Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Paramecium tetraurelia: A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Neurofibroma: A moderately firm, benign, encapsulated tumor resulting from proliferation of SCHWANN CELLS and FIBROBLASTS that includes portions of nerve fibers. The tumors usually develop along peripheral or cranial nerves and are a central feature of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, where they may occur intracranially or involve spinal roots. Pathologic features include fusiform enlargement of the involved nerve. Microscopic examination reveals a disorganized and loose cellular pattern with elongated nuclei intermixed with fibrous strands. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1016)Nerve Sheath Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Klatskin's Tumor: Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).

Increased expression of the RIalpha subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A is associated with advanced stage ovarian cancer. (1/164)

The primary element in the cAMP signal transduction pathway is the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Expression of the RIalpha subunit of type I PKA is elevated in a variety of human tumours and cancer cell lines. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic importance of RIalpha expression in patients with ovarian cancer. We have evaluated the expression of RIalpha in a panel of human ovarian tumours (n = 40) and five human ovarian cancer cell lines using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. The human ovarian cell lines OAW42 and OTN14 express high endogenous levels of RIalpha mRNA and protein (at significantly higher mRNA levels than high tissue expressors, P < 0.05). The ovarian cell line A2780 expresses low endogenous levels of RIalpha mRNA and protein (also at higher mRNA levels than low tissue expressors, P < 0.05). Quantitative RT-PCR revealed no significant difference in RIalpha mRNA expression between different ovarian histological subtypes in this study. No associations were found between RIalpha mRNA expression and differentiation state. RIalpha mRNA expression was significantly associated with tumour stage (P = 0.0036), and this remained significant in univariate analysis (P = 0.0002). A trend emerged between RIalpha mRNA expression levels and overall survival in univariate analysis (P = 0.051), however, by multivariate analysis, stage remained the major determinant of overall survival (P = 0.0001). This study indicates that in ovarian epithelial tumours high RIalpha mRNA expression is associated with advanced stage disease. RIalpha expression may be of predictive value in ovarian cancer and may be associated with dysfunctional signalling pathways in this cancer type.  (+info)

Diminished levels of protein kinase A RI alpha and RI beta transcripts and proteins in systemic lupus erythematosus T lymphocytes. (2/164)

Deficient type I protein kinase A phosphotransferase activity occurs in the T cells of 80% of subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To investigate the mechanism of this deficient isozyme activity, we hypothesized that reduced amounts of type I regulatory (RI) isoform transcripts, RIalpha and RIbeta, may be associated with a diminution of RIalpha and/or RIbeta protein. Sixteen SLE subjects with a mean (+/-1 SD) SLE disease activity index of 12.4 +/- 7.2 were studied. Controls included 16 normal subjects, six subjects with primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS), and three subjects with SS/SLE overlap. RT-PCR revealed that normal, SS, SS/SLE, and SLE T cells expressed mRNAs for all seven R and catalytic (C) subunit isoforms. Quantification of mRNAs by competitive PCR revealed that the ratio of RIalpha mRNA to RIbeta mRNA in normal T cells was 3.4:1. In SLE T cells there were 20 and 49% decreases in RIalpha and RIbeta mRNAs (RIbeta; p = 0.008), respectively, resulting in an RIalpha:RIbeta mRNA of 5.3:1. SS/SLE T cells showed a 72.5% decrease in RIbeta mRNA compared with normal controls (p = 0.01). Immunoblotting of normal T cell RIalpha and RIbeta proteins revealed a ratio of RIalpha:RIbeta of 3.2:1. In SLE T cells, there was a 30% decrease in RIalpha protein (p = 0.002) and a 65% decrease in RIbeta protein (p < 0.001), shifting the ratio of RIalpha:RIbeta protein to 6.5:1. T cells from 25% of SLE subjects lacked any detectable RIbeta protein. Analysis of several lupus T cell lines demonstrated a persistent deficiency of both proteins, excluding a potential effect of disease activity. In conclusion, reduced expression of RIalpha and RIbeta transcripts is associated with a decrement in RIalpha and RIbeta proteins and may contribute to deficient type I protein kinase A isozyme activity in SLE T cells.  (+info)

Structural characterization of the membrane-associated regulatory subunit of type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase by mass spectrometry: identification of Ser81 as the in vivo phosphorylation site of RIalpha. (3/164)

The mechanism by which the type Ialpha regulatory subunit (RIalpha) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is localized to cell membranes is unknown. To determine if structural modification of RIalpha is important for membrane association, both beef skeletal muscle cytosolic RI and beef heart membrane-associated RI were characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Total sequence coverage was 98% for both the membrane-associated and cytosolic forms of RI after digestion with AspN protease or trypsin. Sequence data indicated that membrane-associated and cytosolic forms of RI were the same RIalpha gene product. A single RIalpha phosphorylation site was identified at Ser81 located near the autoinhibitory domain of both membrane-associated and cytosolic RIalpha. Because both R subunit preparations were 30-40% phosphorylated, this post-translational modification could not be responsible for the membrane compartmentation of the majority of RIalpha. Mass spectrometry also indicated that membrane-associated RIalpha had a higher extent of disulfide bond formation in the amino-terminal dimerization domain. No other structural differences between cytosolic and membrane-associated RIalpha were detected. Consistent with these data, masses of the intact proteins were identical by LCQ mass spectrometry. Lack of detectable structural differences between membrane-associated and cytosolic RIalpha strongly suggests an interaction between RIalpha and anchoring proteins or membrane lipids as more likely mechanisms for explaining RIalpha membrane association in the heart.  (+info)

Protein kinase A-Ialpha subunit-directed antisense inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth: crosstalk with tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. (4/164)

Expression of the RIalpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I is increased in human cancers in which an autocrine pathway for epidermal growth factor-related growth factors is activated. We have investigated the effect of sequence-specific inhibition of RIalpha gene expression on ovarian cancer cell growth. We report that RIalpha antisense treatment results in a reduction in RIalpha expression and protein kinase A type I, and inhibition of cell growth. The growth inhibition was accompanied by changes in cell morphology and appearance of apoptotic nuclei. In addition, EGF receptor, c-erbB-2 and c-erbB-3 levels were reduced, and the basal and EGF-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase activities were reduced. Protein kinase A type I and EGF receptor levels were also reduced in cells overexpressing EGF receptor antisense cDNA. These results suggest that the antisense depletion of RIalpha leads to blockade of both the serine-threonine kinase and the tyrosine kinase signaling pathways resulting in arrest of ovarian cancer cell growth.  (+info)

Antitumor activity and pharmacokinetics of a mixed-backbone antisense oligonucleotide targeted to the RIalpha subunit of protein kinase A after oral administration. (5/164)

Overexpression of the RIalpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) has been demonstrated in various human cancers. PKA has been suggested as a potential target for cancer therapy. The goal of the present study was to evaluate an anti-PKA antisense oligonucleotide (mixed-backbone oligonucleotide) as a therapeutic approach to human cancer treatment. The identified oligonucleotide inhibited the growth of cell lines of human colon cancer (LS174T, DLD-1), leukemia (HL-60), breast cancer (MCF-7, MDA-MB-468), and lung cancer (A549) in a time-, concentration-, and sequence-dependent manner. In a dose-dependent manner, the oligonucleotide displayed in vivo antitumor activity in severe combined immunodeficient and nude mice bearing xenografts of human cancers of the colon (LS174T), breast (MDA-MB-468), and lung (A549). The routes of drug administration were intraperitoneal and oral. Synergistic effects were found when the antisense oligonucleotide was used in combination with the cancer chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. The pharmacokinetics of the oligonucleotide after oral administration of (35)S-labeled oligonucleotide into tumor-bearing mice indicated an accumulation and retention of the oligonucleotide in tumor tissue. This study further provides a basis for clinical studies of the antisense oligonucleotide targeted to the RIalpha subunit of PKA (GEM 231) as a cancer therapeutic agent used alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy.  (+info)

A safety and pharmacokinetic study of a mixed-backbone oligonucleotide (GEM231) targeting the type I protein kinase A by two-hour infusions in patients with refractory solid tumors. (6/164)

GEM231 is a mixed-backbone oligonucleotide targeting the regulatory subunit alpha of type I protein kinase A, which plays an important role in growth and maintenance of malignancies. Preclinically, GEM231 inhibited human cancer xenografts either alone or synergistically with chemotherapeutic agents and has demonstrated an improved metabolic stability and safety profile compared to the first-generation compounds. Objectives of this study were to define the safety profile and pharmacokinetics of GEM231 administered as 2-h IV infusions twice weekly in patients with refractory solid tumors. Fourteen patients (13 evaluable for safety) received escalating doses of GEM231 at 20-360 mg/m2 (2.5-9 mg/kg). Tumor histologies included non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell cancer, sarcoma, and others. The plasma pharmacokinetics of GEM231 were linear and predictable. Maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) reached 50-70 microg/ml (8-13 microM) at dose 360 mg/m2 and 27-32 microg/ml at dose 240 mg/m2. The plasma half-life was about 1.5 h. The only clinical toxicities were transient grade I-II fever and fatigue at doses > or = 240 mg/m2. There was no treatment-related complement activation or thrombocytopenia at any dose level, except with the first dose in one patient who had pre-existing borderline thrombocytopenia. Transient activated partial thrombin time prolongation occurred at doses > or =160 mg/m2. Dose-limiting toxicities included transient activated partial thrombin time prolongation (one of three patients at 360 mg/m2) and cumulative reversible transaminase elevation (three of three patients at 360 mg/m2 and three of six patients at 240 mg/m2 during weeks 3-10). One patient with colon cancer had stabilization of a previously rising carcinoembryonic antigen. Thus, in this first clinical evaluation of a mixed-backbone oligonucleotide in cancer patients, high plasma concentrations of GEM231 were well tolerated without significant acute toxicities, but prolonged treatment was associated with reversible transaminitis. Although 240 mg/m2 by 2-h infusion twice weekly was safe for a 4-week treatment duration, alternative dosing schedules are being tested to minimize the cumulative toxicity, which will be essential to extend the duration of therapy at the highest GEM231 dose tested.  (+info)

8-chloro-cAMP inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro and neointima formation induced by balloon injury in vivo. (7/164)

OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to assess 1) the effect of 8-C1-cAMP (cyclic-3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate) on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in vitro and 2) the efficacy of systemic administration of 8-C1-cAMP on neointimal formation after balloon injury in vivo. BACKGROUND: Neointimal formation after vascular injury is responsible for restenosis after arterial stenting. Recently, 8-C1-cAMP, a cAMP analogue that induces growth arrest, has been safely administered in phase I studies in humans. METHODS: The effect of 8-C1-cAMP on cell proliferation was first assessed on SMCs in vitro. To study the effects of cAMP in vivo, balloon injury was performed in 67 rats using a 2F Fogarty balloon catheter. RESULTS: The 8-C1-cAMP markedly inhibited VSMC proliferation in vitro, reduced protein kinase A (PKA) RIalpha subunit expression, and induced PKA RIIbeta subunit expression. In addition, 8-C1-cAMP reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, neointimal area and neointima/media ratio after balloon injury. The proliferative activity, assessed by proliferating nuclear cell antigen immunostaining, revealed a reduction of proliferative activity of VSMCs in vivo in the 8-C1-cAMP group. Moreover, the systemic administration of 8-C1-cAMP did not affect renal function, blood pressure and heart rate. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 8-C1-cAMP potently inhibits VSMC proliferation in vitro and reduces neointima formation by balloon injury in vivo after systemic administration. These data may have a clinical relevance in designing future strategies to prevent restenosis after arterial stenting and perhaps after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.  (+info)

Alternative 5'-exons of the mouse cAMP-dependent protein kinase subunit RIalpha gene are conserved and expressed in both a ubiquitous and tissue-restricted fashion. (8/164)

The activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is controlled by its regulatory subunits. Mouse RIalpha regulatory subunit expression is initiated from five different non-coding 5'-regions (exons 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d and 1e). This organization appears to be conserved among species. All mouse tissues accumulate exon 1a and 1b transcripts and most contain more 1b than 1a, except brain, heart and oesophagus. Exon 1d and 1e transcripts are found in several tissues, while exon 1c is testis-specific. All five transcripts are in RIalpha-rich tissues: gonads and adrenal glands.  (+info)

*PRKAR1A

... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... "A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) interaction and dimerization of the RIalpha and RIbeta regulatory subunits of protein kinase ... Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAR1A gene. cAMP ...

*Susan S. Taylor

... or cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. 1992: Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1996: Elected to the ... RIalpha) subunits of PKA". Science. 307 (5710): 690-6. doi:10.1126/science.1104607. PMID 15692043. Zhang, P; Smith-Nguyen, EV; ... "Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ... She is known for her research on protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine ...
Plasmid pDONR223-PRKAR1B from Dr. William Hahns lab contains the insert PRKAR1B and is published in Nature. 2010 Nov 24. ():. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
For many industries, CNC machined parts are a common requirement for their manufacturing process. Runsom Precision Co.,Ltd is well known in the industry for their high precision CNC machining capabilities for the mass production of small components required for manufacturing various products. The company ensures a speedy delivery of these CNC machined parts for industries to continue their manufacturing process without any hindrance.. According to the company spokesperson, they can supply CNC machining parts within 48 hours of receiving orders from the client. With their advanced machining equipment and a streamlined machining process, they have the ability to produce CNC machining components in bulk for their industrial clients. The company also enjoys a well-established supply chain network to ensure a speedy delivery of the processed machining parts to their clients in different parts of the world.. The spokesperson reveals that they offer an impeccable CNC machining service to supply ...
Designed for use with small to mid-sized automated cutting machines, this versatile, easy-to-use CNC offers advanced capabilities across a wide range of applications.
Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a pituitary-independent, primary adrenal form of hypercortisolism characterized by (a) resistance to suppression by dexamethasone and abolition of the normal diurnal rhythm of cortisol secretion, and (b) distinctive, bilateral, histopathologic changes of the adrenal glands, such as the formation of variably sized, pigmented nodular adenomas, loss of normal zonation and atrophy of the extranodular cortex. PPNAD can be associated with a variety of other manifestations, such as myxomas of the skin, heart, breast and other sites, psammomatous melanotic swannomas involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS), lentigines and blue nevi of the skin and mucosae, growth hormone (GH)-producing adenomas of the pituitary, testicular Sertoli cell tumors, and possibly other neoplasms (adrenocortical and thyroid follicular carcinoma, and ovarian cysts). These associations constitute a distinct clinical syndrome, Carney complex, a genetic syndrome. At ...
Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a pituitary-independent, primary adrenal form of hypercortisolism characterized by (a) resistance to suppression by dexamethasone and abolition of the normal diurnal rhythm of cortisol secretion, and (b) distinctive, bilateral, histopathologic changes of the adrenal glands, such as the formation of variably sized, pigmented nodular adenomas, loss of normal zonation and atrophy of the extranodular cortex. PPNAD can be associated with a variety of other manifestations, such as myxomas of the skin, heart, breast and other sites, psammomatous melanotic swannomas involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS), lentigines and blue nevi of the skin and mucosae, growth hormone (GH)-producing adenomas of the pituitary, testicular Sertoli cell tumors, and possibly other neoplasms (adrenocortical and thyroid follicular carcinoma, and ovarian cysts). These associations constitute a distinct clinical syndrome, Carney complex, a genetic syndrome. At ...
Carney complex (CNC) is a rare multiple neoplasia syndrome characterized by spotty pigmentation of the skin and mucosa in association with various non-endocrine and endocrine tumors, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). A 20-year-old woman was referred for suspected Cushing syndrome. She had signs of cortisol excess as well as skin lentigines on physical examination. Biochemical investigation was suggestive of corticotropin (ACTH)-independent Cushing syndrome. Unenhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen did not reveal an obvious adrenal mass. She subsequently underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy, and histopathology was consistent with PPNAD. Genetic testing revealed a novel frameshift pathogenic variant c.488delC/p.Thr163MetfsX2 (ClinVar Variation ID: 424516) in the PRKAR1A gene, consistent with clinical suspicion for CNC. Evaluation for other clinical features of the complex was unrevealing. We present a case of PPNAD-associated Cushing syndrome ...
Carney complex (CNC) is a rare multiple neoplasia syndrome characterized by spotty pigmentation of the skin and mucosa in association with various non-endocrine and endocrine tumors, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). A 20-year-old woman was referred for suspected Cushing syndrome. She had signs of cortisol excess as well as skin lentigines on physical examination. Biochemical investigation was suggestive of corticotropin (ACTH)-independent Cushing syndrome. Unenhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen did not reveal an obvious adrenal mass. She subsequently underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy, and histopathology was consistent with PPNAD. Genetic testing revealed a novel frameshift pathogenic variant c.488delC/p.Thr163MetfsX2 (ClinVar Variation ID: 424516) in the PRKAR1A gene, consistent with clinical suspicion for CNC. Evaluation for other clinical features of the complex was unrevealing. We present a case of PPNAD-associated Cushing syndrome ...
Antisens Protein of HTLV-2 (APH-2) was described in 2009. APH-2 mRNA is expressed in vivo in most HTLV-2 carriers. In recent years, several laboratories have searched for similarities and/or differences between APH-2 and the antisens protein of HTLV-1, HBZ. Similarly to HBZ, APH-2 negatively regulates HTLV-2 transcription. However, it does not promote cell proliferation. In vivo, APH-2 localizes in discrete nuclear domains distinct from nucleoli. We therefore characterized APH-2 subcellular localization, in order to decipher the determinants of such localization and to correlate it or not with APH-2 functions. We first identify APH-2-containing nuclear domains as PML nuclear bodies (PML-NB). PML-NB are modulators of a number of cellular processes ranging from transcription regulation to cell proliferation and death. We show that both an in silico-identified nuclear localization signal and the carboxy-terminal LXXLL motif contribute to APH-2 targeting to PML-NB. Covalent modification of APH-2 by ...
The spotty skin pigmentation and lentigines occur most commonly on the face, especially on the lips, eyelids, conjunctiva and oral mucosa.[3] Cardiac myxomas may lead to embolic strokes and heart failure[4] and may present with fever, joint pain, shortness of breath, diastolic rumble and tumor plop. Myxomas may also occur outside the heart, usually in the skin and breast. Endocrine tumors may manifest as disorders such as Cushing syndrome. The most common endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushings syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). The LAMB acronym refers to lentigines, atrial myxomas, and blue nevi.[1] NAME refers to nevi, atrial myxoma, myxoid neurofibromas, and ephelides.[1] Testicular cancer, particularly Sertoli cell type, is associated with Carney syndrome.[5] Thyroid and pancreas cancer may also occur.[6][7] Although J Aidan Carney also described Carneys triad it is entirely different.[8] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Operative management of Cushing Syndrome secondary to micronodular adrenal hyperplasia. AU - Powell, Anathea C.. AU - Stratakis, Constantine A.. AU - Patronas, Nicholas J.. AU - Steinberg, Seth M.. AU - Batista, Dalia. AU - Alexander, H. Richard. AU - Pingpank, James F.. AU - Keil, Meg. AU - Bartlett, David L.. AU - Libutti, Steven K.. PY - 2008/6/1. Y1 - 2008/6/1. N2 - Background: We reviewed our experience with micronodular adrenal hyperplasia (MAH), its pigmented variant primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), and the association with Carneys complex (CNC) to better characterize these disorders. Methods: This retrospective study analyzes clinical data and operative reports of 34 patients identified with MAH and/or PPNAD who underwent resection between 1969 and 2006 at the Clinical Research Center, an inpatient research hospital at the National Institutes of Health. Symptoms and anthropometric and biochemical data were used to evaluate effect of resection. ...
Introduction: We present a rare variety of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushings syndrome known as primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). Clinical Picture: The patient initially underwent unilateral adrenalectomy for what was thought to be a left adrenal adenoma. Outcome: Partial resolution of symptoms and demonstrable persistent hypercortisolism after surgery prompted further evaluation with findings leading to the diagnosis of Carney complex. A review of the adrenal histology was consistent with PPNAD. Conclusion: This entity of PPNAD, which has rarely been reported in Asians, forms part of the Carney complex. The diagnosis may not be simple and straightforward, as illustrated in this patient ...
Pituitary tumours occur with increased frequency among patients with CNC.8PRKAR1A, the gene mutated in almost half of the patients with CNC,1,2 codes for the most abundant regulatory subunit of cAMP dependent PKA, a cellular system highly involved in pituitary cell growth and function.13,15,16 In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that LOH or alterations of PRKAR1As sequence are involved in sporadic pituitary tumours, as well as inherited, non-CNC related pituitary tumours. The results of the experiments described here suggested that the RI-α subunit of PKA is not a significant contributor to tumorigenesis in pituitary cells, as shown by infrequent LOH of the PRKAR1A 17q22-24 locus and lack of PRKAR1A mutations in a large international series of pituitary tumours. Although the number of families that was investigated was small, we may also conclude from this study that PRKAR1A mutations are not responsible for a significant number of non-CNC related inherited pituitary lesions. ...
Background: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive hematological neoplasm that responds poorly to therapy. The molecular etiology and pathology of this disease remain unclear, hampering the development of an effective therapy. Therefore, a need for more, and more realistic, animal models remains. Lymphoproliferative disorders have been reported in mice deficient for the prkar1a gene coding for the regulatory subunit type 1A of protein kinase A (PKA), but nothing is known about the role of type II PKA regulatory subunits in hematologic malignancies.. Methods: Mice deficient for the Prkar1a and Prkar2a alleles were previously reported (Kirschner et al, 2005 και Burton et al, 1997) and were kept on a mixed genetic background (C57BL/129Sv). Mice were crossed to create prkar2a+/- and prkar2a-/-. Mice were phenotyped at the ages of 3-6-9-12-18 months or when they exhibited signs of advanced disease. Tissues were collected for histological and molecular analysis.. Results: Unexpectedly, mice ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human PRKAR1B protein. PRKAR1B (NP_002726.1, 1 a.a. ~ 381 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00005575-D01P) - Products - Abnova
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
There is no cure for acrodysostosis. Treatment of the condition will be based on the symptoms that are present. Physical therapy may be helpful to treat mobility or movement problems. Jaw problems or disorders may be treated with orthodontic supports. Braces can be used to correct misaligned teeth. Surgery may be recommended in some cases for correcting bone or jaw problems.. Children with mental retardation or learning disabilities may benefit from services that help them to reach their full potential. Services can include:. ...
View Notes - Bacterial Recombination from MCB 2000 at University of Florida. BACTERIAL RECOMBINATION Purposes A. Vaccine production (subunit type) B. Production of proteins (growth hormone) C.
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This course will cover basic programming techniques, setup, operation and maintenance of CNC woodworking routers. Basic manual code creation, controller manipulation, maintenance, tooling, machine orientation and hands on part manufacturing will be presented. Specific parts will be programmed and machined.
高い抗原親和性、特異性と安定した品質を兼ね備えたアブカムのウサギ・モノクローナル抗体 RabMAb® ab75993 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,Flow Cyt,ICC/IF
Carney complex and its subsets LAMB syndrome and NAME syndrome are autosomal dominant conditions comprising myxomas of the heart and skin, hyperpigmentation of the skin (lentiginosis), and endocrine overactivity. It is distinct from Carneys triad. Approximately 7% of all cardiac myxomas are associated with Carney complex. The spotty skin pigmentation and lentigines occur most commonly on the face, especially on the lips, eyelids, conjunctiva and oral mucosa. Cardiac myxomas may lead to embolic strokes and heart failure and may present with fever, joint pain, shortness of breath, diastolic rumble and tumor plop. Myxomas may also occur outside the heart, usually in the skin and breast. Endocrine tumors may manifest as disorders such as Cushing syndrome. The most common endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushings syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). The LAMB acronym refers to lentigines, atrial myxomas, and blue nevi. NAME refers to nevi, ...
A 60 year-old male was referred for treatment of a cardiac myxoma in the right atrium. He had a past history of left atrial cardiac myxoma at age 49 and pituitary microadenoma related to acromegaly at age 55. He did not have a family history of cardiac neoplasm or endocrinopathy. The intracardiac tumor was resected and its pathology was compatible with myxoma. A diagnosis of Carney complex (CNC) was made because the diagnostic criteria of this neoplastic syndrome were satisfied by the presence of recurrent cardiac myxoma, endocrine tumor and spotty skin pigmentation. In genetic analysis novel frame shift mutation was detected in exon 2 in a heterozygous fashion in the causative gene of CNC, protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1 α (PRKAR1A). This genetic mutation is thought to cause haplo-insufficiency of PRKAR1A resulting in tumorigenesis. Although it is the most common, usually benign, cardiac tumor, myxoma can cause a critical clinical situation and thus detecting the PRKAR1A mutation can ...
London E, Nesterova M, Sinaii N, Szarek E, Chanturiya T, Mastroyannis SA, Gavrilova O, Stratakis CA: Differentially regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity in adipose tissue and liver is associated with resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice that lack PKA regulatory subunit type IIα. Endocrinology; 2014 Sep;155(9):3397-408 ...
Most PRKAR1A tumorigenic mutations lead to nonsense mRNA that is decayed; tumor formation has been associated with an increase in type II protein kinase A (PKA) subunits. The IVS6+1G>T PRKAR1A mutation leads to a protein lacking exon 6 sequences [R1 alpha Delta 184-236 (R1 alpha Delta 6)]. We compared in vitro R1 alpha Delta 6 with wild-type (wt) R1 alpha. We assessed PKA activity and subunit expression, phosphorylation of target molecules, and properties of wt-R1 alpha and mutant (mt) R1 alpha; we observed by confocal microscopy R1 alpha tagged with green fluorescent protein and its interactions with Cerulean-tagged catalytic subunit (C alpha). Introduction of the R1 alpha Delta 6 led to aberrant cellular morphology and higher PKA activity but no increase in type II PKA subunits. There was diffuse, cytoplasmic localization of R1 alpha protein in wt-R1 alpha- and R1 alpha Delta 6-transfected cells but the former also exhibited discrete aggregates of R1 alpha that bound C alpha; these were absent ...
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cAMP (adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate) is a ubiquitous second messenger that activates a multitude of essential cellular responses. Two key receptors for cAMP in eukaryotes are protein kinase A (PKA) and the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC), which is a recently discovered guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPases Rap1 and Rap2. Previous attempts to investigate the mechanism of allosteric activation of eukaryotic cAMP-binding domains (CBDs) at atomic or residue resolution have been hampered by the instability of the apo form, which requires the use of mixed apo/holo systems, that have provided only a partial picture of the CBD apo state and of the allosteric networks controlled by cAMP. Here, we show that, unlike other eukaryotic CBDs, both apo and cAMP-bound states of the EPAC1 CBD are stable under our experimental conditions, providing a unique opportunity to define at an unprecedented level of detail the allosteric interactions linking two critical ...
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2016 - Czech Nedávné studie ukázaly že neplodnost v lidské populaci postihuje odhadem 15% párů v reprodukčním věku. Mužská neplodnost je primární příčinou u 60% těchto případů. Z těchto důvodů jsme analyzovali povrchové a akrozomální proteiny spermií u mužů s normálním a patologickým spermiogramem. Zjistili jsme že intra-akrozomální proteiny: TERA, GAPDHS, PRKAR2A, které lze analyzovat pomocí našich monoklonálních protilátek , jsou rozdílně exprimovány u zdravých mužů a mužů s asthenozoospermií a to se signifikantně sníženou expresí u asthenozoospermie. tyto proteiny se účastní energetického metabolismu a apoptózy buněk a některé z nich i vazby na vajíčko - mají tedy důležitou roli v reprodukci. Na druhou starnu nebyly zjisštěny statisticky významné rozdíly v expresi povrchových proteinů (Appolipoprotein J, Semenogelin). Naše závěry ukazují že asthenozoospermie jako komplexní poruch apermatu je často v kombinaci s ...
2016 - Czech Nedávné studie ukázaly že neplodnost v lidské populaci postihuje odhadem 15% párů v reprodukčním věku. Mužská neplodnost je primární příčinou u 60% těchto případů. Z těchto důvodů jsme analyzovali povrchové a akrozomální proteiny spermií u mužů s normálním a patologickým spermiogramem. Zjistili jsme že intra-akrozomální proteiny: TERA, GAPDHS, PRKAR2A, které lze analyzovat pomocí našich monoklonálních protilátek , jsou rozdílně exprimovány u zdravých mužů a mužů s asthenozoospermií a to se signifikantně sníženou expresí u asthenozoospermie. tyto proteiny se účastní energetického metabolismu a apoptózy buněk a některé z nich i vazby na vajíčko - mají tedy důležitou roli v reprodukci. Na druhou starnu nebyly zjisštěny statisticky významné rozdíly v expresi povrchových proteinů (Appolipoprotein J, Semenogelin). Naše závěry ukazují že asthenozoospermie jako komplexní poruch apermatu je často v kombinaci s ...
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Rett syndrome is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that is mainly caused by mutations in MECP2. However, mutations in FOXG1cause a less frequent form of atypical Rett syndrome, called FOXG1...
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in European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies (2015), 173(6), 819-826. BACKGROUND: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1), which is secondary to mutation of the MEN1 gene, is a rare autosomal-dominant disease that predisposes mutation carriers to endocrine ... [more ▼]. BACKGROUND: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1), which is secondary to mutation of the MEN1 gene, is a rare autosomal-dominant disease that predisposes mutation carriers to endocrine tumors. Most studies demonstrated the absence of direct genotype-phenotype correlations. The existence of a higher risk of death in the GTE-cohort associated with a mutations in the JunD interacting domain, suggests heterogeneity across families in disease expressivity. This study aims to assess the existence of modifying genetic factors by estimating the intra-familial correlations and heritability of the six main tumor types in MEN1. METHODS: The study included 797 patients from 265 ...
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America. Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.. ...
Cardiac myxoma, the most common primary tumor of the heart, has variable clinical presentations and an immunohistochemical profile. Survivin, an antiapoptosis protein, may play an important role in the causes of cardiac myxoma. This investigation wil
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The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is involved in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Two regulatory and two catalytic subunits form the PKA holoenzyme, disbands after cAMP binding. The holoenzyme is involved in many cellular events, including ion transport, metabolism, and transcription. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015 ...
Background and purpose: The proteasome subunit α type 6 (PSMA6) is an important proteolytic protein regulating the expression of genes involved in inflammation. Recently, a functional polymorphism rs1048990, located in PSMA6, has been reported with the susceptibility to ischemic stroke (IS) in several ethnic cohorts, but the results were inconsistent. Moreover, it still lacks the data in Asian. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this polymorphism confers significant risk to IS in a Chinese population.. Methods: A total of 1102 IS cases and 975 healthy controls were analyzed in our study. We genotyped rs1048990 with ligation detection reaction (LDR) method and then performed a meta-analysis.. Results: Significant association between rs1048990 in PSMA6 and ischemic stroke was observed in all comparison models (genotype, p=0.016; allele, p=0.004; CG+GG vs. CC, adjusted p=0.006; GG vs. CG+CC, adjusted p=0.038). Further stratification for stroke subtype, similar differences ...
Little People UK was co-founded in January 2012 by actor Warwick Davis, his wife Samantha and a group of individuals with the same goal; to offer friendship and support to people with dwarfism, their families and friends, and help build a positive future for those individuals. Since its inception, Little People UK has become a registered charity and an essential resource for the social, medical and financial needs of the little people community in the UK. To date it has attracted over 200 members, along with the support of highly respected Orthopaedic, Ophthalmic, Neurological and Anaesthetic consultant surgeons together with Physiotherapists and Educational practitioners, all of whom have a special interest in helping people with dwarfism ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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1997 fick jag möjligheten att se Faith No More live. Minns att någon hivade upp en oöppnad ölburk på scenen som landade strax intill Mike. Hans svar blev att med full kraft kasta ut den i publiken på måfå. Träffade en kille som stod framför mig mitt i magtrakten. Förutom denna lilla incident var det en magisk konsert. ...
As some of our long term readers may know, we have a home-made CNC router that lives in our garage. Prior to our reaction exhibit we gave the router a […]. ...
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benign bone neurilemmoma 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search enginebenign bone neurilemmoma 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / Prkar1a protein, mouse; 0 / Proteins; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Male. ... Cyclic AMP / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Neurilemmoma / genetics. Proteins / ... A mouse model for the Carney complex tumor syndrome develops neoplasia in cyclic AMP-responsive tissues. Cancer Res; 2005 Jun 1 ...
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Probing CBD-A/B interactions in RIα (91-379) through | Open-iProbing CBD-A/B interactions in RIα (91-379) through | Open-i

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit/chemistry*/genetics/metabolism. *Models, Molecular* ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits/chemistry*/genetics/metabolism. *Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits/chemistry*/genetics/metabolism. * ... Protein Kinase A (PKA) is the major receptor for the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) secondary messenger in eukaryotes. ...
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adenosquamous cell lung cancer stage 0 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineadenosquamous cell lung cancer stage 0 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. *[Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2987925 ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7. ... Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics. *[MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene ...
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ancient schwannoma 2005:2010  - BioMedLib™ search engineancient schwannoma 2005:2010 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Prkar1a protein, mouse; 0 / Rac1 protein, mouse; EC ... MeSH-major] Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / physiology. Genes, Neurofibromatosis 2. Neurilemmoma / ... which encodes the type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A.. * To assess the requirement for Rac1 in schwannoma formation ... rac1 GTP-Binding Protein. *PhosphoSitePlus. gene/protein/disease-specific - PhosphoSitePlus® - comprehensive post-translational ...
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Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant; Tuberculosis, Drug-ResistantTuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant; Tuberculosis, Drug-Resistant

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. 1. + +. 195. Dactinomycin. 1. + +. 196. Saposins. 1. + +. ... DNA-Binding Proteins. 1. + +. We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full ...
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Hartzell V Schaff, MD - Research Output
     - Mayo ClinicHartzell V Schaff, MD - Research Output - Mayo Clinic

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit Local Neoplasm Recurrences Multiple Primary Neoplasms ...
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Mutations in regulatory subunit type 1A of cyclic adenosine 5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PRKAR1A): phenotype...Mutations in regulatory subunit type 1A of cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PRKAR1A): phenotype...

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. Grant support. *Z01 HD000642/ImNIH/Intramural NIH HHS/United States ... Mutations in regulatory subunit type 1A of cyclic adenosine 5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PRKAR1A): phenotype ... Mutations in Regulatory Subunit Type 1A of Cyclic Adenosine 5′-Monophosphate-Dependent Protein Kinase (PRKAR1A): Phenotype ... Mutations in Regulatory Subunit Type 1A of Cyclic Adenosine 5′-Monophosphate-Dependent Protein Kinase (PRKAR1A): Phenotype ...
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Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase rialpha subunit (6) 6 Filter by. Remove filter. cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase rialpha ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases - genetics , Proteins - metabolism , Base Sequence , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase ... TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , HeLa Cells , Mutation , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases - deficiency , Fibroblasts - ... The human PRKAR1A gene encodes the regulatory subunit 1-alpha (RI alpha) of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=Author:Bossis,%20Ioannis

Protein Kinase C, delta (PKCd) ELISA Kits</span>Protein Kinase C, delta (PKCd) ELISA Kits</span>

Prkar1a = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase RIalpha subunit; Prkaca = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) ... protein kinase C delta type , protein kinase-delta2 , protein kinase C, delta , protein kinase C delta type-like , protein ... protein kinase C, delta V , protein kinase C[d] , protein kinase C delta , PKA C-alpha , cAMP-dependent protein kinase ... Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, alpha 1 Catalytic Subunit ELISA Kits * Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, alpha 2 Catalytic Subunit ...
more infohttp://www.antibodies-online.com/tcr-signaling-pathway-12/pkc-delta-elisa-kit-4593/

anti-Protein Kinase C, delta (PKCd) Antibodies</span>anti-Protein Kinase C, delta (PKCd) Antibodies</span>

Prkar1a = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase RIalpha subunit; Prkaca = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha , sperm cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit , protein kinase ... protein kinase C, delta IV , protein kinase C, delta V , protein kinase C[d] , protein kinase-delta2 , protein kinase C, delta ... protein kinase C delta VIII , protein kinase C delta type , tyrosine-protein kinase PRKCD , nPKC-delta , protein kinase C delta ...
more infohttp://www.antibodies-online.com/tcr-signaling-pathway-12/pkc-delta-antibody-4592/

Cyclic AMP Analog Blocks Kinase Activation by Stabilizing Inactive Conformation: Conformational Selection Highlights a New...Cyclic AMP Analog Blocks Kinase Activation by Stabilizing Inactive Conformation: Conformational Selection Highlights a New...

RI{alpha}) Subunits of Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase. Mol Cell Proteomics. 9, 2225-2237 [PMC free article] [PubMed] ... The regulatory (R) subunit of protein kinase A serves to modulate the activity of protein kinase A in a cAMP-dependent manner ... one of the principal targets of cAMP is the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase A (PKA), whose regulatory subunit (R- ... 7. Huang L. J., Taylor S. S. (1998) Dissecting cAMP binding domain A in the RIalpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3047156/

PRKAR1A - WikipediaPRKAR1A - Wikipedia

... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... "A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) interaction and dimerization of the RIalpha and RIbeta regulatory subunits of protein kinase ... Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAR1A gene. cAMP ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PRKAR1A

SMART: Secondary literature for RIIa domainSMART: Secondary literature for RIIa domain

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase is tethered to protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs) through regulatory subunits (R) ... Dissecting cAMP binding domain A in the RIalpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Distinct subsites for recognition of ... of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) and the regulatory (R) ... A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) bind to the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to direct the kinase ...
more infohttp://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/show_secondary.cgi?domain=RIIa

Enhanced signaling and morphological transformation by a membrane-localized derivative of the fibroblast growth factor receptor...Enhanced signaling and morphological transformation by a membrane-localized derivative of the fibroblast growth factor receptor...

... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... Profound ligand-independent kinase activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 by the activation loop mutation ... Ligand-independent activation of tyrosine kinase in fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 by fusion with beta-galactosidase. ... Dimerization mediated through a leucine zipper activates the oncogenic potential of the met receptor tyrosine kinase. ...
more infohttps://m.wikidata.org/wiki/Q24644538

Tore Jahnsen
       - Institutt for medisinske basalfagTore Jahnsen - Institutt for medisinske basalfag

Solberg, Rigmor & Jahnsen, Tore (1994). Human type I regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. Structure, ... Two promoters in the RIalpha gene of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase provide means of differential regulation. ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (vertebrates), In G. Hardie & S. Hanks (ed.), The Protein Kinase FactsBook. Elsevier. ISBN ... and regulation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. * Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen & Jahnsen, Tore (1993). Isozymes of cyclic AMP- ...
more infohttps://www.med.uio.no/imb/personer/vit/torej/index.html

Bjørn Steen Skålhegg
       - Institutt for medisinske basalfagBjørn Steen Skålhegg - Institutt for medisinske basalfag

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are critical regulators of neuronal differentiation. The expression, ... consisting of the regulatory subunit RIalpha and the catalytic subunit Calpha. Low levels of PKA type II consisting of RIIalpha ... Hansson, Vidar; Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen & Tasken, Kjetil (1999). Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in testicular cells. ... LH and FSH regulate via cyclic adenosine 35 cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), steroid ...
more infohttps://www.med.uio.no/imb/personer/vit/bjoerns/index.html

The Central Role of cAMP in Regulating  Merozoite Invasion of Human Erythrocytes | proLékaře.czThe Central Role of cAMP in Regulating Merozoite Invasion of Human Erythrocytes | proLékaře.cz

8. ReadLK, MikkelsenRB (1990) Cyclic AMP- and Ca2+ -dependent protein kinases in Plasmodium falciparum. Exp Parasitol 71: 39-48 ... 7. KimC, XuongNH, TaylorSS (2005) Crystal structure of a complex between the catalytic and regulatory (RIalpha) subunits of PKA ... subunit of the type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase as an inhibitor and substrate of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol ... Exchange protein activated by AMP (Epac) mediates cAMP-dependent but protein kinase A-insensitive modulation of vascular ATP- ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/plos-pathogens/2014-12/the-central-role-of-camp-in-regulating-merozoite-invasion-of-human-erythrocytes-53733

Taskén KA[au] - PubMed - NCBITaskén KA[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Cyclic AMP regulates expression of the RI alpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase through an alternatively spliced 5 ... Reciprocal regulation of mRNA and protein for subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (RI alpha and C alpha) by cAMP in a ... Mechanisms of FOXC2- and FOXD1-mediated regulation of the RI alpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase include release of ... The alpha-subunit mRNAs for Gs and Go2 are differentially regulated by protein kinase A and protein kinase C in rat Sertoli ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Task%C3%A9n+KA%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Pancreatic ductal and acinar cell neoplasms in Carney complex: a possible new association.  - PubMed - NCBIPancreatic ductal and acinar cell neoplasms in Carney complex: a possible new association. - PubMed - NCBI

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit/genetics*. *Female. *Genetic Association Studies ... PRKAR1A expression was not detected in five of the six pancreatic neoplasms from CNC patients, whereas the protein was amply ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=66049

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit - genetics , Adolescent , Aged, 80 and over , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein ... Kinase RIalpha Subunit - analysis , Adult , Female , Aged , Mutation , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit - ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits - genetics , Young Adult , Adolescent , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular - ... SURGERY , KINASE , TUMOR , PATHOLOGY , DIFFUSE GLIOMAS , HETEROGENEITY , IDH1 mutation , BRAF V600E , GLIOBLASTOMA , ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=Author:Kipp,%20Benjamin%20R

USF2 inhibits C/EBP-mediated transcriptional regulation of the RIIβ subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase | BMC Molecular...USF2 inhibits C/EBP-mediated transcriptional regulation of the RIIβ subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase | BMC Molecular...

... and a new regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, RIIβ, is induced. We have previously shown that production of ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) plays a central role in regulation of energy metabolism. Upon stimulation of ... Cyclic AMP regulates expression of the RIalpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase through an alternatively spliced 5 UTR ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) plays a central role in regulation of energy metabolism. Upon stimulation of ...
more infohttps://bmcmolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2199-3-10

Regulation of cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Subunit Expression in CATH.a and SH-SY5Y Cells | Journal of Pharmacology and...Regulation of cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Subunit Expression in CATH.a and SH-SY5Y Cells | Journal of Pharmacology and...

1990) The expression of cAMP-dependent protein kinase subunits in primary rat hepatocyte cultures: Cyclic AMP down-regulates ... 1997) Compensatory regulation of RIalpha protein levels in protein kinase A mutant mice. J Biol Chem 272:3993-3998. ... 1981) Turnover of regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in S49 mouse lymphoma cells: Regulation by ... Crystal structures of catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in complex with isoquinolinesulfonyl protein kinase ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/286/2/1058

IDEALS @ Illinois: Gene Expression in Bovine Leukemia Virus-Infected B LymphocytesIDEALS @ Illinois: Gene Expression in Bovine Leukemia Virus-Infected B Lymphocytes

... heat shock protein 70 and the PKA regulatory subunits were all protein kinase-mediated as well as labile protein-dependent. ... 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (Br-cAMP) and fetal bovine serum. Serum-induced BLV expression was inhibited in PBL in a dose dependent ... and PKA RI$\alpha$ mRNA levels were either unchanged or decreased relative to freshly isolated cells. In previous studies, ... Host gene expression was classified as labile protein-dependent when transcription was modulated by CHX and protein kinase- ...
more infohttps://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/72215

A domain of TEL conserved in a subset of ETS proteins defines a specific oligomerization interface essential to the mitogenic...A domain of TEL conserved in a subset of ETS proteins defines a specific oligomerization interface essential to the mitogenic...

... specific transforming sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP‐ ... or the regulatory subunit of cAMP‐dependent protein kinase in PTC‐RET (Grieco et al., 1990; Bongarzone et al., 1993). ... Specificities of protein-protein and protein-DNA interaction of GABP alpha and two newly defined ets‐related proteins. Genes ... The protein kinase activity of TEL-PDGFRβ is essential to its mitogenic properties since a tyrphostin inhibitor specific for ...
more infohttp://emboj.embopress.org/content/16/1/69
  • Protein Kinase A (PKA) is the major receptor for the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) secondary messenger in eukaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we demonstrate that another ubiquitous second messenger, namely, 3'-5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), plays a central role in regulating cytosolic Ca 2+ levels and microneme secretion during merozoite invasion of red blood cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • Lando M, Abemayor E, Verity MA, Sidell N (1990) "Modulation of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels and the differentiation response of human neuroblastoma cells" Cancer Res. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • Although AKAPs have been identified on the basis of their interaction with PKA, they also bind other signaling molecules, mainly phosphatases and kinases, that regulate AKAP targeting and activate other signal transduction pathways.We suggest that AKAP forms a "transduceosome" by acting as an autonomous multivalent scaffold that assembles and integrates signals derived from multiple pathways. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Identification of the different elements in the cAMP-dependent signaling pathways that regulate microneme secretion during invasion provides novel targets to block erythrocyte invasion, inhibit blood stage parasite growth and prevent malaria. (prolekare.cz)
  • We propose that in vivo, activation of endogenous protein kinase pathways are sufficient to induce a break from retroviral latency by activating BLV transcription and the early stage of the life cycle. (illinois.edu)
  • Bacillus anthracis edema toxin suppresses human macrophage phagocytosis and cytoskeletal remodeling via the protein kinase A and exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP pathways. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Van Kolen, Slegers: Atypical PKCzeta is involved in RhoA-dependent mitogenic signaling by the P2Y(12) receptor in C6 cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • TEL‐induced oligomerization is shown to be essential for the constitutive activation of the protein kinase activity and mitogenic properties of TEL-platelet derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ), a fusion oncoprotein characteristic of the leukemic cells of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia harboring a t(5;12) chromosomal translocation. (embopress.org)
  • cAMP binds to two tandem cAMP-binding domains (CBD-A and -B) within the regulatory subunit of PKA (R), unleashing the activity of the catalytic subunit (C). While CBD-A in RIα is required for PKA inhibition and activation, CBD-B functions as a "gatekeeper" domain that modulates the control exerted by CBD-A. Preliminary evidence suggests that CBD-B dynamics are critical for its gatekeeper function. (nih.gov)
  • AKAPs contain an amphipathic helix domain that binds to the type II regulatory subunit of PKA (RII). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Apo R-subunit crystallized in the B form as well but amide exchange mass spectrometry showed large differences between apo, agonist and antagonist-bound states of the R-subunit. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Further ion mobility reveals the apo R-subunit as an ensemble of multiple conformations with collisional cross-sectional areas spanning both the agonist and antagonist-bound states. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Moreover, exposure of the cell lines to forskolin had no effect on levels of mRNA for these PKA subunits over a wide time course. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Together, these findings demonstrate that regulation of PKA subunit expression by forskolin or a cAMP antagonist occurs primarily through post-transcriptional mechanisms and suggests the involvement of proteasome-mediated degradation in these phenomena. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Yusta B, Ortiz-Caro J, Pascual A, Aranda A (1988) "Comparison of the effects of forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP in neuroblastoma cells: evidence that some of the actions of dibutyryl cyclic AMP are mediated by butyrate" J. Neurochem. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • During retinoic acid-induced differentiation, the RIalpha and RIIalpha expressions remained in the cytoplasm, while we observed a strong upregulation of RIIbeta, located to the whole cytoplasm including neurite extensions. (uio.no)
  • The CNB domain is ubiquitous in eukaryotes and controls a variety of cellular functions in a cAMP/cGMP dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum merozoites is a complex multi-step process that is mediated by specific molecular interactions between red cell surface receptors and parasite protein ligands , . (prolekare.cz)
  • We show here by co‐immunoprecipitation and GST chromatography analyses that TEL and TEL‐derived fusion proteins form homotypic oligomers in vitro and in vivo . (embopress.org)
  • Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have now identified two sperm-specific human proteins that interact with the amphipathic helix region of AKAP110. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • These data suggest that sperm contains several proteins that bind to AKAPs in a manner similar to RII and imply that AKAPs may have additional and perhaps unique functions in spermatozoa. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • These results indicate that the amino‐terminal domain conserved in a subset of the ETS proteins has evolved to generate a specialized protein-protein interaction interface which is likely to be an important determinant of their specificity as transcriptional regulators. (embopress.org)
  • Identification and classification of CNB domains in Global Ocean Sampling and other protein sequences reveals that they typically are fused to a wide variety of functional domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Her group, collaborating with Janusz Sowadski, was the first to solve the crystal structure of a protein kinase when they reported the structure of PKA in 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, binding of EBA175 and its homologs to their erythrocyte receptors triggers secretion of rhoptry proteins such as PfRH2b, Clag3.1 and PfTRAMP , . (prolekare.cz)
  • The cytoplasmic tail of CD99 is short and is not known to interact with any other proteins. (rupress.org)
  • The formation of this signaling complex is dependent on a small lysine-rich region of the CD99 cytoplasmic tail. (rupress.org)
  • Many of the key parasite proteins that bind host receptors are localized in apical organelles called micronemes. (prolekare.cz)
  • Lysophosphatidylcholines prime polymorphonuclear neutrophil through Hck (show HCK ELISA Kits )-dependent activation of PKCdelta , which stimulates PKCgamma (show PRKCG ELISA Kits ), resulting in translocation of phosphorylated p47(phox). (antibodies-online.com)
  • De novo protein synthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide (CHX) for 6 h after initiating peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) cultures to eliminate Tax-mediated transcription. (illinois.edu)
  • This reveals the unique importance of the equatorial oxygen of the cyclic phosphate in mediating conformational transitions from H to B forms highlighting a novel approach for rational structure-based drug design. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • First, exposure of extracellular merozoites to a low [K + ] environment typical of blood plasma leads to a rise in cytosolic Ca 2+ via a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent pathway, which triggers translocation of microneme proteins such as 175 kD erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA175) and apical merozoite antigen-1 (PfAMA1) to the merozoite surface . (prolekare.cz)
  • Swapping experiments in which the TEL oligomerization domain was exchanged by the homologous domains of representative vertebrate ETS proteins including ETS‐1, ERG‐2 and GABPα show that oligomerization is a specific property of the TEL amino‐terminal conserved domain. (embopress.org)