation of the RII beta subunit in systemic lupus erythematosus T lymphocytes. (5/56)

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder of indeterminate etiology characterized by abnormal T cell signal transduction and altered T cell effector functions. We have previously observed a profound deficiency of total protein kinase A (PKA) phosphotransferase activity in SLE T cells. Here we examined whether reduced total PKA activity in SLE T cells is in part the result of deficient type II PKA (PKA-II) isozyme activity. The mean PKA-II activity in SLE T cells was 61% of normal control T cells. The prevalence of deficient PKA-II activity in 35 SLE subjects was 37%. Deficient isozyme activity was persistent over time and was unrelated to SLE disease activity. Reduced PKA-II activity was associated with spontaneous dissociation of the cytosolic RIIbeta2C2 holoenzyme and translocation of the regulatory (RIIbeta) subunit from the cytosol to the nucleus. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the RIIbeta subunit was present in approximately 60% of SLE T cell nuclei compared with only 2-3% of normal and disease controls. Quantification of nuclear RIIbeta subunit protein content by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting demonstrated a 54% increase over normal T cell nuclei. Moreover, the RIIbeta subunit was retained in SLE T cell nuclei, failed to relocate to the cytosol, and was associated with a persistent deficiency of PKA-II activity. In conclusion, we describe a novel mechanism of deficient PKA-II isozyme activity due to aberrant nuclear translocation of the RIIbeta subunit and its retention in the nucleus in SLE T cells. Deficient PKA-II activity may contribute to impaired signaling in SLE T cells.  (+info)

Compensatory stabilization of RIIbeta protein, cell cycle deregulation, and growth arrest in colon and prostate carcinoma cells by antisense-directed down-regulation of protein kinase A RIalpha protein. (6/56)

The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) exists in two isoforms, PKA-I (type I) and PKA-II (type II), that contain an identical catalytic (C) subunit but distinct regulatory (R) subunits, RI and RII, respectively. Increased expression of RIalpha/PKA-I has been shown in human cancer cell lines, in primary tumors, in cells after transformation, and in cells upon stimulation of growth. We have shown previously that a single-injection RI, antisense treatment results in a reduction in RIalpha and PKA-I expression and sustained inhibition of human colon carcinoma growth in athymic mice (M. Nesterova and Y. S. Cho-Chung, Nat. Med., 1: 528-533, 1995). Growth inhibition accompanied reduction in RIalpha/PKA-I expression and compensatory increases in RIIbeta protein and PKA-IIbeta, the RIIbeta-containing holoenzyme. Here, we report that these in vivo findings are consistent with observations made in cancer cells in culture. We demonstrate that the antisense depletion of RIalpha in cancer cells results in increased RIIbeta protein without increasing the rate of RIIbeta synthesis or RIIbeta mRNA levels. Pulse-chase experiments revealed a 3-6-fold increase in the half-life of RIIbeta protein in antisense-treated colon and prostate carcinoma cells with little or no change in the half-lives of RIalpha, RIIalpha, and Calpha proteins. Compensation by RIIbeta stabilization may represent a novel biochemical adaptation mechanism of the cell in response to sequence-specific loss of RIalpha expression, which leads to sustained down-regulation of PKA-I activity and inhibition of tumor growth.  (+info)

Molecular basis for regulatory subunit diversity in cAMP-dependent protein kinase: crystal structure of the type II beta regulatory subunit. (7/56)

BACKGROUND: Cyclic AMP binding domains possess common structural features yet are diversely coupled to different signaling modules. Each cAMP binding domain receives and transmits a cAMP signal; however, the signaling networks differ even within the same family of regulatory proteins as evidenced by the long-standing biochemical and physiological differences between type I and type II regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. RESULTS: We report the first type II regulatory subunit crystal structure, which we determined to 2.45 A resolution and refined to an R factor of 0.176 with a free R factor of 0.198. This new structure of the type II beta regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase demonstrates that the relative orientations of the two tandem cAMP binding domains are very different in the type II beta as compared to the type I alpha regulatory subunit. Each structural unit for binding cAMP contains the highly conserved phosphate binding cassette that can be considered the "signature" motif of cAMP binding domains. This motif is coupled to nonconserved regions that link the cAMP signal to diverse structural and functional modules. CONCLUSIONS: Both the diversity and similarity of cAMP binding sites are demonstrated by this new type II regulatory subunit structure. The structure represents an intramolecular paradigm for the cooperative triad that links two cAMP binding sites through a domain interface to the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The domain interface surface is created by the binding of only one cAMP molecule and is enabled by amino acid sequence variability within the peptide chain that tethers the two domains together.  (+info)

Positive regulation of cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion by protein kinase A. (8/56)

Integrin receptor activation is an important regulatory mechanism for cell-substrate and cell-cell adhesion. In this study, we explore a signaling pathway activated by mAb 12G10, an antibody that can activate beta(1) integrins and induce integrin-mediated cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. We have found that the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is required for both mAb 12G10-induced cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion of HT-1080 cells. Binding of mAb 12G10 to beta(1) integrins stimulates an increase in intracellular cAMP levels and PKA activity, and a concomitant shift in the localization of the PKA type II regulatory subunits from the cytoplasm to areas where integrins expressing the 12G10 epitope are located. MAb 12G10-induced cell-cell adhesion was mimicked by a combination of clustering beta(1) integrins and elevating PKA activity with Sp-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate or forskolin. We also show that two processes required for HT-1080 cell-cell adhesion, integrin clustering and F-actin polymerization are both dependent on PKA. Taken together, our data suggest that PKA plays a key role in the signaling pathway, resulting from activation of beta(1) integrins, and that this enzyme may be required for upregulation of cell-substrate and cell-cell adhesion.  (+info)

Combinatorial assembly of catalytic and regulatory subunits results in diverse isoforms of the PKA family. Their quaternary structures differ substantially (Taylor et al., 2012). A detailed analysis of isoform-specific cellular functions, however, remains challenging. Approaches to directly detect the activation of endogenous isoforms in primary cells models are largely missing. It was unclear whether changes in RII phosphorylation reflect the process of PKA-II activation. Early biochemical studies on PKA-II purified from bovine cardiac muscle showed that a large proportion of PKA-II is phosphorylated in vivo (Rangel-Aldao et al., 1979). Another report suggests that RII subunits are fully phosphorylated in non-stimulated cardiomyocytes (Manni et al., 2008). Accordingly, these researchers found that activation of PKA resulted in a phosphatase-dependent loss of basal RII phosphorylation detected in cell lysates (Manni et al., 2008). The assumption that RII subunits are fully phosphorylated in the ...
London E, Nesterova M, Sinaii N, Szarek E, Chanturiya T, Mastroyannis SA, Gavrilova O, Stratakis CA: Differentially regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity in adipose tissue and liver is associated with resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice that lack PKA regulatory subunit type IIα. Endocrinology; 2014 Sep;155(9):3397-408 ...
London E, Nesterova M, Sinaii N, Szarek E, Chanturiya T, Mastroyannis SA, Gavrilova O, Stratakis CA: Differentially regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity in adipose tissue and liver is associated with resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice that lack PKA regulatory subunit type IIα. Endocrinology; 2014 Sep;155(9):3397-408 ...
A stearated form of the peptide Ht-31 derived from human thyroid A-kinase anchoring protein. This peptide inhibits the interaction between the RII subunits of cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) and AKAP in cell extracts.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
cAMP signals are locally amplified by scaffold proteins (A Kinase Anchor Proteins, AKAPs) that tether cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase A (PKA) to discrete cellular locations. Here we hypothesized that mitochondrial anchoring of PKA promotes survival in muscle cells. We identified AKAP121 as the major mitochondrial AKAP in cardiomyocytes and aortic smooth muscle cells. In response to pressure overload, cardiac AKAP121 levels were significantly reduced, inducing marked mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage and activation of the DNA repair machinery. To test the role of AKAP121 in the modulation of cell survival, we synthesized peptides (AK-in) containing AKAP121 mitochondrial targeting domain but lacking its PKA binding motif, in order to competitively displace the endogenous AKAP121/PKA complex from mitochondria. Sequence-scrambled peptides were synthetized and used as controls (S). 24 hours after administration, FITC-conjugated AK-in peptides co-localized with mitochondria at confocal microscopy; ...
Objective. In human adipocytes the cAMP-dependent pathway mediates signals originating from beta-adrenergic activation, thus playing a key role in the regulation of important metabolic processes, i.e. lipolysis and thermogenesis. Cyclic AMP effects are mainly mediated by protein kinase A (PKA), whose R2B regulatory isoform is the most expressed in mouse adipose tissue, where it protects against diet-induced obesity and fatty-liver development. Aim of the study was to investigate possible differences in R2B expression, PKA activity and lipolysis in adipose tissues from obese and non-obese subjects. Research Design and Methods. The expression of the different PKA regulatory subunits were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blot and real-time PCR in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples from 20 non-obese and 67 obese patients. PKA activity and glycerol release were evaluated in total protein extract and adipocytes isolated from fresh tissue samples, respectively. Results. Expression
Most PRKAR1A tumorigenic mutations lead to nonsense mRNA that is decayed; tumor formation has been associated with an increase in type II protein kinase A (PKA) subunits. The IVS6+1G>T PRKAR1A mutation leads to a protein lacking exon 6 sequences [R1 alpha Delta 184-236 (R1 alpha Delta 6)]. We compared in vitro R1 alpha Delta 6 with wild-type (wt) R1 alpha. We assessed PKA activity and subunit expression, phosphorylation of target molecules, and properties of wt-R1 alpha and mutant (mt) R1 alpha; we observed by confocal microscopy R1 alpha tagged with green fluorescent protein and its interactions with Cerulean-tagged catalytic subunit (C alpha). Introduction of the R1 alpha Delta 6 led to aberrant cellular morphology and higher PKA activity but no increase in type II PKA subunits. There was diffuse, cytoplasmic localization of R1 alpha protein in wt-R1 alpha- and R1 alpha Delta 6-transfected cells but the former also exhibited discrete aggregates of R1 alpha that bound C alpha; these were absent ...
Background: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive hematological neoplasm that responds poorly to therapy. The molecular etiology and pathology of this disease remain unclear, hampering the development of an effective therapy. Therefore, a need for more, and more realistic, animal models remains. Lymphoproliferative disorders have been reported in mice deficient for the prkar1a gene coding for the regulatory subunit type 1A of protein kinase A (PKA), but nothing is known about the role of type II PKA regulatory subunits in hematologic malignancies.. Methods: Mice deficient for the Prkar1a and Prkar2a alleles were previously reported (Kirschner et al, 2005 και Burton et al, 1997) and were kept on a mixed genetic background (C57BL/129Sv). Mice were crossed to create prkar2a+/- and prkar2a-/-. Mice were phenotyped at the ages of 3-6-9-12-18 months or when they exhibited signs of advanced disease. Tissues were collected for histological and molecular analysis.. Results: Unexpectedly, mice ...
Enterobacteria-Secreted Particles Induce Production of Exosome-Like S1P-Containing Particles by Intestinal Epithelium to Drive Th17-Mediated Tumorigenesis
Kesimer M., Scull M., Brighton B., DeMaria G., Burns K., ONeal W., Pickles R.J., Sheehan J.K.. Airway mucus forms the structural basis of the local innate immune defense mechanism. It is an integrated, active, viscoelastic gel matrix evolved to protect the exposed lung from physical, chemical, and pathological erosion. Exosomes are biologically active vesicles secreted by different cell types including epithelial, hematopoietic, and some tumor cells. They are also present in some biological fluids such as serum, urine, breast milk, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that exosome-like vesicles with antiviral properties are present in human tracheobronchial epithelial (HTBE) cell culture secretions. These vesicles have been isolated by differential centrifugation and are characterized further by mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, immunoblotting, electron microscopy, and light-scattering methods. HTBE vesicles exhibited characteristic exosomal size ...
Skålhegg BS, Landmark B, Foss KB, Lohmann SM, Hansson V, Lea T and Jahnsen T. Institute of Pathology, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.. We have previously identified and characterized regulatory (R) subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, particularly the RII subunits in rat tissues (Jahnsen, T., Lohmann, S. M., Walter, U., Hedin, L., and Richards, J. S. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 15980-15987; Jahnsen, T., Hedin, L., Lohmann, S. M., Walter, U., and Richards, J. S. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 6637-6639; Jahnsen, T., Hedin, L., Kidd, V. J., Beattie, W. G., Lohmann, S. M., Walter, U., Durica, J., Schulz, T. Z., Schiltz, E., Browner, M., Lawrence, C. B., Goldman, D., Ratoosh, S. L., and Richards, J. S. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12352-12361). These studies showed that rat RII alpha and RII beta had apparent molecular masses of 54 and 52 kDa, respectively. The aim of the present study was to purify and characterize cAMP-dependent protein kinase R subunits in human testis and to examine which of ...
The major objective of the present study was to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which perturbations of the cAMP pathway regulate PKA subunit expression in neural cells. Indeed, the cAMP-induced down-regulation of PKA subunits described here contrasts with the findings reported for non-neural systems. In Sertoli cells, an extensively studied model system for PKA regulation (reviewed in Skålhegg and Taskén, 1997), activation of the cAMP pathway elevates PKA subunit protein levels along with a 2- to 4-fold increase in RIα, RIIα and Cα mRNA and a 50-fold increase in RIIβ mRNA. This up-regulation of mRNA levels involved both increased transcription and increased mRNA stability. In mouse epithelial cells (Lange-Carter and Malkinson, 1991), elevated levels of cAMP resulted in a similar increase in RIIβ mRNA but a decrease in mRNA for RIα and no change in that for RIIα. Earlier studies have suggested cAMP stimulated proteolytic degradation of C, but not R, subunits in ...
We recovered extracellular vesicles with a size consistent with exosomes that we called exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) from the supernatants of SS and Toxo cultures. The mRNA and miRNA content of these ELVs was highly regulated creating specific and unique expression profiles comparing Toxo ELVs, SS ELVs and RNA isolated from whole cell homogenates. Interestingly, among the most enriched mRNA isolated from ELVs of Toxo cells are 4 specific mRNA species that have been described in the literature as having neurologic activity: Rab-13, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1, thymosin beta 4 and LLP homolog. In addition, miRNA species uniquely expressed in Toxo ELVs include miR-23b, a well-known regulator of IL-17 ...
Exosomes are nanovesicles of endocytic origin that are about 30-100 nm in diameter, surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane, and contain proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules. Mammalian cells- a
Guided axonal growth is essential for both the initial wiring of neuronal circuitry during development and the regeneration of synaptic connections in the adult nervous system after injury and diseases (Bahr and Bonhoeffer, 1994; Aubert et al., 1995; Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996; Harel and Strittmatter, 2006). The directional motility of the growth cone at axonal tips is regulated by a variety of environmental factors that either promote/attract or inhibit/repel the axonal elongation (Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996; Dickson, 2002). Although many families of guidance ligands and receptors have been recently identified (Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996; Dickson, 2002; Charron and Tessier-Lavigne, 2005), the intricate signaling cascades that control and regulate axonal growth and guidance remain to be fully understood. The second messenger, cAMP, represents an important intracellular signal that exhibits profound effects on growth cone motility and guidance. Previous studies have linked ...
Study considering that that point, by several laboratories, has furnished substantial help for these hypotheses. Particularly, opiates Chuck Grassley in many CNS locations such as NAc, and cocaine additional selectively in NAc induce expression of certain adenylyl cyclase isoforms and PKA subunits by way of the transcription factor, CREB, and these transcriptional adaptations provide a homeostatic perform to oppose drug motion. In selected brain areas, for instance locus coeruleus, these adaptations mediate aspects of Bodily opiate dependence and withdrawal, While in NAc they mediate reward tolerance and dependence that drives amplified drug self-administration ...
PIK3C2B (phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 2 beta), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
View Notes - Bacterial Recombination from MCB 2000 at University of Florida. BACTERIAL RECOMBINATION Purposes A. Vaccine production (subunit type) B. Production of proteins (growth hormone) C.
AKAP9 (A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (yotiao) 9), Authors: Raffaele Ciampi, Yuri E Nikiforov. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification of a regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from Drosophila heads. AU - Inoue, Hiroko. AU - Yoshioka, Tohru. PY - 1997/6/9. Y1 - 1997/6/9. N2 - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using anion-exchange column chromatography. Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major isozyme. The regulatory subunit of type II PKA (RII) was purified, and only one isoform was observed. The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa on SDS gel electrophoresis. Partial amino acid sequences of the protein were almost identical with the RIIα subunit of human. Since PKA has been implicated to be especially important for learning and memory in Drosophila, the RII subunit may play an essential role in the regulation of neuronal activity in the brain of Drosophila, and possibly in human.. AB - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using ...
In this study, we found that ELVs released from adipose tissue of ob/ob mice induce macrophage activation in a TLR4-dependent manner and that the RBP4 that is incorporated in these ELVs plays a role in the induction of macrophage activation. Several independent lines of evidence support these conclusions. The exposure of wild-type macrophages to obELVs resulted in an increased production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, enhanced the migration of macrophages into adipose tissue and the liver, and promoted the development of insulin resistance. In contrast, the intravenous injection of obELVs into TLR4 knockout mice did not result in the development of insulin resistance, and treatment of TLR4 knockout macrophages with obELVs did not enhance the production of IL-6 or TNF-α. Adipose obELV RBP4 protein can induce the production of macrophage IL-6 and TNF-α in a TLR4-dependent manner.. Using an ex vivo adipose tissue culture approach, we provide evidence that ELVs are secreted from ...
Exosomes bud from the plasma membrane of T cells and may be the means of escape for newly formed retroviral particles, according to Booth et al. (page 923).. Exosomes are small vesicles that bud from the endosome membrane into its lumen. Following endosome fusion with the plasma membrane, the exosomes are released into the extracellular space.. Booth et al. found that the plasma membranes of cultured T cells have discrete domains enriched in proteins typically found in endosomes. The same sites were enriched for exosomal lipids, and small exosome-like vesicles were found just outside of these membrane sites, suggesting that exosomes can bud not only from endosomes but from the plasma membrane itself.. When T cells were engineered to express HIV Gag, which encodes the viral capsid proteins, the viral proteins were sorted to these membrane domains and budded from these sites in exosome-like vesicles.. The team thinks retroviruses have co-opted this endogenous cellular pathway for viral budding. ...
Akap10 (untagged) - Mouse A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 10 (Akap10), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, (10ug), 10 µg.
(Listen to the story here.) Right now, it costs me about $50 dollars to fill up my gas tank. If the price of regular unleaded gasoline goes up a penny, say from $4 dollars to $4.01, it might cost me […]
MSSGRRRGSAPWHSFSRFFAPRSPSRDKEEEEEERPGTSPPPAPGRSAASVENEPMSTSQKKENVLSSEA 1 - 70 VKIRQSEDKRNHAEKPVTLPVQEDPKKAYDLSSSTSDTKIGESDRQPKESFFQFLGNLFNISGKSSLGEA 71 - 140 KQSSFKDDQDKTEKDLQNPSDHHEDGIKREREIFSGSLRTQTHPTEEQDSNSSELSDAFSLDTTQDSDQE 141 - 210 TTNLLKQIDGKPEKPSVTYATYRGPRHIGKYLKQQTGLATVNTLDRENESSDSSTNRHIDPGSEIEAGVL 211 - 280 PLLLSASTDSSMKGNLLEGPLEDSDCSKTSFNKENSLTNNPELQNIASSNNLLNKNAWGSIERNRSSPSS 281 - 350 VTNSSYDGESDSQHHLSCEPVSQTNRNLVCSALLTGSNHRKVPCSPDFQRVTTTENTIKENSTVMSNRTL 351 - 420 VQREELVEPQGPAISDFSCSKSDGSDTTEQESTNLPSPNKSIRHEHLQLPESECSDKQTIDSSSKQAATH 421 - 490 TNIIALQRHAVTDTEFVNEGKRLSAQDSQKNVAVREIRRETESASAGESIASSHVKAPEDKIESLPKDTD 491 - 560 QYFETKAKKLDFRSHDKIPHIRMNKKDLASLNYISESAVVASLGNENAPELKFELNRSHISETPLDSESP 561 - 630 QQAEVSPDAKTSLSLDCKKLNFSISPPTFVSGVGMLSKLDIPDLMNEGSPVPIETGNVNIVGISYQPRKC 631 - 700 KEENVKNHVEAAGRKSPPPSFCLEYTSAIFEFKEVLSNSEKCQVLPGSEASGPHLTGLELLSFDSGNLSK 701 - 770 DCSSILSQDPNRVELVSSNTKANMSIIEKSDSLSLEAKTANIVSKAEIDGQNNVLVESHSGRGKTISLSK 771 - 840 ...
Looking for online definition of A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 in the Medical Dictionary? A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 explanation free. What is A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6? Meaning of A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 medical term. What does A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 mean?
Excellgen Cre Recombinase Exosome Like Vesicles [EG-1020] - Description Cre Recombinase exosome-like vesicles are 20 to 50 nm lipid vesicles isolated from cultured mammalian cells. These vesicles encapsulate high concentration of NLS-Cre recombinase, but do not contain virus and nucleic acids (plasmid DNA, RNA etc). Addition of 10 ~ 50 µl of the vesicles to reporter cells (such as
Fragments matching several proteins were obtained in the major spots at about 140 and 120 kDa, ie: dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) and neprilysin (NEP) (140 kDa), and phosphodiesterase-I (E-NPP3) and beta-mannosidase (120 kDa). These proteins were also found when the 140 kDa and 120 kDa bands from a one-dimensional gel were processed in the same way.. Because of their abundance and the vertical smear they produced in the gel, dipeptidyl peptidase IV and neprilysin signatures were found in a large number of other spots with lower molecular weights. The cytoskeleton protein actin (45 kDa) was also one of the major proteins of the vesicles; this protein was separated as a series of at least four different spots composed of alpha- and beta-actin isoforms. The actin-associated protein Ezrin/Cytovillin was found in two major trains of spots: one at 75-80 kDa, which is its normal molecular weight, and one at 50 kDa, which could represent a degradation product of this protein. Tubulin and annexin II ...
The second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) plays a pivotal role in axonal growth and guidance, but its downstream mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we report that type II protein kinase A (PKA) is highly enriched in growth cone filopodia, and this spatial localization enables the coupling of cAMP signaling to its specific effectors to regulate guidance responses. Disrupting the localization of PKA to filopodia impairs cAMP-mediated growth cone attraction and prevents the switching of repulsive responses to attraction by elevated cAMP. Our data further show that PKA targets protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) through the phosphorylation of a regulatory protein inhibitor-1 (I-1) to promote growth cone attraction. Finally, we find that I-1 and PP1 mediate growth cone repulsion induced by myelin-associated glycoprotein. These findings demonstrate that the spatial localization of type II PKA to growth cone filopodia plays an important role in the regulation of growth cone motility and ...
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is hallmarked by insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion and increased hepatic glucose production. The worldwide increasing prevalence of T2D calls for efforts to understand its pathogenesis in order to improve disease prevention and management. Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed strong associations between the CDKN2A/B locus and T2D risk. The CDKN2A/B locus contains genes encoding cell cycle inhibitors, including p16Ink4a, which have not yet been implicated in the control of hepatic glucose homeostasis. Here we show that p16Ink4a-deficiency enhances fasting-induced hepatic glucose production in vivo by increasing the expression of key gluconeogenic genes. p16Ink4a down-regulation leads to an activation of PKA-CREB-PGC1α signalling through increased phosphorylation of PKA regulatory subunits (PKAR2). Taken together, these results provide evidence that p16Ink4a controls fasting glucose homeostasis and could as such modulate in T2D development. ...
Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin secreted by most cell types in vitro. Recent studies have shown that exosomes are also found in vivo in body fluids such as blood, urine, amniotic fluid, malignant ascites, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluid, and breast milk. While the biological function of exosomes is still unclear, they can mediate communication between cells, facilitating processes such as antigen presentation and in trans signaling to neighboring cells. Exosome-like vesicles identified in Drosophila (referred to as argosomes) may be potential vehicles for the spread of morphogens in epithelia. The advent of current MS-based proteomic technologies has contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular composition of exosomes. In addition to a common set of membrane and cytosolic proteins, it is becoming increasingly apparent that exosomes harbor distinct subsets of proteins that may be linked to cell-type associated functions. The secretion ...
Melbourne scientists have made the surprise discovery that malaria parasites can talk to each other - a social behaviour to ensure the parasites survival and improve its chances of being transmitted to other humans. The finding could provide a niche for developing antimalarial drugs and vaccines that prevent or treat the disease by cutting these communication networks. Professor Alan Cowman, Dr. Neta Regev-Rudzki, Dr. Danny Wilson, and colleagues from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, in collaboration with Professor Andrew Hill from the University of Melbournes Bio21 Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, showed that malaria parasites are able to send out messages in exosome-like vesicles to communicate with other malaria parasites in the body. The study was published on March 15, 2013 in Cell. Professor Cowman said the researchers were shocked to discover that malaria parasites work in unison to enhance activation into sexually mature forms that can be picked ...
In this issue of Acta Physiologica, Benz et al. study the role of one important protein in the cyclic AMP signaling pathway, the A-kinase anchoring (AKAP)12. The downstream effects stemming from cAMP release are tightly controlled and activate a profusion of signaling pathways. However, many of these different processes function with largely the same major constituent proteins, including adenylate cyclases, kinases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which is the main intracellular target for cAMP, is widely found in these signaling assemblies, and is present at high concentrations in many tissues, playing varied roles in the regulation of molecular processes. Unexpectedly, despite its ubiquity there are only four isoforms of PKA regulatory subunit with which to impart functional and locational specificity ...
AKAP12; AKAP250; A-kinase anchor protein 12; AKAP-12; A-kinase anchor protein 250 kDa; AKAP 250; Gravin; Myasthenia gravis autoantigen ...
Gene Information This gene encodes a member of the A-kinase anchor protein family. A-kinase anchor proteins are scaffold proteins that contain a binding domain for the RI/RII subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and recruit PKA and other signaling molecules to specific subcellular locations. This gene encodes a nuclear A-kinase anchor protein that binds to the RII alpha subunit of PKA and may play a role in chromosome condensation during mitosis by targeting PKA and the condensin complex to chromatin. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq May 2011]. ...
AKAP7 - AKAP7 (untagged)-Human A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 7 (AKAP7), transcript variant beta available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Homo sapiens A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (gravin) 12 (AKAP12), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (H00009590-R01) - Products - Abnova
1. CukkemaneA, SeifertR, KauppUB (2011) Cooperative and uncooperative cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channels. Trends Biochem Sci 36: 55-64.. 2. KauppUB, NiidomeT, TanabeT, TeradaS, BönigkW, et al. (1989) Primary structure and functional expression from complementary DNA of the rod photoreceptor cyclic GMP-gated channel. Nature 342: 762-766.. 3. LudwigA, ZongX, JeglitschM, HofmannF, BielM (1998) A family of hyperpolarization-activated mammalian cation channels. Nature 393: 587-591.. 4. TakioK, SmithSB, KrebsEG, WalshKA, TitaniK (1982) Primary structure of the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from bovine cardiac muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 2544-2548.. 5. TakioK, WadeRD, SmithSB, KrebsEG, WalshKA, et al. (1984) Guanosine cyclic 3′,5′-phosphate dependent protein kinase, a chimeric protein homologous with two separate protein families. Biochemistry 23: 4207-4218.. 6. de RooijJ, ZwartkruisFJ, VerheijenMH, CoolRH, NijmanSM, et al. (1998) Epac is a Rap1 ...
Background and purpose: The proteasome subunit α type 6 (PSMA6) is an important proteolytic protein regulating the expression of genes involved in inflammation. Recently, a functional polymorphism rs1048990, located in PSMA6, has been reported with the susceptibility to ischemic stroke (IS) in several ethnic cohorts, but the results were inconsistent. Moreover, it still lacks the data in Asian. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this polymorphism confers significant risk to IS in a Chinese population.. Methods: A total of 1102 IS cases and 975 healthy controls were analyzed in our study. We genotyped rs1048990 with ligation detection reaction (LDR) method and then performed a meta-analysis.. Results: Significant association between rs1048990 in PSMA6 and ischemic stroke was observed in all comparison models (genotype, p=0.016; allele, p=0.004; CG+GG vs. CC, adjusted p=0.006; GG vs. CG+CC, adjusted p=0.038). Further stratification for stroke subtype, similar differences ...
Differentially targeted protein that binds to type I and II regulatory subunits of protein kinase A and anchors them to the mitochondria or the plasma membrane. Although the physiological relevance between PKA and AKAPS with mitochondria is not fully understood, one idea is that BAD, a proapoptotic member, is phosphorylated and inactivated by mitochondria-anchored PKA. It cannot be excluded too that it may facilitate PKA as well as G protein signal transduction, by acting as an adapter for assembling multiprotein complexes. With its RGS domain, it could lead to the interaction to G-alpha proteins, providing a link between the signaling machinery and the downstream kinase (By similarity).
... type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5 ... Reverse mobilities of human RII alpha and RII beta on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis compared with ... "MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... "Ezrin is a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring protein". The EMBO Journal. 16 (1): 35-43. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.1.35. ...
1999). PrKX is a novel catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulated by the regulatory subunit type I. J. ... the tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium current in neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurones via the cyclic AMP-protein kinase A ... 1996). Genetically lean mice result from targeted disruption of the RII beta subunit of protein kinase A. Nature 382, 622-626. ... Protein kinase A (PKA) represents a family of tetrameric kinases composed of regulatory (R) and catalytic (C) subunits. At low ...
Solberg, Rigmor & Jahnsen, Tore (1994). Human type I regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. Structure, ... Mapping of the regulatory subunits RI beta and RII beta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase genes on human chromosome 7. Genomics ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (vertebrates), In G. Hardie & S. Hanks (ed.), The Protein Kinase FactsBook. Elsevier. ISBN ... and regulation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. * Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen & Jahnsen, Tore (1993). Isozymes of cyclic AMP- ...
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are critical regulators of neuronal differentiation. The expression, ... Protein kinase A type I activates a CRE-element more efficiently than protein kinase A type II regardless of C subunit isoform ... Low levels of PKA type II consisting of RIIalpha or RIIbeta associated with Calpha were also detected, mainly in the cytoplasm ... Hansson, Vidar; Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen & Tasken, Kjetil (1999). Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in testicular cells. ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit / genetics* Actions. * Search in PubMed ... rs117909394 had an age-dependent association with refractive error (-0.22 diopters [D] change over 8 years, P = 5.2e-04) and ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit/genetics. *Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism. *MAP Kinase Signaling System/ ... Aging; Development; Extracellular signal-regulated kinase; Intracellular signaling; Nociception; Protein kinase A ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit. *NAV1.8 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel ... We found that nociceptive subgroups defined by the signaling components protein kinase A (PKA)-RIIβ (also known as PRKAR2B) and ...
... subunits, which contain either a substrate or a pseudosubstrate autoinhibitory domain. The human protein kinase X (PrKX) is an ... cAMP-dependent protein kinases are reversibly complexed with any of the four isoforms of regulatory (R) ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit. Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Protein Binding ... Regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinases: the human protein kinase X (PrKX) reveals the role of the catalytic subunit ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit - analysis , Sialoglycoproteins - analysis , MADS Domain Proteins - ... Extracellular Matrix Proteins - analysis , MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 5 - analysis , MAP Kinase Kinase 4 - analysis , ... Protein Kinases - analysis , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4 - analysis , Calcification, Physiologic - ... MAP Kinase Kinase 6 - analysis , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 - analysis , Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-2 - analysis , Cell ...
... type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5 ... Reverse mobilities of human RII alpha and RII beta on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis compared with ... "MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". ... "Ezrin is a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring protein". The EMBO Journal. 16 (1): 35-43. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.1.35. ...
Isolation and characterization of a protein from rat testis which inhibits cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and ... Thermostable inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase enhances the rate of export of the kinase catalytic subunit from the ... Defective motor behavior and neural gene expression in RIIbeta-protein kinase A mutant mice.J. Neurosci. 18 1998 3639 3649 ... Derivation of novel embryonic stem cell lines and targeting of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase genes.Recent Prog. Horm. Res ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit - chemistry , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit - ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit - chemistry , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit - ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases - chemistry , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits - chemistry , Cyclic ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits - metabolism , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases - genetics , Cushing ...
... which relies on the early activation of Protein Kinase A (PKA). Frequently, PKA activity is assessed in whole-cell experiments ... This technique faces two main disadvantages: it is not a direct measure of the kinase activity and it is a time-consuming ... Role of multiple basic residues in determining the substrate specificity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem ... and anchoring of protein kinase A subunits during mouse sperm capacitation. Dev Biol 192(2): 351-363. ...
Phosphorylation of the type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and ... This study supports the conclusion that the mobilities of human RII subunits (RII alpha, RII beta) on SDS-PAGE are reversed in ... Localization of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) by A kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) restricts the action of ... subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, particularly the RII subunits in rat tissues (Jahnsen, T., Lohmann, S. M., ...
Cyclic AMP regulates expression of the RI alpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase through an alternatively spliced 5 ... USF2 inhibits C/EBP-mediated transcriptional regulation of the RIIbeta subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Reciprocal regulation of mRNA and protein for subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (RI alpha and C alpha) by cAMP in a ... Inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis stabilize messenger RNA for the RII beta subunit of protein kinase A in different ...
... protein kinase A. HN - 2008(1998) BX - Protein Kinase A, RII alpha Subunit MH - Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta ... Protein Kinase A, Type I BX - Protein Kinase Type I, Cyclic AMP-Dependent MH - Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic ... Protein Kinase A, Type II BX - Protein Kinase Type II, Cyclic AMP-Dependent MH - Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIalpha ... CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA. HN - 2008 MH ...
2006) Phosphorylation of beta-catenin by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 281(15):9971-9976. ... signaling induces TNFR1 exosome-like vesicle release via anchoring of PKA regulatory subunit RIIbeta to BIG2. J Biol Chem 283( ... 2005) Phosphorylation of beta-catenin by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase stabilizes beta-catenin through inhibition of its ... Protein Kinase A Catalytic Subunit Interaction with BIG1, BIG2, and β-Catenin.. Phosphorylation of S552 or S675 in the C- ...
... and a new regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, RIIβ, is induced. We have previously shown that production of ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) plays a central role in regulation of energy metabolism. Upon stimulation of ... Cyclic AMP regulates expression of the RIalpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase through an alternatively spliced 5 UTR ... flanking region of the gene for the cAMP-inducible protein kinase A subunit, RIIbeta, in Sertoli cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. ...
Cyclic AMP effects are mainly mediated by protein kinase A (PKA), whose R2B regulatory isoform is the most expressed in mouse ... Expression techniques showed that R2B was the most abundant regulatory protein, both at mRNA and protein level. Interestingly, ... The expression of the different PKA regulatory subunits were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blot and real-time PCR ... PKA activity and glycerol release were evaluated in total protein extract and adipocytes isolated from fresh tissue samples, ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase is tethered to protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs) through regulatory subunits (R) ... The RIIbeta regulatory subunit of protein kinase A binds to cAMP response element: an alternative cAMP signaling pathway. ... of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) and the regulatory (R) ... A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) bind to the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to direct the kinase ...
"A-Kinase Anchoring Protein Targeting of Protein Kinase A and Regulation of HERG Channels, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on ... Mutagenesis of the regulatory subunit (RII beta) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase II beta reveals hydrophobic amino acids that ... A kinase anchor proteins and the intracellular targeting of signals carried by cyclic AMP ... A-Kinase Anchoring Protein Targeting of Protein Kinase A and Regulation of HERG Channels. A-Kinase Anchoring Protein Targeting ...
... acetylcholine esterase and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. This was indicative of the viability of ... The list contained unproven, but not surprising, candidates, such as the genes for IGF-1, NCAM1, NOGO-A, the gamma2 subunit of ... The list contained unproven, but not surprising, candidates, such as the genes for IGF-1, NCAM1, NOGO-A, the gamma2 subunit of ... The objective of this study was to identify new candidate genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity. To this aim, we ...
... we use molecular dynamics simulations on RIIbeta-PKA, one of the best characterized members of the cNBD family, in presence and ... data and suggest that the key factor of the cAMP allosteric mechanism in cNBDSs is the increased flexibility of the protein ... The second messenger cyclic Adenosine MonoPosphate (cAMP) mediates many biological process by interacting with structurally ... Cyclic AMP, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases, Gene Deletion, Hydrogen Bonding, Kinetics, Ligands, Models, Molecular, ...
the C-helix of protein kinase A inhibitory regulatory subunit is identified as a highly dynamic switch which relays cyclic AMP ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit II high affinity binding protein , cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory ... The encoded protein binds to the RII-beta regulatory subunit of PKA, and also to protein kinase C and the phosphatase ... A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 5 , A-kinase anchor protein 5 , A-kinase anchor protein 5-like , a-kinase anchor protein 5-like ...
Analogue for photoaffinity labelling of cAMP binding proteins. Detailed technical information available. Reference: Haley, ,em, ... Subunit and Up-Regulation of the RII(Beta) Subunit of cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Leading to Type II Holoenzyme-Dependent ... "Activation of Type I and Type II Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinases by 2,8-disubstituted Derivatives of Cyclic AMP" ... Chem., 267, 15707 - 15714 (1992), "Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase Type I Mediates the Inhibitory Effects of 3, 5-Cyclic ...
Cyclic AMP increases the mRNA levels for the regulatory subunit (R-II51) of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase in rat ... cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinases (RII beta and RI alpha) via multiple and distinct mechanisms. ... for protein kinase-A (PKA) subunits in rat Sertoli cells: rapid degradation of mRNAs for PKA subunits is dependent on ongoing ... Hormonal regulation and age dependent changes in mRNA levels for regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinases in rat ...
Protein Coding), A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Binding protein for dimer of the RII-beta regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and also for the protein ... cyclic amp. Experimental. *MalaCards. *Medline Plus. Pharma. 0. (2) Additional Compounds for AKAP5 Gene - From: Novoseek ... AKAP79 selectively enhances protein kinase C regulation of GluR1 at a Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II/protein ...
... as a potent and specific activator of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase in cell extracts and intact cells. Biochemical ... Stimulatory effects of glucocorticoids on mRNA levels for the hormone-induced regulatory subunit (RIIbeta) of cAMP-dependent ... Fast and slow cyclic nucleotide-dissociation sites in cAMP-dependent protein kinase are transposed in type Ibeta cGMP-dependent ... Localization of the human gene for the type I cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase to chromosome 10. Cytogenetics and Cell ...
Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/genetics , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs/genetics , ... and RIIbeta were increased moderately, however, those of RIIalpha and Calpha were increased remarkably. The activities of AC, ... Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs/metabolism , Gamma Rays , ... cAMP-degrading cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Experiments were performed to ...
Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/genetics , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs/genetics , ... and RIIbeta were increased moderately, however, those of RIIalpha and Calpha were increased remarkably. The activities of AC, ... Animals , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Diabetes ... Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cyclic AMP , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Histone Deacetylases , ...
C holoenzyme of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. 3iia. Crystal structure of apo (91-244) RIa subunit of cAMP-dependent protein ... The 2.9 A resolution crystal structure of Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) complexed with cyclic AMP ... Crystal Structure of RIIbeta(108-402) bound to HE33, a N6 di-propyl substituted cAMP analog. ... RIa Subunit of cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase. 3pvb. Crystal structure of (73-244)RIa:C holoenzyme of cAMP-dependent Protein ...
The Activation of Protein Kinase A by the Calcium-Binding Protein S100A1 Is Independent of Cyclic AMP.. Biochemistry 56:2328- ... Protein kinase cAMP dependent regulatory type II beta antibody. *RATDNA antibody. *RII beta antibody ... cAMP dependent protein kinase type II beta regulatory subunit antibody. *cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-beta regulatory ... Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells. Type II regulatory chains mediate ...
  • Undifferentiated NT2 cells expressed mainly cytoplasmic PKA type I, consisting of the regulatory subunit RIalpha and the catalytic subunit Calpha. (uio.no)
  • cAMP-dependent protein kinases are reversibly complexed with any of the four isoforms of regulatory (R) subunits, which contain either a substrate or a pseudosubstrate autoinhibitory domain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-alpha regulatory subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAR2A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inactive holoenzyme of PKA is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits of PKA have been identified in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • PKI is capable of freely entering the nucleus and actively shuttling the catalytic subunit of PKA back to the cytoplasm, where PKA regulatory subunits are located. (asm.org)
  • Upon stimulation of testicular Sertoli cells by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), glycolysis is activated to increase the production of nutrients for the germ cells, and a new regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, RIIβ, is induced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of the RIIβ regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is highly induced (50-fold) at the mRNA level in primary cultures of rat Sertoli cells as a late response to cAMP peaking at 12 hours [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclic AMP effects are mainly mediated by protein kinase A (PKA), whose R2B regulatory isoform is the most expressed in mouse adipose tissue, where it protects against diet-induced obesity and fatty-liver development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The expression of the different PKA regulatory subunits were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blot and real-time PCR in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples from 20 non-obese and 67 obese patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expression techniques showed that R2B was the most abundant regulatory protein, both at mRNA and protein level. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Different expression of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors: relationship with cell proliferation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Proliferation of transformed somatotroph cells related to low or absent expression of protein kinase a regulatory subunit 1A protein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • AKAPs contain an amphipathic helix domain that binds to the type II regulatory subunit of PKA (RII). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • and (ii) a tethering domain that interacts with PKA regulatory subunits. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Protein kinase A (PKA) represents a family of tetrameric kinases composed of regulatory (R) and catalytic (C) subunits. (biologists.org)
  • Four regulatory (RIα, RIβ, RIIα, RIIβ) and four catalytic subunits (Cα, Cβ, Cγ, PrKX) give rise to multiple isoenzymes, categorized by their R-subunit class into PKA-I and PKA-II, respectively. (biologists.org)
  • Molecular basis of the allosteric mechanism of cAMP in the regulatory PKA subunit. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. (genecards.org)
  • The encoded protein binds to the RII-beta regulatory subunit of PKA, and also to protein. (genecards.org)
  • The cAPK's are composed of two different subunits, a catalytic chain and a regulatory chain, which contains both copies of the domain. (embl.de)
  • A 14.4-kDa cAMP-binding fragment was generated during bacterial expression and purification of recombinant bovine cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I alpha regulatory subunit (RI alpha). (embl.de)
  • Synthetic peptide (the amino acid sequence is considered to be commercially sensitive) corresponding to Human PKA 2 beta (regulatory subunit) (C terminal). (abcam.co.jp)
  • Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells. (abcam.co.jp)
  • Type II regulatory chains mediate membrane association by binding to anchoring proteins, including the MAP2 kinase. (abcam.co.jp)
  • Belongs to the cAMP-dependent kinase regulatory chain family. (abcam.co.jp)
  • Evolutionary Paths of the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Catalytic Subunits. (uio.no)
  • It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) and determine the subcellular localization of PKA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is targeted to specific subcellular compartments through its interaction with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • These data suggest that sperm contains several proteins that bind to AKAPs in a manner similar to RII and imply that AKAPs may have additional and perhaps unique functions in spermatozoa. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • cAMP-dependent protein kinase is targeted to discrete subcellular locations by a family of specific anchor proteins (A-kinase anchor proteins, AKAPs). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Although AKAPs have been identified on the basis of their interaction with PKA, they also bind other signaling molecules, mainly phosphatases and kinases, that regulate AKAP targeting and activate other signal transduction pathways.We suggest that AKAP forms a "transduceosome" by acting as an autonomous multivalent scaffold that assembles and integrates signals derived from multiple pathways. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Although cAMP elevation may occur over a large area of a target-organ cell, its effects are often more restricted due to local concentration of its main effector, protein kinase A (PKA), through A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). (deepdyve.com)
  • BIG proteins also contain A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) sequences that can act as scaffolds for multimolecular assemblies that facilitate and limit cAMP signaling temporally and spatially. (pnas.org)
  • However, inhibition of the PKA catalytic activity does not mimic these peptides, suggesting that the peptides are disrupting the interaction of AKAP(s) with proteins other than PKA. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • These proteins, ropporin (a protein previously shown to interact with the Rho signaling pathway) and AKAP-associated sperm protein, are 39% identical to each other and share a strong sequence similarity with the conserved domain on the N terminus of RII that is involved in dimerization and AKAP binding. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Flagellar radial spoke protein 3 is an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Here we test the hypothesis that the axoneme contains an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Here, we report that the PKA-RII-specific AKAP inhibitory peptide AKAP-IS perturbs the distribution of PKA-RII and diminishes the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of HERG protein. (deepdyve.com)
  • The functional consequence of AKAP-IS is a reversal of cAMP-dependent regulation of HERG channel activity. (deepdyve.com)
  • In further support of AKAP-mediated targeting of kinase to HERG, PKA activity was coprecipitated from HERG expressed in HEK cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • GPR30 (show GPER ELISA Kits ) interacted with membrane-associated guanylate kinases and protein kinase A-anchoring protein (show AKAP10 ELISA Kits ) ( AKAP) 5 in the plasma membrane in a PDZ (show INADL ELISA Kits )-dependent manner. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Four different isoforms of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, termed Calpha, Cbeta,Cgamma and PrKX have been identified. (uio.no)
  • Evolution of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) catalytic subunit isoforms.Søberg K, Moen LV, Skålhegg BS, Laerdahl JK. (uio.no)
  • Knowledge about the molecular structure of protein kinase A (PKA) isoforms is substantial. (biologists.org)
  • Isoform-specific PKA reporters showed in sensory-neuron-derived F11 cells that the inflammatory mediator PGE 2 specifically activated PKA-II but not PKA-I. Accordingly, pain-sensitizing inflammatory mediators and activators of PKA increased the phosphorylation of RII subunits (pRII) in subgroups of primary sensory neurons. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, we propose RII phosphorylation to represent an isoform-specific readout for endogenous PKA-II activity in vivo , suggest RIIβ as a novel nociceptive subgroup marker, and extend the current model of PKA-II activation by introducing a PP2A-dependent basal state. (biologists.org)
  • G-protein β-polypeptide 3 (GNB3) is a β subunit isoform of G-protein that plays important role in signal transduction of membrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). (bvsalud.org)
  • Using a novel automated microscopy approach, we quantified changes in intracellular signaling protein expression and in their signaling dynamics, as well as changes in intracellular signaling cascade wiring, in sensory neurons from newborn to senescent (24 months of age) rats. (nih.gov)
  • Many hormones and neurotransmitters initiate their physiological actions by stimulating production of the intracellular second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP). (asm.org)
  • May anchor the PKA protein to cytoskeletal and/or organelle-associated proteins, targeting the signal carried by cAMP to specific intracellular effectors. (genecards.org)
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins are key intracellular coordinators that receive signals from cells through activation of cognate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (bvsalud.org)
  • Disruption of protein kinase A localization induces acrosomal exocytosis in capacitated mouse sperm. (bio-protocol.org)
  • These isoenzymes differ in their biochemical properties, expression pattern, interacting proteins, as well as their subcellular localization ( Pidoux and Taskén, 2010 ). (biologists.org)
  • In human adipocytes the cAMP-dependent pathway mediates signals originating from beta-adrenergic activation, thus playing a key role in the regulation of important metabolic processes, i.e. lipolysis and thermogenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The second messenger cyclic Adenosine MonoPosphate (cAMP) mediates many biological process by interacting with structurally conserved nucleotide binding domains (cNBD's). (ox.ac.uk)
  • This study was performed to investigate the signaling pathway that mediates cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) degradation, and the effect and underlying mechanisms of the resulting increase in HDAC8 expression on cisplatin-induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • In conclusion, the Epac-Rap1-Akt pathway mediates cAMP signaling-induced inhibition of JNK-dependent HDAC8 degradation, and the resulting HDAC8 increase augments cisplatin-induced apoptosis by repressing TIPRL expression in H1299 lung cancer cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase, more commonly called Protein Kinase A (PKA), which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2010). However, the steady-state phosphorylation status of any protein depends on the relative activities of both kinases and phosphatases acting on it. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Depletion of HeLa cell brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (BIG)1 and/or BIG2 impaired β-catenin S675 phosphorylation and its transcriptional effects, as well as ADP-ribosylation factor activation-enhanced phospholipase D activity and vesicular trafficking, both required for restoration of transcriptional activation by appropriate BIG protein overexpression in depleted cells. (pnas.org)
  • Increase of pRII was followed by phosphorylation of CREB in a PKA-dependent manner. (biologists.org)
  • Regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinases: the human protein kinase X (PrKX) reveals the role of the catalytic subunit alphaH-alphaI loop. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The human protein kinase X (PrKX) is an exemption as it is inhibited only by pseudosubstrate inhibitors, i.e. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Detailed examination of the capacity of five PrKX-like kinases ranging from human to protozoa (Trypanosoma brucei) to form holoenzymes with. (ox.ac.uk)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 2 A Kinase (PRKA) Anchor Protein 5 (AKAP5) ELISA Kits from 2 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Bacillus anthracis edema toxin suppresses human macrophage phagocytosis and cytoskeletal remodeling via the protein kinase A and exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP pathways. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Multifunctional β-catenin, with critical roles in both cell-cell adhesion and Wnt-signaling pathways, was among HeLa cell proteins coimmunoprecipitated by antibodies against brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factors 1 and 2 (BIG1 or BIG2) that activate ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) by accelerating the replacement of bound GDP with GTP. (pnas.org)
  • Whereas RI subunits block the C-subunits by a non-phosphorylatable pseudosubstrate, RII subunits carry a serine within that inhibitory domain rendering them substrates of C-subunits. (biologists.org)
  • Identification and Characterization of Novel Mutations in the Human Gene Encoding the Catalytic Subunit Calpha of Protein Kinase A (PKA). (uio.no)
  • We have demonstrated that expression of CAAT/Enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is induced by cAMP with rapid kinetics in Sertoli cells, and that C/EBPβ is responsible for induction of late response genes like the RIIβ-gene [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NCU-G1 "knockout" musen ble skapt ved innsetting av en "gene-trap" i første intron som fører til stopp i transkripsjonen etter første ekson. (uio.no)
  • AKAP5 (A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 5) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • To explore the association between C825T polymorphism of G protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) gene and different Hilit types of essential hypertension (EH) in the Uygur nationality of Xinjiang. (bvsalud.org)
  • The ISO treatment decreased cisplatin-induced transcription of the TIPRL gene in a HDAC8-dependent manner. (bvsalud.org)
  • Catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) is a prokaryotic homologue of eukaryotic cNMP-binding domains, present in ion channels, and cNMP-dependent kinases. (embl.de)
  • The best studied of these proteins is the prokaryotic catabolite gene activator (also known as the cAMP receptor protein) (gene crp) where such a domain is known to be composed of three alpha-helices and a distinctive eight-stranded, antiparallel beta-barrel structure. (embl.de)
  • The 3 angstrom resolution crystal structure of the Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) complexed with a 30-base pair DNA sequence shows that the DNA is bent by 90 degrees. (embl.de)
  • Protein kinase A-anchoring protein AKAP95 interacts with MCM2, a regulator of DNA replication. (uio.no)
  • In the absence of "canonical" catenin-dependent Wnt signaling, cytoplasmic β-catenin is maintained at low levels via phosphorylations of S45 and S33, S37 and T41 by, respectively, casein kinase-1 and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Further, EdTx altered the protein levels and activity of PKA and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), a recently identified cAMP-binding molecule. (genes2cognition.org)
  • HDAC6 expression was increased by treatment with selective activators of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) or exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). (bvsalud.org)
  • Ablation of the Cβ2 subunit of PKA in immune cells leads to increased susceptibility to systemic inflammation in mice. (uio.no)
  • The role of uncoupling protein 1 in the metabolism and adiposity of RII beta-protein kinase A-deficient mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Age-dependent development of liver fibrosis in Glmp (gt/gt) mice. (uio.no)
  • Lack of the lysosomal membrane protein, GLMP, in mice results in metabolic dysregulation in liver. (uio.no)
  • Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have now identified two sperm-specific human proteins that interact with the amphipathic helix region of AKAP110. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • During retinoic acid-induced differentiation, the RIalpha and RIIalpha expressions remained in the cytoplasm, while we observed a strong upregulation of RIIbeta, located to the whole cytoplasm including neurite extensions. (uio.no)
  • Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are critical regulators of neuronal differentiation. (uio.no)
  • Identification of novel splice variants of the human catalytic subunit cbeta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (uio.no)
  • Association of the type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase with a human thyroid RII-anchoring protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The downstream target of cAMP is the cAMP-dependent kinase PKA. (asm.org)
  • It produces edema toxin (EdTx), a powerful adenylate cyclase that increases cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in host cells. (genes2cognition.org)
  • To further examine the role of EdTx during anthrax pathogenesis, we explored the hypothesis that EdTx treatment leads to deregulation of the cAMP-dependent PKA system, resulting in impaired cytoskeletal functions essential for MPhi activity. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Previous physiological and pharmacological experiments have demonstrated that the Chlamydomonas flagellar axoneme contains a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) that regulates axonemal motility and dynein activity. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The list contained unproven, but not unexpected candidates such as the genes for IGF-1, NCAM1, NOGO-A, the gamma2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor, acetylcholine esterase, and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. This demonstrates the viability of our approach. (frontiersin.org)
  • Analogue for photoaffinity labelling of cAMP binding proteins. (biolog.de)
  • Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations on RIIbeta-PKA, one of the best characterized members of the cNBD family, in presence and absence of cAMP. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The results of our calculations are fully consistent with the available experimental data and suggest that the key factor of the cAMP allosteric mechanism in cNBDS's is the increased flexibility of the protein upon ligand release along with a mechanical coupling between helical segments. (ox.ac.uk)
  • cAMP signaling increased HDAC8 expression via a protein kinase A (PKA)-independent pathway in H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, treatment with a selective activator of an exchange protein that was activated by cAMP (Epac) increased HDAC8 expression, and Epac2 inhibition abolished the isoproterenol (ISO)-induced increase in HDAC8 expression. (bvsalud.org)
  • cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cAPK and cGPK) contain two tandem copies of the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain. (embl.de)
  • Characterization of the isolated cAMP-binding B domain of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (embl.de)
  • A plasmid encoding only the isolated B domain was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and a monomeric form of the B domain was purified that had identical properties to the proteolytically generated fragment, indicating that all of the elements for the high-affinity cAMP-binding B domain are contained within the 128 amino acid carboxyl terminus of the R subunit. (embl.de)
  • The results show that an isolated cAMP-binding domain can function independently of any other domain structures of the R subunit. (embl.de)
  • Depletion of BIG1 and/or BIG2 or overexpression of guanine nucleotide-exchange factor inactive mutant, but not wild-type, proteins interfered with β-catenin trafficking, leading to accumulation at perinuclear Golgi structures. (pnas.org)
  • Vertebrate cyclic nucleotide-gated ion-channels also contain this domain. (embl.de)
  • Dimerization caused an approximate fivefold increase in the rate of cyclic nucleotide exchange relative to the monomer. (embl.de)
  • Contains 2 cyclic nucleotide-binding domains. (abcam.co.jp)
  • We found that nociceptive subgroups defined by the signaling components protein kinase A (PKA)-RIIβ (also known as PRKAR2B) and CaMKIIα (also known as CAMK2A) developed at around postnatal day 10, the time of nociceptor maturation. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) plays a central role in regulation of energy metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is predominantly expressed in cerebral cortex and may anchor the PKA protein at postsynaptic densities (PSD) and be involved in the regulation of postsynaptic events. (genecards.org)
  • PKI is a small, heat-stable protein with high affinity for the catalytic subunit of PKA, and binding of PKI to the catalytic subunit inhibits its activity ( 15 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • One difference between PKA-I and PKA-II is in their inhibitory domain, which blocks the catalytic subunit. (biologists.org)
  • Using a high content screening microscopy approach, we identified the RIIβ subunit of PKA-II to be predominantly expressed in a subgroup of sensory neurons. (biologists.org)
  • This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • Velocity gradient centrifugation of solubilized porcine cardiac membrane proteins showed that several PKA-RI and PKA-RII binding proteins cosediment with ERG channels. (deepdyve.com)
  • The expression, levels and activities of PKA subunits were studied prior to and during differentiation of the human neuronal precursor cell line NTera 2 (NT2). (uio.no)
  • This upregulation coincided with increased PKA-specific activity accompanied by a strong induction of a number of neuronal-specific Cbeta splice variants that together with RIIbeta form novel PKAII holoenzymes. (uio.no)
  • Induction of Cbeta splice variants and formation of novel forms of protein kinase A type II holoenzymes during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human NT2 cells. (uio.no)
  • Adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase protein expression is decreased in the obese insulin-resistant state. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Treatment with isoproterenol (ISO), an analog of the stress signal epinephrine, increased the expression of HDAC6 protein and mRNA in H1299 lung cancer cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping AKAP5 Antibodies (71) and AKAP5 Proteins (6) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Involvement of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and of HA95 in pre-mRNA splicing. (uio.no)
  • Musene har ingen uttrykk av mRNA eller protein for NCU-G1. (uio.no)
  • Specifically, a framework for understanding conformational changes in the receptor upon ligand binding and associated G protein activation was provided by description of the crystal structure of the β2-adrenoceptor-Gs complex in 2011. (bvsalud.org)
  • Prolonged induction of the B domain in E. coli or storage of the purified protein resulted in the formation of a dimer that could be reverted to the monomer by incubation in 2-mercaptoethanol. (embl.de)
  • Our previous GeneChip data showed that EdTx downregulated MPhi genes involved in actin cytoskeleton remodeling, including protein kinase A (PKA). (genes2cognition.org)
  • Many studies have been devoted to the identification of genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. (frontiersin.org)
  • Deletion of the RIIbeta-subunit of protein kinase A decreases body weight and increases energy expenditure in the obese, leptin-deficient ob/ob mouse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Direct interaction of BIG1 N-terminal sequence with β-catenin was confirmed using yeast two-hybrid assays and in vitro synthesized proteins. (pnas.org)
  • This review focused on recent findings in the conformational dynamics of G proteins and GPCRs during activation processes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Studies indicate the importance of the AKAP79 / PP2B (show CAN ELISA Kits )/protein kinase A complex's role in synaptic long-term depression in the CA1 (show CA1 ELISA Kits ) region of the hippocampus. (antibodies-online.com)